Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

2

Analysis System for Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratios in Flask Air Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for measuring the concentration of CO2 in flask air samples from the NOAA/CMDL worldwide flask sampling network is described. Up to 180 samples per day can he analyzed using a nondispersive infrared CO2 analyzer. All data acquisition and ...

Kirk W. Thoning; Thomas J. Conway; Ni Zhang; Duane Kitzis

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios and Angular Distribution Parameters in Atomic Inner-shell Transitions.

4

Mixed Layer Density Ratio from the Levitus Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the Levitus data is employed to examine Stommel's mixed layer density ratio regulator hypothesis. Three different methods of computing the lateral density ratio (Rl???T/??S) are used and the least squares method was found to have ...

Liang Gui Chen

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide is the most important atmospheric constituent contributing to the greenhouse effect in the earth-atmosphere system. Here, a method is presented for the remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite, including the inversion method and preliminary calculation results. The results indicate that the measurement accuracy of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in 0.25 ppm, calculated according to volume, in ground field of view of 1,127 x 1,162 km[sup 2] for an instrument such as the HIRS-2 on the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellite.

Zhaoxian Zhang (Shangai Inst. of Technical Physics (China))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in Air Samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Montaña de Oro, California, USA (January 2004) image Abstract graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Stanley C. Tyler Department of Earth System Science University of California Irvine, CA DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1022 Description and Methods Air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) and Montaña de Oro, CA (35°N, 121°W) have been collected at approximately semi-monthly to monthly intervals since the mid 1990s. The beginning dates for each gas and isotope analyzed are as follows: GASLAB Flask Sampling Network Data Available (April 2003) Gas or isotope Niwot Ridge Montaña de Oro

7

The Effects of Variations in Buffer Gas Mixing Ratios on Commercial Carbon Dioxide Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary gas standards, gas chromatography, and frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements have been used to assess the effect of variations in the argon mixing ratio on the CO2 mixing ratios reported by commercial cavity ring-...

D. A. Long; L. Gameson; G.-W. Truong; K. Bielska; A. Cygan; J. T. Hodges; J. R. Whetstone; R. D. van Zee

8

Empirical Modeling of Layered Integrated Water Vapor Using Surface Mixing Ratio in Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the available upper-air data for three stations in Nigeria (Lagos, a coastal station; Minna, an inland station; and Kano, a sub-Sahelian station), an intensive examination has been carried out on the linkage between surface mixing ratio rs ...

B. Adeyemi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

On the Calibration and Performance of an Instrument for Measuring Total Water Mixing Ratio in Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument which measures the total water mixing ratio in cloud has been calibrated to an accuracy of ±0.1 g kg?1 in the presence of liquid water contents ranging up to 7 g kg?1. Evaporation occurs in a labyrinth of heated plates and the ...

C. E. Coulman; M. A. Parker

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Mixed-Technology System-Level Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a computationally efficient method to simulate mixed-domain systems under the requirements of a system-level framework. The approach is the combined use of Modified Nodal Analysis (MNA) for the representation of a mixed-technology ... Keywords: MEM simulation, microsystem modeling and simulation, modified nodal analysis (MNA), optical MEM CAD tool, optoelectronic simulation, piecewise linear simulation (PWL)

J. A. Martinez; T. P. Kurzweg; S. P. Levitan; P. J. Marchand; D. M. Chiarulli

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Vertical 2-?m Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Mean CO2 Mixing Ratio in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical mean CO2 mixing ratio measurements are reported in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and in the lower free troposphere (FT), using a 2-?m heterodyne differential absorption lidar (HDIAL). The mean CO2 mixing ratio in the ABL is ...

Fabien Gibert; Pierre H. Flamant; Juan Cuesta; Didier Bruneau

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Treatment of Mixed Wastewater of Slaughterhouse Wastewater and Biogas Slurry with Pilot Contact Oxidation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a pilot contact oxidation system was used to different mixing ratio wastewater of slaughterhouse wastewater and biogas slurry. The results showed that when the mixing ratio of slaughterhouse wastewater and biogas slurry was 19:1 and the ... Keywords: contact oxidation process, slaughterhouse wastewater and biogas slurry, COD removal, ammonia removal

Peng Li; Qun-Hui Wang; Jie Zhang; Tian-Long Zheng; Juan Wang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Parameterization of Joint Frequency Distributions of Potential Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint frequency distributions (JFDs) of potential temperature (?) versus water vapor mixing ratio (r) within the convective boundary layer were measured during a new field experiment named Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96). These JFDs were ...

Larry K. Berg; Roland B. Stull

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Assimilating AIRS Temperature and Mixing Ratio Profiles Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter Approach for Convective-Scale Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One satellite data product that has received great interest in the numerical weather prediction community is the temperature and mixing ratio profiles derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on board the Aqua satellite. ...

Thomas A. Jones; David J. Stensrud

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

18

Heat conductivity in linear mixing systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present analytical and numerical results on the heat conduction in a linear mixing system. In particular we consider a quasi one dimensional channel with triangular scatterers with internal angles irrational multiples of pi and we show that the system obeys Fourier law of heat conduction. Therefore deterministic diffusion and normal heat transport which are usually associated to full hyperbolicity, actually take place in systems without exponential instability.

Baowen Li; Giulio Casati; Jiao Wang

2002-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

19

Comparative Performance of Two Reversing Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of a comparative experiment between two Bowen ratio measurement systems conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ontario, in 1985. Both systems interchange the positions of the ...

J. H. McCaughey; D. W. Mullins; M. Publicover

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specially selected mixing systems were tested and evaluated to determine how effectively they could prevent the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge to produce methane gas. The tests were conducted in a modified 10.7-m (35-ft) diameter, nominal 378,000-liter (100,000-gal) capacity concrete vessel in the Franklin, Ohio, environmental complex. Between August 1977 and September 1978, nine tests were conducted with 3:1 and 9:1 solid waste/sewage sludge ratios and with 4, 7, and 10 percent total solids in the feedstock. Though the microbial culture was healthy in most tests, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. These formations occurred because of the high cellulosic content of the feedstock. The test with the best energy recovery had a gas production of 805 liters/kg of volatile solids destroyed. However, the energy recovered was only 50 percent of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels. As the feed ratio and the percent solids in the feedstock were increased, this differential became progressively more pronounced. Moreover, the percent of volatile solids (in a given amount of total solids) for the top level became disproportionately higher than those for the other two levels.

Swartzbaugh, J T; Smith, R B

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); BBoden, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

23

Changes in mixing ratio and isotopic composition of CO2 in urban air from the Los Angeles basin, California, between 1972 and 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflects a change in the relative proportion of natural gas and petroleum products burned in the regionChanges in mixing ratio and isotopic composition of CO2 in urban air from the Los Angeles basin December 2008. [1] Atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and C and O isotopic compositions are reported for the Los

24

Sensible Heat Flux by Surface Layer Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance over a Mixed Grassland Community as Affected by Bowen Ratio and MOST Formulations for Unstable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of sensible heat flux for an extended period for unstable conditions using surface layer scintillometry (SLS) and eddy covariance (EC) and supplemented by Bowen ratio measurements for a mixed grassland community on the eastern ...

G. O. Odhiambo; M. J. Savage

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A Calorimetric Jet Engine Technique for Estimating the Condensed Water Mixing Ratio in Cumulus Clouds for Cloud Physical and Weather Modification Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique has been developed for deriving estimates of condensed water mixing ratio in cumulus clouds from measurements of potential temperature in the air in the compressor of a jet engine. Condensate that enters the engine at low temperatures ...

Griffith Morgan; Mark Schormann; Erika Botha; Graeme K. Mather

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Qualitative chemical geothermometers utilize anomalous concentrations of various "indicator" elements in groundwaters, streams, soils, and soil gases to outline favorable places to explore for geothermal energy. Some of the qualitative methods, such as the delineation of mercury and helium anomalies in soil gases, do not require the presence of hot springs or fumaroles. However, these techniques may also outline fossil thermal areas that are now cold. Quantitative chemical geothermometers and mixing models can provide information about present probable minimum

28

Inter-Layer Mixing in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary parameter for achieving high NOx reduction and low ammonia (NH3) slip in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems on large coal-fired boilers is a uniform NH3/NOx ratio distribution at the catalyst surface. Large non-uniformities yield local NH3/NOx ratios greater than one, leading directly to NH3 slip. Areas of low NH3/NOx ratios have low NOx reduction. Both of these conditions are undesirable. SCR system designers specify a maximum acceptable NH3/NOx non-uniformity at the catalyst inlet....

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

The effect of expansion-ratio limitations on positive-displacement, total-flow geothermal power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Combined steam-turbine/positive-displacement engine (PDE) geothermal power systems are analyzed thermodynamically and compared with optimized reference flash-steam plants. Three different configurations of combined systems are considered. Treated separately are the cases of self-flowing and pumped wells. Two strategies are investigated that help overcome the inherent expansion-ratio limitation of PDE's: pre-flashing and pre-mixing. Parametrically-obtained results show the required minimum PDE efficiency for the combined system to match the reference plant for various sets of design conditions.

DiPippo, R.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution  

SciTech Connect

Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

Argyle, Mark Don; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Archibald, Kip Ernest; Brewer, Ken Neal; Pierson, Kenneth Alan; Shackelford, Kimberlee Rene; Kline, Kelli Suzanne

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

INEEL HEPA Filter Leach System: A Mixed Waste Solution  

SciTech Connect

Calciner operations and the fuel dissolution process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have generated many mixed waste high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)filters. The HEPA Filter Leach System located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center lowers radiation contamination levels and reduces cadmium, chromium, and mercury concentrations on spent HEPA filter media to below disposal limits set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The treated HEPA filters are disposed as low-level radioactive waste. The technical basis for the existing system was established and optimized in initial studies using simulants in 1992. The treatment concept was validated for EPA approval in 1994 by leaching six New Waste Calcining Facility spent HEPA filters. Post-leach filter media sampling results for all six filters showed that both hazardous and radiological constituent levels were reduced so the filters could be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Since the validation tests the HEPA Filter Leach System has processed 78 filters in 1997 and 1998. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory HEPA Filter Leach System is the only mixed waste HEPA treatment system in the DOE complex. This process is of interest to many of the other DOE facilities and commercial companies that have generated mixed waste HEPA filters but currently do not have a treatment option available.

K. Archibald; K. Brewer; K. Kline; K. Pierson; K. Shackelford; M. Argyle; R. Demmer

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

Frank, A.A.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The sub 36ClCl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic...

35

Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.

Beitel, G.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Research of Speed Ratio Matching Strategies of Hydro-Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission System for Tractor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To realize the optimal power and best fuel economy performance of engine, the speed ratio matching strategies of tractor with hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) system are studied. The engine output torque model and fuel consumption ... Keywords: Tractor, Hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission, Speed ratio, Matching strategies

Liyou Xu; Zhili Zhou; Fuyi Cao; Mingzhu Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Problems of trace-element ratios and geothermometry in a gravel geothermal-aquifer system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The system studied is a Tertiary-age, block-faulted basin in which a Pleistocene gravel bed acts as a confined aquifer and permits the lateral dispersion of the geothermal fluids. Vertical movement of the hot water is currently believed to be controlled by faults on the east side of the valley. An aerial magnetic anomaly and a Bouguer gravity anomaly appear to correspond with thoese eastern faults. Basic data on the geology and trace element halos has been presented previously. Evaluation of the mixing phenomena in this system was attempted using a dissolved silica-enthalpy graph. A chalcedony curve is also plotted. An enthalpy versus chloride plot, suggests that either conductive cooling occurs before mixing or that higher chloride content background waters are available for mixing. (MHR)

Sonderegger, J.L.; Donovan, J.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results

40

Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

Mao, Chien-Pei (Clive, IA); Short, John (Norwalk, IA); Klemm, Jim (Des Moines, IA); Abbott, Royce (Des Moines, IA); Overman, Nick (West Des Moines, IA); Pack, Spencer (Urbandale, IA); Winebrenner, Audra (Des Moines, IA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mixed Reality-Mediated Collaborative Design System: Concept, Prototype, and Experimentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a Mixed Reality-mediated Collaborative design system, named MR-Collab, which combines Mixed Reality (MR), Augmented Reality (AR) and various channels of communication technologies. The concept and system of ... Keywords: Cooperative design, concurrent visualization, cooperative visualization, system architecture and prototypes, user interfaces

Rui Wang; Xiangyu Wang

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Quantum bath-driven decoherence of mixed spin systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The decoherence of mixed electron-nuclear spin qubits is a topic of great current importance, but understanding is still lacking: while important decoherence mechanisms for spin qubits arise from quantum spin bath environments with slow decay of correlations, the only analytical framework for explaining observed sharp variations of decoherence times with magnetic field is based on the suppression of classical noise. Here we obtain a general expression for decoherence times of the central spin system which exposes significant differences between quantum-bath decoherence and decoherence by classical field noise. We perform measurements of decoherence times of bismuth donors in natural silicon using both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transitions, and in both cases find excellent agreement with our theory across a wide parameter range. The universality of our expression is also tested by quantitative comparisons with previous measurements of decoherence around `optimal working points' or `clock transitions' where decoherence is strongly suppressed. We further validate our results by comparison to cluster expansion simulations.

S. J. Balian; Gary Wolfowicz; John J. L. Morton; T. S. Monteiro

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE ISOTOPE MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.

Quitte, Ghylaine [Universite de Lyon (France); Markowski, Agnes [ETH Zurich, Institute for Isotope Geology and Mineral Resources, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Latkoczy, Christopher [ETH Zurich, D-CHAB, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Wolfgang-Pauli Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas, E-mail: Ghylaine.Quitte@ens-lyon.f [Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of ANSI N13.1-1999 and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the exhaust airflow be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The continuous air sampling in a duct system is based on the concept of single point representative sampling at the sampling location where the velocity and contaminant profiles are nearly uniform. Sampling must be at a location where there is a uniform distribution via mixing in accordance with ANSI N13.1-1999. The purpose of this work is to identify the sampling locations where the velocity, momentum and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation (COV) requirements of ANSI N13.1-1999. Four sets of experiments were conducted on a generic 'T' mixing system. Measurements were made of the velocity, tracer gas concentration, ten micrometer particles and average flow swirl angle. The generic 'T' mixing system included three different combinations of sub duct sizes (6"x6", 9"x9" and 12"x12"), one main duct size (12"x12") and five air velocities (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 fpm). An air blender was also introduced in some of the tests to promote mixing of the air streams from the main duct and sub duct. The experimental results suggested a turbulent mixing provided the accepted velocity COVs by 6 hydraulic diameters downstream. For similar velocity in the main duct and sub duct, an air blender provided the substantial improvement in 3 hydraulic diameters needed to achieve COVs below 10%. Without an air blender, the distance downstream of the T-junction for the COVs below 20% increased as the velocity of the sub duct airflow increased. About 95% of the cases achieved COVs below 10%. With the air blender, most of the cases with the air blender had the lower COVs than without the blender. However, at an area ratio (sub duct area / main duct area) of 0.25 and above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct / velocity in the main duct) of 3, the air blender proved to be less beneficial for mixing. These results can apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of the single point representative sampling.

Kim, Taehong

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The AT&T-DARPA communicator mixed-initiative spoken dialog system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design and implementation of the AT&T Communicator mixed-initiative spoken dialog system is described. The Communicator project, sponsored by DARPA and launched in 1999, is a multi-year multi-site project on advanced spoken dialog systems research. The main focus of this paper is on issues related to the design of mixed-initiative systems. In addition to describing our architecture and implementation of the complex travel task, the paper reports on some preliminary evaluation results. 1.

E. Levin; S. Narayanan; R. Pieraccini; K. Biatov; E. Bocchieri; G. Di Fabbrizio; W. Eckert; S. Lee; A. Pokrovsky; M. Rahim; P. Ruscitti; M. Walker

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Competitive Ratio Analysis of Online Algorithms to Minimize Data Transmission Time in Energy Harvesting Communication System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the optimal online packet scheduling problem in a single-user energy harvesting wireless communication system, where energy is harvested from natural renewable sources, making future energy arrivals instants and amounts random in nature. The most general case of arbitrary energy arrivals is considered where neither the future energy arrival instants or amount, nor their distribution is known. The problem considered is to adaptively change the transmission rate according to the causal energy arrival information, such that the time by which all packets are delivered is minimized. We assume that all bits have arrived and are ready at the source before the transmission begins. For a minimization problem, the utility of an online algorithm is tested by finding its competitive ratio or competitiveness that is defined to be the maximum of the ratio of the gain of the online algorithm with the optimal offline algorithm over all input sequences. We derive a lower and upper bound on the competitive ratio of...

