National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mixing ratio system

  1. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  2. Golden Ratio Prediction for Solar Neutrino Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

    2009-06-17

    It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phi. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta_{12} = phi and cos theta_{12} = phi/2. We compare these Ansatze and discuss a model leading to cos theta_{12} = phi/2 based on the dihedral group D_{10}. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos theta_{12} = phi/2 is simply pi/5, or 36 degrees. This is the exterior angle of a decagon and D_{10} is its rotational symmetry group. We also estimate radiative corrections to the golden ratio predictions.

  3. The golden ratio prediction for the solar neutrino mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

    2007-11-28

    We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4 standard deviations below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bi-maximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z_2 x Z'_2 symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the diagonal of the golden rectangle. Assuming an analogous structure in the quark sector suggests a golden prediction for the Cabibbo angle, theta_C = pi/4- theta_12 = 13.3 degree, up to uncertainties comparable to V_{ub}.

  4. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  5. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  6. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  7. Dynamical systems techniques for enhancing microfluidic mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    Dynamical systems techniques for enhancing microfluidic mixing Sanjeeva Balasuriya School@yahoo.com 17 March 2015 Abstract. Achieving rapid mixing is often desirable in microfluidic devices microfluidic situations (e.g., best cross-flow positioning in cross- channel micromixers, usage of channel

  8. Mixed micelles system: equilibrium and kinetics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salonen, Anniina M

    Lipid-detergent systems are interesting to study, as the two amphiphiles have very different spontaneous curvature, however readily form mixed micelles in solution. These micelles can be shorter cylindrical micelles ...

  9. Domain embedding preconditioners for mixed systems 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winther, Ragnar

    Domain embedding preconditioners for mixed systems 1 Torgeir Rusten SINTEF, P. O. Box 124 Blindern preconditioners for the corresponding discrete linear systems where an embedding of the domain papers discussing domain embedding as a tool for solving discrete systems we refer to Astrakhantsev [4

  10. Hybrid systems process mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertow, M.R.

    1989-10-01

    Some technologies, developed recently in Europe, combine several processes to separate and reuse materials from solid waste. These plants have in common, generally, that they are reasonably small, have a composting component for the organic portion, and often have a refuse-derived fuel component for combustible waste. Many European communities also have very effective drop-off center programs for recyclables such as bottles and cans. By maintaining the integrity of several different fractions of the waste, there is a less to landfill and less to burn. The importance of these hybrid systems is that they introduce in one plant an approach that encompasses the key concept of today's solid waste planning; recover as much as possible and landfill as little as possible. The plants also introduce various risks, particularly of finding secure markets. There are a number of companies offering various combinations of materials recovery, composting, and waste combustion. Four examples are included: multiple materials recovery and refuse-derived fuel production in Eden Prairie, Minnesota; multiple materials recovery, composting and refuse-derived fuel production in Perugia, Italy; composting, refuse-derived fuel, and gasification in Tolmezzo, Italy; and a front-end system on a mass burning waste-to-energy plant in Neuchatel, Switzerland.

  11. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  12. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  13. FORMATION CONDITIONS OF ICY MATERIALS IN COMET C/2004 Q2 (MACHHOLZ). I. MIXING RATIOS OF ORGANIC VOLATILES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Hitomi; Kawakita, Hideyo, E-mail: h_kobayashi@cc.kyoto-su.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2009-09-20

    We observed comet C/2004 Q2 (Machholz) with the Keck II telescope in late 2005 January and we obtained the spectra of C/2004 Q2 including many emission lines of volatile species such as H{sub 2}O, HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and H{sub 2}CO with high-signal-to-noise ratios. Based on our observations, we determined the mixing ratios of the molecules relative to H{sub 2}O in C/2004 Q2. Since C/2004 Q2 is one of Oort Cloud comets, it is interesting to compare our results with other Oort Cloud comets. The mixing ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/H{sub 2}O in C/2004 Q2 are lower than typical Oort Cloud comets. Especially, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is as lower as Jupiter Family comets. However, mixing ratios of other molecules in C/2004 Q2 are similar to typical Oort Cloud comets. C/2004 Q2 might be the intermediate type between Oort Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. To investigate the formation conditions of such intermediate type comet, we focused on the (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 6})/H{sub 2}O ratios and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratios in comets from the viewpoint of conversion from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} to C{sub 2}H{sub 6} in the precometary ices. We found that (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 6})/H{sub 2}O ratio in C/2004 Q2 is lower than the ratio in typical Oort Cloud comets while C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratio in C/2004 Q2 is consistent with the ratio of the typical Oort Cloud comets and Jupiter family comets. If we assume that the cometary volatiles such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} formed similar environment, the C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) ratio might not be sensitive in the temperature range where hydrogen-addition reactions occurred and cometesimals formed ({approx}30 K). We employed the dynamical-evolutional model and the chemical-evolutional model to determine the formation region of C/2004 Q2 more precisely. We found that comet C/2004 Q2 might have formed in relatively inner region of the solar nebula than the typical Oort Cloud comet (but slightly further than 5 AU from the proto-Sun).

  14. Behavioral Model Equivalence Checking for Large Analog Mixed Signal Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Amandeep

    2012-07-16

    This thesis proposes a systematic, hierarchical, optimization based semi-formal equivalence checking methodology for large analog/mixed signal systems such as phase locked loops (PLL), analog to digital convertors (ADC) ...

  15. A Study of mixing in computer simulated laminar flow systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Allison Anne

    1984-01-01

    1984 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A STUDY OF MIXING IN COMPUTER SIMULATED LAMINAR FLOW SYSTEMS A Thesis by ALLISON ANNE MCFARLAND Approved as to style and content by: Gary B. Tatterson (Chairman) ries J. Glover (Member) A. Ted Watson...: Dr. Gary B. Tatterson Mixing is a process that reduces nonuniformities or gradients in composition, properties, or temperature of material in bulk. It is a basic part of many chemical engineering processes, yet the theoretical understanding...

  16. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  17. The effect of expansion-ratio limitations on positive-displacement, total-flow geothermal power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1982-02-01

    Combined steam-turbine/positive-displacement engine (PDE) geothermal power systems are analyzed thermodynamically and compared with optimized reference flash-steam plants. Three different configurations of combined systems are considered. Treated separately are the cases of self-flowing and pumped wells. Two strategies are investigated that help overcome the inherent expansion-ratio limitation of PDE's: pre-flashing and pre-mixing. Parametrically-obtained results show the required minimum PDE efficiency for the combined system to match the reference plant for various sets of design conditions.

  18. Identifying Pollutant Sources in Tidally Mixed Systems: Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winant, Clinton D.

    sitessas a primary source of fecal indicator bacteria in the water column and subtidal sediments and magnitude of pollutant sources potentially responsible for the impairment. While this information mayIdentifying Pollutant Sources in Tidally Mixed Systems: Case Study of Fecal Indicator Bacteria from

  19. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8, 497– 8)High-aspect ratio microelectromechanical systems deformable

  20. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    actuators,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 8,High-aspect ratio microelectromechanical systems deformable

  1. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  2. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  3. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Boosting Small Engines to High Performance - Boosting Systems and Combustion Development Methodology A View from the Bridge Future Directions in Engines and Fuels...

  4. 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal system. If the chlorine was...

  5. NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners and Technology #12;NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners combination, an empirically based calculation procedure may be used for estimating a unit's Energy Efficiency

  6. A microfluidic mixing system for single-molecule measurements Shawn H. Pfeil,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    A microfluidic mixing system for single-molecule measurements Shawn H. Pfeil,1 Charles E This article describes the design and fabrication of a microfluidic mixing system optimized for ultrasensitive commonly encountered in single-molecule microfluidic measurements. Mixing devices are replica-molded22

  7. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  8. Phase Mixing in Unperturbed and Perturbed Hamiltonian Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry E. Kandrup; Steven J. Novotny

    2002-04-01

    This paper summarises a numerical investigation of phase mixing in time-independent Hamiltonian systems that admit a coexistence of regular and chaotic phase space regions, allowing also for low amplitude perturbations idealised as periodic driving, friction, and/or white and colored noise. The evolution of initially localised ensembles of orbits was probed through lower order moments and coarse-grained distribution functions. In the absence of time-dependent perturbations, regular ensembles disperse initially as a power law in time and only exhibit a coarse-grained approach towards an invariant equilibrium over comparatively long times. Chaotic ensembles generally diverge exponentially fast on a time scale related to a typical finite time Lyapunov exponent, but can exhibit complex behaviour if they are impacted by the effects of cantori or the Arnold web. Viewed over somewhat longer times, chaotic ensembles typical converge exponentially towards an invariant or near-invariant equilibrium. This, however, need not correspond to a true equilibrium, which may only be approached over very long time scales. Time-dependent perturbations can dramatically increase the efficiency of phase mixing, both by accelerating the approach towards a near-equilibrium and by facilitating diffusion through cantori or along the Arnold web so as to accelerate the approach towards a true equilibrium. The efficacy of such perturbations typically scales logarithmically in amplitude, but is comparatively insensitive to most other details, a conclusion which reinforces the interpretation that the perturbations act via a resonant coupling.

  9. Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

  10. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Chien-Pei (Clive, IA); Short, John (Norwalk, IA); Klemm, Jim (Des Moines, IA); Abbott, Royce (Des Moines, IA); Overman, Nick (West Des Moines, IA); Pack, Spencer (Urbandale, IA); Winebrenner, Audra (Des Moines, IA)

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  11. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  12. Mixing and mixing-related CP violation in the B system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amhis, Yasmine Sara; Jung, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We present the summary of the working group on $B$ mixing and the related CP violation at the CKM 2014 workshop. The contributions reflect the experimental and theoretical progress in the field over the last two years since the last CKM workshop.

  13. Stochastic chemical enrichment in metal-poor systems II. Abundance ratios and scatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Karlsson; B. Gustafsson

    2005-04-27

    A stochastic model of the chemical enrichment of metal-poor systems by core-collapse supernovae is used to study the scatter in stellar abundance ratios. The resulting scatter in abundance ratios, e.g. as functions of the overall metallicity, is demonstrated to be crucially dependent on the as yet uncertain supernovae yields. The observed abundance ratios and their scatters therefore have diagnostic power as regards the yields. The relatively small star-to-star scatter observed in many chemical abundance ratios, e.g. by Cayrel et al. (2004) for stars down to [Fe/H] = -4, is tentatively explained by the averaging of a large number of contributing supernovae and by the cosmic selection effects favoring contributions from supernovae in a certain mass range for the most metal-poor stars. The scatter in observed abundances of alpha-elements is understood in terms of observational errors only, while additional spread in yields or sites of nucleosynthesis may affect the odd-even elements Na and Al. For the iron-group elements we find systematically too high predicted Cr/Fe and Cr/Mg ratios, as well as differences between the different sets of yields, both in terms of predicted abundance ratios and scatter. The semi-empirical yields recently suggested by Francois et al. (2004) are found to lead to scatter in abundance ratios significantly greater than observed, when applied in the inhomogeneous models. "Spurs", very narrow sequences in abundance-ratio diagrams, may disclose a single-supernova origin of the elements of the stars on the sequence. Verification of the existence of such features, called single supernova sequences (SSSs), is challenging. This will require samples of several hundred stars with abundance ratios observed to accuracies of 0.05 dex or better.

  14. Quantum bath-driven decoherence of mixed spin systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Balian; Gary Wolfowicz; John J. L. Morton; T. S. Monteiro

    2013-11-22

    The decoherence of mixed electron-nuclear spin qubits is a topic of great current importance, but understanding is still lacking: while important decoherence mechanisms for spin qubits arise from quantum spin bath environments with slow decay of correlations, the only analytical framework for explaining observed sharp variations of decoherence times with magnetic field is based on the suppression of classical noise. Here we obtain a general expression for decoherence times of the central spin system which exposes significant differences between quantum-bath decoherence and decoherence by classical field noise. We perform measurements of decoherence times of bismuth donors in natural silicon using both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transitions, and in both cases find excellent agreement with our theory across a wide parameter range. The universality of our expression is also tested by quantitative comparisons with previous measurements of decoherence around `optimal working points' or `clock transitions' where decoherence is strongly suppressed. We further validate our results by comparison to cluster expansion simulations.

  15. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Distenfeld, Carl H. (Mattituck, NY); Klemish, Jr., Joseph R. (Bohemia, NY)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  16. Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system by #12;ii Numerical simulation of flow and mixing behavior of solids on a moving grate combustion system, and to a large extent influences the combustion process. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not a uniform fuel

  17. ForPeerReview A mixed-culture model of a probiotic biofilm control system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaret, Laurent

    ForPeerReview Only A mixed-culture model of a probiotic biofilm control system Journal; Helmholtz Centre Munich, Biomathematics and Biometry Keywords: biofilm, probiotics, mathematical model;ForPeerReview Only A mixed-culture model of a probiotic biofilm control system Hermann J. Eberl1

  18. Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure Ian Melbourne renewal sequences in the context of infinite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical systems technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise asymptotics and hence sharp mixing rates

  19. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  20. Mixing and Dispersion in Small-Scale Flow Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Kevin David

    Continuous flow chemistry is being used increasingly; however, without detailed knowledge of reaction engineering, it can be difficult to judge whether dispersion and mixing are important factors on reaction outcome. ...

  1. EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE RATIO AS ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES Marko Topic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE RATIO AS ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES Marko Topic1 USA ABSTRACT: PV module energy rating assessment can be expressed by an annual effective efficiency approaches are presented: (i) a more accurate one with hourly averaged data over a year and a model of PV

  2. Competitive Ratio Analysis of Online Algorithms to Minimize Data Transmission Time in Energy Harvesting Communication System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaze, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We consider the optimal online packet scheduling problem in a single-user energy harvesting wireless communication system, where energy is harvested from natural renewable sources, making future energy arrivals instants and amounts random in nature. The most general case of arbitrary energy arrivals is considered where neither the future energy arrival instants or amount, nor their distribution is known. The problem considered is to adaptively change the transmission rate according to the causal energy arrival information, such that the time by which all packets are delivered is minimized. We assume that all bits have arrived and are ready at the source before the transmission begins. For a minimization problem, the utility of an online algorithm is tested by finding its competitive ratio or competitiveness that is defined to be the maximum of the ratio of the gain of the online algorithm with the optimal offline algorithm over all input sequences. We derive a lower and upper bound on the competitive ratio of...

  3. Two-Phase Region in the DTAB/SL Mixed Surfactant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    (SL)aqueoustwo-phasesystemhasbeenstudied.ByusingFF-TEM,dynamiclightscattering (DLS), a viscosity meter, and polarization microscopy, the effects of surfactant concentration and mixing ratio, temperature, salt concentration, and additives (octanol and toluene) on the phase such ionic surfactants have large and hydrophobic headgroups or the salt concentration was extremely high

  4. Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in nite measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in#12;nite measure Ian of operator renewal sequences in the context of in#12;nite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical for mixing rates. Sarig [37] introduced a powerful new technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise

  5. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Valentine, John D. (Redwood City, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA)

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  6. Performance-Based Concrete Pavement Mix Design System Performance-Based Design Guide for New and Rehabilitated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Research Plan #12;· Performance-Based Concrete Pavement Mix Design System · Performance Systems and Economics · Concrete Pavement Sustainability The CP Road Map #12;The Problem... · Not many

  7. Boundary Circles of Mixed Phase Space, Hamiltonian Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Or Alus; Shmuel Fishman; James D. Meiss

    2014-10-28

    The phase space of an area-preserving map typically contains infinitely many elliptic islands embedded in a chaotic sea. Orbits near the boundary of a chaotic region have been observed to stick for long times, strongly influencing their transport properties. The boundary is composed of invariant circles, called "Boundary circles." We investigate the distribution of rotation numbers of boundary circles for the Henon quadratic map and show that the probability of occurrence of small elements of their continued fraction expansions is larger than would be expected for a number chosen at random. However, large elements occur with probabilities distributed proportionally to the random case. These results have implications for models of transport in mixed phase space.

  8. Mixing blade system for high-resistance media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-07-09

    A blade system is described for stirring and agitating a medium, comprising a shaft bearing a plurality of paddles, each having a different geometry and each having approximately the same rotational moment. The geometrically different paddles sweep through different volumes of the medium to minimize shear zone development and maximize the strength of the system with respect to medium-induced stress. 6 figures.

  9. A gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for high-precision dD measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    A gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for high-precision d we present a highly automated, high-precision online gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope ratio from ice, preconcentration, gas chromatographic separation and pyrolysis of CH4 from roughly 500 g

  10. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

  11. Making a high-mix make-to-order production system lean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    A high-mix, make-to-order production system can become inefficient when non-value added operations consume too much time, space or labour. To address these issues, cell re-layout is conducted and a CONWIP system is proposed. ...

  12. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself affects void fractions in Bingham plastic fluids, which have a measurable yield stress.

  13. Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

  14. Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Ratio of Heat to Power Based on a Conceptual CHP System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Li, X.; Liu, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The CHP system not only produces electrical energy, but also produces thermal energy. An extensive analysis of the CHP market reveals that one of the most important engineering characteristics is flexibility. A variable heat-to-power ratio has...

  15. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  16. Evaluation of a chemical transport model for sulfate using ACE-2 observations and attribution of sulfate mixing ratios to source regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    models driven by analyzed meteorological data. At Tenerife, Canary Islands, (minimal proximate sources ratios (MRs, in parts per billion, ppb, equal to nmol per mol air) at Tenerife, Canary Islands

  17. system, the origin of silicate minerals around stars, and mixing in circumstellar disks. The mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    system, the origin of silicate minerals around stars, and mixing in circumstellar disks. The mineral grains and components that we have seen in the comet are analogous to glacial erratics in the center of the solar nebula, and many of the larger particles are rocks composed of several minerals

  18. An O(n) Residue Number System to Mixed Radix Conversion Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotofana, Sorin

    System (RNS) operands to decimal, which is an im- portant issue concerning the utilization of RNS numbers in digital signal processing applications. In this line of reasoning, we introduce an RNS to Mixed Radix that enables the MRC parallelization. Given an RNS with the set of relatively prime integer moduli {mi}i=1,n

  19. THE MECHANICAL DESIGN OF A GAS SUPPLY AND MIXING SYSTEM FOR THE AMS-02 PARTICLE DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    the gas and monitors the gas content continuously (fig.2) [1]. Two storage vessels store the xenon1 THE MECHANICAL DESIGN OF A GAS SUPPLY AND MIXING SYSTEM FOR THE AMS-02 PARTICLE DETECTOR ONBOARD 100 scientists spread all over Europe, USA and far East. The TRD that is located above the Cryomagnet

  20. Transitions of Organized Assemblies in Mixed Systems of Cationic Bolaamphiphile and Anionic Conventional Surfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    of the mixed systems. The effects of temperature and salt addition on this transition have also been of additives18,19 or variation of environmental factors, such as temperature,20,21 concentration,22,23 and p Conventional Surfactants Ting Lu, Feng Han, Zichen Li, and Jianbin Huang* State Key Laboratory for Structural

  1. Group Ratio Round-Robin: O(1) Proportional Share Scheduling for Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Group Ratio Round-Robin: O(1) Proportional Share Scheduling for Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor of Computer Science Columbia University Technical Report CUCS-028-04 July 2004Abstract Proportional share. We present Group Ratio Round-Robin (GR3 ), the first proportional share scheduler that combines accu

  2. Strongly modified four-wave mixing in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2014-02-28

    We study the four-wave mixing effect in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-spherical metal nanoparticle structure. Depending on the values of the pump field intensity and frequency, we find that there is a critical distance that changes the form of the spectrum. Above this distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum shows an ordinary three-peaked form and the effect of controlling its magnitude by changing the interparticle distance can be obtained. Below this critical distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum becomes single-peaked; and as the interparticle distance decreases, the spectrum is strongly suppressed. The behavior of the system is explained using the effective Rabi frequency that creates plasmonic metaresonances in the hybrid structure. In addition, the behavior of the effective Rabi frequency is explained via an analytical solution of the density matrix equations.

  3. Minimax solution of a nonlinear system of mixed equalities and inequalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Palomares, U.M.

    1983-07-01

    A modification of a quadratic algorithm for solving a nonlinear system of mixed equalities and inequalities is proposed. Under suitable conditions, the modified algorithm always generates a local minimum of a function that represents the maximum violation of any equality of inequality of the system. A superlinear rate of convergence is achieved, when the maximum violation is null. Neither convexity nor constraint qualifications are required.

  4. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  5. Micellar compositions in mixed surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi-Jian Yu ); Guo-Xi Zhao )

    1993-03-15

    Micellization of aqueous mixtures of alkyltriethylammonium bromide and sodium alkylsulfate in the presence of excess sodium bromide has been studied by surface tension measurements. The molecular ratio of the cationic surfactant to the anionic surfactant in the mixed micelles is deduced by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation to the measured critical micelle concentrations. Approximately equimolar amounts of the surfactant components in the mixed micelles over a wide range of aqueous mixing ratio are found in the systems of components similar in chain lengths. Large deviations of the surfactant molecular ratio deduced by the regular solution approach (Rubingh's model) when compared with that deduced by this approach are discovered, which suggests a limitation in applying the regular solution approach to mixed systems of cationic/anionic surfactants.

  6. Climate response to tropical cyclone-induced ocean mixing in an1 Earth system model of intermediate complexity2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate response to tropical cyclone-induced ocean mixing in an1 Earth system model of intermediate system model of intermediate complexity. The parameterization is based on21 previously published global. Abstract19 We introduce a parameterization of ocean mixing by tropical cyclones (TCs) into20 an Earth

  7. Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akatay, M. Cem; Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov; Baumann, Philipp; Stach, Eric A. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

  8. Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

    2007-01-01

    The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

  9. Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

  10. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-20

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a fewmore »hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  11. Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M. [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam.

  12. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  13. Speciation of Lead in a Mixed Soil Component System Using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Speciation of Lead in a Mixed Soil Component System Using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS). Lead concentrations of 6000, 18000, and 29000 µg Pb/g solid were reacted with soil components

  14. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  15. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium–heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-27

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium–heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedimore »that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi below the thermocline than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so-called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  16. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.

  17. Scaling of high-wavenumber energy spectra in the unit aspect-ratio rotating Boussinesq system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susan Kurien

    2010-07-13

    Phenomenological and numerical studies of the small scale spectra of energy are presented for high Reynolds number rotating Boussinesq flows in unit aspect-ratio domains. We introduce a non-dimensional parameter Gamma such that when the potential vorticity is nearly linear in the dynamical variables, we deduce that for Gamma much less than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of horizontal kinetic energy into wavemodes with large horizontal component k_h while forcing it to become independent of vertical wavevector component k_z, scaling as k_h^{-5}. When Gamma much greater than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of potential energy into the wavemodes with large vertical component k_z while forcing it to become independent of k_h, scaling as k_z^{-5) power. Spectra computed from high-resolution simulations of the Boussinesq equations with isotropic low-wavenumber forcing are used to explore such anisotropic constraints on the energy and provide a posteriori justification for the joint flux ansatz used to obtain the (-5) scaling exponent. In all cases the empirical evidence points to both energy and potential enstrophy being jointly transferred downscale with the spectral scaling of the the former constrained by the latter.

  18. Quantum chaos of a mixed, open system of kicked cold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Lochshmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasi-energies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a gaussian light beam.

  19. ?AMG based on Weighted Matching for Systems of Elliptic PDEs Arising From Displacement and Mixed Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Ambra, P.; Vassilevski, P. S.

    2014-05-30

    Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid (or Multilevel) Methods (?AMG) are introduced to improve robustness and efficiency of classical algebraic multigrid methods in dealing with problems where no a-priori knowledge or assumptions on the near-null kernel of the underlined matrix are available. Recently we proposed an adaptive (bootstrap) AMG method, ?AMG, aimed to obtain a composite solver with a desired convergence rate. Each new multigrid component relies on a current (general) smooth vector and exploits pairwise aggregation based on weighted matching in a matrix graph to define a new automatic, general-purpose coarsening process, which we refer to as “the compatible weighted matching”. In this work, we present results that broaden the applicability of our method to different finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. In particular, we consider systems arising from displacement methods in linear elasticity problems and saddle-point systems that appear in the application of the mixed method to Darcy problems.

  20. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Chien-Pei (Clive, IA); Short, John (Norwalk, IA)

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  1. Review of the design and performance features of hvdc systems connected to low short circuit ratio ac systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallam, R.S. )

    1992-10-01

    The design and performance of an HVdc system is significantly impacted by the relative strength of the ac system to which it is connected. In this paper, design and performance features of ten HVdc systems are discussed. All of these systems are connected to ac systems that are relatively weak compared to the rating of the dc system. Six of these systems are back-to-back, two are overhead lines, and two are undersea cable connections. AC and dc system interaction problems and how they are addressed in the design and specification of each of these systems, are described.

  2. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  3. Method for making fine and ultrafine spherical particles of zirconium titanate and other mixed metal oxide systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2006-05-23

    Disclosed is a method for making amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate and crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate comprising the steps of mixing an aqueous solution of zirconium salt and an aqueous solution of titanium salt into a mixed solution having equal moles of zirconium and titanium and having a total salt concentration in the range from 0.01 M to about 0.5 M. A stearic dispersant and an organic solvent is added to the mixed salt solution, subjecting the zirconium salt and the titanium salt in the mixed solution to a coprecipitation reaction forming a solution containing amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate wherein the volume ratio of the organic solvent to aqueous part is in the range from 1 to 5. The solution of amorphous spherical particles is incubated in an oven at a temperature .ltoreq.100.degree. C. for a period of time .ltoreq.24 hours converting the amorphous particles to fine or ultrafine crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate.

  4. Mixed Solvent Electrolyte Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With assistance from AMO, OLI Systems, Inc., developed the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, a comprehensive physical property package that can predict the properties of electrolyte systems ranging...

  5. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup ?1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup ?1}): V×S{sup ?1}?=?v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ? (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup ?1}?=?4.46?10{sup ?11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr}?=?4.46×10{sup ?11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2? and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2? are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup ?34} J?s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  6. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    . To quantify general features of such a weather dependent electricity supply in the contiguous US, windFeatures of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions Sarah Becker a, b, * , Bethany A. Frew b , Gorm B. Andresen d, b , Timo Zeyer c

  7. Global Phase Diagrams of Mixed Surfactant-Polymer Systems at Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Chatellier; D. Andelman

    1998-03-21

    Insoluble surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface undergo a phase transition from a high-temperature homogeneous state to a low-temperature demixed state, where dilute and dense phases coexist. Alternatively, the transition from a dilute phase to a dense one may be induced by compressing the monolayer at constant temperature. We consider the case where the insoluble surfactant monolayer interacts with a semi-dilute polymer solution solubilized in the water subphase. The phase diagrams of the mixed surfactant/polymer system are investigated within the framework of mean field theory. The polymer enhances the fluctuations of the monolayer and induces an upward shift of the critical temperature. The critical concentration is increased if the monomers are more attracted (or at least less repelled) by the surfactant molecules than by the bare water/air interface. In the case where the monomers are repelled by the bare interface but attracted by the surfactant molecules (or vice versa), the phase diagram may have a triple point. The location of the polymer special transition line appears to have a big effect on the phase diagram of the surfactant monolayer.

  8. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Zeyer, Timo; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin; Jacobson, Mark Z

    2014-01-01

    Wind and solar PV generation data for the entire contiguous US are calculated, on the basis of 32 years of weather data with temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of 40x40km$^2$, assuming site-suitability-based as well as stochastic wind and solar PV capacity distributions throughout the country. These data are used to investigate a fully renewable electricity system, resting primarily upon wind and solar PV power. We find that the seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar PV comes at around 80% solar PV share, owing to the US summer load peak. By picking this mix, long-term storage requirements can be more than halved compared to a wind only mix. The daily optimal mix lies at about 80% wind share due to the nightly gap in solar PV production. Picking this mix instead of solar only reduces backup energy needs by about 50%. Furthermore, we calculate shifts in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to their differing resour...

  9. Four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensate systems with multiple spin states J. P. Burke, Jr.,* P. S. Julienne, and C. J. Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Band, Yehuda B.

    Four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensate systems with multiple spin states J. P. Burke, Jr.,* P) We calculate the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a Bose-Einstein condensate system having multiple spin wave packets that are initially overlapping in physical space, but have nonvanishing relative momentum

  10. Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

    2013-09-27

    This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTP’s approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and “scaling down” the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and “scaling up” the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: • Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? • What information is needed to address the first question? • How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

  11. A Quantum Version of The Spectral Decomposition Theorem of Dynamical Systems, Quantum Chaos Hierarchy: Ergodic, Mixing and Exact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignacio Gomez; Mario Castagnino

    2014-11-09

    In this paper we study Spectral Decomposition Theorem [1] and translate it to quantum language by means of the Wigner transform. We obtain a quantum version of Spectral Decomposition Theorem (QSDT) which enables us to achieve three distinct goals: First, to rank Quantum Ergodic Hierarchy levels [2,3]. Second, to analyze the classical limit in quantum ergodic systems and quantum mixing systems. And third, and maybe most important feature, to find a relevant and simple connection between the first three levels of quantum ergodic hierarchy (ergodic, exact and mixing) and quantum spectrum. Finally, we illustrate the physical relevance of QSDT applying it to two examples: Microwave billiards [4,5] and a phenomenological Gamow model type [6,7].

  12. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  13. DEEP, LOW-MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-05-15

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.

  14. Development of a control algorithm for a dynamic gas mixing system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovelady, April

    2006-08-16

    An algorithm was developed to control the partial pressures of N2, O2, and CO2 in a gas mixing tank. The gases were premixed before being introduced into the low pressure Mars Dome. As an attempt to reduce the effects of pressure, the number...

  15. NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory (NREL) evalu- ated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over, ren.anderson@nrel.gov Reference: Ridouance, E.H. (2011). Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort

  16. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2008-12-23

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

  18. Multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing description of nuclear many-body systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, C.; Pillet, N.; Le Bloas, J.; Berger, J.-F.

    2014-10-15

    In this work we discuss the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method which aims to describe the structure of atomic nuclei. Based on a variational principle it is able to treat in a unified way all types of long-range correlations between nucleons, without introducing symmetry breaking. The formalism is presented along with some preliminary results obtained for a few sd-shell nuclei. In the presented applications, the D1S Gogny force has been used.

  19. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger-PJM tests and modeling being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and small-scale agitation tests and evaluations of effects waste and AFA ingredients have on gas retention and mass transfer being conducted at SRNL. Only work conducted at SRNL is reported here. Key results are: (1) The unexpected gas holdup behavior reported in 2006 for a small-scale agitation system is confirmed. The gas holdup data from small-scale and bench-scale impeller-type mixing systems reported herein show very different trends than the behavior exhibited by the prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system tested in the PNNL APEL facility. Results obtained from testing this 1/4-scale prototypic mixing system will be reported by PNNL. The reason for this difference in holdup behavior between the two different mixing systems is not known at this time. Consequently, data from the small mechanical agitation systems should not be extrapolated to prototypic plant conditions. (2) Bench-scale and small-scale tests conducted with Dow Corning 1520-US AFA show it to be a viable replacement to Dow Corning Q2-3183A AFA. This alternative AFA will, however, require significantly higher dosage (concentration) to perform the same antifoam function. (3) Addition of noble metals to the AZ-101 waste simulant does not produce a catalytic gas retention effect with the AFA. The Gas holdup is similar whether or not noble metals are present in the AZ-101 simulant. (4) Mass transfer tests were performed in a large (0.76 m diameter) bubble column filled to 1.3, 3.4, and 7.4 m elevations with water and the AZ-101 waste simulant. Mass transfer coefficients for air bubbles emanating from a prototypic 0.051 m diameter sparger were obtained from the transient decay of dissolved oxygen concentration in the initially saturated fluids. Adding AFA to water reduces the mass transfer coefficient slightly. AFA addition reduces the mass transfer coefficient for AZ-101 simulant more than it does for water because the shear strength of the simulant allows for larger bubble sizes, and larger bubbles have smaller surf

  20. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was demonstrated for the hydrogen-natural gas fuel. The micro-mixing fuel injectors show great promise for use in future gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen, syngas or other fuel mixtures of various compositions, supporting the Department of Energy goals related to increased energy diversity while reducing greenhouse gases.

  1. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  2. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2004-01-01

    ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

  3. Analog Baseband Filters and Mixed Signal Circuits for Broadband Receiver Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra Laxman

    2012-02-14

    Data transfer rates of communication systems continue to rise fueled by aggressive demand for voice, video and Internet data. Device scaling enabled by modern lithography has paved way for System-on-Chip solutions integrating ...

  4. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems; Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie; Brager, Gail

    2011-01-01

    independently of occupant behavior. System Description Thein group 4 because occupant behavior has no bearing on the

  5. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-10-01

    Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

  6. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  7. The Application of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy to Quantitatively Map Mixing and Temperature in Microfluidic Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Emmelyn M

    2008-01-01

    The technique of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been employed to quantitatively and spatially map the fluid composition and temperature within microfluidic systems. A molecular probe with a ...

  8. Partitioned Scheduling of Multi-Modal Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems on Multiprocessor Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    ). Motivating example. Consider an automotive system that ex- ecutes four tasks on a two-processor platform: p Platforms Dionisio de Niz SEI, Carnegie Mellon University Linh T.X. Phan University of Pennsylvania Abstract safety- criticality levels. For instance, the automotive certification standard ISO 26262 [15] identifies

  9. Cache Sharing and Isolation Tradeoffs in Multicore Mixed-Criticality Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James

    be utilized even though m cores are available. In domains such as avionics, this problem has led to the common Motors. The second author was also supported by an NSF graduate fellowship. 1In fact, the U.S. Federal multicore plat- forms are used in avionic systems. A common goal here is to provide isolation

  10. Mixing in polymeric microfluidic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Davis, Robert H. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO); Brotherton, Christopher M. (University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO)

    2006-04-01

    This SAND report describes progress made during a Sandia National Laboratories sponsored graduate fellowship. The fellowship was funded through an LDRD proposal. The goal of this project is development and characterization of mixing strategies for polymeric microfluidic devices. The mixing strategies under investigation include electroosmotic flow focusing, hydrodynamic focusing, physical constrictions and porous polymer monoliths. For electroosmotic flow focusing, simulations were performed to determine the effect of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with heterogeneous surface potential. The heterogeneous surface potential caused recirculations to form within the microchannel. These recirculations could then be used to restrict two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the mixing region surface potential to the average channel surface potential was made large in magnitude and negative in sign, and when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Based on these results, experiments were performed to evaluate the manipulation of surface potential using living-radical photopolymerization. The material chosen to manipulate typically exhibits a negative surface potential. Using living-radical surface grafting, a positive surface potential was produced using 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and a neutral surface was produced using a poly(ethylene glycol) surface graft. Simulations investigating hydrodynamic focusing were also performed. For this technique, mixing is enhanced by using a tertiary fluid stream to constrict the two mixing streams and reduce the characteristic diffusion length. Maximum mixing occurred when the ratio of the tertiary flow stream flow-rate to the mixing streams flow-rate was maximized. Also, like the electroosmotic focusing mixer, mixing was also maximized when the ratio of the characteristic convection time to the characteristic diffusion time was minimized. Physical constrictions were investigated through simulations. The results show that the maximum mixing occurs when the height of the mixing region is minimized. Finally, experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of using porous polymer monoliths to enhance mixing. The porous polymer monoliths were constructed using a monomer/salt paste. Two salt crystal size ranges were used; 75 to 106 microns and 53 to 180 microns. Mixing in the porous polymer monoliths fabricated with the 75 to 106 micron salt crystal size range was six times higher than a channel without a monolith. Mixing in the monolith fabricated with the 53 to 180 micron salt crystal size range was nine times higher.

  11. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  13. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  14. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  15. Technical Report: CS-TR-2013-010, UTSA Scheduling Algorithms for Elastic Mixed-Criticality Tasks in Multicore Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dakai

    -oriented functionality (e.g., cap- turing photos in unmanned aerial vehicles) [1]. Note that, in general, the flight-criticalTechnical Report: CS-TR-2013-010, UTSA Scheduling Algorithms for Elastic Mixed-Criticality Tasks--The Elastic Mixed-Criticality (E-MC) task model and an Early-Release EDF (ER-EDF) scheduling algorithm have

  16. Bright six-partite continuous variable entanglement using cascaded four-wave mixing processes in a four-level atomic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guangqiang He; Xufei Wu; Yi Gu

    2011-09-10

    We theoretically show that bright six-partite continuous-variable entanglement can be generated using cascaded four-wave mixing effects of third-order nonlinearity atomic systems above threshold. The six-partite continuous-variable entanglement among the six cavity fields with different frequencies is analyzed by applying optimized inseparability criteria proposed by Van Loock and Furusawa.

  17. Taipei mobility : gone in less than 300 seconds : mixed modality transportation system in dense mixed-use urban fabric, take Taipei City for example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Chih-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Urban designers and planners always try to tackle the urban issues from spatial, cultural and economical point of views; However, sometimes these issues were limited or, even more, created by current transportation system. ...

  18. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  19. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  20. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  1. SEAMIST{trademark} in-situ instrumentation and vapor sampling system applications in the Sandia Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration program: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, C.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, D.; Dunn, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration was tasked with demonstrating innovative technologies for the cleanup of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representive of sites occurring throughout the DOE complex and the nation. The SEAMIST{trademark} inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling, pressure measurement, permeability measurement, sensor integration demonstrations, and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST{trademark}-lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. Recent activities included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST{trademark} system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system that allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST{trademark} vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art volatile organic compound analysis technologies. The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented.

  2. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureElyElectroEnergyAdvancedEnergyAudits Energy0

  3. Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    in FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission)-level LCOE (Levelized Costs Of Electricity) for wind and solar PV due to differing weather conditions. Regional LCOE vary by up to 29%, and LCOE-optimal mixes

  4. Neutrino Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

    2004-10-01

    In this review we present the main features of the current status of neutrino physics. After a review of the theory of neutrino mixing and oscillations, we discuss the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that the current data can be nicely accommodated in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. We discuss also the problem of the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale through Tritium beta-decay experiments and astrophysical observations, and the exploration of the Majorana nature of massive neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, future prospects are briefly discussed.

  5. Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats; Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems.

  6. Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE Department of Physics form 18 December 2008) ABSTRACT The dependence of mixing efficiency on time-varying forcing is studied frame and allowing the tilt angle to vary in time. Mixing efficiency Gc is defined as the ratio

  7. Cosmological Kinetic Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Ashok; Pino, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the kinetic mixing idea to time reparametrization invariant theories, namely, relativistic point particles and cosmology in order to obtain new insights for dark matter and energy. In the first example, two relativistic particles interact through an appropriately chosen coupling term. It is shown that the system can be diagonalized by means of a non-local field redefinition, and, as a result of this procedure, the mass of one the particles gets rescaled. In the second case, inspired by the previous example, two cosmological models (each with its own scale factor) are made to interact in a similar fashion. The equations of motion are solved numerically in different scenarios (dust, radiation or a cosmological constant coupled to each sector of the system). When a cosmological constant term is present, kinetic mixing rescales it to a lower value which may be more amenable to observations.

  8. Cosmological Kinetic Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; Jorge Gamboa; Miguel Pino

    2015-06-22

    In this paper we generalize the kinetic mixing idea to time reparametrization invariant theories, namely, relativistic point particles and cosmology in order to obtain new insights for dark matter and energy. In the first example, two relativistic particles interact through an appropriately chosen coupling term. It is shown that the system can be diagonalized by means of a non-local field redefinition, and, as a result of this procedure, the mass of one the particles gets rescaled. In the second case, inspired by the previous example, two cosmological models (each with its own scale factor) are made to interact in a similar fashion. The equations of motion are solved numerically in different scenarios (dust, radiation or a cosmological constant coupled to each sector of the system). When a cosmological constant term is present, kinetic mixing rescales it to a lower value which may be more amenable to observations.

  9. Stable isotopes are a powerful way to describe and quantify trophic relationships in aquatic systems. Evaluating the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes of consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    production in the Virginia Coast Reserve. #12;iii Results indicate that hydrogen isotope ratios can improve is not yet predictable. The application of hydrogen isotopes to marine food web studies warrants further and higher trophic levels. However, this method is only feasible when sources have distinct combinations

  10. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  12. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Taehong

    2003-01-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of ANSI N13.1-1999 and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the exhaust airflow be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne...

  13. Influences of quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in 2D electronic spectra of photosynthetic systems: Strong electronic coupling cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    In 2D electronic spectroscopy studies, long-lived quantum beats have recently been observed in photosynthetic systems, and it has been suggested that the beats are produced by quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states. Concerning the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures, the impact of protein-induced fluctuations was examined by calculating the 2D electronic spectra of a weakly coupled dimer with vibrational modes in the resonant condition [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 212403 (2015)]. This analysis demonstrated that quantum mixtures of the vibronic resonance are rather robust under the influence of the fluctuations at cryogenic temperatures, whereas the mixtures are eradicated by the fluctuations at physiological temperatures. However, this conclusion cannot be generalized because the magnitude of the coupling inducing the quantum mixtures is proportional to the inter-pigment coupling. In this study, we explore the impact of the fluctuations on electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures in a strongl...