Vaze, Rahul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs.

Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Substrate noise analysis and techniques for mitigation in mixed-signal RF systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixed-signal circuit design has historically been a challenge for several reasons. Parasitic interactions between analog and digital systems on a single die are one such challenge. Switching transients induced by digital ...

Checka, Nisha, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

Nick Soelberg

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Role of Boron-Chloride and Noble Gas Isotope Ratios in TVZ Geothermal Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The model of the geothermal system in which deep circulating groundwater containing noble gases, at air saturated water concentrations, mixes with hot fluids of mantle origin at depth, is extended to include the effect of interaction of the ascending fluid with both solid and gaseous phases of basement (or other) rocks en route to the surface. It is demonstrated that this interaction is responsible for most of the CO{sub 2} in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal systems. It is proposed that the modeling of this interaction might be accomplished by techniques similar to those used for the understanding of the oxygen isotope shift found in geothermal systems. The water rock interaction experiments of Ellis and Mahon (1964, 1967) provides some data on the kinetic rates for B and Cl dissolution from rocks likely to be encountered in the geothermal system, but further information on the behavior of B may be needed. If these problems can be overcome this modeling technique has promise for the estimation of the recharge of geothermal systems and hence the sustainability of these systems.

Hulston, J.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Measurement of D-D-bar mixing using the ratio of lifetimes for the decays D-->K- pi + and K+K-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measure the rate of D0-D[over-bar] 0 mixing with the observable yCP=(?Kpi/?KK)-1, where ?KK and ?Kpi are, respectively, the mean lifetimes of CP-even D0-->K+K- and CP-mixed D0-->K-pi+ decays, using a data sample of ...

Fisher, Peter H.

53

Mixing blade system for high-resistance media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A blade system for stirring and agitating a medium, comprising a shaft bearing a plurality of paddles, each having a different geometry and each having approximately the same rotational moment. The geometrically different paddles sweep through different volumes of the medium to minimize shear zone development and maximize the strength of the system with respect to medium-induced stress. 3 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1990-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

Mixing blade system for high-resistance media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A blade system is described for stirring and agitating a medium, comprising a shaft bearing a plurality of paddles, each having a different geometry and each having approximately the same rotational moment. The geometrically different paddles sweep through different volumes of the medium to minimize shear zone development and maximize the strength of the system with respect to medium-induced stress. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

55

An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

Spencer Pack

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Seasonal Mixing Processes in an Arctic Fjord System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of water movement in the Aafardlikavsâ/Qaumarujuk fjord system in West Greenland have barn carried out in order to understand the movement of mine tailings discharged into Agfardlikavsâ Fjord. Observations are explained in terms of ...

E. L. Lewis; R. G. Perkin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Performance analysis of mixed passive solar heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The various situations in which interactions between south-facing systems serving a single thermal zone may affect the performance of the mixture are discussed. In particular, the nature of direct gain interactions with unvented Trombe walls was explored using a detailed thermal network computer program. The results are compared with predictions from the simple design analysis procedures which neglect interactions. This comparison showed that system interactions can significantly improve the peformance of a mixture under certain conditions.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaluation of Concurrency Control Strategies for Mixed Soft Real-Time Database Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Evaluation of Concurrency Control Strategies for Mixed Soft Real-Time Database Systems Kam of the miss rate of soft real-time transactions. Although many new database applications have significant soft real-time database systems (MSRTDBS), in which both non-real-time and soft real-time transactions

Cheng, Reynold Cheng Chun

60

Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Evaluation of a Bowen Ratio Measurement System over Forest and Clear-Cut Sites at Petawawa, Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the features of a reversing measurement system for the determination of the Bowen ratio. Ten-junction thermopiles are used to measure wet- and dry-bulb temperature differences, and a single thermocouple gives absolute wet-...

J. H. McCaughey; D. M. Brintnell

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer-generated turbulence in a shallow tidal sea, Nature, 400, 251­254. Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole (2001), Gas exchangeEnvironmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

Ho, David

63

Measurement of D0-D0bar Mixing using the Ratio of D0->K-pi and K-K Lifetimes  

SciTech Connect

We measure the rate of D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with the observable y{sub CP} = ({tau}{sub K{pi}}/{tau}{sub KK}) - 1, where {tau}{sub KK} and {tau}{sub K{pi}} are respectively the mean lifetimes of CP-even D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and CP-mixed D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays, using a data sample of 384 fb{sup -1} collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. From a sample of D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0} decays where the initial flavor of the decaying meson is not determined, we obtain y{sub CP} = [1.12 {+-} 0.26(stat) {+-} 0.22(syst)]%, which excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at 3.3{sigma}, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties. This result is in good agreement with a previous BABAR measurement of y{sub CP} obtained from a sample of D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} events, where the D{sup 0} decays to K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, which is disjoint with the untagged D{sup 0} events used here. Combining the two results taking into account statistical and systematic uncertainties, where the systematic uncertainties are assumed to be 100% correlated, we find y{sub CP} = [1.16 {+-} 0.22(stat) {+-} 0.18(syst)]%, which excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at 4.1{sigma}.

Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Tico, J.Garra; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt State U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2009-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of a control algorithm for a dynamic gas mixing system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An algorithm was developed to control the partial pressures of N2, O2, and CO2 in a gas mixing tank. The gases were premixed before being introduced into the low pressure Mars Dome. As an attempt to reduce the effects of pressure, the number of moles of the component gases was calculated and used to determine when gases needed to be added to the system or when gas concentrations needed to be diluted. There were two trial runs during each of the two experiments carried out. The total pressures in both the mixing tank and the Mars Dome remained within their limits of constraint during both trials. For the mixing tank, the pressure was maintained between 170kPa and 180kPa with a setpoint of 175kPa. Gas composition was evaluated at 67kPa and 33kPa in the Mars Dome. Again the pressure remained within its range of ±5kPa of its setpoint. Adequate control of the partial pressures of N2, and O2 were achieved in the mixing tank and the Mars Dome. With respect to the control of CO2, the algorithm was unable to maintain the partial pressure within the operational limits specified. The tendency was for CO2 to linger above its setpoint. Moreover, at 33kPa the CO2 sensor in the Mars Dome began to reflect a lower concentration of CO2 in the system than what was reported by the gas chromatograph or the CO2 sensor in the mixing tank. While sufficient control of the partial pressures was achieved, there are modifications to be made that should further tighten the control limits of the system. Such modifications include recalibrating the sensors in the system and adjusting gas flow rates.

Lovelady, April

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Review: Estimation of California bearing ratio by using soft computing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the application of different methods (simple-multiple analysis and artificial neural networks) for the estimation of the California bearing ratio (CBR) from sieve analysis, Atterberg limits, maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Atterberg limits, California bearing ratio (CBR), Correlation, Maximum dry unit weight, Optimum moisture content, Sieve analysis

B. Yildirim; O. Gunaydin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Ratio of Heat to Power Based on a Conceptual CHP System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CHP system not only produces electrical energy, but also produces thermal energy. An extensive analysis of the CHP market reveals that one of the most important engineering characteristics is flexibility. A variable heat-to-power ratio has compelling advantages over a fixed one and enables a power plant to achieve reliability and flexibility, which are very important characteristics for a CHP system. In this paper, a conceptual SOFC/GT CHP system is presented. The parameters' effect on the variable heat-to-power ratio is investigated. As SOFC reactors are still under development, a flexible simulation tool based on mass and energy balances coupled with appropriate expressions for the reaction kinetics, thermodynamic constants and material properties, is presented for adaptation to different cell geometries and operating conditions. Simulation results show that the SOFC/GT CHP system's advantage over the engine is that a low stack running temperature can achieve a low heat-to- power ratio.

Liu, Z.; Li, X.; Liu, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Control of mixed-state quantum systems by a train of short pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A density matrix approach is developped for the control of a mixed-state quantum system using a time-dependent external field such as a train of pulses. This leads to the definition of a target density matrix constructed in a reduced Hilbert space as a specific combination of the eigenvectors of a given observable through weighting factors related with the initial statistics of the system. A train of pulses is considered as a possible strategy to reach this target. An illustration is given by considering the laser control of molecular alignment / orientation in thermal equilibrium.

D. Sugny; A. Keller; O. Atabek; D. Daems; C. M. Dion; S. Guérin; H. R. Jauslin

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste  

SciTech Connect

Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE`s mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements.

Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bechtold, T.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a theory of operator renewal sequences in the context of infinite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical systems preserving an infinite measure, we determine the asymptotic behaviour of iterates $L^n$ of the transfer operator. This was previously an intractable problem. Examples of systems covered by our results include (i) parabolic rational maps of the complex plane and (ii) (not necessarily Markovian) nonuniformly expanding interval maps with indifferent fixed points. In addition, we give a particularly simple proof of pointwise dual ergodicity (asymptotic behaviour of $\\sum_{j=1}^nL^j$) for the class of systems under consideration. In certain situations, including Pomeau-Manneville intermittency maps, we obtain higher order expansions for $L^n$ and rates of mixing. Also, we obtain error estimates in the associated Dynkin-Lamperti arcsine laws.

Melbourne, Ian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Mixed variable optimization of a load-bearing thermal insulation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

categorical variables, mixed variable programming, pattern search algorithm, filter algorithm, nonlinear constraints Abstract: This paper describes the optimization of a load-bearing thermal insulation system characterized by hot and cold surfaces with a series of heat intercepts and insulators between them. The optimization problem is represented as a mixed variable programming (MVP) problem with nonlinear constraints, in which the objective is to minimize the power required to maintain the heat intercepts at fixed temperatures so that one surface is kept sufficiently cold. MVP problems are more general than mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems in that the discrete variables are categorical; i.e., they must always take on values from a predefined enumerable set or list. Thus, traditional approaches that use branch and bound techniques cannot be applied. In a previous paper, a linearly constrained version of this problem was solved numerically using the Audet-Dennis generalized pattern search (GPS) method for MVP problems. However, this algorithm may not work for problems with general nonlinear constraints. A new algorithm that extends that of Audet and Dennis by incorporating a filter to handle nonlinear constraints makes it possible to solve the more general problem. Additional nonlinear constraints on stress, May 5, 2003 2 mass, and thermal contraction are added to that of the previous work in an effort to find a more realistic feasible design. Several computational experiments show a substantial improvement in power required to maintain the system, as compared to the previous literature. The addition of the new constraints leads to a very different design without significantly changing the power required. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm can be applied to a very broad class of optimization problems, for which no previous algorithm with provable convergence results could be applied. 1

Mark A. Abramson

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Crystal structures of mixed-conducting oxides present in the Sr-Fe-Co-O system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential applications of mixed-conducting ceramic oxides include solid-oxide fuel cells, rechargeable batteries, gas sensors and oxygen-permeable membranes. Several perovskite-derived mixed Sr-Fe-Co oxides show not only high electrical-conductivity but also appreciable oxygen-permeability at elevated temperatures. For example, dense ceramic membranes of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} can be used to separate oxygen from air without the need for external electrical circuitry. The separated oxygen can be directly used for the partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas. Quantitative phase analysis of the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} material has revealed that it is predominantly composed of two Sr-Fe-Co-O systems, Sr{sub 4}Fe{sub 6{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub 13} and SrFe{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}. Here we report preliminary structural findings on the SrFe{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) system.

Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Miler, D. J.; Ma, B.; Balachandran, U.; Richardson, J. W., Jr.

1998-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Solar load ratio method applied to commercial building active solar system sizing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hourly simulation procedure is the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. It is capable of calculating the loads and of simulating various control strategies in detail for both residential and commercial buildings and yet is computationally efficient enough to be used for extensive parametric studies. In addition, to a Building Service Hot Water (BSHW) System and a combined space heating and hot water system using liquid collectors for a commercial building analyzed previously, a space heating system using an air collector is analyzed. A series of runs is made for systems using evacuated tube collectors for comparison to flat-plate collectors, and the effects of additional system design parameters are investigated. Also, the generic collector types are characterized by standard efficiency curves, rather than by detailed collector specifications. (MHR)

Schnurr, N.M.; Hunn, B.D.; Williamson, K.D. III

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Using systems analysis to improve decision making in solving mixed waste problems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systems analysis methods and tools have been developed and applied to the problem of selecting treatment technologies for mixed wastes. The approach, which is based on decision analysis, process modeling, and process simulation with a tool developed in-house, provides a one-of-a-kind resource for waste treatment alternatives evaluation and has played a key role in developing mandated treatment plans for Oak Ridge Reservation mixed waste.

Ferrada, J.J.; Welch, T.D.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Injection of Short-Lived Radionuclides into the Early Solar System from a Faint Supernova with Mixing-Fallback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) were present in the early solar system, some of which should have formed just prior to or soon after the solar system formation. Stellar nucleosynthesis has been proposed as the mechanism for production of SLRs in the solar system, but no appropriate stellar source has been found to explain the abundances of all solar system SLRs. In this study, we propose a faint supernova with mixing and fallback as a stellar source of SLRs with mean lives of <5 Myr (26Al, 41Ca, 53Mn, and 60Fe) in the solar system. In such a supernova, the inner region of the exploding star experiences mixing, a small fraction of mixed materials is ejected, and the rest undergoes fallback onto the core. The modeled SLR abundances agree well with their solar system abundances if mixing-fallback occurs within the C/O-burning layer. In some cases, the initial solar system abundances of the SLRs can be reproduced within a factor of 2. The dilution factor of supernova ejecta to the solar system materials is ~10E-4 and the time interval between the supernova explosion and the formation of oldest solid materials in the solar system is ~1 Myr. If the dilution occurred due to spherically symmetric expansion, a faint supernova should have occurred nearby the solar system forming region in a star cluster.

A. Takigawa; J. Miki; S. Tachibana; G. R. Huss; N. Tominaga; H. Umeda; K. Nomoto

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

80

Inline Integration: A new mixed symbolic/numeric approach for solving differential-algebraic equation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new method for solving di erential{algebraic equation systems using a mixed symbolic and numeric approach. Discretization formulae representing the numerical integration algorithm are symbolically inserted into the di erential{algebraic equation model. The symbolic formulae manipulation algorithm of the model translator treats these additional equations in the same way as it treats the physical equations of the model itself, i.e., it looks at the augmented set of algebraically coupled equations and generates optimized code to be used with the underlying simulation run{time system. For implicit integration methods, a large nonlinear system of equations needs to be solved at every time step. It is shown that the presented uniform treatment of model equations and discretization formulae often leads to a signi cant reduction of the number of iteration variables and therefore to a substantial increase in execution speed. In a large mechatronics system consisting of a six degree{of{freedom robot together with its motors, drive trains, and control systems, this approach led to a speedup factor of more than ten.

Hilding Elmqvist; Martin Otter; Francois E. Cellier

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alkali injection system with controlled CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur in which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000/sup 0/K for a gas-gas reaction with SO/sub 2/ and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO/sub 2/ for oil recovery and other purposes. Several advantages are associated with the invention. First, by using a low CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratio, higher flame temperatures can be achieved, thereby substantially promoting the gas-gas reaction between alkali atoms and sulfur gases. Second, by providing a means for injecting additional CO/sub 2/ at various locations removed from the combustion zone, the heat transfer rate and cooling of the alkali sulfates can be tightly controlled without suffering either the loss in efficiency inherent in conventional gas recycle techniques or the added cost associated with the larger mass throughput rate and heat transfer surface area. Third, there is the ability to use the concept in retrofit applications by tailoring the CO/sub 2/ quantity recycled to match the heat utilization performance previously achieved using air as the oxidizing medium. Fourth, a natural reduction in nitrous oxides is achieved by eliminating the reaction of oxygen with the nitrogen in the oxidizer.

Berry, G.F.

1986-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems: preliminary measurements from the Coso Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal system. If the chlorine was originally input into the Coso subsurface through meteoric recharge, that input occurred at least 1-1.25 million years ago. The results suggest that the thermal waters could be connate waters derived from sedimentary formations, presumably underlying and adjacent top the granitic rocks, which have recently migrated into the host rocks. Alternatively, most of the chlorine but not the water, may have recently input into the system from magmatic sources. In either case, the results indicate that most of the chlorine in the thermal waters has existed within the granitoid host rocks for no more than about 100,00-200,00 years. this residence time for the chlorine is similar to residence times suggested by other researchers for chlorine in deep groundwaters of the Mono Basin north of the Coso field.