  14. Synthesis and study of frustrated oxide and mixed anion materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Lucy

    2013-11-28

    Mixed anion systems, such as oxynitrides and oxyfluorides, are an emerging class of interesting materials. The lower stability of mixed anion systems in comparison to oxide materials has had the consequence that this ...

  15. Slugging in multiphase flow as a mixed initial-boundary value problem for a quasilinear hyperbolic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the multiphasis slugging flow phenomenon occurring in oil wells and flow lines. The main con- tribution is a low-dimensional distributed parameters model, comprising the gas mass fraction, the pressure, and gas velocity as states taking the form of a low-dimensional hyperbolic system of conservation laws. Slugging is a two-phase flow

  16. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  17. Description of nuclear systems with a self-consistent configuration mixing approach. I: Theory and Algorithm - Application to the $^{12}$C test nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Robin; N. Pillet; D. Peña Arteaga; J. -F. Berger

    2015-09-29

    Although self-consistent multi-configuration methods have been used for decades to address the description of atomic and molecular many-body systems, only a few trials have been made in the context of nuclear structure. This work aims at the development of such an approach to describe in a unified way various types of correlations in nuclei, in a self-consistent manner where the mean-field is improved as correlations are introduced. The goal is to reconcile the usually set apart Shell-Model and Self-Consistent Mean-Field methods. This approach is referred as "variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method". It is based on a double variational principle which yields a set of two coupled equations that determine at the same time the expansion coefficients of the many-body wave function and the single particle states. The formalism is derived and discussed in a general context, starting from a three-body Hamiltonian. Links to existing many-body techniques such as the formalism of Green's functions are established. First applications are done using the two-body D1S Gogny effective force. The numerical procedure is tested on the $^{12}$C nucleus in order to study the convergence features of the algorithm in different contexts. Ground state properties as well as single-particle quantities are analyzed, and the description of the first $2^+$ state is examined. This study allows to validate our numerical algorithm and leads to encouraging results. In order to test the method further, we will realize in the second article of this serie, a systematic description of more nuclei and observables obtained by applying the newly-developed numerical procedure with the same Gogny force. As raised in the present work, applications of the variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method will however ultimately require the use of an extended and more constrained Gogny force.

  18. High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

    2012-01-31

    The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  20. Controlled synthesis of calcium carbonate in a mixed aqueous solution of PSMA and CTAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Zhao Xiufeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Changji University, Changji 831100 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China); Zhang Qingjie [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province 430070 (China)

    2005-03-15

    A mixed system of poly (styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a very effective crystal growth modifier to direct the controlled synthesis of CaCO{sub 3} crystals with various morphologies and polymorphs. The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the concentrations and relative ratios of PSMA and CTAB in the mixed aqueous solution were turned out to be important parameters for the morphology and polymorph of CaCO{sub 3} crystals. Various morphologies of CaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as hollow microsphere, peanut and so on, were produced depending on the concentrations and relative ratios of PSMA and CTAB. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of CaCO{sub 3} crystals with different morphologies were discussed.

  1. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  2. Description of nuclear systems with a self-consistent configuration mixing approach. I: Theory and Algorithm - Application to the $^{12}$C test nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robin, C; Arteaga, D Peña; Berger, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Although self-consistent multi-configuration methods have been used for decades to address the description of atomic and molecular many-body systems, only a few trials have been made in the context of nuclear structure. This work aims at the development of such an approach to describe in a unified way various types of correlations in nuclei, in a self-consistent manner where the mean-field is improved as correlations are introduced. The goal is to reconcile the usually set apart Shell-Model and Self-Consistent Mean-Field methods. This approach is referred as "variational multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method". It is based on a double variational principle which yields a set of two coupled equations that determine at the same time the expansion coefficients of the many-body wave function and the single particle states. The formalism is derived and discussed in a general context, starting from a three-body Hamiltonian. Links to existing many-body techniques such as the formalism of Green's functio...

  3. Preconditioning for the mixed formulation of linear plane elasticity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yanqiu

    2005-11-01

    In this dissertation, we study the mixed ?nite element method for the linear plane elasticity problem and iterative solvers for the resulting discrete system. We use the Arnold-Winther Element in the mixed ?nite element discretization...

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  6. I/S and C/S mixed layers, some indicators of recent physical-chemical changes in active geothermal systems: The case study of Chipilapa (El Salvador)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaufort, D.; Papapanagiotou, P.; patrier, P.; Fouillac, A.M.; Traineau, H.

    1996-01-24

    I/S and C/S mixed layers from the geothermal field of Chipilapa (El Salvador) have been studied in details in order to reevaluate their potential use as indicator of the thermodynamic conditions in which they were formed. It is funded that overprinting of clay bearing alteration stages is common. For a given alteration stage, the spatial variation of I/S and C/S mixed layer ininerals is controlled by kinetics of mixed layer transformation and not only by temperature. Clay geo-thermometers cannot give reliable results because the present crystal-chemical states of the I/S and C/S mixed layers is not their initial state, it was aquired during the overall hydrothermal history which post dated the nucleation of smectitic clay material at high temperature. Occurrences of smectites or smectite-rich mixed layers at high temperature in reservoirs is a promising guide for reconstruct the zones in which boiling or mixing of non isotherinal fluids occurred very recently or still presently.

  7. Abundance ratios in hierarchical galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1999-01-18

    The chemical enrichment and stellar abundance ratios of galaxies which form in a hierarchical clustering scheme are calculated. For this purpose I adopt the star formation histories (SFH) as they are delivered by semi-analytic models in Kauffmann (1996}. It turns out that the average SFH of cluster ellipticals does not yield globally alpha-enhanced stellar populations. The star burst that occurs when the elliptical forms in the major merger plays therefore a crucial role in producing alpha-enhancement. Only under the assumption that the IMF is significantly flattened with respect to the Salpeter value during the burst, a Mg/Fe overabundant population can be obtained. In particular for the interpretation of radial gradients in metallicity and alpha-enhancement, the mixing of global and burst populations are of great importance. The model predicts bright field galaxies to be less alpha-enhanced than their counterparts in clusters.

  8. Mixed-Salt Effects on the Ionic Conductivity of Lithium-Doped PEO-Containing Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Wen-Shiue; Albert, Julie N.L.; Schantz, A. Benjamin; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2012-10-10

    We demonstrate a simple, yet effective, mixed-salt method to increase the room temperature ionic conductivity of lithium-doped block copolymer electrolyte membranes by suppressing the crystalline phases in the conducting block. We examined a mixed-salt system of LiClO{sub 4} and LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} (LiTFSI) doped into a lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymer. The domain spacings, morphologies, thermal behavior, and crystalline phases of salt-doped PS-PEO samples were characterized, and the ionic conductivities of block copolymer electrolytes were obtained through ac impedance measurements. Comparing the ionic conductivity profiles of salt-doped PS-PEO samples at different mixed-salt ratios and total salt concentrations, we found that the ionic conductivity at room temperature can be improved by more than an order of magnitude when coinhibition of crystallite growth is promoted by the concerted behavior of the PEO:LiClO{sub 4} and PEO:LiTFSI phases. Additionally, we examined the influence of mixed-salt ratio and total salt concentration on copolymer energetics, and we found that the slope of the effective interaction parameter ({chi}{sub eff}) vs salt concentration in our lamellae-forming PS-PEO system was lower than that reported for a cylinder-forming PS-PEO system due to the balance between chain stretching and salt segregation in the PEO domains.

  9. Accretion of dust grains as a possible origin of metal-poor stars with low alpha/Fe ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshikazu Shigeyama; Takuji Tsujimoto

    2003-10-10

    The origin of low alpha/Fe ratios in some metal-poor stars, so called low-alpha stars, is discussed. It is found that most of low-alpha stars in the Galaxy are on the main-sequence. This strongly suggests that these stars suffered from external pollution. It is also found that the abundance ratios Zn/Fe of low-alpha stars both in the Galaxy and in dwarf spheroidal galaxies are lower than the average value of Galactic halo stars whereas damped Ly alpha absorbers have higher ratios. This implies that some low-alpha stars accreted matter depleted from gas onto dust grains. To explain the features in these low-alpha stars, we have proposed that metal-poor stars harboring planetary systems are the origin of these low-alpha stars. Stars engulfing a small fraction of planetesimals enhance the surface content of Fe to exhibit low alpha/Fe ratios on their surfaces while they are on the main-sequence, because dwarfs have shallow surface convection zones where the engulfed matter is mixed. After the stars leave the main-sequence, the surface convection zones become deeper to reduce the enhancement of Fe. Eventually, when the stars ascend to the tip of the red giant branch, they engulf giant planets to become low-alpha stars again as observed in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We predict that low-alpha stars with low Mn/Fe ratios harbor planetary systems.

  10. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods testedmore »are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  11. Multiple Higgs-Portal and Gauge-Kinetic Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Y. Choi; C. Englert; P. M. Zerwas

    2013-10-29

    We develop a phenomenological formalism for mixing effects between the Standard Model and hidden-sector fields, motivated by dark matter in the Universe as well as string theories. The scheme includes multiple Higgs-portal interactions in the scalar sector as well as multiple gauge-kinetic mixings in the abelian gauge sector. While some of the mixing effects can be cast in closed form, other elements can be controlled analytically only by means of perturbative expansions in the ratio of standard scales over large hidden scales. Higgs and vector-boson masses and mixings are illustrated numerically for characteristic processes.

  12. Mixed-mode cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail

    2006-01-01

    ASHRAE’s permission. Mixed-Mode Cooling Photo Credit: Paulnatural ventilation for cooling. Buildings typically had1950s of large-scale mechanical cooling, along with other

  13. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  14. Cooking with Trail Mix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of trail mix, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  15. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  16. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  17. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  18. Mixed Motives Marc Levine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Marc

    Mixed Motives Marc Levine Department of Mathematics Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 USA marc@neu.edu Summary. This is a first version of the chapter on mixed motives for the K-Theory Handbook Paul Program and the NSF via grant DMS 0140445. #12;2 Marc Levine 4.5 Voevodsky's construction

  19. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Dimenna, R.; Tamburello, D.

    2011-02-14

    The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

  20. Nearly discontinuous chaotic mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyun K [STONYBROOK UNIV.; Yu, Yan [STONYBROOK UNIV.; Glimm, James G [STONYBROOK UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A new scientific approach is presented for a broad class of chaotic problems involving a high degree of mixing over rapid time scales. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows are typical of such problems. Microscopic mixing properties such as chemical reaction rates for turbulent mixtures can be obtained with feasible grid resolution. The essential dependence of (some) fluid mixing observables on transport phenomena is observed. This dependence includes numerical as well as physical transport and it includes laminar as well as turbulent transport. A new approach to the mathematical theory for the underlying equations is suggested.

  1. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  2. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  3. ADVANCED MIXING MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

    2008-11-13

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (50,000 to 300,000) with a relative standard deviation of {+-} 11.83%. An improved correlat

  4. Mixing by Swimming Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate the microscale mixing enhancement of passive tracer particles in suspensions of swimming microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These biflagellated, single-celled eukaryotes (10 micron diameter) swim with a "breaststroke" pulling motion of their flagella at speeds of about 100 microns/s and exhibit heterogeneous trajectory shapes. Fluorescent tracer particles (2 micron diameter) allowed us to quantify the enhanced mixing caused by the swimmers, which is relevant to suspension feeding and biogenic mixing. Without swimmers present, tracer particles diffuse slowly due solely to Brownian motion. As the swimmer concentration is increased, the probability density functions (PDFs) of tracer displacements develop strong exponential tails, and the Gaussian core broadens. High-speed imaging (500 Hz) of tracer-swimmer interactions demonstrates the importance of flagellar beating in creating oscillatory flows that exceed Brownian motion out to about 5 cell radii from the swimm...

  5. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  6. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  7. Brush Busters Mixing Guide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Ueckert, Darrell

    2004-02-05

    * To container or spray tank half filled with diesel or vegetable oil, add Remedy ? herbicide, then bring to desired volume with diesel or veg- etable oil. Mix thoroughly before using. **Remedy ? RTU can be substituted for this mixture and used directly from... Remedy ? 25% 1 qt 1.25 gal 2.5 gal *To container or spray tank half filled with diesel or vegetable oil, add Remedy ? herbicide, then bring to desired volume with diesel or vegetable oil. Mix thoroughly before using. Cedar leaf spray and prickly pear pad...

  8. A quantum framework for likelihood ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael L. Bond; Yang-Hui He; Thomas C. Ormerod

    2015-08-04

    The ability to calculate precise likelihood ratios is fundamental to many STEM areas, such as decision-making theory, biomedical science, and engineering. However, there is no assumption-free statistical methodology to achieve this. For instance, in the absence of data relating to covariate overlap, the widely used Bayes' theorem either defaults to the marginal probability driven "naive Bayes' classifier", or requires the use of compensatory expectation-maximization techniques. Equally, the use of alternative statistical approaches, such as multivariate logistic regression, may be confounded by other axiomatic conditions, e.g., low levels of co-linearity. This article takes an information-theoretic approach in developing a new statistical formula for the calculation of likelihood ratios based on the principles of quantum entanglement. In doing so, it is argued that this quantum approach demonstrates: that the likelihood ratio is a real quality of statistical systems; that the naive Bayes' classifier is a special case of a more general quantum mechanical expression; and that only a quantum mechanical approach can overcome the axiomatic limitations of classical statistics.

  9. Accretion of dust grains as a possible origin of metal-poor stars with low alpha/Fe ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shigeyama, T; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    The origin of low alpha/Fe ratios in some metal-poor stars, so called low-alpha stars, is discussed. It is found that most of low-alpha stars in the Galaxy are on the main-sequence. This strongly suggests that these stars suffered from external pollution. It is also found that the abundance ratios Zn/Fe of low-alpha stars both in the Galaxy and in dwarf spheroidal galaxies are lower than the average value of Galactic halo stars whereas damped Ly alpha absorbers have higher ratios. This implies that some low-alpha stars accreted matter depleted from gas onto dust grains. To explain the features in these low-alpha stars, we have proposed that metal-poor stars harboring planetary systems are the origin of these low-alpha stars. Stars engulfing a small fraction of planetesimals enhance the surface content of Fe to exhibit low alpha/Fe ratios on their surfaces while they are on the main-sequence, because dwarfs have shallow surface convection zones where the engulfed matter is mixed. After the stars leave the main...

  10. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  11. Mixing liquid holding tanks for uniform concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving uniform concentration within liquid holding tanks can often times be a difficult task for the nuclear chemical process industry. This is due to the fact that nuclear criticality concerns require these tanks to be designed with high internal aspect ratios such that the free movement of fluid is greatly inhibited. To determine the mixing times required to achieve uniform concentrations within these tanks, an experimental program was conducted utilizing pencil tanks, double-pencil tanks, and annular tanks of varying geometries filled with salt-water solutions (simulant for nitric acid actinide solutions). Mixing was accomplished by air sparging and/or pump recirculation. Detailed fluid mechanic mixing models were developed --from first principles--to analyze and interpret the test results. These nondimensional models show the functionality of the concentration inhomogeneity (defined as the relative standard deviation of the true concentration within the tank) in relationship to the characteristic mixing time--among other variables. The results can be readily used to scale tank geometries to sizes other than those studied here.

  12. Glueball-Meson Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicente Vento

    2015-05-20

    Calculations in unquenched QCD for the scalar glueball spectrum have confirmed previous results of Gluodynamics finding a glueball at ~ 1750 MeV. I analyze the implications of this discovery from the point of view of glueball-meson mixing at the light of the experimental scalar sprectrum.

  13. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Collogue C5, supplement au n 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-377 Effect of phonons in mixed valence systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    systems like transition metals and rare-earth metals are particularly interesting due to strong electron-phonon coupling on valence fluctuations in rare-earth systems is studied. It is shown that the electron, electronic phase transitions involving f «± d electronic transitions occur in many rare-earth systems like Sm

  15. Heating-Induced Micelle to Vesicle Transition in the Cationic-Anionic Surfactant Systems: Comprehensive Study and Understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    . It is known that temperature has great effect on the nonionic surfactant systems. Usually such systems have concentrations and mixed surfactant ratios, while no such transition was found in Class B. Further investigations especially on the effect of cosurfactants' addition, pH, temperature, salts, force fields, etc. Compared

  16. Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Prabal Singh

    2011-12-15

    It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

  17. Mixing of equations of state for xenon-deuterium using density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Mattsson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We report on a theoretical study of equation of state (EOS) properties of fluid and dense plasma mixtures of xenon and deuterium to explore and illustrate the basic physics of the mixing of a light element with a heavy element. Accurate EOS models are crucial to achieve high-fidelity hydrodynamics simulations of many high-energy-density phenomena, for example inertial confinement fusion and strong shock waves. While the EOS is often tabulated for separate species, the equation of state for arbitrary mixtures is generally not available, requiring properties of the mixture to be approximated by combining physical properties of the pure systems. Density functional theory (DFT) at elevated-temperature is used to assess the thermodynamics of the xenon-deuterium mixture at different mass ratios. The DFT simulations are unbiased as to elemental species and therefore provide comparable accuracy when describing total energies, pressures, and other physical properties of mixtures as they do for pure systems. The study focuses on addressing the accuracy of different mixing rules in the temperature range 1000-40 000 K for pressures between 100 and 600 GPa (1-6 Mbar), thus, including the challenging warm dense matter regime of the phase diagram. We find that a mix rule taking into account pressure equilibration between the two species performs very well over the investigated range.

  18. Mix Design and Analysis Track Where Have We Come From?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mix Design and Analysis Track Where Have We Come From? #12;Integrated Concrete Materials what to end with after Construction? Hardened Properties (Durability) Permeability ·W/C Ratio ·Air Entr fund (assessing pavement permeability) #12;Current Projects That Will Fill Some Gaps IPRF deicing salts

  19. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  20. AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION (AMPC): UNSUPERVISED MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    13 AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION (AMPC): UNSUPERVISED MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATION The automatic mixed pixel classification (AMPC) considered in this chapter is fully computer automated and can be implemented to automatically detect and classify targets with no human intervention. Like the automatic

  1. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  2. Mixing and CP Violation in Charm Meson Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, B; /Cincinnati U.

    2010-08-26

    Mixing and CP violation (CPV ) in the neutral D system were first discussed over thirty years ago but mixing was observed for the first time only very recently. Since then, these observations have been confirmed in other experiments and in other D{sup 0} decay modes. Unlike the K, B and B{sub s} systems, for which mixing was observed years earlier, the short distance ({Delta}C = 2) amplitude contributing to mixing in the D system arises from box diagrams with down- rather than up-type quarks in the loops. The d and s components are GIM-suppressed, and the b component is suppressed by the small V{sub ub} CKM coupling. In the standard model (SM), therefore, long range, non-perturbative effects, a coherent sum over intermediate states accessible to both D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0}, are the main contribution to mixing. These are hard to compute reliably, however. The phenomenon of mixing in neutral meson systems has now been observed in all flavours, but only in the past year in the D{sup 0} system. The standard model anticipated that, for the charm sector, the mixing rate would be small, and also that CP violation, either in mixing or in direct decay, would be below the present levels of observability. It is hoped that further study of these phenomena might reveal signs of new physics. A review of recently available, experimental results is given.

  3. Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Batch Transfer and Sampling Performance of Simulated HLW - 12307

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Jesse; Townson, Paul; Vanatta, Matt

    2012-07-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste treatment Plant (WTP) has been recognized as a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. At the end of 2009 DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), awarded a contract to EnergySolutions to design, fabricate and operate a demonstration platform called the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) to establish pre-transfer sampling capacity, and batch transfer performance data at two different scales. This data will be used to examine the baseline capacity for a tank mixed via rotational jet mixers to transfer consistent or bounding batches, and provide scale up information to predict full scale operational performance. This information will then in turn be used to define the baseline capacity of such a system to transfer and sample batches sent to WTP. The Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) platform consists of 43'' and 120'' diameter clear acrylic test vessels, each equipped with two scaled jet mixer pump assemblies, and all supporting vessels, controls, services, and simulant make up facilities. All tank internals have been modeled including the air lift circulators (ALCs), the steam heating coil, and the radius between the wall and floor. The test vessels are set up to simulate the transfer of HLW out of a mixed tank, and collect a pre-transfer sample in a manner similar to the proposed baseline configuration. The collected material is submitted to an NQA-1 laboratory for chemical analysis. Previous work has been done to assess tank mixing performance at both scales. This work involved a combination of unique instruments to understand the three dimensional distribution of solids using a combination of Coriolis meter measurements, in situ chord length distribution measurements, and electro-resistive tomography. This current work utilized the same instruments to monitor simulated waste transfers. This paper will discuss some of the scaling compromises when it came to the scaled sampling system design, handling of large quantities of material for sampling, and present data for the discuss of likely behavior of the full scale DST based on scaling correlations using a scale ratio exponent (SRE) from 0.25 to 0.45 and the behavior observed in the SSMD platform. This does not establish a scaling factor for DST mixing using paired jet mixers but is an attempt to envelope the likely performance ranges in terms of certification sampling bias, certification sample root-mean-square-deviation, and bath to batch relative standard deviation. (authors)

  4. Systemic Equity Pedagogy in Science Education: A Mixed-Method Analysis of High Achieving High Schools of Culturally Diverse Student Populations in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blocker, Tyrone Dewayne

    2013-08-14

    vary in different schools? Three research papers detail the research of this dissertation. The purpose for the first paper is to increase understanding of indicators facilitating systemic and equitable teaching and learning practices, otherwise...

  5. A Two Pressure Numerical Model of Two Fluid Mixing \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    fluid. The model is designed for the study of acceleration driven mixing layers in a chunk mix regime to the description of natural phenomena, as in meteorological temperature in­ version driven updrafts quantities directly, to close the system of equations. Closure is a physics level identity, independent

  6. Discrimination between pure states and mixed states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi Zhang; Guoming Wang; Mingsheng Ying

    2007-02-09

    In this paper, we discuss the problem of determining whether a quantum system is in a pure state, or in a mixed state. We apply two strategies to settle this problem: the unambiguous discrimination and the maximum confidence discrimination. We also proved that the optimal versions of both strategies are equivalent. The efficiency of the discrimination is also analyzed. This scheme also provides a method to estimate purity of quantum states, and Schmidt numbers of composed systems.

  7. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  8. 1/3 TELLURIC AND D.C. RESISTIVITY TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO THE GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF BASIN AND RANGE GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS, PART I: THE E-FIELD RATIO TELLURIC METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyer, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    exploration of geothermal systems in north central Nevada (of Basin and Range geothermal systems, Part I I: A numericalBasin and Range geothermal systems, Part III: The analysis

  9. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-02-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the closure cover provide soil water content data, whereas sensors installed in the lysimeters provide soil water content, soil water potential, soil temperature, and drainage data for a detailed evaluation of the cover performance. Revegetation establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration and reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  10. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n e v i2 ARM Climate1623375250248

  11. Impact of the Position of a Radiator to Energy Consumption and Thermal Comfort in a Mixed Radiant and Convective Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    Heating energy consumption in winter is an important component of the whole building energy consumption in the severe cold zone in north China. This paper presents a heating water system of a hotel building in Harbin, finishes the testing of its...

  12. A New Type of Two-Dimensional Metal Coordination Systems: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Properties of the First Oxalate-bpy Mixed-Ligand Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    A New Type of Two-Dimensional Metal Coordination Systems: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Properties, 290 °C; II, 340 °C; III, 350 °C; and IV, 290 °C). Introduction Investigation of novel inorganic-organic hybrid framework assemblies represents one of the most active areas of materials science and chemical

  13. Atomic layer deposition growth of a novel mixed-phase barrier for seedless copper electroplating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sumit; Greenslit, Daniel; Chakraborty, Tonmoy; Eisenbraun, Eric T. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A novel plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition-grown mixed-phase/nanolaminate Ru-TaN barrier has been investigated, and it was confirmed that the copper diffusion barrier and direct-plate characteristics of the mixed-phase barrier can be modulated by varying the metal ratio in the film. This liner was subsequently optimized to yield a composition that combines the robust barrier properties of TaN with direct-plate characteristics of Ru. It was found that the deposited multicomponent system consists of individual crystalline and amorphous phase regions distributed across the barrier. The resulting optimized mixed-phase barrier was found to exhibit excellent copper diffusion barrier characteristics in layers as thin as 2 nm. A high degree of (111) texture (>84%) was observed for the direct-plated copper on this Ru-TaN barrier, which was very similar to the electroplated Cu deposited on a physical vapor deposition copper-seed control sample. Additionally, the filling characteristics in sub-50-nm features were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally copper-seeded interconnect structures.

  14. Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models KIRAN and temperature and for surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio for mesoscale models. In the FASDAS-field variables. The FASDAS is coupled to a land surface submodel in a three-dimensional mesoscale model and tests

  15. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089 U.S.A. and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  16. Mixing processes and hydraulic control in a highly stratified estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Daniel George, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis utilizes field data from the Fraser River Estuary, a highly stratified system located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to investigate the nature of mixing processes in a highly stratified environment, ...

  17. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  18. Halton Sequences for Mixed Logit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Train, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Customers’ Choice Among Energy Supplier Simulation based oncustomers’ choice of energy supplier. Surveyed customerspreferences for energy suppliers, such that a mixed logit is

  19. Cooking with Dry Egg Mix 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of egg mix, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  20. Mass dependence of balance energy for different N/Z ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood

    2011-09-28

    We present the study for the mass dependence of E$_{bal}$ for various N/Z ratios covering pure symmetric systems to highly neutron-rich ones.

  1. Atomic mix in directly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D. C.; Ebey, P. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sangster, T. C.; Shmayda, W. T.; Yu. Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lerche, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Directly driven implosions on the Omega laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have measured the presence of atomic mix using D+T neutron yield rates from plastic capsules with and without deuterated layers, and a nearly pure tritium fuel containing 0.7% deuterium. In 15, 19, and 24 {mu}m thick plastic shells, D+T neutron yields increased by factors of 86, 112, and 24 when the 1.2 {mu}m thick inner layer was deuterated. Based on adjusting a fully atomic mix modvfel to fit yield degradation in the un-deuterated capsule and applying it to the capsule with the deuterated layer, atomic mixing accounts for 40-75% of the yield degradation due to mix. For the first time, the time dependence of mixed mass was measured by the ratio of the yield rates from both types of capsules. As expected, the amount of mix grows throughout the D+T burn.

  2. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  3. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

  4. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  5. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  6. Abundance Ratios in Early-Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynier Peletier

    1999-04-21

    Although evidence is accumulating that abundance ratios in galaxies are often non-solar, they are far from understood. I resume the current evidence for non-solar abundance ratios, supplementing the recent review by Worthey (1998) with some new results. It appears that the Mg/Fe abundance ratio only depends on the mass of the galaxy, not on the formation time-scale. For massive galaxies [Mg/Fe] > 0, while small galaxies show solar abundance ratios. Information about abundances of other element is scarce, but new evidence is given that [Ca/Fe] is solar, or slightly lower than solar, contrary to what is expected for an alpha-element.

  7. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  8. Mixed semiconductor nanocrystal compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskaly, Garry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Schaller, Richard D. (Santa Fe, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-02-15

    Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and wherein the ratio of the number of energy donors to the number of energy acceptors is from about 2:1 to about 1000:1.

  9. Neutral B mixing from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. D. Freeland; C. M. Bouchard; C. Bernard; A. X. El-Khadra; E. Gamiz; A. S. Kronfeld; J. Laiho; R. S. Van de Water

    2012-12-21

    We present an update of the Fermilab-MILC Collaboration's calculation of hadronic matrix elements for B^0-\\bar{B^0} mixing. This work is a more extended analysis than our recent publication of the SU(3)-breaking ratio xi [arXiv:1205.7013]. We use the asqtad staggered action for light valence quarks in combination with the Fermilab interpretation of the Sheikoleslami-Wohlert action for heavy quarks. The calculations use MILC's 2+1 flavor asqtad ensembles. Ensembles include four lattice spacings from approximately 0.125 fm to 0.045 fm and up/down to strange quark mass ratios as low as 0.05. Our calculation covers the complete set of five operators needed to describe B mixing in the Standard Model and beyond. In addition to an update including a fuller set of analyzed data, we comment on the form of the staggered ChPT extrapolation function.

  10. Ratio model serves suprathreshold color luminance discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Kathy T.

    Ratio model serves suprathreshold color­ luminance discrimination Marcel J. Sankeralli and Kathy T the responses of the three postreceptoral mechanisms are combined to subserve discrimination of suprathreshold model of suprathreshold color­luminance dis- crimination, in which discrimination depends on a ratio

  11. Thermal photons to dileptons ratio at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha

    2007-05-24

    It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature.

  12. High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

  13. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  14. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

  15. Lepton and Quark Mixing Patterns from Finite Flavor Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang-Yuan Yao; Gui-Jun Ding

    2015-05-14

    We perform a systematical and analytical study of lepton mixing which can be derived from the subgroups of $SU(3)$ under the assumption that neutrinos are Dirac particles. We find that type D groups can predict lepton mixing patterns compatible with the experimental data at $3\\sigma$ level. The lepton mixing matrix turns out to be of the trimaximal form, and the Dirac CP violating phase is trivial. Moreover, we extend the flavor symmetry to the quark sector. The Cabibbo mixing between the first two generations of quarks can be generated by type D groups. Since all the finite subgroups of $U(3)$ which are not the subgroups of $SU(3)$ have not been classified, an exhaustive scan over all finite discrete groups up to order 2000 is performed with the help of the computer algebra system \\texttt{GAP}. We find that only 90 (10) groups for Dirac (Majorana) neutrinos can generate the lepton mixing angles in the experimentally preferred ranges. The lepton mixing matrix is still the trimaximal pattern and the Dirac CP phase remains trivial. The smallest groups which lead to viable mixing angles are $[162, 10]$, $[162, 12]$ and $[162, 14]$. For quark flavor mixing, the correct order of magnitude of the CKM matrix elements can not be generated. Only the Cabibbo mixing is allowed even if we impose very loose constraints $0.1\\leq|\\left(V_{CKM}\\right)_{12}|\\leq0.3$ and $|\\left(V_{CKM}\\right)_{13}|\\leq|\\left(V_{CKM}\\right)_{23}|right)_{12}|$. The group $\\Delta(6\\cdot7^2)$ can predict a Cabibbo angle $\\theta_q=\\pi/14$ in good agreement with the best fit value. The groups which can give rise to both phenomenologically viable lepton mixing angles and acceptable Cabibbo angle are discussed, and the groups $\\Delta(6\\cdot9^2)$, $[648, 259]$, $[648, 260]$, $[648, 266]$ and $\\Delta(6\\cdot14^2)$ are especially promising.

  16. Saving the fourth generation Higgs with radion mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariana Frank; Beste Korutlu; Manuel Toharia

    2012-04-26

    We study Higgs-radion mixing in a warped extra dimensional model with Standard Model fields in the bulk, and we include a fourth generation of chiral fermions. The main problem with the fourth generation is that, in the absence of Higgs-radion mixing, it produces a large enhancement in the Higgs production cross-section, now severely constrained by LHC data. We analyze the production and decay rates of the two physical states emerging from the mixing and confront them with present LHC data. We show that the current signals observed can be compatible with the presence of one, or both, of these Higgs-radion mixed states (the $\\phi$ and the $h$), although with a severely restricted parameter space. In particular, the radion interaction scale must be quite low, Lambda_\\phi ~ 1-1.3 TeV. If m_\\phi ~ 125 GeV, the $h$ state must be heavier (m_h>320 GeV). If m_h ~ 125 GeV, the $\\phi$ state must be quite light or close in mass (m_\\phi ~ 120 GeV). We also present the modified decay branching ratios of the mixed Higgs-radion states, including flavor violating decays into fourth generation quarks and leptons. The windows of allowed parameter space obtained are very sensitive to the increased precision of upcoming LHC data. During the present year, a clear picture of this scenario will emerge, either confirming or further severely constraining this scenario.

  17. Neutrino mixing and dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasone, M.; Capolupo, A.; Vitiello, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E.R. Caianiello', I-84100 Salerno (Italy); INFN, Universita di Salerno, I-84100 Salerno (Italy); Capozziello, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Ed.N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Ed.N, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-06-19

    We report on the recent result that the non-perturbative vacuum structure associated with neutrino mixing leads to a non-zero contribution to the value of the dark energy.

  18. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  19. Water in protoplanetary disks: Deuteration and turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-12-10

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in a vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and is destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r ? 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water ice from ?2 × 10{sup –2}, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10{sup –4}-10{sup –2} in 10{sup 6} yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the strength of mixing and the radial distance from the central star. Our finding suggests that the D/H ratio of cometary water (?10{sup –4}) could be established (i.e., cometary water could be formed) in the solar nebula, even if the D/H ratio of water ice delivered to the disk was very high (?10{sup –2}).

  20. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  1. Averaged equilibrium and stability in low-aspect-ratio stellarators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.

    1989-01-01

    The MHD equilibrium and stability calculations or stellarators are complex because of the intrinsic three-dimensional (3-D) character of these configurations. The stellarators expansion simplifies the equilibrium calculation by reducing it to a two-dimensional (2-D) problem. The classical stellarator expansion includes terms up to order epsilon/sup 2/, and the vacuum magnetic field is also included up to this order. For large-aspect-ratio configurations, the results of the stellarator expansion agree well with 3-D numerical equilibrium results. But for low-aspect-ratio configurations, these are significant discrepancies with 3-D equilibrium calculations. The main reason for these discrepancies is the approximation in the vacuum field contributions. This problem can be avoided by applying the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system. In this way, the exact vacuum magnetic field contribution is included and the results agree well with 3-D equilibrium calculations even for low-aspect-ratio configurations. Using the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system also permit the accurate calculation of local stability properties with the Mercier criterion. The main improvement is in the accurate calculation of the geodesic curvature term. In this paper, we discuss the application of the average method in flux coordinates to the calculation of the Mercier criterion for low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

  3. Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 April 2013 Review of Radiation Protection...

  4. Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jubin, Robert T. (Powell, TN); Randolph, John D. (Maryville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

  5. The effect of mix on capsule yields as a function of shell thickness and gas fill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P. A.

    2014-06-15

    An investigation of direct drive capsules with different shell thicknesses and gas fills was conducted to examine the amount of shock induced (Richtmyer-Meshkov) mix versus Rayleigh-Taylor mix from deceleration of the implosion. The RAGE (Eulerian) code with a turbulent mix model was used to model these capsules for neutron yields along with time-dependent mix amounts. The amount of Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mix from the shock breaking out of the shell is about 0.1??g (0.15??m of shell material), while the Rayleigh-Taylor mix is of order 1??g and determines the mixed simulation yield. The simulations were able to calculate a yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) between 0.5 and 1.0 for capsules with shell thicknesses ranging from 7.5 to 20??m and with gas fills between 3.8 and 20?atm of D{sub 2} or DT. The simulated burn averaged T{sub ion} values typically lie with 0.5?keV of the data, which is within the measurement error. For capsules with shell thicknesses >25??m, the YOM values drop to 0.10?±?0.05, suggesting that some unmodeled effect needs to be accounted for in the thickest capsules.

  6. Matrix Elements for $D$- and $B$-Mixing from 2+1 Flavor Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. C. Chang; C. Bernard; C. M. Bouchard; A. X. El-Khadra; E. D. Freeland; E. Gámiz; A. S. Kronfeld; J. Laiho; R. S. van de Water

    2013-11-26

    We present the status of our calculation of hadronic matrix elements for $D$- and $B$-meson mixing. We use a large set of the MILC collaboration's $N_f=2+1$ asqtad ensembles, which includes lattice spacings in the range $a\\approx0.12$-0.045 fm, and up/down to strange quark mass ratios as low as 0.05. The asqtad action is also employed for the light valence quarks. For the heavy quarks we use the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert action with the Fermilab interpretation. Our calculation covers the complete set of five local operators needed to describe $B$-meson mixing in the Standard Model and Beyond. In the charm sector, our calculation of local mixing matrix elements may be used to constrain new physics models. We present final correlator fit results on the full data set for the $B$-meson mixing project and preliminary fit results for the $D$-meson mixing project.

  7. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiv Dharan; Oded Farago

    2012-01-22

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  8. Frequency mixing crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Laura E. (Manteca, CA); Webb, Mark (Salida, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

  9. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J. R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences - the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environmental packages' apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

  10. Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Hyun K [STONY BROOK UNIV.; Iwerks, Justin G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gliman, James G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.

  11. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  12. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  13. Bs Mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-04-01

    The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of B{sub s} mesons. B{sub s} Mixing is the most important analysis within the B Physics program of both experiments. In this paper they summarize the most recent results on this topic from both D0 and CDF experiments. There were very important updates in both experiments after his last talk, hence the organizers warmly recommended me to include the latest available results on B{sub s} mixing, instead of what he presents there.

  14. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  15. Improved Measurement of the ??e? Branching Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; et al

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/?=?(?+ ? e+? + ?+ ? e+??)/?(?+ ? ?+? + ?+??+??) resulted in Rexpe/?=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  16. Catch to Bycatch Ratios: Comparing Hawaii's Longline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Catch to Bycatch Ratios: Comparing Hawaii's Longline Fisheries with Others Paul K. Bartram and J. John Kaneko PacMar, Inc. 3615 Harding Avenue, Suite 409 Honolulu, Hawaii SOEST 04-05 JIMAR Contribution finfish bycatch per unit effort estimates (BPUE) for Hawaii pelagic longline fisheries without assistance

  17. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  18. Fast learning from -mixing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinwart, Ingo

    rates for some learning methods such as empirical risk minimization (ERM), least squares support vector and quantile regression. It turns out that for i.i.d. processes our learning rates for ERM and SVMs for empirical risk minimization (ERM) when the sampling sequence satisfies an -mixing condition. More recently

  19. Manufacturer's Mixed Pallet Design Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fore, the company decided to design a number of mixed or “rainbow” pallets so that its. customers can ... the number of cases of each brand in the pallet depending on her consumption and future. needs. ..... over the planning period, i.e, ?t?T.

  20. Neutrino Mixing from CP Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Chen; Chang-Yuan Yao; Gui-Jun Ding

    2015-07-13

    The neutrino mass matrix has remnant CP symmetry expressed in terms of the lepton mixing matrix, and vice versa the remnant CP transformations allow us to reconstruct the mixing matrix. We study the scenario that all the four remnant CP transformations are preserved by the neutrino mass matrix. The most general parameterization of remnant CP transformations is presented. The lepton mixing matrix is completely fixed by the remnant CP, and its explicit form is derived. The necessary and sufficient condition for conserved Dirac CP violating phase is found. If the Klein four flavor symmetry generated by the postulated remnant CP transformations arises from a finite flavor symmetry group, the phenomenologically viable lepton flavor mixing would be the trimaximal pattern, both Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ and Majorana phase $\\alpha_{31}$ are either $0$ or $\\pi$ while another Majorana phase $\\alpha_{21}$ is a rational multiple of $\\pi$. These general results are confirmed to be true in the case that the finite flavor symmetry group is $\\Delta(6n^2)$.

  1. Tuning Mixing within a Droplet for Digital Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Chabreyrie; D. Vainchtein; C. Chandre; P. Singh; N. Aubry

    2008-09-02

    The design of strategies to generate efficient mixing is crucial for a variety of applications, particularly digital microfluidic devices that use small "discrete" fluid volumes (droplets) as fluid carriers and microreactors. In recent work, we have presented an approach for the generation and control of mixing inside a translating spherical droplet. This was accomplished by considering Stokes' flow within a droplet proceeding downstream to which we have superimposed time dependent (sinusoidal) rotation. The mixing obtained is the result of the stretching and folding of material lines which increase exponentially the surface contact between reagents. The mixing strategy relies on the generation of resonances between the steady and the unsteady part of the flow, which is achieved by tuning the parameters of the periodic rotation. Such resonances, in our system, offer the possibility of controlling both the location and the size of the mixing region within the droplet, which may be useful to manufacture inhomogeneous particles (such as Janus particles). While the period and amplitude of the periodic rotation play a major role, it is shown here by using a triangular function that the particular shape of the rotation (as a function of time) has a minor influence. This finding demonstrates the robustness of the proposed mixing strategy, a crucial point for its experimental realization.

  2. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  3. Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in nuclear multifragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subrata Pal

    2010-05-03

    Nuclear multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions has long been associated with liquid-gas phase transition. We calculate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s for an equilibrated system of nucleons and fragments produced in multifragmentation within an extended statistical multifragmentation model. The temperature dependence of eta/s exhibits surprisingly similar behavior as that for water. In the coexistence phase of fragments and light particles, the ratio eta/s reaches a minimum of comparable depth as that for water in the vicinity of the critical temperature for liquid-gas phase transition. The effects of freeze-out volume and surface symmetry energy on eta/s in multifragmentation are studied.