Nimz, G.J.; Moore, J.N.; Kasameyer, P.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mixed Variable Optimization of the Number and Composition of Heat Intercepts in a Thermal Insulation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: In the literature, thermal insulation systems with a xed number of heat intercepts have been optimized with respect to intercept locations and temperatures. The number of intercepts and the types of insulators that surround them were chosen by parametric studies. This was because the optimization methods used could not treat such categorical variables. Discrete optimization variables are categorical if the objective function or the constraints can not be evaluated unless the variables take one of a prescribed enumerable set of values. The key issue is that categorical variables can not be treated as ordinary discrete variables are treated by relaxing them to continuous variables with a side constraint that they be discrete at the solution. A new mixed variable programming (MVP) algorithm makes it possible to optimize directly with respect to mixtures of discrete, continuous, and categorical decision variables. The result of applying MVP is shown here to give a 65% reduction in the ...

Michael Kokkolaras; Charless Audet; J. E. Dennis, Jr.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

Pueyo, Laurent [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Monnier, John D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 941 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Parry, Ian [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3, OHA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

85

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Optimal design of mixed AC-DC distribution systems for commercial buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the advent of inexpensive computing and efficient power electronics, the load mix in commercial buildings has experienced a fundamental shift away from almost exclusively… (more)

Frank, Stephen M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely to be substituted for the matched components in a mixed system. The method allows calculation of capacity at 95°F rating point and seasonal energy efficiency ratio, SEER, without performing laboratory test of the complete system. Limitations of the procedure, present work, and anticipated improvements are also discussed.

Domanski, P. A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Phase stability of the mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co-O system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting ceramic oxides have potential uses in high-temperature electrochemical applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, batteries, sensors, and oxygen-permeable membranes. The Sr-Fe-Co-O system combines high electronic/ionic conductivity with appreciable oxygen permeability at elevated temperatures. Dense ceramic membranes made of this material can be used to separate high-purity oxygen from air without the need for external electrical circuitry, or to partially oxidize methane to produce syngas. Samples of Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub y} (with x = 0, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.4) were prepared by solid-state reaction method in atmospheres with various oxygen partial pressures (pO{sub 2}) and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrical conductivity testing. Phase components of the sample are dependent on cobalt concentration and pO{sub 2}. Electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature and cobalt content in the material.

Ma, B.; Balachandran, U.; Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Miller, D. J.; Richardson, J. W., Jr.

1997-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

89

Thermalized polarization dynamics of a discrete optical waveguide system with four-wave mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical mechanics of two coupled vector fields is studied in the tight-binding model that describes propagation of polarized light in discrete waveguides in the presence of the four-wave mixing. The energy and power conservation laws enable the formulation of the equilibrium properties of the polarization state in terms of the Gibbs measure with positive temperature. The transition line $T=\\infty$ is established beyond which the discrete vector solitons are created. Also in the limit of the large nonlinearity an analytical expression for the distribution of Stokes parameters is obtained which is found to be dependent only on the statistical properties of the initial polarization state and not on the strength of nonlinearity. The evolution of the system to the final equilibrium state is shown to pass through the intermediate stage when the energy exchange between the waveveguides is still negligible. The distribution of the Stokes parameters in this regime has a complex multimodal structure strongly dependent on the nonlinear coupling coefficients and the initial conditions.

S. A. Derevyanko

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Presence of Storm Systems over a Northern Wisconsin Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixing ratios of CO2 often change abruptly in the presence of inclement weather and low pressure systems. Water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction data are used to infer that the abrupt changes in CO2 mixing ratios at ...

Michael D. Hurwitz; Daniel M. Ricciuto; Peter S. Bakwin; Kenneth J. Davis; Weiguo Wang; Chiuxiang Yi; Martha P. Butler

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Overview of Pulse Jet Mixer/Hybrid Mixing System Development to Support the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology was selected for mixing the contents of many of the process vessels. Several of the tanks are expected to contain concentrated slurries that exhibit a non-Newtonian rheology and the understanding required to apply this technology to mobilize the non-Newtonian slurries was not mature. Consequently, an experimental testing effort was undertaken to investigate PJM performance in several scaled versions of WTP vessels and to develop mixing system configurations that met WTP requirements. This effort evolved into a large, multifaceted test program involving many different test facilities. Elements of the test program included theoretical analysis, development and characterization of simulants, development of instrumentation and measurement techniques, hundreds of tests at various scales in numerous test stands, and data analysis and application. This program provided the technical basis for the selection of pulse jet mixers along with air spargers and steady jets generated by recirculation pumps to provide mixing systems for several of the vessels with non-Newtonian slurries. This paper provides an overview of the testing program and a summary of the key technical results that formed the technical basis of the final mixing system configurations to be used in the WTP.

Kurath, Dean E.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.; Barnes, Steven M.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

92

The Effects of Subgrid Model Mixing and Numerical Filtering in Simulations of Mesoscale Cloud Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the newly developed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, this study investigates the effects of subgrid mixing and numerical filtering in mesoscale cloud simulations by examining the sensitivities to the parameters in turbulence-...

Tetsuya Takemi; Richard Rotunno

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Measurements of Aerodynamic Roughness, Bowen Ratio, and Atmospheric Surface Layer Height by Eddy Covariance and Tethersonde Systems Simultaneously over a Heterogeneous Rice Paddy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the ...

Jeng-Lin Tsai; Ben-Jei Tsuang; Po-Sheng Lu; Ken-Hui Chang; Ming-Hwi Yao; Yuan Shen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems  

SciTech Connect

An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

95

Structure and property relationship in the mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co-O system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting ceramic oxides have potential uses in high-temperature electrochemical applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, advanced batteries, sensors, and oxygen-permeable membranes. The Sr-Fe-Co-O system combines high electronic/ionic conductivity with appreciable oxygen permeability at elevated temperatures. Dense ceramic membranes made of this material can be used to separate high-purity oxygen from air without the need for external electrical circuitry, or to partially oxidize methane to produce syngas. Samples of Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub y} (with x = 0, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.4) were prepared by solid-state reaction in atmospheres with various oxygen partial pressures (pO{sub 2}) and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements. Phase components of the samples are dependent on cobalt concentration and synthesis pO{sub 2}. Total conductivity increases with increasing temperature and cobalt content in the material. Higher ionic transference numbers have been observed in samples with lower cobalt contents. Current-voltage characteristics determined in a gas-tight cell indicate that a bulk effect, rather than a surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation through membranes made of Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub y}. Oxygen permeability measurements at various temperatures showed that oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature, as expected. At 900 C, an oxygen permeation flux of 2.5 scc{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}min{sup {minus}1} was obtained for a Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub y} disk of 2.9 mm thickness.

Ma, B.

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Scaling Theory for Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels, Sparging, and Cyclic Feed Transport Systems for Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This document is a previously unpublished work based on a draft report prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) in 2012. Work on the report stopped when WTP’s approach to testing changed. PNNL is issuing a modified version of the document a year later to preserve and disseminate the valuable technical work that was completed. This document establishes technical bases for evaluating the mixing performance of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) pretreatment process tanks based on data from less-than-full-scale testing, relative to specified mixing requirements. The technical bases include the fluid mechanics affecting mixing for specified vessel configurations, operating parameters, and simulant properties. They address scaling vessel physical performance, simulant physical performance, and “scaling down” the operating conditions at full scale to define test conditions at reduced scale and “scaling up” the test results at reduced scale to predict the performance at full scale. Essentially, this document addresses the following questions: • Why and how can the mixing behaviors in a smaller vessel represent those in a larger vessel? • What information is needed to address the first question? • How should the information be used to predict mixing performance in WTP? The design of Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being addressed in other, complementary documents.

Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Rassat, Scot D.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Josephson, Gary B.; Wells, Beric E.; Berglin, Eric J.

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Criterion for Thermal Stratification in a Wind-Mixed System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The onset of thermal stratification in an isohaline, wind-mixed water body is shown, by a simple model and observations, to be determined by the parameter u*3/hB?, where u* is the friction velocity of the air just above the water surface, h the ...

Peter E. Holloway

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A mixed reality system for teaching STEM content using embodied learning and whole-body metaphors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of an MR environment that can be used in teaching STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) topics. Specifically we seek to create a space for facilitating whole-body metaphors where learners use the ... Keywords: educational game, embodied learning, mixed reality, sensor fusion, whole-body interaction, whole-body metaphors

Remo Pillat; Arjun Nagendran; Robb Lindgren

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A mixed-integer linear optimization model for local energy system planning based on simplex and branch-and-bound algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Mixed-integer linear optimization model is developed to support the decision making for the sustainable use of energy in the local area. It details exploitation of primary energy sources, electrical and thermal generation, enduse sectors and emissions. ... Keywords: branch-and-bound algorithm, local energy system, low-carbon society, mixed-integer linear optimization, simplex algorithm

Hongbo Ren; Weisheng Zhou; Weijun Gao; Qiong Wu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Glass forming ability of the Mo-Pd system studied by thermodynamic modeling and ion beam mixing  

SciTech Connect

Glass forming ability/range of the Mo-Pd binary metal system was studied by thermodynamic calculations employing Miedema's model and ion beam mixing of multiple metal layers. The thermodynamic calculations predict a narrow composition range of 8-26 at% Pd, within which metallic glass formation is energetically favored, whereas the experimental results showed that ion beam mixing was able to synthesize metallic glasses within a composition range 13-30 at% Pd, which was well in accordance with the prediction. Besides, in the Mo{sub 70}Pd{sub 30} multilayered films, with varying the irradiation dose, a dual-phase metallic glass was formed, and it could be considered as an intermediate state. The possible mechanism for the formation of the metallic glasses was also discussed in terms of the atomic collision theory.

Ding, N.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems; Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

when it could be green. Window Signaling Systems: Case StudyWindow Signaling Systems: Case Study Summaries Appendix COffices, Portland OR Window Signaling Systems: Case Study

Ackerly, Katie; Brager, Gail

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger-PJM tests and modeling being conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and small-scale agitation tests and evaluations of effects waste and AFA ingredients have on gas retention and mass transfer being conducted at SRNL. Only work conducted at SRNL is reported here. Key results are: (1) The unexpected gas holdup behavior reported in 2006 for a small-scale agitation system is confirmed. The gas holdup data from small-scale and bench-scale impeller-type mixing systems reported herein show very different trends than the behavior exhibited by the prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system tested in the PNNL APEL facility. Results obtained from testing this 1/4-scale prototypic mixing system will be reported by PNNL. The reason for this difference in holdup behavior between the two different mixing systems is not known at this time. Consequently, data from the small mechanical agitation systems should not be extrapolated to prototypic plant conditions. (2) Bench-scale and small-scale tests conducted with Dow Corning 1520-US AFA show it to be a viable replacement to Dow Corning Q2-3183A AFA. This alternative AFA will, however, require significantly higher dosage (concentration) to perform the same antifoam function. (3) Addition of noble metals to the AZ-101 waste simulant does not produce a catalytic gas retention effect with the AFA. The Gas holdup is similar whether or not noble metals are present in the AZ-101 simulant. (4) Mass transfer tests were performed in a large (0.76 m diameter) bubble column filled to 1.3, 3.4, and 7.4 m elevations with water and the AZ-101 waste simulant. Mass transfer coefficients for air bubbles emanating from a prototypic 0.051 m diameter sparger were obtained from the transient decay of dissolved oxygen concentration in the initially saturated fluids. Adding AFA to water reduces the mass transfer coefficient slightly. AFA addition reduces the mass transfer coefficient for AZ-101 simulant more than it does for water because the shear strength of the simulant allows for larger bubble sizes, and larger bubbles have smaller surf

Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

2007-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Transition to Turbulence and Effect of Initial Conditions on 3D Compressible Mixing in Planar Blast-wave-driven Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams, 9(2), 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multi-physics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J.A. Greenough, J. Comp. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution, including transition to turbulence, is considered for various multimode perturbation spectra. The 3D post-transition state differs from the 2D result, but the process of transition proceeds similarly in both 2D and 3D. The turbulent mixing transition results in a reduction in the growth rate of the mixing layer relative to its pre-transition value and, in the case of the bubble front, relative to the 2D result. The post-transition spike front velocity is approximately the same in 2D and 3D. Implications for hydrodynamic mixing in core-collapse supernova are discussed.

Miles, A R; Edwards, M J; Greenough, J A

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

104

Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was demonstrated for the hydrogen-natural gas fuel. The micro-mixing fuel injectors show great promise for use in future gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen, syngas or other fuel mixtures of various compositions, supporting the Department of Energy goals related to increased energy diversity while reducing greenhouse gases.

Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Modeling and Simulation of the Cardiovascular System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cardiovascular system is composed of the hemodynamical system and the Central Nervous System (CNS) control. Whereas the structure and functioning of the hemodynamical system are well known and a number of quantitative models have already been developed that capture the behavior of the hemodynamical system fairly accurately, the CNS control is, at present, still not completely understood and no good deductive models exist that are able to describe the CNS control from physical and physiological principles. The use of qualitative methodologies may offer an interesting alternative to quantitative modeling approaches for inductively capturing the behavior of the CNS control. In this paper, a qualitative model of the CNS control of the cardiovascular system is developed by means of the Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR) methodology. Fuzzy inductive reasoning is a fairly new modeling technique that is based on the General System Problem Solving (GSPS) methodology developed by G. Klir. Prev...

Angela Nebot; François E. Cellier

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.

Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bastian, R.E. [Focus Environmental, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davis, W.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems; Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling mode is initiated, the VRF will cool to 2° below thevariable refrigerant flow (VRF) units for cooling andTo minimize the operation of the VRF system in cooling mode,

Ackerly, Katie; Brager, Gail

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems; Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

my window it will waste energy.  Even so I open the windowwindown wouldn’t waste energy. ” Window Signaling Systems:and large, preventing energy waste during the red light mode

Ackerly, Katie; Brager, Gail

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Turbulent Mixing Processes in Atmospheric Bores and Solitary Waves Deduced from Profiling Systems and Numerical Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Families of solitary waves (“solitons”) associated with two atmospheric bores on the same day were observed by an unprecedented number of ground-based and airborne profiling systems during the International H2O Project (IHOP). In addition, a very ...

Steven E. Koch; Wayne Feltz; Frédéric Fabry; Mariusz Pagowski; Bart Geerts; Kristopher M. Bedka; David O. Miller; James W. Wilson

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Compiled code simulation of analog and mixed-signal systems using piecewise linear modeling of nonlinear parameters: A case study for ?? modulator simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for fast time-domain simulation of analog systems with nonlinear parameters. Specifically, the paper focuses on @D@S analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The method creates compiled-code simulators based on symbolic analysis. ... Keywords: Analog and mixed-signal systems, Neural networks, Nonlinear modeling, Piecewise linear, Simulation

Hui Zhang; Simona Doboli; Hua Tang; Alex Doboli

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Mixing by ocean eddies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mesoscale eddies mix and transport tracers such as heat and potential vorticity laterally in the ocean. While this transport plays an important role in the climate system, especially in the Southern Ocean, we lack a, ...

Abernathey, Ryan (Ryan Patrick)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Evaluation of mixing in three duct configurations and development of a Generic Tee Plenum System (GTPS) for application to single point aerosol sampling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Generic Tee Plenum System (GTPS) based on three different duct systems (Configuration-I, II and III) used in nuclear facilities has been developed which creates suitable conditions for single point representative sampling. This single point sampling is an acceptable standard methodology for sampling emissions from stacks and ducts of the nuclear industry (ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 and US EPA 2000). These air duct systems in nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 that the exhaust airflow be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. Results show that the GTPS system performance is well within the requirements of ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 - the COVs for velocity, tracer gas concentration and 10 [u]m AD aerosol particle are less than the mixing criteria 20% of ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999. The objective of this work is to provide data on the mixing effectiveness of various duct configurations found in nuclear facilities. These data can be applied in new facilities as well as in upgrades to existing U.S. DOE nuclear facilities. The data should also provide a basis for testing the efficacy of mixing models that may be generated in the future. Experiments were conducted to characterize the degree of mixing at downstream locations as affected by several types of flow disturbances, including a plenum consisting with duct intakes, a rectangular elbow with turning vanes, 90? elbows, tees, commercial static mixing device and GTPS in circular and non-circular ducts. The mixing performance of a plenum duct configuration (Configuration-I) with two-intake sources was studied to develop recommendations for suitable sampling locations less than 4 duct diameters downstream of a plenum. Several mixing element options were considered both upstream and downstream of a security grille. A stack model system with straight circular ducts downstream of rectangular elbow with turning vanes (Configuration-II) were characterized for velocity, tracer gas and particle concentration profiles COVs. The application of a mixing system was designed for achieving maximum conditions in round-elbow and tee element system interfaced to a stack (Configuration-III). Several options were considered when using different types of elbows upstream of the stack. Numerical studies for velocity profile in the GTPS were conducted with a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, FLUENT. Good agreement was found between the experimental and numerical results.