  4. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  5. Mixing paints for generating metamerism art under 2 lights and 3 object colors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Mixing paints for generating metamerism art under 2 lights and 3 object colors Daisuke Miyazaki paints computed by the proposed method, (b) those illuminated by blue light, (c) those illuminated of the research relates to automatic calculation of blending ratios of oil paints that cause metamerism to occur

  6. Synthesis and Electric Field-Manipulation of High Aspect Ratio Barium Titanate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Junjia

    2012-07-16

    The objective of this thesis is to develop high dielectric constant nanoparticle dispersion for switchable aircraft antenna systems. Two steps were designed to achieve the objective. First, obtain high dielectric, high aspect ratio nanoparticles...

  7. An automotive engine model for air-fuel ratio control using cylinder pressure information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nana, Emmanuel Tomdio

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly strict emission standards require very accurate and fast air-fuel ratio (AFR) control in combustion engines. This thesis addresses the design methodology currently used for synthesizing a control system for an automotive internal...

  8. Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

  9. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  10. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  11. Automatic control of air to fuel ratio in a fluidized bed gasifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Peter P.

    1984-01-01

    Co. , 1982). In the past decade digital computers have been produced which can improve the performance of electromechanical system for complex processes. Control in Gasifier Operation In a coal gasification system, although no automatic A/F ratio... in the gasifier/combustor furnace were computed. However, no A/F ratio control was attempted in their study. ln Exxon's batch fluidized bed combustion unit (Yaverbaum, 1977), pulverized coal was pneumatically injected into the unit. The fuel rate...

  12. Secondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culled cohorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    9. Lazarus, J. (2002) in Sex Ratios: Concepts and ResearchSecondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culledreduce the human secondary sex ratio (i.e. , the odds of a

  13. Net energy ratio of photobiohydrogen generation G. Burgessa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter reactors have a low NER as the mixing energy

  14. Urea Mixing Design-- Simulation and Test Investigation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Effective urea mixing design should be based on the placement and nature of the selected injector, and new approaches for mixing may be found from the biotech and chemical engineering industries.

  15. Nebular mixing constrained by the Stardust samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OGLIORE, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    cold, nominal, and warm solar nebula one million years afterbeen proposed. One mechanism is solar nebula mixing from

  16. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  17. Higgs-portal assisted Higgs inflation with a large tensor-to-scalar ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ko; Wan-Il Park

    2014-11-19

    We show that the Higgs portal interactions involving extra dark Higgs field $\\phi$ can save generically the original Higgs inflation of the standard model (SM) in light of the constrained low energy parameters and a large tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r$) hinted by the recent result of BICEP2. Specifically, we show that such interactions disconnect the top quark pole mass from inflationary observables, and allow multi-dimensional parameter space to save the Higgs inflation, thanks to the additional parameters (the dark Higgs boson mass $m_\\phi$, the mixing angle $\\alpha$ between $H$ and $\\phi$, and the mixed quartic coupling) affecting RG-running of the Higgs quartic coupling. One can easily accommodate $r \\sim O(0.1)$ in wide ranges of $\\alpha$ and $m_\\phi$, some region of which can be probed at future colliders.

  18. Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan

    2014-07-15

    Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ?{sub pe}t{sub mix}?[(6/?{sup 2})((2??){sup 5/2}/(1??))]{sup 1/3}, where “?” and “?” (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ?{sub pe}??(4?n{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.

  19. Community D Mixed/Pine Hardwood D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the following comments responseScience SHERWOODAMF/GNDRAD _D Mixed/Pine

  20. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  1. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  2. Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kuo-Chun

    2010-01-14

    is generated by using grids upstream of the test section, the grid functions as a blockage to the flow. Jet grids are also used to generate free stream turbulence. Air is forced through an array of pipes into mainstream. At the exit of combustor, the turbulence... blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0.5, 1.6, 2.0 and 3.0. Experiment is operated under three mainstream flow conditions, one is with subsonic exit velocity as Mach number = 0.7 and the others are with supersonic exit velocities as Mach number...

  3. Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic that predicts the scaling of chaotic mixing in a droplet moving through a winding microfluidic channel microfluidic channels.1 In microfluidic systems2,3 operating at low values of the Reynolds number Re, streams

  4. Tidal and Wind Mixing versus Thermal Stratification in the South Atlantic Bight.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    ) these fluctuations are controlled by the cycles of tidally forced mixing, heat flux, wind and river discharge. During overcome the tendency for tidal power to produce a well-mixed system". Additionally, they expressed some: heat flux, evaporation-precipitation, fresh water input, wind stress work, bottom tidal work

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK Energy Research Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfillan, Stuart

    Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK information and leadership, on sustainable energy systems. UKERC undertakes world-class research addressing: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 3 UK Energy Research Centre Morning Session 1 ) I

  6. THE IMPACT OF GENERATION MIX ON PLACEMENT OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE IMPACT OF GENERATION MIX ON PLACEMENT OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS Robert H. Lasseter, Fellow to provide maximum transfer capability for all possible generation mixes. The margin to low voltage limit. The IEEE 24 bus system will be used to demonstrate this method over a wide range of generation patterns

  7. THE IMPACT OF GENERATION MIX ON PLACEMENT OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE IMPACT OF GENERATION MIX ON PLACEMENT OF STATIC VAR COMPENSATORS Robert H. Lasseter, Fellow to provide the maximum transfer capability for all possible generation mixes. The margin to low voltage limit bus system will be used to demonstrate this method over a wide range of generation patterns. Keywords

  8. Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate Ludovic Cassan1 Abstract: The article describes the hydraulic functioning of a mixed water level control hydro- mechanical of the model to reproduce the functioning of this complex hydro-mechanical system. CE database Subject headings

  9. Impact of flow regime on slurry bubble column mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, M.; Hsu, E.C.; Coulaloglou, C.A. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In slurry bubble column reactors, gas and slurry backmixing play an important role in the performance of the reactor. The majority of backmixing correlations in the literature were based on data obtained in small scale units operating at ambient conditions with air/water and in the churn turbulent flow regime. These data show that slurry dispersion coefficients increase at least linearly with vessel diameter. Mixing data obtained at process conditions and in large mockup units with non-aqueous systems operating in the small bubble flow regime showed that slurry mixing is lower than predicted by literature correlations. Furthermore, the effect of vessel diameter on slurry mixing is significantly smaller than literature predictions based on the churn turbulent regime. These results are in line with recently reported literature data obtained in bubbly flow regime. This paper will review available data pertinent to this subject.

  10. The mixed economy in China: through rhetorical perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yuchun

    2004-11-15

    out certain kinds of mixed economies. Before the Industrial Revolution, Adam Smith (1723-1790) published his great work the Wealth of Nations, in which he systematically explained the relation between economics and politics. He stressed... the invisible hand as the core of the market system. The self-interest stimulates people to seek the best choice. The aggregate behavior would economically maximize uses of resources. Smith believed that the market system was an effective one in promoting...

  11. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard J. Stancliffe; Evert Glebbeek; Robert G. Izzard; Onno R. Pols

    2007-02-06

    One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until first dredge-up. However, thermohaline mixing should mix the accreted material with the original stellar material as it has a higher mean molecular weight. We investigate the effect that this has on the surface abundances by modelling a binary system of metallicity Z=0.0001 with a 2 solar mass primary star and a 0.74 solar mass secondary star in an initial orbit of 4000 days. The accretion of material from the wind of the primary leads to the formation of a carbon-rich secondary. We find that the accreted material mixes fairly rapidly throughout 90% of the star, with important consequences for the surface composition. Models with thermohaline mixing predict very different surface abundances after first dredge-up compared to canonical models of stellar evolution.

  12. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Arthur L. (Kenyon, MN); Krawza, Kenneth I. (Lakeville, MN)

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  13. Lepton Flavor Mixing and CP Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Chen; Cai-Chang Li; Gui-Jun Ding

    2014-12-29

    The strategy of constraining the lepton flavor mixing from remnant CP symmetry is investigated in a rather general way. The neutrino mass matrix generally admits four remnant CP transformations which can be derived from the measured lepton mixing matrix in the charged lepton diagonal basis. Conversely, the lepton mixing matrix can be reconstructed from the postulated remnant CP transformations. All mixing angles and CP violating phases can be completely determined by the full set of remnant CP transformations or three of them. When one or two remnant CP transformations are preserved, the resulting lepton mixing matrix would depend on three real parameters or one real parameter respectively in addition to the parameters characterizing the remnant CP, and the concrete form of the mixing matrix is presented. The phenomenological predictions for the mixing parameters are discussed. The conditions leading to vanishing or maximal Dirac CP violation are studied.

  14. Beat Cepheid Period Ratios from OPAL Opacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Morgan; D. L. Welch

    1997-06-26

    The discovery of a large number of beat Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud in the MACHO survey, provides an opportunity to compare the characteristics of such Cepheids over a range of metallicities. We produced a large grid of linear nonadiabatic pulsation models using the OPAL opacity tables and with compositions corresponding to those of the Milky Way, and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Using the relationship between the period ratio and the main pulsation period, we are able to define a range of models which correspond to the observed beat Cepheids, and thereby constrain the physical characteristics of the LMC beat Cepheids. We are also able to make some predictions about the nature of the yet-to-be-discovered SMC beat Cepheids.

  15. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM); (Texas)

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  16. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  17. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-06-23

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications.

  18. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  20. Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta-analysis of Four Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    on climate through perturbations to Earth's solar radiation balance. Around 90% of total global primary the potential for radiative forcing. Sources in tropical regions account for 80% of global BBOA emissions,2 providing a significant potential radiative forcing given the elevated levels of solar irradiance

  1. The double mass hierarchy pattern: simultaneously understanding quark and lepton mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Gregor Hollik; Ulises Jesus Saldana Salazar

    2015-01-21

    The charged fermion masses of the three generations exhibit the two strong hierarchies m_3 >> m_2 >> m_1. We assume that also neutrino masses satisfy m_{nu 3} > m_{nu 2} > m_{nu 1} and derive the consequences of the hierarchical spectra on the fermionic mixing patterns. The quark and lepton mixing matrices are built in a general framework with their matrix elements expressed in terms of the four fermion mass ratios m_u/m_c, m_c/m_t, m_d/m_s, and m_s/m_b and m_e/m_mu, m_mu/m_tau, m_{nu 1}/m_{nu 2}, and m_{nu 2}/m_{nu 3}, for the quark and lepton sector, respectively. In this framework, we show that the resulting mixing matrices are consistent with data for both quarks and leptons, despite the large leptonic mixing angles. The minimal assumption we take is the one of hierarchical masses and minimal flavour symmetry breaking that strongly follows from phenomenology. No special structure of the mass matrices has to be assumed that cannot be motivated by this minimal assumption. This analysis allows us to predict the neutrino mass spectrum and set the mass of the lightest neutrino well below 0.01 eV. The method also gives the 1 sigma allowed ranges for the leptonic mixing matrix elements. Contrary to the common expectation, leptonic mixing angles are found to be determined solely by the four leptonic mass ratios without any relation to symmetry considerations as commonly used in flavor model building. Still, our formulae can be used to build up a flavor model that predicts the observed hierarchies in the masses---the mixing follows then from the procedure which is developed in this work.

  2. HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ETCHING OF BULK TITANIUM FOR MEMS APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ETCHING OF BULK TITANIUM FOR MEMS APPLICATIONS E. R system for the bulk micromachining of MEMS devices. Titanium-based MEMS have the potential to be used for the microfabrication of titanium- based MEMS devices. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS

  3. Effect of mixing on polymerization of styrene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treybig, Michael Norris

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis by MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major... Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Approved as to style and content by: ~ C. W a rman of Comaittee e d of De artment em er em er August 1977 ABSTRACT Effect of Mixing...

  4. p/pi Ratio in Di-Hadron Correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misha Veldhoen; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2012-10-08

    Particle ratios are important observables used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. In this work we report on a measurement of the p/pi ratio in the transverse momentum range 2.0 p_{T,assoc} p_{T,trig} p/pi ratio in the bulk region is compatible with the p/pi ratio of an inclusive measurement, and is much larger than the p/pi ratio in the jet peak. The p/pi ratio in the jet peak is compatible with a PYTHIA reference, in which fragmentation in the vacuum is the dominant mechanism of particle production.

  5. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  6. Probing New Physics Through Bs Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricia Ball

    2007-03-20

    I discuss the interpretation of the recent experimental data on $B_s$ mixing in terms of model-independent new-physics parameters.

  7. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  8. Lanthanide doped strontium barium mixed halide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundiah, Gautam; Bizarri, Gregory; Hanrahan, Stephen M; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped strontium barium mixed halide useful for detecting nuclear material.

  9. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-09-25

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that, for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore »recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  10. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-04-21

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore »recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  11. Leptogenesis in an SU(5) x A5 Golden Ratio Flavour Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Gehrlein; Serguey T. Petcov; Martin Spinrath; Xinyi Zhang

    2015-05-16

    In this paper we discuss a minor modification of a previous SU(5) x A5 flavour model which exhibits at leading order golden ratio mixing and sum rules for the heavy and the light neutrino masses. Although this model could predict all mixing angles well it fails in generating a sufficient large baryon asymmetry via the leptogenesis mechanism. We repair this deficit here, discuss model building aspects and give analytical estimates for the generated baryon asymmetry before we perform a numerical parameter scan. Our setup has only a few parameters in the lepton sector. This leads to specific constraints and correlations between the neutrino observables. For instance, we find that in the model considered only the neutrino mass spectrum with normal mass ordering and values of the lightest neutrino mass in the interval 10-18 meV are compatible with the current data on the neutrino oscillation parameters. With the introduction of only one NLO operator, the model can accommodate successfully simultaneously even at 1$\\sigma$ level the current data on neutrino masses, on neutrino mixing and the observed value of the baryon asymmetry.

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  13. Liquid-phase mixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, K.J.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Ramachandran, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A physically realistic description of liquid mixing is necessary for the proper design and scale-up of bubble columns. Currently, liquid-phase mixing is almost exclusively described by the one-dimensional axial dispersion model which lacks a sound physical basis. A new phenomenological model of liquid-phase backmixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns has been proposed. This model divides the system into two regions. The first region is a gas-rich region that rises rapidly through the column transporting liquid to various points in the system. The second region is a relatively stagnant, gas-lean region that is vigorously agitated by the passage of the gas-rich region. Evaluation of most of the model parameters by physical reasoning reduces the proposed model to a one-parameter model.

  14. Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrill, Leslie Welser [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haynes, Donald A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mancini, Roberto C [UNR; Tommasini, Riccardo [LLNL; Golovkin, Igor E [PRISM COMP. SCIENCES; Haan, Steven W [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  15. Sex ratios in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reece, S E; Duncan, Alison B; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2003-01-01

    The sex ratios of malaria and related Apicomplexan parasites play a major role in transmission success. Here, we address 2 fundamental issues in the sex ratios of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. First we ...

  16. Ultra-short nacelles for low fan pressure ratio propulsors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the uncharted inlet and nacelle design space for low pressure ratio fans for advanced aeroengines. A key feature in low fan pressure ratio (FPR) propulsors with short inlets and nacelles is the increased ...

  17. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by introducing a novel method of nanoparticle metal oxide co-entrapped sol-gel that gave the highest metal loading with precise control and reproducibility, and greater mechanical strength of granules than the metal nitrate solution co-entrapping and wet impregnation methods. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used for syngas conversion reactions. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited micro-reactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. The catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion was observed in the increasing order for the nanocatalysts Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe in alumina sol-gel support, and Co/Fe showed the highest yield for methane. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina. We could estimate the activity of catalysts (involving Co, Fe) during hydrogenation and after catalytic reaction using magnetization studies. In summary our accomplishments are: (1) Novel chemical methods for the synthesis of (5 nm) Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. (2) Developing a method of metal oxide nanoparticles addition to alumina/silica sol-gel to control metal loading of pure and mixed metal catalysts compositions in high yields. (3) A low-cost GC-TCD system to analyze wide spectrum of alkanes (F-T reaction products). (4) Fe/Co mixed metal alumina/silica mesoporous catalysts with higher FT activity. (5) Characterizing nanoparticle catalysts and supports for detail understanding of FT-process.

  18. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  19. Measurement of the ratio of specific heats Brian D. Storey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storey, Brian D.

    Measurement of the ratio of specific heats Brian D. Storey Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering Needham, MA 02492 (Dated: September 25, 2005) I. INTRODUCTION The ratio of specific heats determines how to the differing pressures, "springs" designed with gases of different specific heat ratios have different natural

  20. GLOBAL STABILITY STUDY OF THE ULTRALOW ASPECT RATIO TOKAMAK,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS GLOBAL STABILITY STUDY OF THE ULTRALOW ASPECT RATIO TOKAMAK, ULART M. YAMADA, N. POMPHREY of the TS-3device at Tokyo Univesity, ultralow aspect ratio tokamak (ULART) configurations have been of the tiltishift modes agree well with the TS-3 data. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, low aspect ratio tokamak

  1. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Griffith, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  2. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.; Griffith, R.A.

    2000-05-09

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  3. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Advanced Mixed-Oxide Fuel Assemblies with VIPRE-01 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bingham, Adam R.

    2010-07-14

    heat flux CHFR critical heat flux ratio CLOFA complete loss-of-flow accident CONFU Combined NonFertile and Uranium CR control rod DBA design basis accident DNB departure from nucleate boiling DNBR departure from nucleate boiling ratio DOE Department... height Greek symbols: ? turbulent mixing coefficient Subscripts: As assembly cr control rod fr fuel rod i ?to? cell i it instrument tube k ?from? adjacent cell k k ? i all lateral flow areas, k, connected to cell, i sq square channel tr triangular channel...

  4. B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    15 B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation Just as for K0 and K 0-strange B0 d = bd and the strange B0 s = bs. The mixing does not require CP violation, but depends only

  5. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  6. EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 1 EFFECTS OF OIL MIXED WITH CARBONIZED CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

  7. Neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balantekin, A. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

  8. Mix-Automatic Sequences Jorg Endrullis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendriks, Dimitri

    Mix-Automatic Sequences J¨org Endrullis1 , Clemens Grabmayer2 , and Dimitri Hendriks1 1 VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Utrecht University, The Netherlands Abstract. Mix-automatic sequences form a proper extension of the class of automatic sequences, and arise from a generalization of finite

  9. Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Four-wave mixing microscopy of nanostructures Yong Wang, Chia-Yu Lin, Alexei Nikolaenko, Varun July 14, 2010; accepted July 27, 2010; published September 10, 2010 (Doc. ID 128079) The basics of four-wave. Four-Wave Mixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2

  10. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Transition Rates between Mixed Symmetry States: First Measurement in 94Mo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Pietralla; C. Fransen; D. Belic; P. von Brentano; C. Friessner; U. Kneissl; A. Linnemann; A. Nord; H. H. Pitz; T. Otsuka; I. Schneider; V. Werner; I. Wiedenhover

    1999-07-21

    The nucleus 94Mo was investigated using a powerful combination of gamma-singles photon scattering experiments and gamma-gamma-coincidence studies following the beta-decay of 94mTc. The data survey short-lived J^pi=1+,2+ states and include branching ratios, E2/M1 mixing ratios, lifetimes, and transition strengths. The mixed-symmetry (MS) 1+ scissors mode and the 2+ MS state are identified from M1 strengths. A gamma transition between MS states was observed and its rate was measured. Nine M1 and E2 strengths involving MS states agree with the O(6) limit of the interacting boson model-2 using the proton boson E2 charge as the only free parameter.

  12. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  13. Design considerations for the cross jet air mixing in the municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Choi, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the mass-burning municipal solid waste incinerators, overfire air injection plays a key role in the improvement of mixing and reaction between oxygen and incomplete combustion products and/or pollutants. However, design parameters of overfire air nozzles are not well understood and sometimes confusing. In this paper, major design parameters of the cross jet air nozzles are discussed along with flow simulation results for the simplified furnace geometry. The overall performance of the jet air mixing and the effects of design parameters are quantitatively evaluated. The flow simulation results are interpreted in terms of the penetration depth of the jet into the main flow, the size of the recirculation zone and the ratio of the unmixed portion of the gas flow. The momentum flux ratio(J) of the jet to the cross flow strongly affects the penetration depth of the jet and the mixing of two flow streams. As the inter-nozzle distance (S in non-dimensional form) decreases, the penetration depth decreases but the size of recirculation zone increases and the resultant mixing deteriorates. The degree of mixing of the jet with the cross gas stream is evaluated in terms of the mass-averaged probability distribution of the relative concentration. Fresh air disperses more efficiently into the gas stream as J and S increase. The momentum flux ratio and the inter-nozzle distance are considered as important design parameters, and optimum values of these variables can be chosen for the given furnace conditions. This numerical evaluation also provides the basis of the similarity consideration for the cold flow model tests and the validity of the 2-dimensional idealization.