Han, Tae Won

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Setting the best view of a virtual teacher in a mixed reality physical-task learning support system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this research, we investigated the virtual teacher's positions and orientations that led to optimal learning outcome in mixed-reality environment. First, this study showed that the virtual teacher's position and orientation have an effect on learning ... Keywords: Collaborative computing, Human computer interaction, Mixed reality, Physical tasks learning, Virtual reality

Mamoun Nawahdah, Tomoo Inoue

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [4] in response to the SRR request. The conclusions provided in this report are that no changes need to be made to the SME acceptability process (i.e., no modifications to WSRC-TR-95-00364, Revision 5, are needed) and no changes need to be made to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) itself (i.e. the spreadsheet utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) for acceptability decisions does not require modification) in response to thorium becoming a reportable element for DWPF operations. In addition, the inputs and results for the two test cases requested by WSE for use in confirming the successful activation of thorium as a reportable element for DWPF operations during the processing of SB6 are presented in this report.

Edwards, T.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Gas Retention and Release Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies performed to establish the methodology to perform reduced-scale gas retention and release tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids with gas generation. The technical basis for scaled testing with unsteady jet mixing systems in gas-generating non-Newtonian fluids is presented in the form of a bubble migration model that accounts for the gas generation rate, the average bubble rise velocity, and the geometry of the vessel. Scaling laws developed from the model were validated with gas holdup and release tests conducted at three scales: large scale, 1/4 scale, and 1/9 scale. Experiments were conducted with two non-Newtonian simulants with in-situ gas generation by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were examined. From these results, scaling laws are developed which allow the design of mixing systems at a reduced scale.

Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Barnes, Steven M.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

Radar Reflectivity–Based Estimates of Mixed Layer Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the potential for estimating mixed layer depth by taking advantage of the radial gradients in the radar reflectivity field produced by the large vertical gradients in water vapor mixing ratio that are characteristic of the ...

P. L. Heinselman; P. L. Spencer; K. L. Elmore; D. J. Stensrud; R. M. Hluchan; P. C. Burke

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRANSFORMER RATIO ENHANCEMENT EXPERIMENT A. Kanareykin, Euclid Concepts LLC, Solon, OH 44139, USA W. Gai, J. G. Power. ANL, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA E. Nenasheva, Ceramics Ltd., St....

127

Mixing and segregation rates in sheared granular materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The size-segregation of granular materials, a process colloquially known as the Brazil Nut Effect, has generally been thought to proceed faster the greater the size difference of the particles. We experimentally investigate sheared bidisperse granular materials as a function of the size ratio of the two species, and find that the mixing rate at low confining pressure behaves as expected from percolation-based arguments. However, we also observe an anomalous effect for the re-segregation rates, wherein particles of both dissimilar and similar sizes segregate more slowly than intermediate particle size ratios. Combined with the fact that increasing the confining pressure significantly suppresses both mixing and segregation rates of particles of dissimilar size, we propose that the anomalous behavior may be attributed to a species-dependent distribution of forces within the system.

Laura A. Golick; Karen E. Daniels

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

Transition to turbulence and effect of initial conditions on three-dimensional compressible mixing in planar blast-wave-driven systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, results from three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution, including transition to turbulence, is considered for various multimode perturbation spectra. The 3D post-transition state differs from the 2D result, but the process of transition proceeds similarly in both 2D and 3D. The turbulent mixing transition results in a reduction in the growth rate of the mixing layer relative to its pretransition value and, in the case of the bubble front, relative to the 2D result. The post-transition spike front velocity is approximately the same in 2D and 3D. Implications for hydrodynamic mixing in core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

Miles, A.R.; Blue, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Greenough, J.A.; Hansen, J.F.; Robey, H.F.; Drake, R.P.; Kuranz, C.; Leibrandt, D.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-021, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Billiards with polynomial mixing rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While many dynamical systems of mechanical origin, in particular billiards, are strongly chaotic -- enjoy exponential mixing, the rates of mixing in many other models are slow (algebraic, or polynomial). The dynamics in the latter are intermittent between regular and chaotic, which makes them particularly interesting in physical studies. However, mathematical methods for the analysis of systems with slow mixing rates were developed just recently and are still difficult to apply to realistic models. Here we reduce those methods to a practical scheme that allows us to obtain a nearly optimal bound on mixing rates. We demonstrate how the method works by applying it to several classes of chaotic billiards with slow mixing as well as discuss a few examples where the method, in its present form, fails.

Nikolai Chernov; Hong-Kun Zhang

2004-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Influence of indoor transport and mixing times scales on the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of indoor transport and mixing times scales on the performance of sensor systems for characterizing contaminant releases Title Influence of indoor transport and mixing...

131

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

132

Penalty guided bees search for redundancy allocation problems with a mix of components in series-parallel systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper uses a penalty guided strategy based on an artificial bee colony algorithm (PGBC) to solve the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) in reliability series-parallel systems. The penalty strategy was designed to eliminate the equalities in constraints ... Keywords: Penalty guided artificial bee colony algorithm, Redundancy allocation problem, Series-parallel system, System reliability

Tsung-Jung Hsieh; Wei-Chang Yeh

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006  

SciTech Connect

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in ...

Rosario Q. Iannone; Daniele Romanini; Samir Kassi; Harro A. J. Meijer; Erik R. Th Kerstel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Deepening Treatment of the Low C/N Ratio Biogas Slurry at Mountainous Region Livestock Farming by Using Modified Two-Stage A/O System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensive and fast development of livestock farming with ecological pattern of raising¨Cbiogas¨Cirrigating is widely applied in China. After anaerobic fermentation the agricultural wastes can provides clean energy. However, there is problem by lacking ... Keywords: livestock farming, biogas slurry, low C/N ratio, deepening treatment

Wei-wei Yu; Zhi Zhang; Sheng-lan Bi; Shu-yang Li; Chao Liu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine to substantially maintain the ratio at a predetermined value while the engine is operating under various load conditions. The engine has a carburetor with an air passageway through which air is drawn into the engine. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor through a fuel system and mixed with air passing through the carburetor. The presence of oxygen in the combustion products, which is a function of the air-fuel ratio of the mixture, is sensed and a first electrical signal representative of the oxygen content is supplied. The first electrical signal is compared with a predetermined reference level which is a function of the predetermined value to produce a second electrical signal having first and second signal elements, a first signal element being produced when the air-fuel ratio of the mixture is greater than the predetermined level and a second signal element being produced when the ratio is less than the level. A control responsive to the second electrical signal supplies to an air metering unit a control signal by which the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system is controlled. A change in the control signal is produced whenever the second electrical signal has a transition from one signal element to the other thereby for the air metering unit to change the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system conduit by an amount necessary to substantially maintain the air-fuel ratio at the predetermined value.

Gantzert, T.R.; Hicks, D.L.; Lindberg, A.W.

1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

137

Lean manufacturing system design and value stream management in a high-mix, low-volume environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Value Stream Mapping is a powerful tool for identifying sources of waste and for creating the vision for the future state of a production system. As a management tool, however, it lacks in specific focus of roles, ...

Gates, Matthew David, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Advanced Mixing Models  

Propose mixing indicators. Turbulence kinetic energy ... (Turbulence intensity observed at Point 8 in Tank B & C) Advanced Mixing Models. Computational Sciences. 13.

139

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

B Lifetimes and Mixing  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

Evans, Harold G.; /Indiana U.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006  

SciTech Connect

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Dynamical localization of chaotic eigenstates in the mixed-type systems: spectral statistics in a billiard system after separation of regular and chaotic eigenstates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the quantum mechanics of a billiard (Robnik 1983) in the regime of mixed-type classical phase space (the shape parameter \\lambda=0.15) at very high-lying eigenstates, starting at about 1.000.000th eigenstate and including the consecutive 587654 eigenstates. By calculating the normalized Poincar\\'e Husimi functions of the eigenstates and comparing them with the classical phase space structure, we introduce the overlap criterion which enables us to separate with great accuracy and reliability the regular and chaotic eigenstates, and the corresponding energies. The chaotic eigenstates appear all to be dynamically localized, meaning that they do not occupy unformly the entire available chaotic classical phase space component, but are localized on a proper subset. We find with unprecedented precision and statistical significance that the level spacing distribution of the regular levels obeys the Poisson statistics, and the chaotic ones obey the Brody statistics, as anticipated in a recent paper by Batisti\\'c and Robnik (2010), where the entire spectrum was found to obey the BRB statistics. There are no effects of dynamical tunneling in this regime, due to the high energies, as they decay exponentially with the inverse effective Planck constant which is proportional to the square root of the energy.

Benjamin Batisti?; Marko Robnik

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

145

Geochemical assessment of gaseous hydrocarbons: mixing of bacterial and thermogenic methane in the deep subsurface petroleum system, Gulf of Mexico continental slope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixtures of bacterial and thermogenic methane are found both at vents at the seafloor and in reservoirs in the deep subsurface of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope. The C1-C5 gas that most recently charged reservoirs of Jolliet (GC 184), Genesis (GC 160/161) and Petronius (VK 786) fields is estimated to include 17%-28%, 31%-51%, 31%-49% bacterial methane, respectively. Geochemical assessment of the reservoir gas in the fields show that the gas may be the product of thermal cracking of Upper Jurassic crude oil before final migration to the reservoirs. The gas from three different fields is of similar thermal maturity levels. In contrast to oil in reservoirs in the fields, which shows biodegradation effects, the C1-C5 reservoir gas is unaltered by biodegradation. Late gas migration may have occurred at or near present burial depth and flushed the reservoir system of previously biodegraded hydrocarbon gas to include any previous bacterial methane. Molecular and isotopic properties of reservoir gas and oil suggest that bacterial methane mixed with thermogenic hydrocarbon gas before entering the reservoirs. Thus the source of the bacterial methane is logically deeper than the present depth (>~4 km) and temperatures of the reservoirs. High sedimentation rate and low geothermal gradient may offer conditions favorable for generation and preservation of bacterial methane in deep subsurface petroleum system of the Gulf slope. Bacterial methane dispersed across the large drainage areas of the deep subsurface petroleum system may have been swept by migrating fluids at >4 km, and then charged both vents (GC 185, GC 233 and GC 286) at the seafloor and reservoirs in the deep subsurface. The volume of bacterial methane from geologically significant depth in rapidly subsiding basins may be underestimated.

Ozgul, Ercin

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Mixed Waste Treatment Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an ongoing integrated mixed waste program, EPRI has documented nuclear utility industry experience in the on-site treatment of mixed waste. This report reviews all available exclusions/exceptions to EPA permitting requirements for environmentally responsible on-site management of mixed waste. Included is a description of emerging mixed waste treatment technologies along with a detailed evaluation of off-site treatment/disposal facilities.

1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Analysis of the impact of heat-to-power ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Tubular SOFC/Vision 21 Hybrids #12;SECA 4/15/03 Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 2003-2008 · Near-term DG major Focus of DOE Fossil Energy Program · Now 6 SOFC SECA Industry Teams · Program in place · Making/15/03 Acumentrics APU Core Module Acumentrics Anode supported Tubular SOFC Systems 5,000 Watt · 45 minute start

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

148

Cloud Top Mixing in Small Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 28 August 1978 a series of flights was made into small cumuli using the Desert Research Institutes B-26 research aircraft. The low values for the liquid water mixing ratio obtained in cloud indicate considerable entrainment of clear air. A ...

Robert G. LaMontagne; James W. Telford

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

In vitro characterization of pluronic F127 and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mixed micelles as nanocarriers for targeted anticancer-drug delivery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed micelles of Pluronic F127 and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) in different molar ratios (10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, and 3 : 7) were prepared to characterize this system as nanocarriers for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic ...

Adeel Masood Butt, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Haliza Katas, Narong Sarisuta, Wasu Witoonsaridsilp, Ruthairat Benjakul

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Dependence of Differential Mixing on N and R?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms and parameter dependence of differential mixing of heat and salt by ocean turbulence are investigated numerically by extending a previous study to examine dependence upon buoyancy frequency N and density gradient ratio R?. In these ...

William J. Merryfield

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Available Technologies: Compression Ratio Dehumidification  

The Compression Ratio Dehumidification technology will address a growing concern since energy efficiency standards became broadly adopted nationwide.

153

Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Developing usable and robust mixed reality systems requires unique human–computer interaction techniques and customized hardware systems. The design of the hardware is directed by the requirements of the rich 3D interactions that can be performed using immersive mobile MR systems. Geometry modeling and capture, navigational annotations, visualizations, and training simulations are all enhanced using augmented computer graphics. We present the design guidelines that have led us through 10 years of evolving mobile outdoor MR hardware systems.

Benjamin Avery; Ross T. Smith; Wayne Piekarski; Bruce H. Thomas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Relating River Plume Structure to Vertical Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of a river plume is related to the vertical mixing using an isohaline-based coordinate system. Salinity coordinates offer the advantage of translating with the plume as it moves or expanding as the plume grows. This coordinate ...

Robert D. Hetland

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Mixed Waste Management Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The management of mixed waste presents serious challenges to nuclear utilities. Regulatory and practical predicaments make compliance with the letter of all applicable regulations extremely difficult. Utility experts developed these guidelines to identify opportunities for improving work practices and regulatory compliance while minimizing any potential adverse impacts of mixed waste management.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

SSA Mixed Canopy Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) The TE canopy tower The mixed trees Terrestrial Ecology canopy access tower at the SSA mixed coniferous/deciduous site. A picture taken looking down from the TE canopy access tower at the SSA mixed auxiliary site, showing the aspen and spruce canopies. Back to the BOREAS Photo Page Index Other Sites: NSA Photos ||NSA-BP Photos | NSA-Fen Photos | NSA-OA Photos | NSA-OBS Photos | NSA-OJP Photos | NSA-UBS Photos | NSA-YJP Photos | NSA-Ops Photos SSA Photos || SSA-Airport Photos | SSA-Fen Photos | SSA-Mix Photos | SSA-OA Photos | SSA-OBS Photos | SSA-OJP Photos | SSA-YA Photos | SSA-YJP Photos | SSA-Ops Photos | ORNL DAAC Home || ORNL Home || NASA || Privacy, Security, Notices || Data Citation || Rate Us || Help | User Services - Tel: +1 (865) 241-3952 or E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov

157

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Neutrino Mass and Mixing with Discrete Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a review article about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A4, S4 and Delta(96).

Stephen F. King; Christoph Luhn

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

ADVANCED MIXING MODELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of recovering and processing High Level Waste (HLW) the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four mixers (pumps) located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are typically set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria applicable to miscible fluids, with an ultimate goal of addressing waste processing in HLW tanks at SRS and quantifying the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. A single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was taken for the analysis of jet flow patterns with an emphasis on the velocity decay and the turbulent flow evolution for the farfield region from the pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. The work described in this report suggests a basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, with benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations. Although the indicators are somewhat generic in nature, they are applied to Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide feed of a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (e.g. typically {approx}13 wt% at SRS) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination?

Lee, S.; Dimenna, R.; Tamburello, D.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Guidelines for mixed waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

Owens, C.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Lateral Mixing in the Pycnocline by Baroclinic Mixed Layer Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a process study model, the effect of mixed layer submesoscale instabilities on the lateral mixing of passive tracers in the pycnocline is explored. Mixed layer eddies that are generated from the baroclinic instability of a front within the ...

Gualtiero Badin; Amit Tandon; Amala Mahadevan

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Mixing method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Redwood City, CA)

1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscatter depolarization ratio The ratio of cross polarized to co-polarized elastic backscatter. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai MPL-AIR : Micropulse Lidar- Airborne

165

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and

166

Fuel Mix Disclosure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hawaii requires the state’s retail electric suppliers to disclose details regarding the fuel mix of their electric generation to retail customers. Such information must be provided on customers’...

167

Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

Beitel, G.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are expressed as superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems.

Blasone, M; De Siena, S; Di Mauro, M; Illuminati, F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Minimal Neutrino Texture with Neutrino Mass Ratio and Cabibbo Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present neutrino mass matrix textures in a minimal framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism where two right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced in order to reproduce experimental results of neutrino oscillations. The textures can lead to experimentally favored leptonic mixing angles described by the tri-bimaximal mixing with one additional rotation. We present minimal and next to minimal textures for the normal mass hierarchy case in a context of the texture zero. A minimal texture in the inverted hierarchy case is also constructed, which does not have any vanishing entries in a Dirac neutrino mass matrix. We also discuss some cases that model parameters in the textures are supposed to be a neutrino mass ratio and/or the Cabibbo angle. Predicted regions of mixing angles, a leptonic CP-violation parameter, and an effective mass for the neutrino-less double beta decay are presented in all textures.

Yusuke Shimizu; Ryo Takahashi; Morimitsu Tanimoto

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

170

Exploring pure quantum states with maximally mixed reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate multipartite entanglement for composite quantum systems in a pure state. Using the generalized Bloch representation for n-qubit states, we express the condition that all k-qubit reductions of the whole system are maximally mixed, reflecting maximum bipartite entanglement across all k vs. n-k bipartitions. As a special case, we examine the class of balanced pure states, which are constructed from a subset of the Pauli group P_n that is isomorphic to Z_2^n. This makes a connection with the theory of quantum error-correcting codes and provides bounds on the largest allowed k for fixed n. In particular, the ratio k/n can be lower and upper bounded in the asymptotic regime, implying that there must exist multipartite entangled states with at least k=0.189 n when $n\\to \\infty$. We also analyze symmetric states as another natural class of states with high multipartite entanglement and prove that, surprisingly, they cannot have all maximally mixed k-qubit reductions with k>1. Thus, measured through bipartite entanglement across all bipartitions, symmetric states cannot exhibit large entanglement. However, we show that the permutation symmetry only constrains some components of the generalized Bloch vector, so that very specific patterns in this vector may be allowed even though k>1 is forbidden. This is illustrated numerically for a few symmetric states that maximize geometric entanglement, revealing some interesting structures.

Ludovic Arnaud; Nicolas J. Cerf

2012-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

171

Neutrino Mass and Mixing with Discrete Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a review article about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of seesaw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mec...

King, Stephen F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

ADVANCED MIXING MODELS  

SciTech Connect

The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (50,000 to 300,000) with a relative standard deviation of {+-} 11.83%. An improved correlat

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

Mixed waste: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, DR

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

Mixed Waste Characterization Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of the process of characterizing potential mixed waste streams from nuclear power plants. Utility experts developed these guidelines to help guide utility personnel through the characterization process and provide a mechanism for properly documenting the characterization of individual waste streams.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Mixed waste characterization reference document  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Mixed Seed Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Mixed Seed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory Proficiency Testing service for Sunflower,Safflower, and Canola to test Oil, Clean Seed Basis, Nitrogen, Free Fatty Acids, Glucosinolates, Chlorophyll. Mixed Seed Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Mixed Seed Laboratory Proficiency Program

180

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Nozzle mixing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a nozzle device for causing two fluids to mix together. In particular, a spray nozzle comprise two hollow, concentric housings, an inner housing and an outer housing. The inner housing has a channel formed therethrough for a first fluid. Its outer surface cooperates with the interior surface of the outer housing to define the second channel for a second fluid. The outer surface of the inner housing and the inner surface of the outer housing each carry a plurality of vanes that interleave but do not touch, each vane of one housing being between two vanes of the other housing. The vanes are curved and the inner surface of the outer housing and the outer surface of the inner housing converge to narrow the second channel. The shape of second channel results in a swirling, accelerating second fluid that will impact the first fluid just past the end of the nozzle where mixing will take place.

Mensink, D.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Mixed Waste Recycling Exemption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an ongoing integrated mixed waste program, EPRI has documented the process for obtaining state approval to apply the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) recycling exemption. This report examines the regulatory basis for the recycling exemption and the strategy for designing and operating a recycling facility to meet that exemption. Specifically addressed is the process of submitting an actual recycling exemption request to an RCRA authorized state and potential roadblocks utilities m...

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

Blasone, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli (Italy); Di Mauro, M. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli (Italy); ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Viale Settimio Severo 65, 00173 Torino (Italy)

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in preferred bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence induced by the free evolution dynamics on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

M. Blasone; F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; M. Di Mauro; F. Illuminati

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

A STATISTICAL INTELLIGENCE (STI) APPROACH TO DISCOVERING SPURIOUS CORRELATION IN A PHYSICAL MODEL AND RESOLVING THE PROBLEM WITH AN EXAMPLE OF DESIGNING A PULSE JET MIXING SYSTEM AT HANFORD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulse jet mixing tests were conducted to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. A physical approach (based on hydro-dynamic behavior) and two semi-empirical (SE) approaches were applied to the data to develop models for predicting two response variables (critical-suspension velocity and cloud height). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using multiple noncohesive simulants and levels of possibly influential factors. The physical modeling approach based on hydro- dynamic behavior was first attempted, but this approach can yield models with spurious correlation. To overcome this dilemma, two semi-empirical (SE) models were developed by generalizing the form of the physical model using dimensional and/or nondimensional (ND) variables. The results of applying statistical intelligence (STI) tools to resolve the spurious correlation problem via fitting the physical and SE models are presented and compared. Considering goodness-of-fit, prediction performance, spurious correlation, and the need to extrapolate, the SE models based on ND variables are recommended.

Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Kuhn, William L.

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

186

Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Title Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3048E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Sherman, Max H., and Iain S. Walker Journal HVAC & Research Journal Keywords air distribution, indoor air quality, mechanical ventilation, mixing, other, resave, residential ventilation, ventilation effectiveness Abstract Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing already, but that new, high-performance homes may require additional mixing. Also our results suggest that some differentiation should be made in policies and standards for systems that provide continuous exhaust, thereby reducing relative dose for occupants overall

187

Available Technologies: Mixed Bioenergy Feedstock ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment to extract 6C sugars from mixed feedstocks for . Lignocellulosic biofuel production; High value ...

188

Results from five years of treatability studies using hydraulic binders to stabilize low-level mixed waste at the INEL  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes work involving bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted low-level mixed waste. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids; treatment techniques included hydraulic systems (Portland cement with and without additives), proprietary commercial formulations, and sulphur polymer cement. Solidification was performed to immobilize hazardous heavy metals (including mercury, lead, chromium, and cadmium), and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Pretreatment options for mixed wastes are discussed, using a decision tree based on the form of mixed waste and the type of hazardous constituents. Hundreds of small concrete monoliths were formed for a variety of waste types. The experimental parameters used for the hydraulic concrete systems include the ratio of waste to dry binder (Portland cement, proprietary materials, etc.), the total percentage of water in concrete, and the amount of concrete additives. The only parameter that was used for the sulfur polymer-based monoliths is ratio of waste to binder. Optimum concrete formulations or {open_quotes}recipes{close_quotes} for a given type of waste were derived through this study, as based on results from the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure analyses and a free liquids test. Overall results indicate that high waste loadings in the concrete can be achieved while the monolithic mass maintains excellent resistance to leaching of heavy metals. In our study the waste loadings in the concrete generally fell within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 kg mixed waste per kg dry binder. Likewise, the most favorable amount of water in concrete, which is highly dependent upon the concrete constituents, was determined to be generally within the range of 300 to 330 g/kg (30-33% by weight). The results of this bench-scale study will find applicability at facilities where mixed or hazardous waste solidification is a planned or ongoing activity. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Gering, K.L.; Schwendiman, G.L.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

Verma, Prabal Singh [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Deployment of a Tethered-Balloon System for Microphysics and Radiative Measurements in Mixed-Phase Clouds at Ny-Ålesund and South Pole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tethered-balloon system capable of making microphysical and radiative measurements in clouds is described and examples of measurements in boundary layer stratus clouds in the Arctic and at the South Pole are presented. A 43-m3 helium-filled ...

R. Paul Lawson; Knut Stamnes; Jakob Stamnes; Pat Zmarzly; Jeff Koskuliks; Chris Roden; Qixu Mo; Michael Carrithers; Geoffrey L. Bland

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Efficiency of Mixing in Turbulent Patches: Inferences from Direct Simulations and Microstructure Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time evolution of mixing in turbulent overturns is investigated using a combination of direct numerical simulations (DNS) and microstructure profiles obtained during two field experiments. The focus is on the flux coefficient ?, the ratio of ...

W. D. Smyth; J. N. Moum; D. R. Caldwell

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Neutral B-meson mixing from three-flavor lattice quantum chromodynamic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutral B-meson mixing from three-flavor lattice quantum chromodynamics: Determination of the SU(3)-breaking ratio Submitted by mkaczmar on February 8, 2013 - 15:02 Authors: A....

194

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Minnesota Department of Commerice In September 2002, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) issued an order requiring the state's regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers details on the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation. Utilities must provide this information to customers in a standard format twice annually. Utilities may distribute this information to customers electronically. Disclosure information must also be filed with the PUC. In addition, in 2009, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency began to transition to an inventory data management system that consolidates

195

Anthropogenic Moisture Effects on WRF Summertime Surface Temperature and Mixing Ratio Forecast Skill In Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale forecasts for the Los Angeles basin made with the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) exhibited a moderate to substantial warm temperature bias for extended ...

Rich F. Coleman; James F. Drake; Michael D. McAtee; Leslie O. Belsma

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Systemic Equity Pedagogy in Science Education: A Mixed-Method Analysis of High Achieving High Schools of Culturally Diverse Student Populations in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the associations between systemic equity pedagogy (SEP) practices in highly diverse high schools and their students' science achievement and college readiness. This study focuses on science programs in ten highly diverse Texas high schools serving students who exhibit high science achievement and college readiness. According to the Policy Research Group in Science Education, only two percent of all culturally diverse high schools within the state of Texas demonstrate high science achievement and college readiness on state-tracked school-level indicators. Transforming a school context where achievement disparities exist among student groups in science classrooms necessitates that public school officials understand key factors, or “drivers,” and associated indicators contributing to SEP in programs. A model for programs is suggested using a framework for SEP based on data collected from ten highly successful, high diversity high schools. The following research questions address the research gap regarding indicators of SEP associated with high science achievement and college readiness in highly culturally diverse high schools. How do data from ten highly successful, high diversity high schools inform the development of a comprehensive SEP rubric? How do high achieving high schools of culturally diverse student populations score on a comprehensive SEP rubric? How do teachers’ perceptions toward implementing SEP practices vary in different schools? Three research papers detail the research of this dissertation. The purpose for the first paper is to increase understanding of indicators facilitating systemic and equitable teaching and learning practices, otherwise referred to as systemic equity pedagogy (SEP). Results of the study show indicators of a comprehensive SEP rubric. Together, 127 indicators, thirty categories, and eight SEP drivers form a model framing equitable teaching and learning practices associated with high science achievement and college readiness. In conclusion, indicators within the SEP rubric can be described as action-oriented descriptors that science teachers engage formally or informally in order to facilitate quality science education for all students. The purpose for paper two is to score equitable teaching and learning practices in highly successful high school science programs based on the SEP rubric. Findings reveals that implementation of various equitable teaching and learning practices vary across science programs and these practices can be described as both pedagogical and non-pedagogical. In conclusion, varying degrees of implementation exist for indicators in the SEP rubric. In paper three, the purpose is to understand science teachers’ attitude and approach toward implementing systemic teaching and learning practices. Results from this study provide scores that indicate science teachers’ perceptions of their approach to SEP. This study concludes by suggesting high achieving science programs may operate within a continuum for implementing equitable teaching and learning practices.

Blocker, Tyrone Dewayne

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

198

Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Mixing in Cumulus Clouds: Dependence on Local Turbulence Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The helicopter-borne instrument payload known as the Airborne Cloud Turbulence Observation System (ACTOS) was used to study the entrainment and mixing processes in shallow warm cumulus clouds. The characteristics of the mixing process are ...

Katrin Lehmann; Holger Siebert; Raymond A. Shaw

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Operational Flexibility Guidelines for Gas Turbine Low NOx Combustion Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas turbine low-NOx combustion systems can differ in hardware from manufacturer to manufacturer, but the principle is the same. Low-NOx combustors reduce peak flame temperatures by mixing fuel and air before combustion and by keeping the fuel-to-air ratio as low (lean) as possible, while still maintaining combustion stability over the broadest possible operating range. Low-NOx combustion systems are inherently more complex than diffusion combustion systems, a fact that impacts operational flexibility, re...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

200

Measurement of the Branching Ratio for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the branching ratio B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) using the CLEO II detector. A clean sample of tau pair events is identified via events containing two charged particles where exactly one of the particles is an identified electron. We find B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) = (2:59 \\Sigma 0:12 +0:13 \\Gamma0:16 )%. The result is consistent with expectations from lepton universality. Permanent address: INP, Novosibirsk, Russia y Permanent address: University of Hawaii at Manoa 1 One of the interesting aspects of heavy quarkonia is that in the lower energy states the electromagnetic decays compete with the strong decays due to OZI suppression. In the b b system, the first three \\Upsilon resonances all lie below the threshold for strong decay into pairs of B mesons, and the measured leptonic decays are of the order of a few percent. For the \\Upsilon(1S), the world average of the branching ratio into tau pairs is (2:97 \\Sigma 0:35)% [1] based on two measureme...

Upsilon Gamma Cinabro; Ichep Ref; Gls Cleo Conf; M. Saulnier; G. Gollin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

fuel mix | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

mix mix Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) publishes an annual "fuel mix disclosure data table" as defined in the Electricity (Fuel Mix Disclosure) Regulations 2005. This dataset represents April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 31st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords fuel mix UK Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon UK.fuel_.mix_.disclosure.4.2009.4.2010.xlsx (xlsx, 38.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment UK Open Government License (OGL)

202

How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Manufacturer's Mixed Pallet Design Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fore, the company decided to design a number of mixed or “rainbow” pallets so that its customers can order ...... Squeezing out waste of space. 62, 5, page 112.

206

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

207

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

208

Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Signature for Shell Mixing in NIF capsules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present analytic calculations and results from computational simulations showing that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons act as a robust indicator for mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in DT capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to downscattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

A. C. Hayes; P. A. Bradley; G. P. Grim; Gerard Jungman; J. B. Wilhelmy

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Mixing processes and hydraulic control in a highly stratified estuary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis utilizes field data from the Fraser River Estuary, a highly stratified system located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to investigate the nature of mixing processes in a highly stratified environment, ...

MacDonald, Daniel George, 1970-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Summary Report: Control Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of of the CIBSE National Conference 1994. Vol.Institute of Technology. CIBSE (Chartered Institution ofDesign for Mixed-mode Systems. ” CIBSE/ASHRAE Joint National

Brager, Gail; Borgeson, Sam; Lee, Yoonsu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Relative Humidity in Liquid, Mixed-Phase, and Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of in situ observations of the relative humidity in liquid, mixed, and ice clouds typically stratiform in nature and associated with mesoscale frontal systems at temperatures ?45°C < Ta < ?5°C are presented. The data were collected ...

Alexei Korolev; George A. Isaac

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Candidates for low-lying mixed-symmetry states in {sup 140}Nd  

SciTech Connect

The nucleus {sup 140}Nd was investigated using {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence and angular-correlation techniques following the {epsilon}/{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 140}Sm and {sup 140}Pr. Spins, {gamma}-decay intensities, and E2/M1 mixing ratios were extracted from the data. The 2{sub 3}{sup +} and 2{sub 4}{sup +} states were identified as possible mixed-symmetry states, based on mixing ratios obtained for observed decays to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state. The relationship between the decay pattern of these two candidate states and underlying shell structure in this mass region is discussed.

Williams, E.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Ai, H.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Qian, J.; Winkler, R. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States); Boutachkov, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Chamberlain, M. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Guerdal, G. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States); Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Mixed semiconductor nanocrystal compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and wherein the ratio of the number of energy donors to the number of energy acceptors is from about 2:1 to about 1000:1.