  14. An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Paul Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    in the precipitation of Fe-sulfides (pyri te and pyrrhoti te) in both 5/1 and 50/1 water/rock ratio systems. As a result of this precipitation, Fe was effectively fractionated from Mn and the Fe/Mn ratio of the fluid decreased. Because the 50/1 systems had lower pH.... EPR). This investi- gation also provides data potentially useful in predicting the occur- rence and kind of mineralization at ocean spreading centers as a function of the temperature and water/rock ratio regime of that system. 11 METHODS Ex...

  15. The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2010-04-01

    Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

  16. Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

    2014-09-23

    An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

  17. In Proc. 1994 IEEE Workshop on VLSI Signal Processing Performance Analysis of Mixed Asynchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    in the domain of selftimed architectures and synchronous ar- chitectures. Primarily,our concern is to generate Synchronous Systems J. Teich, S. Sriram L. Thiele, M. Martin Department of EECS Institute on Microelectronics with the timing analysis of a class digital systems we call mixed asynchronous synchronous systems. In sucha

  18. Neutral Higgs Bosons in the Higgs Triplet Model with nontrivial mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemeh Arbabifar; Sahar Bahrami; Mariana Frank

    2012-11-29

    We revisit the neutral Higgs sector of the Higgs Triplet Model, with non-negligible mixing in the CP-even Higgs sector. We examine the possibility that one of the Higgs boson state is the particle observed at the LHC at 125 GeV, and the other is either the small LEP excess at 98 GeV; or the CMS excess at 136 GeV; or that the neutral Higgs bosons are (almost) degenerate and have both mass 125 GeV. We show that, under general considerations, an (unmixed) neutral Higgs boson cannot have an enhanced decay branching ratio into gamma gamma with respect to the Standard Model one. An enhancement is however possible for the mixed case, but only for the heavier of the two neutral Higgs bosons, and not for mass-degenerate Higgs bosons. At the same time the branching ratios into WW^*,ZZ^*, bb and tau tau are similar to the Standard Model, or reduced. We correlate the branching ratios of both Higgs states into Z gamma to those into gamma gamma for the three scenarios. The mixed neutral sector of the Higgs triplet model exhibits some features which could distinguish it from other scenarios at the LHC.

  19. Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonato, Anthony

    Fast-Mixed Searching and Related Problems on Graphs Boting Yang Department of Computer Science University of Regina May 27, 2012 1GRASCan 2012, Ryerson University #12;Outline Fast searching and mixed searching Induced-path cover Fast-mixed searching vs fast searching Fast-mixed searching vs mixed

  20. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  1. Spatial Heterogeneity and Imperfect Mixing in Chemical Reactions: Visualization of Density-Driven Pattern Formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sobel, Sabrina G.; Hastings, Harold M.; Testa, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Imperfect mixing is a concern in industrial processes, everyday processes (mixing paint, bread machines), and in understanding salt water-fresh water mixing in ecosystems. The effects of imperfect mixing become evident in the unstirred ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, the prototype for chemical pattern formation. Over time, waves of oxidation (high ferriin concentration, blue) propagate into a background of low ferriin concentration (red); their structure reflects in part the history of mixing in the reaction vessel. However, it may be difficult to separate mixing effects from reaction effects. We describe a simpler model system for visualizing density-driven pattern formation in an essentiallymore »unmixed chemical system: the reaction of pale yellow Fe 3 + with colorless SCN ? to form the blood-red Fe ( SCN ) 2 + complex ion in aqueous solution. Careful addition of one drop of Fe ( NO 3 ) 3 to KSCN yields striped patterns after several minutes. The patterns appear reminiscent of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and convection rolls, arguing that pattern formation is caused by density-driven mixing. « less

  2. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  3. Chiral Heat Wave and wave mixing in chiral media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chernodub, M N

    2015-01-01

    We show that a hot rotating fluid of relativistic chiral fermions possesses a new gapless collective excitation associated with coherent propagation of energy density and chiral density waves along the axis of rotation. This excitation, which we call the Chiral Heat Wave, emerges due to a mixed gauge-gravitational anomaly. At finite density the Chiral Heat Wave couples to the Chiral Vortical Wave while in the presence of an external magnetic field it mixes with the Chiral Magnetic Wave. We find that the coupled waves - which are coherent fluctuations of the vector, axial and energy currents - have generally different velocities compared to the velocities of the individual waves. We also demonstrate that rotating chiral systems subjected to external magnetic field possess non-propagating metastable thermal excitations, the Dense Hot Spots.

  4. Lagrangian tools to monitor transport and mixing in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Prants; M. V. Budyansky; M. Yu. Uleysky

    2012-05-20

    We apply the Lagrangian approach to study surface transport and mixing in the ocean. New tools have been developed to track the motion of water masses, their origin and fate and to quantify transport and mixing. To illustrate the methods used we compute the Lagrangian synoptic maps a comparatively small marine bay, the Peter the Great Bay in the Japan Sea near Vladivostok city (Russia), and in a comparatively large region in the North Pacific, the Kuroshio Extension system. In the first case we use velocity data from a Japan Sea circulation numerical model and in the second one the velocity data are derived from satellite altimeter measurements of anomalies of the sea height distributed by AVISO.

  5. Chaotic Lagrangian transport and mixing in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Prants

    2015-02-05

    Dynamical systems theory approach has been successfully used in physical oceanography for the last two decades to study mixing and transport of water masses in the ocean. The basic theoretical ideas have been borrowed from the phenomenon of chaotic advection in fluids, an analogue of dynamical Hamiltonian chaos in mechanics. The starting point for analysis is a velocity field obtained by this or that way. Being motivated by successful applications of that approach to simplified analytic models of geophysical fluid flows, researchers now work with satellite-derived velocity fields and outputs of sophisticated numerical models of ocean circulation. This review article gives an introduction to some of the basic concepts and methods used to study chaotic mixing and transport in the ocean and a brief overview of recent results with some practical applications of Lagrangian tools to monitor spreading of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean.

  6. Chaotic Lagrangian transport and mixing in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prants, S V

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical systems theory approach has been successfully used in physical oceanography for the last two decades to study mixing and transport of water masses in the ocean. The basic theoretical ideas have been borrowed from the phenomenon of chaotic advection in fluids, an analogue of dynamical Hamiltonian chaos in mechanics. The starting point for analysis is a velocity field obtained by this or that way. Being motivated by successful applications of that approach to simplified analytic models of geophysical fluid flows, researchers now work with satellite-derived velocity fields and outputs of sophisticated numerical models of ocean circulation. This review article gives an introduction to some of the basic concepts and methods used to study chaotic mixing and transport in the ocean and a brief overview of recent results with some practical applications of Lagrangian tools to monitor spreading of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean.

  7. Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2014-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058

  8. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area`s approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area`s approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area`s systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities.

  9. Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois-60439 (United States)

    2007-04-06

    One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, R<2 for this configuration. A number of techniques have been proposed to overcome the transformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1 ratio 2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

  10. A TWO PRESSURE NUMERICAL MODEL OF TWO FLUID MIXING JAMES GLIMM, HYEONSEONG JIN, MARC LAFOREST, FOLKERT TANGERMAN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yongmin

    . The model is designed for the study of acceleration driven mixing layers in a chunk mix regime dominated, as in meteorological temperature inversion driven updrafts and the geological evolution of salt dome formations approxi- mately as a function of the averaged flow quantities directly, to close the system of equations

  11. Water in Protoplanetary Disks: Deuteration and Turbulent Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furuya, Kenji; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r < 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the D/H ratio of water ice from 2x10^-2, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10^-4-10^-2 in 10^6 yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the ...

  12. Mix Design and Analysis Track Ezgi Yurdakul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tests simply need to prove that the mix in the truck is the same · Critical parameters Binder type the same building blocks #12;Portable Analysis Device · XRF - X-Ray Fluorescence Does not detect light

  13. Unit Operation Efficiency Improvement Through Motionless Mixing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient mixing of materials is a basic requirement at some stage of most processes. Examples of unit operations include mixers, blenders, heat exchangers and reactors that often use dynamic mixers. Motionless mixers on the other hand contain...

  14. Design of an automated cocktail mixing experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Alejandro, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the design concept development of an automated cocktail mixing device and user interface that is capable of dispensing a variety of alcoholic and non-alcoholic ingredients to produce a myriad of drink ...

  15. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  16. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  17. Low-Frequency Sonic Mixing Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Typical mixing technology uses a drive mechanism—usually an electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic motor—to rotate a shaft with one or more impellers. While many other mixer designs are available,...

  18. Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    of parasite gametes within the vector. A higher proportion of male gametocytes is favoured under conditions system later in the infection. Recent experimental studies reveal genetic variation for gametocyte sex ratio, suggesting genetic variation for some life-history trait, possibly male fecundity. Key words: sex

  19. Enhanced interleaved partitioning PTS for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -PTS is proposed that can be used to produce fully independent candidates so that IP-PTS can achieve similar perforEnhanced interleaved partitioning PTS for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis The independence of the candidates generated in the existing

  20. Specific heat amplitude ratios for anisotropic Lifshitz critical behaviors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelo M. Leite

    2003-04-03

    We determine the specific heat amplitude ratio near a $m$-axial Lifshitz point and show its universal character. Using a recent renormalization group picture along with new field-theoretical $\\epsilon_{L}$-expansion techniques, we established this amplitude ratio at one-loop order. We estimate the numerical value of this amplitude ratio for $m=1$ and $d=3$. The result is in very good agreement with its experimental measurement on the magnetic material $MnP$. It is shown that in the limit $m \\to 0$ it trivially reduces to the Ising-like amplitude ratio.

  1. Dual equilibrium in a finite aspect ratio tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourdain, P A

    2008-01-01

    achievable in conventional tokamaks. Previous research hasin a ?nite aspect ratio tokamak P. -A. Gourdain a , b ,? ,fusion reactor is the tokamak concept, a closed magnetic

  2. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the...

  3. Neutrino Flavor Ratios Modified by Cosmic Ray Re-acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawanaka, Norita

    2015-01-01

    Re-acceleration of $\\pi$'s and $\\mu$'s modifies the flavor ratio at Earth (at astrophysical sources) of neutrinos produced by $\\pi$ decay, $\

  4. The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ratio on Energy Efficiency Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation...

  5. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  6. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi Zhang; Yuan Feng; Ming Sheng Ying

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we consider the problem of unambiguous discrimination between a set of mixed quantum states. We first divide the density matrix of each mixed state into two parts by the fact that it comes from ensemble of pure quantum states. The first part will not contribute anything to the discrimination, the second part has support space linearly independent to each other. Then the problem we consider can be reduced to a problem in which the strategy of set discrimination can be used in designing measurements to discriminate mixed states unambiguously. We find a necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination, and also point out that searching the optimal success probability of unambiguous discrimination is mathematically the well-known semi-definite programming problem. A upper bound of the optimal success probability is also presented. Finally, We generalize the concept of set discrimination to mixed state and point out that the problem of discriminating it unambiguously is equivalent to that of unambiguously discriminating mixed states.

  7. Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

  8. Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...

  9. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Results are presented...

  10. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June...

  11. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  12. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

  13. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed...

  14. Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts and electrodes Non carbon mixed conducting materials for PEFC electrocatalysts and electrodes These slides were...

  15. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture...

  16. Interfacial gravity currents. I. Mixing and entrainment B. R. Sutherland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Interfacial gravity currents. I. Mixing and entrainment B. R. Sutherland Department of Mathematical energy are compared with theories that neglect mixing and entrainment processes. As the middle layer

  17. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  18. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Maximally coherent mixed states: Complementarity between maximal coherence and mixedness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uttam Singh; Manabendra Nath Bera; Himadri Shekhar Dhar; Arun Kumar Pati

    2015-05-28

    Quantum coherence is a key element in topical research on quantum resource theories and a primary facilitator for design and implementation of quantum technologies. However, the resourcefulness of quantum coherence is severely restricted by environmental noise, which is indicated by the loss of information in a quantum system, measured in terms of its purity. In this work, we derive the limits imposed by the mixedness of a quantum system on the amount of quantum coherence that it can possess. We obtain an analytical trade-off between the two quantities that upperbound the maximum quantum coherence for fixed mixedness in a system. This gives rise to a class of quantum states, "maximally coherent mixed states," whose coherence cannot be increased further under any purity-preserving operation. For the above class of states, quantum coherence and mixedness satisfy a complementarity relation, which is crucial to understand the interplay between a resource and noise in open quantum systems.

  20. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  1. Liquid–liquid mixing studies in annular centrifugal contactors comparing stationary mixing vane options

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-09-11

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of an annular centrifugal contactor show the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported for operation of a 12.5 cm engineering-scale contactor unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixing-zone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugalmore »contactors.« less

  2. Parametrization of lepton mixing matrix in terms of deviations from bi-maximal and tri-bimaximl mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandan Duarah; K. Sashikanta Singh; N. Nimai Singh

    2015-03-26

    We parametrize lepton mixing matrix, known as PMNS matrix, in terms of three parameters which account deviations of three mixing angles from their bi-maximal or tri-bimaximal values. On the basis of this parametrization we can determine corresponding charged lepton mixing matrix in terms of those three parameters which can deviate bi-maximal or tri-bimaximal mixing. We find that the charged lepton mixing matrices which can deviate bi-maximal mixing matrix and tri-bimaximal mixing matrix exhibit similar structures. Numerical analysis shows that these charged lepton mixing matrices are close to CKM matrix of quark sector.

  3. SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2009-11-13

    Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

  4. Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    ARTICLES Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites Sarah E. Reece1. These parasites must undergo sexual reproduction to transmit from vertebrate hosts to vectors, and their sex ratios are consistently female-biased. Sex allocation theory, a cornerstone of evolutionary biology

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D.; Gauglitz, P.

    2012-01-03

    In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non-Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work addresses the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. This work is follow-on to the previous tasks 'Demonstration of Mixer Jet Pump Rotational Sensitivity on Mixing and Transfers of the AY-102 Tank' and 'Demonstration of Simulated Waste Transfers from Tank AY-102 to the Hanford Waste Treatment Facility'. The cohesive simulants were investigated and selected jointly by SRNL and PNNL and a white paper was written on this evaluation. The testing and demonstrations of cohesive simulants was a joint effort performed as collaboration between SRNL and PNNL staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using the 1/22nd scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. Seed particles are particles of contracting color added to mixing tank for visual inspection and an indicator of how well the contents of the tank are mixing. Also the seed particles serve as a measuring stick for how well the contents of the tank are transferred from the mixing tank during batch transfers. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative.

  6. For 2D lattice spin systems Weak Mixing Implies Strong Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arbitrarily large. We will refer to this phenomenon as a ``boundary phase transition''. It is clear that if a ``boundary phase transition'' takes place, the and rapid convergence to equilibrium of the associated Glauber dynamics on nice subsets of Z 2 , including

  7. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  8. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  9. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities

  10. Positive Lyapunov exponents and localization bounds for strongly mixing potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Sadel; Hermann Schulz-Baldes

    2007-02-15

    For a one-dimensional discrete Schr\\"odinger operator with a weakly coupled potential given by a strongly mixing dynamical system with power law decay of correlations, we derive for all energies including the band edges and the band center a perturbative formula for the Lyapunov exponent. Under adequate hypothesis, this shows that the Lyapunov exponent is positive on the whole spectrum. This in turn implies that the Hausdorff dimension of the spectral measure is zero and that the associated quantum dynamics grows at most logarithmically in time.

  11. Acceleration of one dimensional mixing by discontinuous mappings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicol, Matthew

    of Mathematical Sciences, Laver Building, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK. Matthew Nicol #3; and Norman to investigate mechanisms of mixing of a passive tracer into a bulk material that is essentially one dimensional of geometries and mixing methods. 1.1 One-dimensional mixing models We consider mixing of a passive tracer

  12. Mixed MSW and Vacuum Solutions of Solar Neutrino Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu-Yu Liu

    1997-08-11

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar $\

  13. Mixed MSW and Vacuum Solutions of Solar Neutrino Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q Y

    1997-01-01

    Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar $\

  14. Structure and Mixing Characterization of Variable Density Transverse Jet Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevorkyan, Levon

    2015-01-01

    4 Transverse Jet Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jet TrajectoryTransverse Jet Structure and

  15. Intimate Encounters: the Mixed Reality Paradigm and Audience Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleland, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    environments. Personal Ubiquitous Computing 12, [8] Dourish,in mixed reality and ubiquitous computing environments has

  16. Implementation of lean processes at a high-mix low-volume aerospace manufacturing facility in France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurd, A.-P. (Annie-Pierre), 1974-

    2004-01-01

    The theories of the Toyota Production System have been operational touchstones now for over twenty years in North America and Western Europe. In spite of this many companies, particularly those in high-mix low-volume ...

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 61, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013 769 A General Framework for Mixed-Domain Echo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champagne, Benoît

    for Mixed-Domain Echo Cancellation in Discrete Multitone Systems Neda Ehtiati and Beno^it Champagne Abstract University St., Montr´eal, H3A 2A7 Canada (e-mail: neda.ehtiati@mail.mcgill.ca, benoit

  18. Improvements in Mixing Time and Mixing Uniformity in Devices Designed for Studies of Protein Folding Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Shuhuai [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bakajin, Olgica [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Using a microfluidic laminar flow mixer designed for studies of protein folding kinetics, we demonstrate a mixing time of 1 +/- 1 micros with sample consumption on the order of femtomoles. We recognize two limitations of previously proposed designs: (1) size and shape of the mixing region, which limits mixing uniformity and (2) the formation of Dean vortices at high flow rates, which limits the mixing time. We address these limitations by using a narrow shape-optimized nozzle and by reducing the bend of the side channel streamlines. The final design, which combines both of these features, achieves the best performance. We quantified the mixing performance of the different designs by numerical simulation of coupled Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations and experiments using fluorescence resonance energy-transfer (FRET)-labeled DNA.

  19. TrustMIX: Trustworthy MIX for Energy Saving in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Olivier; Seigneur, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    MIX has recently been proposed as a new sensor scheme with better energy management for data-gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks. However, it is not known how it performs when some of the sensors carry out sinkhole attacks. In this paper, we propose a variant of MIX with adjunct computational trust management to limit the impact of such sinkhole attacks. We evaluate how MIX resists sinkhole attacks with and without computational trust management. The main result of this paper is to find that MIX is very vulnerable to sinkhole attacks but that the adjunct trust management efficiently reduces the impact of such attacks while preserving the main feature of MIX: increased lifetime of the network.

  20. Branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in $D\\to PV$ decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hsiang-nan; Qin, Qin; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We study the two-body hadronic $D\\to PV$ decays, where $P$ ($V$) denotes a pseudoscalar (vector) meson, in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach proposed in our previous work. This approach is based on the factorization of short-distance and long-distance dynamics into Wilson coefficients and hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators, respectively, with the latter being parameterized in terms of several nonperturbative quantities. We further take into account the $\\rho$-$\\omega$ mixing effect, which improves the global fit to the branching ratios involving the $\\rho^0$ and $\\omega$ mesons. Combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and the hadronic parameters determined from the global fit to branching ratios, we predict direct CP asymmetries. In particular, the direct CP asymmetries in the $D^0\\to K^0\\bar{K}^{*0}, \\bar{K}^0K^{*0}$, $D^+\\to\\pi^+\\rho^0$ and $D_s^+\\to K^+\\omega, K^+\\phi$ decays are found to be of ${\\cal O}(10^{-3})$, which can be observed at...

  1. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    ?Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  2. The Effects of Fourth Generation on the Total Branching Ratio and the Lepton Polarization in $?_b \\rar ?\\ell^+ \\ell^-$ decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bashiry; K. Azizi

    2007-07-09

    This study investigates the influence of the fourth generation quarks on the total branching ratio and the single lepton polarizations in \\Lambda_b --> \\Lambda \\ell^+ \\ell^- decay. Taking $|V_{t's}V_{t'b}| {0.01-0.03} with phase just below $90^\\circ$, which is consistent with the b\\to s\\ell^+\\ell^- rate and the B_s mixing parameter \\Delta m_{B_s}, we obtain that the total branching ratio and the single lepton(\\mu, \\tau) polarizations are quite sensitive to the existence of fourth generation. It can serve as a good tool to search for new physics effects, precisely, to search for the fourth generation quarks(t', b').