Maskaly, Garry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Schaller, Richard D. (Santa Fe, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Mixing in Symmetric Holmboe Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct simulations are used to study turbulence and mixing in Holmboe waves. Previous results showing that mixing in Holmboe waves is comparable to that found in the better-known Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) billows are extended to cover a range of ...

W. D. Smyth; J. R. Carpenter; G. A. Lawrence

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089 U.S.A. and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume I. Gas blends flow in distribution system, mixing points, and regulatory standards. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [10 and 20% hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the subject study ''Blending of Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes studies on the determination of gas distribution system flows with hydrogen - natural gas blends, potential hydrogen admission points to gas distribution systems, and the impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on regulatory standards for gas distribution systems. The studies resulted in the following principal findings: (1) Most existing natural gas distribution systems could adequately transport 20% blends of hydrogen by volume with little or no modification. (2) The best point of admission of the hydrogen into a natural gas distribution system would be at the meter and regulating stations supplying a particular distribution system. (3) The impact of hydrogen - natural gas blends on state regulatory standards appears to be minimal for PSE and G, but requires further study for various National Codes and for other states.

None

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Dryline Bulge Evolution in a Two-Dimensional Mixed-Layer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the diurnal response of a mixed-layer model of the dryline system to localized anomalies of surface heat flux, topography, mixed-layer depth, and inversion strength. The two-dimensional, mixed-layer model is used to simulate ...

Glenn M. Auslander; Peter R. Bannon

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Stability and Mixing Characterization of Industrial Lean Premixed Nozzles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mixing Characterization of and Mixing Characterization of Industrial Lean Premixed Nozzles * Unique research capabilities have been developed for the study of fuel mixing and combustion instabilities in lean premixed combustors. * These capabilities have been used to characterize the performance of industrial lean premixed nozzles for Solar Turbines, United Technologies and General Electric. * This information has been used by the gas turbine manufacturers to gain understanding and new insights for the development of stable low emissions lean premixed combustors. Cooling ring Solar Turbines Centaur 50 Nozzle Stainless steel exhaust Fused silica combustor Photo of Stable Flame Photo of Unstable Flame InAs Detector HeNe Laser (3.39 μm) InAs Detector Centaur 50 Nozzle Measurement of equivalence ratio

220

Growth rate exponents of Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layer is initiated by the passing of a shock over an interface between fluid of differing densities. The energy deposited during the shock passage undergoes a relaxation process during which the fluctuational energy in the flow field decays and the spatial gradients of the flow field decrease in time. This late stage of Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing layers is studied from the viewpoint of self-similarity. Analogies with weakly anisotropic turbulence suggest that both the bubble-side and spike-side widths of the mixing layer should evolve as power-laws in time, with the same power-law exponents and virtual time origin for both sides. The analogy also bounds the power-law exponent between 2/7 and 2/5. It is then shown that the assumption of identical power-law exponents for bubbles and spikes yields that are in good agreement with experiment at modest density ratios.

Zhou, Y; Clark, T

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The mixed economy in China: through rhetorical perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mixed economies gradually emerge in many countries. China is no exception. China's traditional planned economy system is limited to state-owned enterprises, which are undergoing reform. In the private sector, the market system has begun to play a dominant role. The coexistence of the planned system and the market system, as well as governmental intervention and regulated policies, constitute China's mixed economy. In this thesis, I try to evaluate Deng Xiaoping's speeches through rhetorical analysis in order to justify China's economic policies. In addition, I illustrate some historical and cultural factors that would affect Chinese ideas towards the market economy.

Yuan, Yuchun

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of Some Uranium Oxide and Mixed Oxide Lattice Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of critical lattice experiments using uranium oxide and mixed-oxide fuel (uranium-plutonium) moderated by clean or borated water was expected to provide information for testing computer programs and nuclear data libraries used in analyzing nuclear reactor cores. Uncertainties inherent in the measurements must be small for experimental information to be of value in such a validation. In general, experimental parameters such as reaction ratios or disadvantage factors (which can be compared with ca...

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Mixed Layer Instabilities and Restratification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification of the oceanic surface mixed layer that results from lateral gradients in the surface density field is studied. The lateral gradients are shown to be unstable to ageostrophic baroclinic instabilities and slump from the ...

Giulio Boccaletti; Raffaele Ferrari; Baylor Fox-Kemper

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

225

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

226

The Subinertial Mixed Layer Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The density of the mixed layer is approximately uniform in the vertical but has dynamically important horizontal gradients. These nonuniformities in density result in a vertically sheared horizontal pressure gradient. Subinertial motions balance ...

W. R. Young

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Meridional Motion of Mixing Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-layer model of anticyclonic eddy propagation including the effects of diapycnal mixing is presented. The lower layer is assumed to be of finite volume, whereas the upper layer is infinite in horizontal extent, and its dynamics are ...

N. Robb McDonald; David N. Straub

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Density Coordinate Mixed Layer Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of mixed layer models in so-called density coordinates is discussed. Density coordinates, or isopycnal coordinates as they are sometimes called, are becoming increasingly popular for use in ocean models due to their highly ...

William K. Dewar

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Over-barrier decay of the mixed state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classical escape in 2D Hamiltonian systems with the mixed state has been studied numerically and analytically. The wide class of potentials with the mixed state is presented by polinomial potentials. In potentials, where the mixed state could be realized, i.e. the phase space contains regions of both regular and chaotic motion, escape problem has a number of new features. In particular, some local minima become a trap with number of particles depending on energy and other values that characterize the ensemble of particles. Choosing the form of initial ensemble one chooses the set of parameters that determine the number of trapped particles.

Yu. L. Bolotin; V. A. Cherkaskiy; G. I. Ivashkevych

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

THE INFLUENCE OF DEUTERATION AND TURBULENT DIFFUSION ON THE OBSERVED D/H RATIO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of turbulent mixing on the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) has so far received little attention. Previous studies of this effect have suggested that it might play an important role in mixing the various phases of the ISM. In this paper, we examine the potential effects of turbulent diffusion on the deuterium chemistry within molecular clouds. We find that such mixing acts to reduce the efficiency of deuteration in these clouds by increasing the ionization fraction and reducing freeze-out of heavy molecules. This leads to lower abundances for many deuterated species. We also examine the influence of turbulent mixing on the transition from atomic hydrogen to H{sub 2} and from atomic deuterium to HD near the cloud edge. We find that including turbulent diffusion in our models serves to push these transitions deeper into the cloud and helps maintain a higher atomic fraction throughout the cloud envelope. Based on these findings, we propose a new process to account for the significant scatter in the observed atomic D/H ratio for galactic sightlines extending beyond the Local Bubble. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain this scatter, they are unable to fully account for the range in D/H values. We suggest a scenario in which turbulent mixing of atomic and molecular gas at the edges of molecular clouds causes the observed atomic D/H ratio to vary by a factor of {approx}2.

Bell, T. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Willacy, K.; Allen, M., E-mail: tab@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that  

SciTech Connect

We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,

Gilman, F.J.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solution. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project - April 2013 April 2013 Review of Radiation...

235

Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Quality in Green Buildings”. Indoor Air; 14 (Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.

Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.Department of Environmental Building Research Establishment

Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 1994, ENTPE, Lyon. [CIBSE] Chartered Institution ofMixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE Applications Manual AM13.incorporated by the design. CIBSE, 2000 Mixed-mode

Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmonic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X{sub 2} Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 5} {center_dot} 2 nZ{sub 2}O wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, C.A.; Davis, L.E.; Webb, M.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

240

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmonic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X{sub 2} Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 5} {center dot} 2 nZ{sub 2}O wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, C.A.; Davis, L.E.; Webb, M.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Laura E. (Manteca, CA); Webb, Mark (Salida, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A Study of Cloud Mixing and Evolution Using PDF Methods. Part I: Cloud Front Propagation and Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of mean relative humidity (RH) is studied in an isobaric system of clear and cloudy air mixed by an incompressible velocity field. A constant droplet radius assumption is employed that implies a simple dependence of the mixing time ...

Christopher A. Jeffery; Jon M. Reisner

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A mixed-signal embedded platform for automotive sensor conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed-signal embedded system called Intelligent Sensor InterFace (ISIF) suited to fast identify, trim, and verify an architecture to interface a given sensor is presented. This system has been developed according to a platform-based design approach, ...

Emilio Volpi; Luca Fanucci; Adolfo Giambastiani; Alessandro Rocchi; Francesco D'Ascoli; Marco Tonarelli; Massimiliano Melani; Corrado Marino

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described in this report is a method and apparatus for controlling combustion characteristics in a pulse combustor whereby the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products are controlled as a function of the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and then vary the inlet geometry to obtain the desired mixing characteristics necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. In a preferred embodiment, the mixing time of the combustion reactants and products scales with the ratio of the inlet orifice radius to the injection velocity. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 9 figs.

Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

1989-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

Hirasaki, G.J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells Haoting Shen Prof. Redwing's Research and in-situ dopant for Si nanowires Y. Ke, X.J. Weng, J.M. Redwing, C.M. Eichfeld, T.R. Swisher, S

Yener, Aylin

247

Sulfate Washout Ratios in Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Washout ratios for sulfate were computed from simultaneous measurements of sulfate in precipitation and in the air below cloud base. Stratification of the data according to predominant mode of precipitation growth (growth primarily by accretion ...

B. C. Scott

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Partial Dynamical Symmetry and Mixed Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Partial dynamical symmetry describes a situation in which some eigenstates have a symmetry which the quantum Hamiltonian does not share. This property is shown to have a classical analogue in which some tori in phase space are associated with a symmetry which the classical Hamiltonian does not share. A local analysis in the vicinity of these special tori reveals a neighbourhood of phase space foliated by tori. This clarifies the suppression of classical chaos associated with partial dynamical symmetry. The results are used to divide the states of a mixed system into ``chaotic'' and ``regular'' classes.

A. Leviatan; N. D. Whelan

1996-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

249

Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

Jubin, Robert T. (Powell, TN); Randolph, John D. (Maryville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Nuclear Utility Mixed Waste Stream Characterization Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents industry experience at nuclear utilities in characterizing the hazardous component of potential mixed waste streams. It identifies key considerations for characterizing mixed waste; provides background information, including actual sample results, on the majority of plant processes with a potential to generate mixed waste; and presents a methodology for characterizing mixed waste.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Program  

Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Program EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange November 17, 2010 Mike Thien

252

Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell  

SciTech Connect

A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

253

Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank

257

THE MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN TO METAL RATIO IN SOLID SOLUTIONS OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM DIOXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey was made of methods potentially useful for the determination of the oxygen to metal ratio in mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium. A gravimetric method was selected as being the most promising for adaptation in a short period of time. Development of the technique resulted in a reliable method which meets the requirements for unirradiated mixed oxide fuel samples. The method, based upon an equilibrium weight at 700 deg C in dry hydrogen, was shown to be capable of measurement of O/(Pu + U) ratios in 20% PuO/sub 2/--80% UO/sub 2/ pellets with a standard deviation of plus or minus 0.001. (auth)

Lyon, W.L.

1963-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Dark energy and particle mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the vacuum condensate due to particle mixing is responsible of a dynamically evolving dark energy. In particular, we show that values of the adiabatic index close to -1 for vacuum condensates of neutrinos and quarks imply, at the present epoch, contributions to the vacuum energy compatible with the estimated upper bound on the dark energy.

A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Advances in compressible turbulent mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Kinetic Effect on Structural Behavior of Mixed LiMn2O4–LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials Studied by In Situ Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction Technique  

SciTech Connect

How the structural changes of each active material in mixed cathode systems take place at different charge-discharge rates is quite important in the application of the system in which the mixed cathode materials with different rate capabilities are formed into one composite electrode. Here we report the results of the real time structural change studies of mixed LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} composite cathode in a Li-ion cell by using in situ synchrotron-based time resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) technique. The layer structured component in the mixed composite cathode system shows less utilization at fast discharge rate (high power mode) whereas the spinel structured component is fully utilized. This clearly demonstrates that the reduced capacity at fast discharge rate for this system is caused by the less utilization of the layer structured component. The real time monitoring of the structural behavior at various discharge rates is a great tool to design the best ratios of active materials with different rate capabilities in the mixed cathode systems for different applications.

Yoon W. S.; Nam K.; Jang, D.; Chung, K.Y.; Cho, Y.-H.; Choi, S.; Hanson, J.C.; Yang, X.-Q.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, and 2.0; mainstream flow conditions are maintained at exit Mach number of 0.7, 1.1 and 1.3. Nitrogen is injected as the coolant so that the oxygen concentration levels can be obtained for the test surface. Based on mass transfer analogy, film cooling effectiveness can be computed with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The effect of blowing ratio on film cooling effectiveness is presented for each testing condition. The spanwise averaged effectiveness for each case is also presented to compare the blowing ratio and mainstream effect on film cooling effectiveness. Results show that due to effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.6 for exit Mach number of 1.1 and 1.3; however; without the effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.0 for exit Mach number of 0.7.

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Degree of mixing downstream of rectangular bends and design of an inlet for ambient aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to characterize mixing in a square and a rectangular duct with respect to suitability for single point sampling of contaminants. Several configurations, such as a straight duct with unidirectional flow at the entrance section and straight ducts preceded by mixing elements (a 90° mitred bend, double 90° bends in S- and U-type configurations) were tested. For a straight duct of square cross section, the COV of tracer gas concentration at 19 duct diameters downstream of the gas release location is 143% (Center release). COVs of velocity and tracer gas concentration downstream of each mixing element in square duct setups were verified throughout this study. In the case of a rectangular duct with a 3:1 (width to height) aspect ratio, COVs of velocity and tracer gas concentration only downstream of a 90° mitred bend were verified. Tests were conducted to develop improved inlets for a Battelle bioaerosol sampling system. New inlets have been developed called the All Weather Inlets (AWI), which are designed to prevent entry of precipitation while maintaining aerosol penetration. The AWI has two inlets - one that samples at a flow rate of 780 L/min and the other one that is operated at a flow rate of 90 L/min. The initial version of the AWI-780 L/min unit featured an internal cone, which was removed because the penetration of the AWI-780 without the bottom chamber was higher than that of the Battelle inlet � 81% with the cone while 86% without the cone for around 9.5 µm AD at 2 km/h. The best bug-screen configuration was verified and a cutpoint management process was performed. The inlets were tested with different wind speeds from 2 to 24 km/h to verify the wind sensitivity of those inlets.

Seo, Youngjin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Generalized Savage-Dickey Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this brief research note I present a generalized version of the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio for representation of the Bayes factor (or marginal likelihood ratio) of nested statistical models; the new version takes the form of a Radon-Nikodym derivative and is thus applicable to a wider family of probability spaces than the original (restricted to those admitting an ordinary Lebesgue density). A derivation is given following the measure-theoretic construction of Marin & Robert (2010), and the equivalent estimator is demonstrated in application to a distributional modeling problem.

Cameron, Ewan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to an improvement in centrifugal contactors of a type used for solvent extraction systems in nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing. The centrifugal contactor is vertically oriented and is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor wherein the mixing of the process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing takes place. A set of helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is positioned in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the inlets of the process liquids for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a helically disposed vane set carried by the housing which urges the liquid in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and liquid contacts the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone within a desirable level while providing a greater degree of mixing of the process liquids which generates more liquid surface area for contact and improves the mass transfer between the process liquids. The van set in the lower region also significantly reduces or eliminates the formation of vortices which induces cavitation and air entrainment in the process liquids which detract from the efficiency of the centrifugal contactor. 2 figs.

Jubin, R.T.; Randolph, J.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dimension-Independent Positive-Partial-Transpose Probability Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conduct quasi-Monte Carlo numerical integrations in two very high (80 and 79)-dimensional domains -- the parameter spaces of rank-9 and rank-8 qutrit-qutrit (9 x 9) density matrices. We, then, estimate the ratio of the probability -- in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt metric -- that a generic rank-9 density matrix has a positive partial transpose (PPT) to the probability that a generic rank-8 density matrix has a PPT (a precondition to separability/nonentanglement). Close examination of the numerical results generated -- despite certain large fluctuations -- indicates that the true ratio may, in fact, be 2. Our earlier investigation (eprint quant-ph/0410238) also yielded estimates close to 2 of the comparable ratios for qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit pairs (the only two cases where the PPT condition fully implies separability). Therefore, it merits conjecturing (as Zyczkowski was the first to do) that such Hilbert-Schmidt (rank-NM/rank-(NM-1)) PPT probability ratios are 2 for all NM-dimensional quantum systems.

Paul B. Slater

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

269

HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

Opening the Rome-Southampton window for operator mixing matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the running of operators which mix under renormalization can be computed fully non-perturbatively as a product of continuum step scaling matrices. These step scaling matrices are obtained by taking the "ratio" of Z matrices computed at different energies in an RI-MOM type scheme for which twisted boundary conditions are an essential ingredient. Our method allows us to relax the bounds of the Rome-Southampton window. We also explain why such a method is important in view of the light quark physics program of the RBC-UKQCD collaborations. To illustrate our method, using n_f=2+1 domain-wall fermions, we compute the non-perturbative running matrix of four-quark operators needed in K->pipi decay and neutral kaon mixing. Our results are then compared to perturbation theory.

R. Arthur; P. A. Boyle; N. Garron; C. Kelly; A. T. Lytle

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios (i.e. magmatic He, ~10 Ra; atmospheric He, R,sub>a; and crustal He, ~0.1 Ra) and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio (hydrologic mixing, U-Th series alpha production and weathering release of crustal He, magma aging and

273

Smooth mixed-resolution GPU volume rendering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a mixed-resolution volume ray-casting approach that enables more flexibility in the choice of downsampling positions and filter kernels, allows freely mixing volume bricks of different resolutions during rendering, and does not require modifying ...

Johanna Beyer; Markus Hadwiger; Torsten Möller; Laura Fritz

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Neutrino mixing, flavor states and dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We shortly summarize the quantum field theory formalism for the neutrino mixing and report on recent results showing that the vacuum condensate induced by neutrino mixing can be interpreted as a dark energy component of the Universe.

M. Blasone; A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

275

Tidal Mixing Signatures in the Indonesian Seas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions of low-frequency tidal periods are found throughout the Indonesian Seas' temperature field, supporting the hypothesis that vertical mixing is enhanced within the Indonesian Seas by the tides. The thermal signatures of tidal mixing ...

Amy Ffield; Arnold L. Gordon

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Scanned Treatment of Mixed Incin. Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treatment of Mixed Incinerable Treatment of Mixed Incinerable Waste DOE/IG-0588 March 2003 Page 17 Page 18 Use of Treatment Resources Details of Finding ........................................................................1 Recommendations and Comments ............................................6 Appendices Prior Reports ...............................................................................8 Objective, Scope, and Methodology ...........................................9 Management Comments ...........................................................11 TREATMENT OF MIXED INCINERABLE WASTE TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1 Waste Stored Rather Than Treated We found the Department of Energy (Department) was not treating its mixed incinerable solid waste expeditiously or cost-effectively.

278

Dark energy induced by neutrino mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy content of the vacuum condensate induced by the neutrino mixing is interpreted as dynamically evolving dark energy.

Antonio Capolupo; Salvatore Capozziello; Giuseppe Vitiello

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

279

Optimization Online - Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 8, 2012 ... Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming problems for mine production planning with stockpiling. Andreas Bley(bley ***at*** ...

280

Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Salad Mixes for the Home Garden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Salad Mixes for the Home Garden owever you assesssalads. (Note: For the home gardener, the use of edible ?

Martin, Orin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

A mixed transaction processing and operational reporting benchmark  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of reporting is ever increasing in today's fast-paced market environments and the availability of up-to-date information for reporting has become indispensable. Current reporting systems are separated from the online transaction processing ... Keywords: Benchmarking, Mixed workload, OLTP, Operational reporting

Anja Bog; Hasso Plattner; Alexander Zeier

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Impacts of time-of-use rates on the optimal sizing and operation of cogeneration systems  

SciTech Connect

For customers with a cogeneration system (CGS), a mixed-integer programming and nonlinear programming model is used to examine effects of time-of-use (TOU) rates on the optimal operation of the constituent equipment as well as the optimal sizing. Three customers are selected for case studies: a hotel, a hospital, and an office building. Effects of an on-peak/off-peak energy charge ratio on purchased power share in the total electricity demand are saturated at the ratio of 5. As the energy charge ratio is raised, cheaper off-peak power substitutes for city gas and the operating cost decreases. The responses of the hotel and the hospital are similar. The simulation results included in this paper indicate that properly designed TOU rates can provide commercial customers an incentive to operate a CGS with an appropriate mix of the self-generation and commercial power.

Asano, H.; Sagai, S.; Imamura, E. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)); Ito, K.; Yokoyama, R. (Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Implementation of deep soil mixing at the Kansas City Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted field-scale tests of in situ soil mixing and treatment technologies within the Northeast Area (NEA) of the KCP at the Former Ponds site. This demonstration, testing, and evaluation effort was conducted as part of the implementation of a deep soil mixing (DSM) innovative remedial technology demonstration project designed to test DSM in the low-permeability clay soils at the KCP. The clay soils and groundwater beneath this area are contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE). The demonstration project was originally designed to evaluate TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency using soil mixing coupled with vapor stripping. Treatability study results, however, indicated that mixed region vapor stripping (MRVS) coupled with calcium oxide (dry lime powder) injection would improve TCE and 1,2-DCE removal efficiency in saturated soils. The scope of the KCP DSM demonstration evolved to implement DSM with the following in situ treatment methodologies for contaminant source reduction in soil and groundwater: DSM/MRVS coupled with calcium oxide injection; DSM/bioaugmentation; and DSM/chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate. Laboratory treatability studies were started in 1995 following collection of undisturbed soil cores from the KCP. These studies were conducted at ORNL, and the results provided information on optimum reagent concentrations and mixing ratios for the three in situ treatment agents to be implemented in the field demonstration.

Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Strong-Gunderson, J.; Siegrist, R.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Baker, J. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Study of a liquid-gas mixing layer: Shear instability and size of produced drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of a liquid-gas mixing layer: Shear instability and size of produced drops Sylvain Marty +++++ Presented by £££££ Abstract We study experimentally the atomization of a liquid sheet by a parallel gas flow creation. We study in particular the regimes at low M (ratio of gas/liquid dynamic pressures), to test

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Flavor identification of astronomical high energy neutrinos and the accuracy of mixing angles  

SciTech Connect

Typical initial neutrino fluxes from pion decays may be different depending on energy, since the muon decays can be excluded due to the electromagnetic energy loss. However, the specification of the initial flux ratio is limited by the accuracy of neutrino mixing parameters. We will discuss the expected measurement of relative flavors at future neutrino telescopes, focusing on the ambiguity in current neutrino parameters.

Hwang, Ggyoung-Riun; Siyeon, Kim [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

Wigner surmise for mixed symmetry classes in random matrix theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the nearest-neighbor spacing distributions of mixed random matrix ensembles interpolating between different symmetry classes, or between integrable and non-integrable systems. We derive analytical formulas for the spacing distributions of 2x2 or 4x4 matrices and show numerically that they provide very good approximations for those of random matrices with large dimension. This generalizes the Wigner surmise, which is valid for pure ensembles that are recovered as limits of the mixed ensembles. We show how the coupling parameters of small and large matrices must be matched depending on the local eigenvalue density.

Sebastian Schierenberg; Falk Bruckmann; Tilo Wettig

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mixed Manual/Semi-Automated Traffic: A Macroscopic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Traffic Flow with Mixed Manual and Semi- Automatedof Mixed Semi-Automated/Manual Traffic”, SAE Technical Paperof traffic flow with mixed manual and semi- automated

Bose, Arnab; Ioannou, Petros

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fuel Mix Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Colorado Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission In January 1999, the Colorado Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted regulations requiring the state's utilities to disclose information regarding their fuel mix to retail customers. Utilities are required to provide this information as a bill insert or as a separate mailing twice annually, in April and October of every year. The PUC provides a suggested format for the disclosure. Fuel mix percentages are to be based on the power supply mix for the previous calendar year. Supporting documentation concerning the calculations used to determine the power supply mix percentages must be submitted to the PUC for approval.

292

Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

Miller, Arthur L. (Kenyon, MN); Krawza, Kenneth I. (Lakeville, MN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until first dredge-up. However, thermohaline mixing should mix the accreted material with the original stellar material as it has a higher mean molecular weight. We investigate the effect that this has on the surface abundances by modelling a binary system of metallicity Z=0.0001 with a 2 solar mass primary star and a 0.74 solar mass secondary star in an initial orbit of 4000 days. The accretion of material from the wind of the primary leads to the formation of a carbon-rich secondary. We find that the accreted material mixes fairly rapidly throughout 90% of the star, with important consequences for the surface composition. Models with thermohaline mixing predict very different surface abundances after first dredge-up compared to canonical models of stellar evolution.

Richard J. Stancliffe; Evert Glebbeek; Robert G. Izzard; Onno R. Pols

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

294

Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies, developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. This technical baseline is revised on an annual basis to reflect changes in the DOE Mixed Waste Management strategies, changes in the MWFA technical baseline development process, and MWFA accomplishments. This report presents the first revision to the technical baseline and the resulting prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. This report also reflects a higher level of stakeholder involvement in the prioritization of the deficiencies. This document summarizes the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A model-based approach for data integration to improve maintenance management by mixed reality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Facilitating interaction with maintenance systems through intuitive interfaces is a competitive advantage in terms of time and costs for industry. This work presents the CARMMI approach, which aims to integrate information coming from CAx tools, mixed/augmented ... Keywords: Data modeling/visualization, Industrial maintenance, Mixed reality, Product data management

DanúBia Bueno EspíNdola; Luca Fumagalli; Marco Garetti; Carlos E. Pereira; Silvia S. C. Botelho; Renato Ventura Henriques

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Review: Formal verification of analog and mixed signal designs: A survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analog and mixed signal (AMS) designs are an important part of embedded systems that link digital designs to the analog world. Due to challenges associated with its verification process, AMS designs require a considerable portion of the total design ... Keywords: Analog and mixed signal design verification, Formal verification, Survey

Mohamed H. Zaki; Sofiène Tahar; Guy Bois

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

CAD solutions and outstanding challenges for mixed-signal and RFIC design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial paper addresses the problems and solutions that are posed by the design of mixed-signal integrated systems on chip (SoC). These include problems in mixed-signal design methodologies and flows, problems in analog design productivity, as ...

Domine Leenaerts; Georges Gielen; Rob A. Rutenbar

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

An Architecture for Studying Mixed-Initiative Planning and Control in a Complex, Dynamic Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In mixed-initiative systems, the fundamental goal is to couple human cognition with automated reasoning capabilities of computer systems to achieve enhanced overall performance from a joint cognitive system perspective. This article examines mixed-initiative computing in the context of supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system. Examples of supervisory control systems include predominantly automated systems such as a nuclear power plant, satellite ground control, or an industrial control system. The human operator in these systems typically performs cognitive tasks such as monitoring, planning, real-time control, and troubleshooting. The operator is ultimately responsible for the safe and efficient system operation. Specification of the role of human and automated components, the interaction between them, knowledge representation and user interfaces, and the coupling for enhanced joint performance are all critical aspects in developing mixed-initiative systems f...

Matthew Garay; Narasimha Rao Edala; S. Narayanan

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

300

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

303

Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit:...

304

Synthesis and Electric Field-Manipulation of High Aspect Ratio Barium Titanate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to develop high dielectric constant nanoparticle dispersion for switchable aircraft antenna systems. Two steps were designed to achieve the objective. First, obtain high dielectric, high aspect ratio nanoparticles and disperse them in dielectric oil medium. Second, manipulate the particle-oil dispersion using an external alternating current (AC) electric field to increase the effective dielectric constant. In order to obtain high dielectric dispersions, different sizes and shapes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles were purchased and measured. However, after a number of experiments detailed in the thesis, it was found that none of the commercially available nanoparticles could satisfy our requirements for a minimum effective dielectric constant. Thus, to achieve the goals above, we synthesized high aspect ratio BaTiO3 nanowires with BaC2O4 and TiO2 powders as precursors using a molten salt method. The as-synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The nanowires have a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm, and their lengths range from 1.5 micrometers to 5 micrometers. Mechanical stirring and bath sonication were used to obtain even colloidal dispersions. Different concentrations of BaTiO3 nanoparticles well dispersed in the oil medium were successfully manipulated using AC electric field. To monitor the change in microstructure of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, optical microscopy was used to observe the alignment of particles in the sample under the applied electric field. Various parameters including the magnitude, frequency, and duration of the electric field, and the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles were investigated to achieve the optimal alignment of nanoparticles. The experimental results were validated by theoretical analysis using Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. It was demonstrated that the effective dielectric constant of the colloidal dispersions would increase with the increase of the magnitude, frequency and duration of applied electric field. Synthesized BaTiO3 nanowire-based dispersions exhibit significant enhancement of the effective dielectric constant compared to other colloidal materials. The effective dielectric constant of 5 wt percent BaTiO3-oil dispersions could reach up to 10 when aligned at 1000 V/mm electric field at 1 kHz frequency for 1 hour.

Li, Junjia

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing  

SciTech Connect

A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Mercury removal from solid mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Electronic branching ratio of the. tau. lepton  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio {ital R}={Gamma}({tau}{r arrow}{ital e}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}{nu}{sub {tau}})/{Gamma}{sub 1}, where {Gamma}{sub 1} is the {tau} decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find {ital R}=0.2231{plus minus}0.0044{plus minus}0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the {tau} lepton to electrons, {ital B}{sub {ital e}}=0.192{plus minus}0.004{plus minus}0.006.

Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; (CLEO Collaboration)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Radwaste Desk Reference: Volume 4: Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed waste management has been a significant concern to nuclear utilities due to the lack of available treatment and disposal capacity. This volume of the Radwaste Desk Reference contains fundamental practical and regulatory information on the management of mixed low level waste. Because its information is based entirely on industry practice, the work can serve as an extensive "how-to" manual for both the newcomer and the experienced radwaste professional responsible for mixed waste.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed.

Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Reid, R.A. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Anderson Schools of Management)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Mechanical Behavior of Melt Mixing Polypropylene Organoclay ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the effect of the nanocomposite dispersion and morphology, another nanocomposite was prepared by melt mixing of polypropylene and a modified ...

311

Lanthanide doped strontium barium mixed halide scintillators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped strontium barium mixed halide useful for detecting nuclear material.

Gundiah, Gautam; Bizarri, Gregory; Hanrahan, Stephen M; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

312

Two Row Mixed Integer Cuts Via Lifting?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 22, 2008 ... the two-row mixed integer infinite-group problem), and to develop lifting ..... The next lemma analyzes the standard triangles with each side ...

313

Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes ... successfully tested as a replacement for barrier bricks in several reduction cell technology types ...

314

INSTRUCTOR TECHNOLOGY USE: A MIXED METHODS INVESTIGATION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was designed to examine instructional leaders’ descriptions of their experience with integrating technology into their teaching. Seminal studies from… (more)

Becking, Suzanne K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

ADVANCED MIXED WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT (AMWTP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ADVANCED MIXED WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT Idaho Treatment Group, LLC (ITG) Contract No. DE-EM0001467 You are here: DOE-ID Home > Contracts, Financial Assistance & Solicitations >...

316

Mixed metal ?lms with switchable optical properties  

The electrochemical hydro-gen loading behavior of these mixed metal ?lms was similar ... Energy Ef?ciency and Renewable Energy, Of?ce of Building

317

Implementation of an E–? Parameterization of Vertical Subgrid-Scale Mixing in a Regional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An E–? parameterization of subgrid-scale vertical turbulent mixing has been installed in NORAPS (Navy operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System). The 1.5-order parameterization uses full prognostic equations for turbulence kinetic energy ...

Rolf H. Langland; Chi-Sann Liou

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The air pollution constraints considered best generation mix using fuzzy linear programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach considering SOx, NOX and CO2 air pollution constraints in the long-term generation mix with multi-criteria is proposed under uncertain circumstances. Specially, CO2 emission of electricity system industry ...

Jaeseok Choi; TrungTinh Tran; Jungji Kwon; Sangsik Lee; Abdurrahim El-keib

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Uncertainties in Isoprene Emissions from a Mixed Deciduous Forest Estimated Using a Canopy Microclimate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilizing the concepts of localized near-field diffusion, a modeling system was developed to estimate isoprene emissions from foliage of a mixed deciduous forest. The model determined radiation disposition and foliage temperature inside the ...