  3. Analog E1 transitions and isospin mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattabiraman, N. S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Wadsworth, R.; Lister, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Krishichayan,; Isacker, P. Van [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); UGC-DAE CSR, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-08-15

    We investigate whether isospin mixing can be determined in a model-independent way from the relative strength of E1 transitions in mirror nuclei. The specific examples considered are the A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs, where a serious discrepancy between the strengths of 7/2{sup -}{yields}5/2{sup +} transitions in the respective mirror nuclei has been observed. A theoretical analysis of the problem suggests that it ought to be possible to disentangle the isospin mixing in the initial and final states given sufficient information on experimental matrix elements. With this in mind, we obtain a lifetime for the relevant 7/2{sup -} state in {sup 31}S using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. We then collate the available information on matrix elements to examine the level of isospin mixing for both A=31 and A=35 mirror pairs.

  4. Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

  5. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  6. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  8. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  9. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  10. Mixed phases during the phase transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...

  11. Instabilities and Mixing in SN 1993J

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Iwamoto; T. R. Young; N. Nakasato; T. Shigeyama; K. Nomoto; I. Hachisu; H. Saio

    1997-01-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities in the explosion of SN 1993J are investigated by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. It is found that the extent of mixing is sensitive to the progenitor's core mass and the envelope mass. Because the helium core mass (3 - 4 \\ms) is smaller than that of SN 1987A, R-T instabilities at the He/C+O interfaces develop to induce a large scale mixing in the helium core, while the instability is relatively weak at the H/He interface due to the small envelope mass. The predicted abundance distribution, in particular the amount of the \

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  13. Study of void fraction and mixing of immiscible liquids in a pool configuration by an upward gas flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casas, J.C.; Corradini, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Dept., Madison, WI (US))

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, investigations are performed to study the mixing between immiscible liquids in a pool configuration due to an upward gas flow. A water-R113 system is sued in the bubbly/churn-turbulent regimes to determine the effects of the unagitated pool depth on layer mixing. The superficial gas velocity at which full mixing is attained is observed to increase with the pool depth, although it is concluded that this is a weak dependency. Mixing in the churn-turbulent regime is studied with Wood's metal-water and Wood's metal-silicone fluid (100 cS) as pairs of fluids. Additional past mixing data from six other fluids are also included in the data base. A criterion is proposed to determine if two liquids will entrain in bubbly or churn-turbulent flow. Correlations are derived that, for a set of given conditions, allow prediction of the mixing state (mixed or segregated) of a system. Because of the indirect method of measuring the mixed layer thickness, pool void fraction experiments are also performed. For the case of water and R113, the effect of unagitated pool depth on the void fraction is studied.

  14. OZI violation in low energy omega and phi production in the pp system in a quark-gluon model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Dillig

    2006-04-24

    We investigate OZI violation in near-threshold omega and phi production in the pp system. Assuming ideal omega/phi mixing (corrections are estimated), the energy dependence of the ratio R(omega/phi) is analyzed in a perturbative quark-gluon exchange model up to the third other in the strong coupling constant alpha(s) with the proton represented as a quark - scalar diquark system. We give a very natural explanation of the violation of the OZI rule in omega/phi production and its energy dependence near the production thresholds.

  15. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  16. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional Geothermal Indicator in Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  17. The Ne/O abundance ratio in the quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Young

    2005-10-10

    Aims: To determine the neon-to-oxygen abundance in the quiet Sun, a proxy for the photospheric abundance ratio. Method: An emission measure method applied to extreme ultraviolet emission lines of Ne IV-VI and O III-V ions observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on the SOHO satellite. Results: The average Ne/O abundance ratio in supergranule cell centre regions is 0.18 +/- 0.05, while in supergranule network regions is 0.16 +/- 0.04. A photospheric Ne/O ratio of 0.17 +/- 0.05 is suggested, in good agreement with the most recent compilation of solar photospheric abundances, but discrepant with a recent Ne/O ratio derived from stellar X-ray spectra and revised neon abundances suggested from solar interior models.

  18. Unsafe but calculable: ratios of angularities in perturbative QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaler, Jesse

    Infrared- and collinear-safe (IRC-safe) observables have finite cross sections to each fixed-order in perturbative QCD. Generically, ratios of IRC-safe observables are themselves not IRC safe and do not have a valid ...

  19. Design studies of low aspect ratio quasi-omnigenous stellarators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín-Solís, José Ramón

    optimization principles for the design of a more attractive reactor. These are 3 and 4 field period low aspect] produced low aspect ratio stellarator configurations that had promising features for a reactor (stable

  20. An Asymptotic Model for the English Hapax/Vocabulary Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squibs An Asymptotic Model for the English Hapax/Vocabulary Ratio Fan Fengxiang Dalian Maritime Languages, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China. E-mail: fanfengxiang@yahoo.com. Submission received: 5

  1. Aspect ratio dependence of electromechanical coupling coefficient of piezoelectric resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Aspect ratio dependence of electromechanical coupling coefficient of piezoelectric resonators important parameter characterizing a piezoelectric material is the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2053366 The electromechanical coupling coefficient of piezoelec- tric materials

  2. Rapid Replication of High Aspect Ratio Molds for UV Embossing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Yehai

    This paper describes a promising fabrication technique for rapid replication of high aspect ratio microstructured molds for UV embossing. The process involves casting silicone rubber on a microstructured master, replicating ...

  3. Minimum Chaperone to Student Ratio and Costs Reserved Tours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    SH 7/08 Minimum Chaperone to Student Ratio and Costs Reserved Tours Use the table below Costs Preschool 1 adult/4 students Ages 3 and under: free, Students ages 4 and up: $4 each, Adults: $6

  4. STATISTICAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING SEQUENTIAL PROBABILITY RATIO TESTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOHN, HOON; ALLEN, DAVID W; WORDEN, KEITH; FARRAR, CHARLES R

    2002-02-16

    The primary objective of damage detection is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not within a structure of interest. In this study, a damage classification problem is cast in the context of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm. First, a time prediction model, called an autoregressive and autoregressive with exogenous inputs (AR-ARX) model, is fit to a vibration signal measured during a normal operating condition of the structure. When a new time signal is recorded from an unknown state of the system, the prediction errors are computed for the new data set using the time prediction model. When the structure undergoes structural degradation, it is expected that the prediction errors will increase for the damage case. Based on this premise, a damage classifier is constructed using a sequential hypothesis testing technique called the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT is one form of parametric statistical inference tests, and the adoption of the SPRT to damage detection problems can improve the early identification of conditions that could lead to performance degradation and safety concerns. The sequential test assumes a probability distribution of the sample data sets, and a Gaussian distribution of the sample data sets is often used. This assumption, however, might impose potentially misleading behavior on the extreme values of the data, i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution. As the problem of damage detection specifically focuses attention on the tails, the assumption of normality is likely to lead the analysis astray. To overcome this difficulty, the performance of the SPRT is improved by integrating extreme values statistics, which specifically models behavior in the tails of the distribution of interest into the SPRT.

  5. TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23168 TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO by C.P.C. WONG and R.D. STAMBAUGH or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23168 TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS JULY 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG AND R.D. STAMBAUGH TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO

  6. Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. (High Energy Physics); (Euclid Techlabs, LLC)

    2011-01-01

    The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

  7. The double mass hierarchy pattern: simultaneously understanding quark and lepton mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The charged fermion masses of the three generations exhibit the two strong hierarchies m_3 >> m_2 >> m_1. We assume that also neutrino masses satisfy m_{nu 3} > m_{nu 2} > m_{nu 1} and derive the consequences of the hierarchical spectra on the fermionic mixing patterns. The quark and lepton mixing matrices are built in a general framework with their matrix elements expressed in terms of the four fermion mass ratios m_u/m_c, m_c/m_t, m_d/m_s, and m_s/m_b and m_e/m_mu, m_mu/m_tau, m_{nu 1}/m_{nu 2}, and m_{nu 2}/m_{nu 3}, for the quark and lepton sector, respectively. In this framework, we show that the resulting mixing matrices are consistent with data for both quarks and leptons, despite the large leptonic mixing angles. The minimal assumption we take is the one of hierarchical masses and minimal flavour symmetry breaking that strongly follows from phenomenology. No special structure of the mass matrices has to be assumed that cannot be motivated by this minimal assumption. This analysis allows us to predict ...

  8. Spectroscopic determination of temperature and density spatial profiles and mix in indirect-drive implosion cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welser-Sherrill, L.; Mancini, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Koch, J. A.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Haynes, D. A.; Kyrala, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Delettrez, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    In the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), work has been consistently progressing in the past decade toward a more fundamental understanding of the plasma conditions in ICF implosion cores. The research presented here represents a substantial evolution in the ability to diagnose plasma temperatures and densities, along with characteristics of mixing between fuel and shell materials. Mixing is a vital property to study and quantify, since it can significantly affect implosion quality. We employ a number of new spectroscopic techniques that allow us to probe these important quantities. The first technique developed is an emissivity analysis, which uses the emissivity ratio of the optically thin Ly{beta} and He{beta} lines to spectroscopically extract temperature profiles, followed by the solution of emissivity equations to infer density profiles. The second technique, an intensity analysis, models the radiation transport through the implosion core. The nature of the intensity analysis allows us to use an optically thick line, the Ly{alpha}, to extract information on mixing near the core edge. With this work, it is now possible to extract directly from experimental data not only detailed temperature and density maps of the core, but also spatial mixing profiles.

  9. Hazardous and Radioactive Mixed Waste Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1989-02-22

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous and radioactive mixed waste policies and requirements and to implement the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) within the framework of the environmental programs established under DOE O 5400.1. This directive does not cancel any directives.

  10. Vertical mixing and the ocean circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Changing sources of mixing Hurricanes Tidal dissipation 2 #12;Zonal Mean Ocean Temperature 3 #12;Sandström's Theorem A circulation cannot be driven unless heat is input at a lower depth than it is lost in the ocean? Wind-driven stirring Tidal generation of internal waves Biota Hurricanes Nasa 6 #12;Sources

  11. Symmetrical parametrizations of the lepton mixing matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodejohann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    Advantages of the original symmetrical form of the parametrization of the lepton mixing matrix are discussed. It provides a conceptually more transparent description of neutrino oscillations and lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay, clarifying the significance of Dirac and Majorana phases. It is also ideal for parametrizing scenarios with light sterile neutrinos.

  12. AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATIO (AMPC): ANOMALY CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    14 AUTOMATIC MIXED PIXEL CLASSIFICATIO (AMPC): ANOMALY CLASSIFICATION In Chapter 13, one type of AMPC, automatic target detection and classification (ATDC) is investigated, which does not require any, an automatic thresholding method and four target discrimination measures are introduced in this chapter

  13. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 10 figs.

  14. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (San Ramon, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant.

  15. The Operational Sex Ratio, theThe Operational Sex Ratio, the Potential Reproductive Rate, andPotential Reproductive Rate, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    of each sex willing (or able) to mate at any given time (Kemp & Macedonia 2006) The "Operational Sex Ratio 1999; Kemp & Macedonia 2007) Mate selection and choosiness: (Rosenqvist 1993; Berglund 1994; Kokko

  16. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance trends such as conversion ratio and mass flow parameters are less sensitive to these parameters and the current results should provide a good basis for static and dynamic system analysis. The conversion ratio is fundamentally a ratio of the macroscopic cross section of U-238 capture to that of TRU fission. Since the microscopic cross sections only change moderately with fuel design and isotopic concentration for the fast reactor, a specific conversion ratio requires a specific enrichment. The approximate average charge enrichment (TRU/HM) is 14%, 21%, 33%, 56%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the metal-fueled cores. The approximate average charge enrichment is 17%, 25%, 38%, 60%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the oxide-fueled core. For the split batch cores, the maximum enrichment will be somewhat higher. For both the metal and oxide-fueled cores, the reactivity feedback coefficients and kinetics parameters seem reasonable. The maximum single control assembly reactivity faults may be too large for the low conversion ratio designs. The average reactivity of the primary control assemblies was increased, which may cause the maximum reactivity of the central control assembly to be excessive. The values of the reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters show that some values appear to improve significantly at lower conversion ratios while others appear far less favorable. Detailed safety analysis is required to determine if these designs have adequate safety margins or if appropriate design modifications are required. Detailed system analysis data has been generated for both metal and oxide-fueled core designs over the entire range of potential burner reactors. Additional data has been calculated for a few alternative fuel cycles. The systems data has been summarized in this report and the detailed data will be provided to the systems analysis team so that static and dynamic system analyses can be performed.

  17. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  18. Task 1.6 - mixed waste. Topical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    For fifty years, the United States was involved in a nuclear arms race of immense proportions. During the majority of this period, the push was always to design new weapons, produce more weapons, and increase the size of the arsenal, maintaining an advantage over the opposition in order to protect U.S. interests. Now that the {open_quotes}Cold War{close_quotes} is over, we are faced with the imposing tasks of dismantling, cleaning up, and remediating the wide variety of problems created by this arms race. An overview of the current status of the total remediation effort within the DOE is presented in the DOE publication {open_quotes}ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1995{close_quotes} (EM 1995). Not all radioactive waste is the same though; therefore, a system was devised to categorize the different types of radioactive waste. These categories are as follows: spent fuel; high-level waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; mixed waste; and uranium-mill tailings. Mixed waste is defined to be material contaminated with any of these categories of radioactive material plus an organic or heavy metal component. However, for this discussion, {open_quotes}mixed waste{close_quote} will pertain only to low-level mixed waste which consists of low-level radioactive waste mixed with organic solvents and or heavy metals. The area of {open_quotes}mixed-waste characterization, treatment, and disposal{close_quotes} is listed on page 6 of the EM 1995 publication as one of five focus areas for technological development, and while no more important than the others, it has become an area of critical concern for DOE. Lacking adequate technologies for treatment and disposal, the DOE stockpiled large quantities of mixed waste during the 1970s and 1980s. Legislative changes and the need for regulatory compliance have now made it expedient to develop methods of achieving final disposition for this stockpiled mixed waste.

  19. Two-nucleon systems in a finite volume. II. S13-D13 coupled channels and the deuteron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceno, Raul [JLAB; Davoudi, Zohreh [Washington U.; Luu, Thomas C. [Forschungszentrum Jülich; Savage, Martin J. [Washington U.

    2013-12-01

    The energy spectra of two nucleons in a cubic volume provide access to the two phase shifts and one mixing angle that define the S matrix in the S13-D13 coupled channels containing the deuteron. With the aid of recently derived energy quantization conditions for such systems, and the known scattering parameters, these spectra are predicted for a range of volumes. It is found that extractions of the infinite-volume deuteron binding energy and leading scattering parameters, including the S-D mixing angle at the deuteron pole, are possible from lattice QCD calculations of two-nucleon systems with boosts of |P|?2?/L{radical}3 in volumes with 10??fm?L?14??fm. The viability of extracting the asymptotic D/S ratio of the deuteron wave function from lattice QCD calculations is discussed.

  20. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

  1. Mixing device for materials with large density differences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1994-08-16

    An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

  2. Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States)

    2006-11-27

    The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}z = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

  3. Observation of enhanced transformer ratio in collinear Wakefield acceleration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

    2006-01-01

    The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}{sub z} = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

  4. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Kira C. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, 1518 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Jackson, Leila W. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, WG37, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-4945 (United States); Lynch, Courtney D. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, 134 Cary Hall, University at Buffalo, State of New York, 3434 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14214-3000 (United States); Buck Louis, Germaine M. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  5. System identification and optimal control for mixed-mode cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spindler, Henry C. (Henry Carlton), 1970-

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial buildings today are designed to be mechanically cooled. To make the task of air conditioning buildings simpler, and in some cases more energy efficient, windows are sealed shut, eliminating ...

  6. The behavior and separation of polystyrene in mixed solvent systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Patrick Neal

    2009-05-15

    metal centers effectively from one another. Evidence of this can be seen in the carbonylation of allyl chloride by palladium amine complexes.6 If an unsupported complex is used for catalysis, there is a limiting concentration where the active metal...-methylstyrene)-co-poly(4-bromomethylstyrene) supports were allowed to further react with an electron rich phosphine, diadamantylphosphine (1-Ad)2PH (Scheme 8). The subsequent use of this copolymer supported phosphine (10) in 19 palladium catalyzed carbon...

  7. Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR JumpMaine: EnergyEnergy Information Geothermometers And

  8. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, Claude Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800?nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400?nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1??m to 18??m. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  9. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing and neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular-- C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-11-01

    We present a tribimaximal lepton mixing scheme where the neutrinoless double beta decay rate has a lower bound which correlates with the ratio {alpha}{identical_to}{delta}m{sub sol}{sup 2}/{delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2} well determined by current data, as well as with the unknown Majorana CP phase {phi}{sub 12} characterizing the solar neutrino subsystem. For the special value {phi}{sub 12}=({pi}/2) (opposite CP-sign neutrinos) the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} rate vanishes at tree level when {delta}m{sub sol}{sup 2}/{delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2}=3/80, only allowed at 3{sigma}. For all other cases the rate is nonzero, and lies within current and projected experimental sensitivities close to {phi}{sub 12}=0. We suggest two model realizations of this scheme in terms of A{sub 4}xZ{sub 2} and A{sub 4}xZ{sub 4} flavor symmetries.

  10. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  11. Recent Experiment on Wakefield Transformer Ratio Enhancement at AWA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 in a collinear wakefield acceleration scheme is to use a ramped bunched train (RBT). The first experimental demonstration has been reported in [1]. However, due to the mismatch between the beam bunch length and frequency of the accelerating structure, the observed transformer ratio was only marginally above 2 in the earlier experiment. We recently revisited this experiment with an optimized bunch length using the laser stacking technique at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. A transformer ratio of 3.4 has been measured using two drive bunches. Attempting to use four drive bunches met with major challenges. In this article, measurement results and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

  12. Starting low compression ratio rotary Wankel diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamo, R.; Yamada, T.Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid.

  13. Polymer flood mixing apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.M.; Stephenson, S.V.

    1984-02-28

    A method and an apparatus are described for controlling the viscosity of a mixture by controlling the volumetric flow of a fluid with respect to the volumetric flow of another fluid. The apparatus includes volumetric flow detectors for detecting the flow of the 2 fluids. An electronic controller responds to electric signals generated by the volumetric flow detectors in proportion to the respective detective volumetric flows. The output of the controller operates a flow drive element, such as a pump, so that the volumetric flow of one of the fluids is controlled. The volumetric flow of the controlled fluid and the volumetric flow of the other fluid are mixed by a suitable mixer to obtain the mix having the desired viscosity. 7 claims

  14. High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, 80805 Munich (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-21

    For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

  15. NMF Matrix Generation Using Probabilistic Spectrum Envelope for Mixed Music Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    NMF 1 2 2 NMF NMF NMF NMF NMF Matrix Generation Using Probabilistic Spectrum Envelope for Mixed for the analysis, it is hard to build the practical system of the method. The latter approach should cause. At the beginning, a common spectram envelope to an instrument, called a probabilistic spectrum envelope (PSE

  16. Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan Department of Computer University of Virginia whitehouse@virginia.edu Abstract After space heating and cooling, water heating consumption. Current water heating systems waste up to 20% of their energy due to poor insulation in pipes

  17. Bacterial Stimulation in Mixed Cultures of Bacteria and Organic Carbon from River and Lake Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquet, Stéphan

    (rivers or lakes) and blended (different proportions of river and lake water) batch cultures. In each those of either of the individual components and certainly important to an overall understanding. The simple mixing of water from different systems with the resulting blending of bacterial populations

  18. Microbial Fuel Cells In this experiment, a batch mixed culture microbial fuel cell with Shewanella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Microbial Fuel Cells Abstract In this experiment, a batch mixed culture microbial fuel cell conditions under nitrogen gas. In the microbial fuel cell with Shewanella putrefaciens sp. 200 as catalysisM at pH=7. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are systems that take advantage of certain

  19. Dynamical evolution of RayleighTaylor and RichtmyerMeshkov mixing fronts Baolian Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    derive an analytic solution for the dynamic evolution of mixing fronts driven by constant acceleration system produce buoyancy and shear driven instabilities at an interface between distinct fluids #1 Rayleigh­Taylor #RT# and impulsive acceleration Richtmyer­Meshkov instabilities, from a simple physics

  20. Buoyant mixing of miscible fluids of varying viscosities in vertical tubes M. Debacq,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, John

    engineering,10 fire propagation in vertical shafts,11 drilling and completion fluids in petroleum engiBuoyant mixing of miscible fluids of varying viscosities in vertical tubes M. Debacq,a) J-P. Hulin,b) and D. Salin Laboratoire Fluides Automatique et Syste`mes Thermiques, UMR 7608, CNRS, Universite´s P. et

  1. Effects of Feedstocks and Inoculum Sources on Mixed-Acid and Hydrogen Fermentations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Andrea Kelly

    2011-02-22

    volatile solids (VS) are digested, mixed-acid fermentations produce hydrogen gas as a secondary byproduct. Hydrogen is only produced when there is an excess of NADH within the cell and when the energy selectivity (gamma) of the system has not been met...

  2. ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cook, David

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  3. Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. X. Li; D. Q. Fang; Y. G. Ma; C. L. Zhou

    2011-08-11

    The ratio of shear viscosity ($\\eta$) to entropy density ($s$) for an equilibrated system is investigated in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions below 100$A$ MeV within the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model . After the collision system almost reaches a local equilibration, the temperature, pressure and energy density are obtained from the phase space information and {$\\eta/s$} is calculated using the Green-Kubo formulas. The results show that {$\\eta$}/$s$ decreases with incident energy and tend towards a smaller value around 0.5, which is not so drastically different from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider results in the present model.

  4. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  5. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2011-01-01

    System L3 ducts upstream and downstream of VAVboxes. Similarof System L4 ducts upstream and downstream of VAVboxes.monitored pressures upstream and downstream of mixing boxes

  6. Synthesis and physical properties study on mixed metal oxynitrides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxynitrides have attracted attention due to their interesting chemical and physical properties in the past twenty years. In this thesis, four series of mixed metal oxynitrides have been investigated. The ...

  7. Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Berkeley Lab Study Reveals Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes...

  8. Lattice Boltzmann equation simulations of turbulence, mixing, and combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Huidan

    2006-04-12

    We explore the capability of lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method for complex fluid flows involving turbulence, mixing, and reaction. In the first study, LBE schemes for binary scalar mixing and multi-component reacting flow with reactions...

  9. August 2000 ((Mixed) Integer Nonlinear Programming ) Sven Leyffer ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ((Mixed) Integer Linear Programming ) ... Facets of The Cardinality Constrained Circuit Polytope ..... Analysis of MILP Techniques for the Pooling Problem

  10. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO{sub 2} was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO{sub 2}. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H{sub 2}O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H{sub 2}O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times a

  11. RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY Guy MEUNIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY MARKET Guy MEUNIER Cahier n° 2013-23 ECOLE:chantal.poujouly@polytechnique.edu hal-00906944,version1-20Nov2013 #12;Risk aversion and technology mix in an electricity market Guy-aversion on the long-term equilibrium technology mix in an electricity market. It develops a model where firms can

  12. Homemade mixes can save time and money. You can make

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Meat Mixes Homemade mixes can save time and money. You can make meat mixes ahead of time and freeze seconds before and after handling food. · Don't cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, poultry, fish and their juices away from other food in your grocery cart and at home. · Thaw meat safely. Be sure thawing meat

  13. Paint Inspired Color Mixing and Compositing for Visualization Nathan Gossett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Baoquan

    Paint Inspired Color Mixing and Compositing for Visualization Nathan Gossett University of Minnesota at Twin Cities Baoquan Chen University of Minnesota at Twin Cities Figure 1: Photographs of paint mixing. Left: A photograph of Red, Yellow and Blue paint mixing together. (The white spots are produced

  14. EXAMINATION OF ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS USING A COMBINED APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXAMINATION OF ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS USING A COMBINED APPROACH Chunsong Lu1, 2 , Yangang of Science ABSTRACT Turbulent entrainment-mixing mechanisms are studied with the aircraft measurements Period. The inhomogeneous entrainment-mixing process occurs both near cloud top and in the middle level

  15. IEA Workshop 59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEA Workshop 59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamak SCOPE of your talk for posting on the IEA Large Tokamak Web Site Lunch today from 12:00 ­ 13:30 --- on your own ­ on the table Start time tomorrow -- 08:15 Please sign in #12;DRAFT AGENDA IEA Workshop 59 Shape and Aspect

  16. Branching ratios for the beta decay of Na-21 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, John C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Towner, I. S.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the beta-decay branching ratio for the transition from Na-21 to the first excited state of Ne-21. A recently published test of the standard model, which was based on a measurement of the beta-nu correlation ...

  17. Processing of loglikelihood ratios Correcting systematic mismatches in computed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­likelihood ratios 1 AUGUSTUS J.E.M. JANSSEN, MARTEN VAN DIJK Philips Research Laboratories, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven {A.J.E.M.Janssen,Marten.van.Dijk}@philips.com ARIE KOPPELAAR Philips Semiconductors. Submission 1 #12; A.J.E.M. Janssen, M. van Dijk, A.G.C. Koppelaar - 6 6 LLR computations - - I

  18. ATMOSPHERIC TURBIDITY DETERMINATION FROM IRRADIANCE RATIOS Chris Gueymard Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC TURBIDITY DETERMINATION FROM IRRADIANCE RATIOS Chris Gueymard Frank Vignola Florida irradiance measurements and other atmo- spheric parameters. An error analysis and various tests against cloudless and the diffuse irradiance data are very accurate. Yet, this method is insensitive to errors

  19. Geographical Distribution of 3 He Ratios in the Chugoku District,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seno, Tetsuzo

    melting of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. The other source with pristine mantle material may component of melting of the Philippine Sea slab. Key words: Helium isotopes, magma source, subduction, Philippine Sea plate. 1. Introduction It is well documented that helium isotopic ratios can be useful

  20. NOTE / NOTE Sex ratio variation in gynodioecious species of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorken, Marcel

    NOTE / NOTE Sex ratio variation in gynodioecious species of Echium endemic to the Canary Islands Marcel E. Dorken Abstract: Species of Echium from the Canary Islands represent an adaptive radiation fertility of females and hermaphrodites were de- tected. Key words: Canary Islands, Echium, island radiation

  1. Offspring sex ratios correlate with pairmale condition in a cooperatively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomerie, Bob

    Offspring sex ratios correlate with pair­male condition in a cooperatively breeding fairy We examined sex allocation patterns in island and mainland populations of cooperatively breeding, provided a unique situation in which we could investigate different predictions from sex allocation theory

  2. Abundance Ratio Trends and Nucleosynthesis in Elliptical Galaxies and Spheroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worthey, Guy

    Abundance Ratio Trends and Nucleosynthesis in Elliptical Galaxies and Spheroids Guy Worthey 1, nucleosynthesis, abundances --- galaxies: abundances --- galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD --- galaxies of the discussion to other elements in section 3. The fourth section discusses nucleosynthesis and possible hints

  3. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  4. Efficient Posterior Probability Mapping Using Savage-Dickey Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Efficient Posterior Probability Mapping Using Savage- Dickey Ratios William D. Penny*, Gerard R interactive manner. Citation: Penny WD, Ridgway GR (2013) Efficient Posterior Probability Mapping Using Savage, 2013 Copyright: Ã? 2013 Penny, Ridgway. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms

  5. Mixing and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E.; Endler, A.; Rizzato, F. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2013-12-15

    The present work revisits the subjects of mixing, saturation, and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers. Use is made of the compressibility factor, which proves to be a helpful tool in the related systems of charged beams confined by static magnetic fields. The compressibility allows to perform analytical estimates of the elapsed time until the onset of mixing, which in turn allows to estimate the saturated amplitude of the radiation field. In addition, the compressibility helps to pinpoint space-charge effects and the corresponding transition from Compton to Raman regimes.

  6. MIXED REALITY ENVIRONMENT FOR WEB-BASED LABORATORY INTERACTIVE LEARNING Mixed Reality Environment for Web-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIXED REALITY ENVIRONMENT FOR WEB-BASED LABORATORY INTERACTIVE LEARNING Mixed Reality Environment reality environment, Laboratory learning, Fuzzy logic, Learner modeling. I. INTRODUCTION Advances in computers and communication technology have changed traditional methods for learning and skills training

  7. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  8. The Proton Form Factor Ratio Measurements at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Vina A. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Perdrisat, Charles F. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The ratio of the proton form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, has been measured from Q{sup 2} of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} to 8.5 GeV{sup 2}, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The discovery that the proton form factor ratio measured in these experiments decreases approximately linearly with four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, for values above #25;~1 GeV{sup 2}, is one of the most significant results to come out of JLab. These results have had a large impact on progress in hadronic physics; and have required a significant rethinking of nucleon structure. The increasingly common use of the double-polarization technique to measure the nucleon form factors, in the last 15 years, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the quality of all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}, G{sub Mp}, G{sub En} and G{sub Mn}. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(V), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV{sup 2}. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

  9. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COOL R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lambert, David L. [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin. 1 University Station, C1400. Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rao, N. Kameswara [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Hinkle, Ken H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Eriksson, Kjell, E-mail: agarcia@iac.e, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.i, E-mail: hinkle@noao.ed, E-mail: Kjell.Eriksson@astro.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less {sup 18}O than HdC stars-the derived {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O = 0.3. Our result of a higher {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, may convert an {sup 18}O-rich HdC star into an {sup 18}O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

  10. CP violation through particle mixing and the H-A lineshape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bernabeu; D. Binosi; J. Papavassiliou

    2006-08-10

    We consider the possibility of looking for CP-mixing effects in two-Higgs doublet models (and particularly in the MSSM) by studying the lineshape of the CP-even (H) and CP-odd (A) neutral scalars. In most cases H and A come quite degenerate in mass, and their s-channel production would lead to nearly overlapping resonances. CP-violating effects may connect these two Higgs bosons, giving origin to one-loop particle mixing, which, due to their mass proximity, can be resonantly enhanced. The corresponding transition amplitude contains then CP-even and CP-odd components; besides the signal of intereference between both amplitudes, leading to a CP-odd asymmetry, we propose to look for the mixing probability itself, a quantity which, although CP-even, can originate only from a CP-odd amplitude. We show that, in general, the effect of such a mixing probability cannot be mimicked by (or be re-absorbed into) a simple redefinition of the H and A masses in the context of a CP-conserving model. Specifically, the effects of the CP-mixing are such that, either the mass-splitting of the H and A bosons cannot be accounted for in the absence of CP-mixing, and/or the detailed energy dependence of the produced lineshape is clearly different from the one obtained by redefining the masses, but not allowing any mixing. This analysis suggests that the detailed study of the lineshape of this Higgs system may provide valuable information on the CP nature of the underlying theory.

  11. Progress in the fabrication of high aspect ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, R.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N. A.; Lai, B.; Assoufid, L.; Leondard, Q.; Cerrina, F.

    2002-08-13

    Soft x-ray lithography technology has been applied to fabrication of phase shifting Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP's) for hard x-rays. Effects of the exposure conditions, developing system, and electroplating process parameters on line width and aspect ratio have been analyzed. The process has been optimized and an aspect ratio of 11 has been achieved for 110 nm outermost zone width. SEM and AFM have been used for preliminary metrology of the FZPs. The FZP optical performance was characterized at 8 keV photon energy at the 2-ID-D beam line at the Advanced Photon Source. Focusing efficiencies of 23% for FZPs apertures to 100 microns and 18% for 150-micron-diameter apertures have been obtained. The parameters of the fabricated FZP are in good agreement with the predicted values.

  12. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k{sub eff} this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  13. Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prants, S V; Ponomarev, V I; Uleysky, M Yu; 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.008

    2012-01-01

    We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite imag...

  14. Design manual for excavation support using deep mixing technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutherford, Cassandra Janel

    2005-02-17

    by cement stabilization DJM = dry jet mixing DLM = deep lime mixing DM = deep mixing DMM = deep mixing method DSM = deep soil mixing E = modulus of deformation of soil vii EBMUD = East Bay Municipal Utility District EI = wall stiffness ESoil... = average spacing between supports H = height of wall Hc = height of clay layer Hc(design) = height of clay layer for design Hc(failure) = height of clay layer at failure Hw = height of water from bottom of excavation H1 = height from top of wall...

  15. Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Prants; M. V. Budyansky; V. I. Ponomarev; M. Yu. Uleysky

    2012-02-02

    We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite images in that region. We develop a technique to track evolution of clusters of particles, streaklines and material lines. The Lagrangian tools used allow us to reveal mesoscale eddies and their structure, to track different phases of the coastal flow, to find inhomogeneous character of transport and mixing on mesoscales and submesoscales and to quantify mixing by the values of exit times and the number of times particles wind around the eddy's center.

  16. Studies of the effects of curvature on dilution jet mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdeman, J.D.; Srinivasan, Ram: Reynolds, R.S.; White, C.D. Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Phoenix, AZ )

    1992-02-01

    An analytical program was conducted using both three-dimensional numerical and empirical models to investigate the effects of transition liner curvature on the mixing of jets injected into a confined crossflow. The numerical code is of the TEACH type with hybrid numerics; it uses the power-law and SIMPLER algorithms, an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model. From the results of the numerical calculations, an existing empirical model for the temperature field downstream of single and multiple rows of jets injected into a straight rectangular duct was extended to model the effects of curvature. Temperature distributions, calculated with both the numerical and empirical models, are presented to show the effects of radius of curvature and inner and outer wall injection for single and opposed rows of cool dilution jets injected into a hot mainstream flow. 27 refs.

  17. Iron-phosphate ceramics for solidification of mixed low-level waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Kovarskaya, Elena N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Koltsova, Tatiana I. (St. Petersburg, RU); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID); Medvedev, Pavel G. (Ozersk, RU); Todd, Terry (Aberdeen, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A method of immobilizing mixed low-level waste is provided which uses low cost materials and has a relatively long hardening period. The method includes: forming a mixture of iron oxide powders having ratios, in mass %, of FeO:Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 equal to 25-40:40-10:35-50, or weighing a definite amount of magnetite powder. Metallurgical cinder can also be used as the source of iron oxides. A solution of the orthophosphoric acid, or a solution of the orthophosphoric acid and ferric oxide, is formed and a powder phase of low-level waste and the mixture of iron oxide powders or cinder (or magnetite powder) is also formed. The acid solution is mixed with the powder phase to form a slurry with the ratio of components (mass %) of waste:iron oxide powders or magnetite:acid solution=30-60:15-10:55-30. The slurry is blended to form a homogeneous mixture which is cured at room temperature to form the final product.

  18. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Chinese Acadamy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Niu, Shengjie [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.

    2014-12-27

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  19. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-17

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  20. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-17

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasingmore »scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.« less

  1. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.

    1994-08-16

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

  2. Resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Begley, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM); Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving large susceptibilities and long interaction lengths in the generation of new wavelengths in the infrared spectral region. A process of resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing is employed, utilizing existing laser sources, such as the CO.sub.2 laser, to irradiate a gaseous media. The gaseous media, comprising NH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 F, D.sub.2, HCl, HF, CO, and H.sub.2 or some combination thereof, are of particular interest since they are capable of providing high repetition rate operation at high flux densities where crystal damage problems become a limitation.

  3. CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

  4. B_s mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchesi, Donatella; /Padua U.

    2006-08-01

    The measurement of the B{sub s} mixing oscillation frequency, {Delta}m{sup s}, has been the main goal for both experiments CDF and D0 which are running at the Tevatron collider. With 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected during the last four years D0 set a lower and upper limit on this frequency, 17 < {Delta}m{sub s} < 21 ps{sup -1}. CDF measured {Delta}m{sub s} with a precision better than 2% and the probability that the data could randomly fluctuate to mimic such a signature is 0.2%.

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  6. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard

    2015-10-19

    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  7. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  8. Characterizing Arctic Mixed-phase Cloud Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate:Characterization ofArctic Mixed-phase

  9. Mixed heavy-quark-gluon condensate in the stochastic vacuum model and dual superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Antonov

    2005-09-30

    The world-line formalism is used for the evaluation of the mixed heavy-quark-gluon condensate in two models of QCD - the stochastic vacuum model and the dual superconductor one. Calculations are performed for an arbitrary dimensionality of space-time $d\\ge 2$. While in the stochastic vacuum model, the condensate is UV finite up to $d=8$, in the dual superconductor model it is UV divergent at any $d\\ge 2$. A regularization of this divergence is proposed, which makes quantitative the condition of the type-II dual superconductor. The obtained results are generalized to the case of finite temperatures. Corrections to the both, mixed and standard, heavy-quark condensates, which appear due to the variation of the gauge field at the scale of the vacuum correlation length, are evaluated within the stochastic vacuum model. These corrections diminish the absolute values of the condensates, as well as the ratio of the mixed condensate to the standard one.

  10. The Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Jong, J.K.; /IIT, Chicago /Oxford U.

    2011-11-01

    The magnetized MINOS near detector can accurately determine the charge sign of atmospheric muons, this facilitates a measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio. To reduce the systematic error associated with geometric bias and acceptance we have combined equal periods of data obtained with opposite magnetic field polarities. We report a charge ratio of 1.2666 {+-} 0.0015(stat.){sub -0.0088}{sup +0.0096}(syst.) at a mean E{sub {mu},0{sup cos}}({theta}) = 63 GeV. This measurement is consistent with the world average but significantly lower than the earlier observation at the MINOS far detector. This increase is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that a greater fraction of the observed muons arise from kaon decay within the cosmic ray shower.

  11. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  12. Identification of mixing effects in stratified chilled-water storage tanks by analysis of time series temperature data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J.S.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Several one-dimensional models of mixing in stratified chilled-water thermal energy storage tanks have been proposed. In the simplest models, mixing is assumed to be uniform throughout the tank. Other models permit spatial variation of mixing intensity. Published models were developed by adjusting model parameters to achieve qualitative agreement with measured profiles. The literature does not describe quantitative criteria for evaluating the performance of mixing models. This paper describes a method that can be used to determine the relative spatial distribution of mixing effects directly from experimental data. It also illustrates a method for quantitative comparison of experimental and modeled temperature profiles. The mixing calculation procedure may be applied to instantaneous spatial temperature data if temperature sensor spacing is sufficiently small. When sensors are widely spaced, time series data taken at individual sensors provide better accuracy. A criterion for maximum sensor spacing is proposed. The application of these procedures to time series charge-cycle operating data from a full-scale chilled-water thermal storage system serving a large medical center is described. Results of this analysis indicate that mixing is localized near the inlet diffuser and that one-dimensional flow with streamwise conduction predominates in most of the tank.

  13. Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis

    2013-01-01

    The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

  14. Effect of Poisson ratio on cellular structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilka B. Bischofs; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2005-04-05

    Mechanically active cells in soft media act as force dipoles. The resulting elastic interactions are long-ranged and favor the formation of strings. We show analytically that due to screening, the effective interaction between strings decays exponentially, with a decay length determined only by geometry. Both for disordered and ordered arrangements of cells, we predict novel phase transitions from paraelastic to ferroelastic and anti-ferroelastic phases as a function of Poisson ratio.

  15. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Mirel, V., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in ?{sup 13}C between batches from ?29.7 to ?31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between ?31.3 to ?34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  16. PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-04-26

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i.e., Newtonian or non-Newtonian). The most important properties for testing with Newtonian slurries are the Archimedes number distribution and the particle concentration. For some test objectives, the shear strength is important. In the testing to collect data for CFD V and V and CFD comparison, the liquid density and liquid viscosity are important. In the high temperature testing, the liquid density and liquid viscosity are important. The Archimedes number distribution combines effects of particle size distribution, solid-liquid density difference, and kinematic viscosity. The most important properties for testing with non-Newtonian slurries are the slurry yield stress, the slurry consistency, and the shear strength. The solid-liquid density difference and the particle size are also important. It is also important to match multiple properties within the same simulant to achieve behavior representative of the waste. Other properties such as particle shape, concentration, surface charge, and size distribution breadth, as well as slurry cohesiveness and adhesiveness, liquid pH and ionic strength also influence the simulant properties either directly or through other physical properties such as yield stress.

  17. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

  18. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS IN CUMULUS DURING RACORO: AN IMPLICATION FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF DIFFERENT ENTRAINMENT-MIXING MECHANISMS IN CUMULUS DURING RACORO entrainment- mixing mechanisms. The connection between microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties associated with entrainment-mixing processes is explored in the framework of homogeneous/inhomogeneous mixing

  19. Spatially tracking 13C labeled substrate (bicarbonate) accumulation in microbial communities using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, James J.; Doll, Charles G.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2014-08-25

    This is a manuscript we would like to submit for publication in Environmental Microbiology Reports. This manuscript contains a description of a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodology developed at PNNL and applied to a microbial system at a PNNL project location – Hot Lake, Washington. I will submit a word document containing the entire manuscript with this Erica input request form.

  20. Mixing in wicking structures and the use of enhanced mixing within wicks in microchannel devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA

    2011-04-19

    Advanced wicking structures and methods utilizing these structures are described. The use of advanced wicking structures can promote rapid mass transfer while maintaining high capillary pressure through the use of small pores. Particularly improved results in fluid contacting processes can be achieved by enhanced mixing within a wicking layer within a microchannel.