L. Huber; P. Laville; J. D. Fuentes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Axial Wind Effects on Stratification and Longitudinal Salt Transport in an Idealized, Partially Mixed Estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3D hydrodynamic model [Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS)] is used to investigate how axial wind influences stratification and to explore the associated longitudinal salt transport in partially mixed estuaries. The model is configured to ...

Shih-Nan Chen; Lawrence P. Sanford

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Inference of ICF Implosion Core Mix using Experimental Data and Theoretical Mix Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model performed well in predicting trends in the width of the mix layer. With these results, we have contributed to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increased our confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

Welser-Sherrill, L; Haynes, D A; Mancini, R C; Cooley, J H; Tommasini, R; Golovkin, I E; Sherrill, M E; Haan, S W

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Inference of ICF implosion core mix using experimental data and theoretical mix modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (lCF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model predicted trends in the width of the mix layer as a function of initial shell thickness. These results contribute to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increasing confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

Sherrill, Leslie Welser [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haynes, Donald A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sherrill, Manolo E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mancini, Roberto C [UNR; Tommasini, Riccardo [LLNL; Golovkin, Igor E [PRISM COMP. SCIENCES; Haan, Steven W [LLNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Lidar Observations of Mixed Layer Dynamics: Tests of Parameterized Entrainment Models of Mixed Layer Growth Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric mixed layer depth, the entrainment zone depth and the wind speed and wind direction were used to test various parameterized entrainment models of mixed layer growth rate. Six case studies under ...

R. Boers; E. W. Eloranta; R. L. Coulter

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

`Mixed' Jordan-Lie Superalgebra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An algebra A not encountered in either the usual algebraic varieties or supervarieties is introduced. A is a graded and deformed version of the quaternions, with structure similar to that of a Jordan-Lie superalgebra as defined by Okubo and Kamiya, but it is shown to be neither that of a purely associative Lie superalgebra, nor that of a purely antiassociative Jordan-Lie superalgebra. Rather, it exhibits a novel kind of associativity, here called `ordered graded associativity', that is somewhat `in between' pure associativity and pure antiassociativity. In addition to graded associativity, the generators of A obey graded commutation relations encountered in both the usual Lie superalgebras and in graded Jordan-Lie algebras. They also satisfy new graded Jacobi identities that combine characteristics of the Jacobis obeyed by the generators of ungraded Lie, graded Lie and graded Jordan-Lie algebras. Mainly due to these three features, A is called a `mixed' Jordan-Lie superalgebra. The present paper defines A and compares it with the Jordan-Lie superalgebra defined by Okubo and Kamiya.

Ioannis Raptis

2001-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

326

Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project  

SciTech Connect

The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.

Blasone, M; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Algorithmic parameterization of mixed treatment comparisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed Treatment Comparisons (MTCs) enable the simultaneous meta-analysis (data pooling) of networks of clinical trials comparing ¿2 alternative treatments. Inconsistency models are critical in MTC to assess the overall consistency between evidence sources. ... Keywords: Algorithm, Evidence consistency, Indirect comparisons, Mixed treatment comparison, Model generation, Network meta-analysis

Gert Valkenhoef; Tommi Tervonen; Bert Brock; Hans Hillege

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

An algorithm for underdetermined mixing matrix estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers the problem of mixing matrix estimation in underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS). We propose a simple and effective detection algorithm which detects the time-frequency (TF) points occupied by only a single source for each ... Keywords: Mixing matrix estimation, Robust clustering, Sparse component analysis, Underdetermined blind source separation

Tianbao Dong; Yingke Lei; Jingshu Yang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Milestone M4900: Simulant Mixing Analytical Results  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses Milestone M4900, ''Simulant Mixing Sample Analysis Results,'' and contains the data generated during the ''Mixing of Process Heels, Process Solutions, and Recycle Streams: Small-Scale Simulant'' task. The Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for this task is BNF-003-98-0079A. A report with a narrative description and discussion of the data will be issued separately.

Kaplan, D.I.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

331

8, 1175511819, 2008 mixed-phase Arctic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of25 supercooled water in both saturatedACPD 8, 11755­11819, 2008 Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds I. Sednev et al. Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Contaminated Variance-Mean mixing model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Generalised Normal Variance-Mean (GNVM) model in which the mixing random variable is Gamma distributed is considered. This model generalises the popular Variance-Gamma (VG) distribution. This GNVM model can be interpreted as the addition of noise ... Keywords: DIC, JAGS, Maximum likelihood estimation, Mixing representation, Normal Variance-Mean distribution, Variance-Gamma distribution

Thomas Fung, Joanna J. J. Wang, Eugene Seneta

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.

M. Blasone; F. Dell'Anno; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

335

Haar expectations of ratios of random characteristic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute Haar ensemble averages of ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the classical Lie groups K = O(N), SO(N), and USp(N). To that end, we start from the Clifford-Weyl algebera in its canonical realization on the complex of holomorphic differential forms for a C-vector space V. From it we construct the Fock representation of an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp associated to V. Particular attention is paid to defining Howe's oscillator semigroup and the representation that partially exponentiates the Lie algebra representation of sp in osp. In the process, by pushing the semigroup representation to its boundary and arguing by continuity, we provide a construction of the Shale-Weil-Segal representation of the metaplectic group. To deal with a product of n ratios of characteristic polynomials, we let V = C^n \\otimes C^N where C^N is equipped with its standard K-representation, and focus on the subspace of K-equivariant forms. By Howe duality, this is a highest-weight irreducible representation of the centralizer g of Lie(K) in osp. We identify the K-Haar expectation of n ratios with the character of this g-representation, which we show to be uniquely determined by analyticity, Weyl group invariance, certain weight constraints and a system of differential equations coming from the Laplace-Casimir invariants of g. We find an explicit solution to the problem posed by all these conditions. In this way we prove that the said Haar expectations are expressed by a Weyl-type character formula for all integers N \\ge 1. This completes earlier work by Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer for the case of U(N).

A. Huckleberry; A. Puettmann; M. R. Zirnbauer

2007-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencapsulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ``Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge`` and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mattus, C.H.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA`s mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997.

Conner, J.E. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho Operations Office; Williams, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Argonne CNM Highlight: Mixing up surface properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixing up surface properties Mixing up surface properties Mixed self-assembled monolayers This image was selected for the "Back Scatter" back cover feature of Physics Today, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Feb. 2009) Mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) offer the intriguing possibility of tailoring wetting properties, surface energy, and other interfacial characteristics by combining suitable molecular constituents. This atomic force micrograph, 800 nm tall, shows the onset of nanoscopic phase separation in an ideally mixed two-component SAM. The small domains of each material can be distinguished with topographic contrast because of their 2-Ã… length difference. The larger domains are due to atomic terracing of the underlying gold surface. Seth Darling (CNM) and Steven Sibener (University of Chicago) are working

340

Fuel Mix Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Delaware Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Delaware Public Service Commission Delaware's 1999 restructuring law (HB 10) authorized the state Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop environmental disclosure requirements and consumer protection standards for green power marketing. The PSC's rules require all electric suppliers to disclose to the commission aggregate proportions of fuel resource mix for the electricity supplied to customers in Delaware for each quarter. In addition, electric suppliers must disclose their fuel resource mix to retail electric customers annually via bill inserts and "each other quarter' on the supplier's web site or by customer request. A standard label is not required; however, the reports

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

342

Robertsons Ready Mix | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Robertsons Ready Mix Robertsons Ready Mix Jump to: navigation, search Name Robertsons Ready Mix Facility Robertsons Ready Mix Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Foundation Windpower Developer Foundation Windpower Energy Purchaser Robertsons Ready Mix Location Cabazon CA Coordinates 33.915842°, -116.81325° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.915842,"lon":-116.81325,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

343

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions  

SciTech Connect

This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

346

Chemical evolution with radial mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Models of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy are extended to include radial migration of stars and flow of gas through the disc. The models track the production of both iron and alpha elements. A model is chosen that provides an excellent fit to the metallicity distribution of stars in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS) of the solar neighbourhood, and a good fit to the local Hess diagram. The model provides a good fit to the distribution of GCS stars in the age-metallicity plane although this plane was not used in the fitting process. Although this model's star-formation rate is monotonic declining, its disc naturally splits into an alpha-enhanced thick disc and a normal thin disc. In particular the model's distribution of stars in the ([O/Fe],[Fe/H]) plane resembles that of Galactic stars in displaying a ridge line for each disc. The thin-disc's ridge line is entirely due to stellar migration and there is the characteristic variation of stellar angular momentum along it that has been noted by Haywood in survey data. Radial mixing of stellar populations with high sigma_z from inner regions of the disc to the solar neighbourhood provides a natural explanation of why measurements yield a steeper increase of sigma_z with age than predicted by theory. The metallicity gradient in the ISM is predicted to be steeper than in earlier models, but appears to be in good agreement with data for both our Galaxy and external galaxies. The models are inconsistent with a cutoff in the star-formation rate at low gas surface densities. The absolute magnitude of the disc is given as a function of time in several photometric bands, and radial colour profiles are plotted for representative times.

Ralph Schoenrich; James Binney

2008-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Mixed mode XML query processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Querying XML documents typically involves both tree-based navigation and pattern matching similar to that used in structured information retrieval domains. In this paper, we show that for good performance, a native XML query processing system should ...

Alan Halverson; Josef Burger; Leonidas Galanis; Ameet Kini; Rajasekar Krishnamurthy; Ajith Nagaraja Rao; Feng Tian; Stratis D. Viglas; Yuan Wang; Jeffrey F. Naughton; David J. DeWitt

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

350

NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by introducing a novel method of nanoparticle metal oxide co-entrapped sol-gel that gave the highest metal loading with precise control and reproducibility, and greater mechanical strength of granules than the metal nitrate solution co-entrapping and wet impregnation methods. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used for syngas conversion reactions. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited micro-reactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. The catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion was observed in the increasing order for the nanocatalysts Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe in alumina sol-gel support, and Co/Fe showed the highest yield for methane. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina. We could estimate the activity of catalysts (involving Co, Fe) during hydrogenation and after catalytic reaction using magnetization studies. In summary our accomplishments are: (1) Novel chemical methods for the synthesis of (5 nm) Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. (2) Developing a method of metal oxide nanoparticles addition to alumina/silica sol-gel to control metal loading of pure and mixed metal catalysts compositions in high yields. (3) A low-cost GC-TCD system to analyze wide spectrum of alkanes (F-T reaction products). (4) Fe/Co mixed metal alumina/silica mesoporous catalysts with higher FT activity. (5) Characterizing nanoparticle catalysts and supports for detail understanding of FT-process.

Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

351

Neural network control of air-to-fuel ratio in a bi-fuel engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a neural network-based control system is proposed for fine control of the intake air/fuel ratio in a bi-fuel engine. This control system is an add-on module for an existing vehicle manufacturer's electronic control units (ECUs). Typically ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, bi-fuel engines, compressed natural gas (CNG), fuel injection control

G. Gnanam; S. R. Habibi; R. T. Burton; M. T. Sulatisky

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fast Mix Table Construction for Material Discretization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effective hybrid Monte Carlo--deterministic implementation typically requires the approximation of a continuous geometry description with a discretized piecewise-constant material field. The inherent geometry discretization error can be reduced somewhat by using material mixing, where multiple materials inside a discrete mesh voxel are homogenized. Material mixing requires the construction of a ``mix table,'' which stores the volume fractions in every mixture so that multiple voxels with similar compositions can reference the same mixture. Mix table construction is a potentially expensive serial operation for large problems with many materials and voxels. We formulate an efficient algorithm to construct a sparse mix table in $O(\\text{number of voxels}\\times \\log \\text{number of mixtures})$ time. The new algorithm is implemented in ADVANTG and used to discretize continuous geometries onto a structured Cartesian grid. When applied to an end-of-life MCNP model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor with 270 distinct materials, the new method improves the material mixing time by a factor of 100 compared to a naive mix table implementation.

Johnson, Seth R [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ratio Statistics for Randomized Experiments in Precipitation Stimulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of ratio statistics has been used in the design and evaluation of weather modification experiments and their significance has usually been estimated by rerandomization. These ratios, and especially their logarithms, are asymptotically ...

K. Ruben Gabriel

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One ...

Ali H. Omar; David M. Winker; Mark A. Vaughan; Yongxiang Hu; Charles R. Trepte; Richard A. Ferrare; Kam-Pui Lee; Chris A. Hostetler; Chieko Kittaka; Raymond R. Rogers; Ralph E. Kuehn; Zhaoyan Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Prospects for measuring B{sub s} mixing at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The original design of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) was optimized for high p{sub T} physics measurements associated with W and Z boson, top quark, and QCD jet production. This choice resulted in an emphasis on the central pseudorapidity region ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 1.0) for detector coverage. Thus, CDF has excellent tracking, good calorimetry, and a suitable muon system in the central region. Even with this limited coverage, the large {bar p}p {yields} bX cross section of nearly 100 {mu}barns for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 1.0 has allowed the CDF experiment to make many B physics measurements. In addition, with the successful operation of the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX), the capability for making time-dependent B{sub s} mixing measurements becomes a reality. Upgrade plans, which include extending the tracking and lepton identification into the forward region and the implementation of a high-rate DAQ system, make a time-dependent B{sub s} mixing measurement an attractive goal during the anticipated high-luminosity Main Injector collider runs. We discuss here the feasibility and potential of making a B{sub s} mixing measurement based on extrapolations of the current CDF detector performance using colliding beam data and the expected upgrade plans.

Skarha, J.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Wicklund, A.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Mixed Waste Integrated Program Quality Assurance requirements plan  

SciTech Connect

Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, Waste Management Division. The strategic objectives of MWIP are defined in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program Strategic Plan, and expanded upon in the MWIP Program Management Plan. This MWIP Quality Assurance Requirement Plan (QARP) applies to mixed waste treatment technologies involving both hazardous and radioactive constituents. As a DOE organization, MWIP is required to develop, implement, and maintain a written Quality Assurance Program in accordance with DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System, DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance, DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management, ASME NQA-1 Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities and ANSI/ASQC E4-19xx Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data Collection and Environmental Technology Programs. The purpose of the MWIP QA program is to establish controls which address the requirements in 5700.6C, with the intent to minimize risks and potential environmental impacts; and to maximize environmental protection, health, safety, reliability, and performance in all program activities. QA program controls are established to assure that each participating organization conducts its activities in a manner consistent with risks posed by those activities.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Instability statistics and mixing rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We claim that looking at probability distributions of \\emph{finite time} largest Lyapunov exponents, and more precisely studying their large deviation properties, yields an extremely powerful technique to get quantitative estimates of polynomial decay rates of time correlations and Poincar\\'e recurrences in the -quite delicate- case of dynamical systems with weak chaotic properties.

Roberto Artuso; Cesar Manchein

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces Nina N. Anuchina, Nikolay S. Es'kov, Viatcheslav A. Gordeyhuck, Oleg M. Kozyrev & Vladimir I. Volkov MAH-3 [1, 2] code simulates nonstationary 3D hydrodynamic multi-component flows with strongly distorted interfaces. Following from a priori information, the system to be simulated is presented by a set of computational domains. In each domain, an unstructured hexahedral mesh is used. 1. Anuchina N.N., Volkov V.J., Gordeychuk V.A., Es'kov N.S., Ilytina O.S., Kozurev O.M. Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using MAX-3 code. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 168 (2004), pp. 11-20. 2. Volkov V.I., Gordeychuk V.A., Es'kov N.S., Kozyrev O.M. Numerical

363

An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Production of Dry Air by Isentropic Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have explored the factors governing upper-tropospheric relative humidity with a simple model based on isentropic mixing and condensation. Our analysis has focused on the Northern Hemisphere winter season and on the 315-K (dry) ...

H. Yang; R. T. Pierrehumbert

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Mixing Processes within the Polar Night Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian material line simulations are performed using U.K. Meteorological Office assimilated winds and temperatures to examine mixing processes in the middle- and lower-stratospheric polar night jet during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring ...

R. Bradley Pierce; T. Duncan Fairlie; William L. Grose; Richard Swinbank; Alan O'Neill

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Abyssal Mixing in the Brazil Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the major objectives of the Deep Basin Experiment, a component of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, was to quantify the intensity and spatial distribution of deep vertical mixing within the Brazil Basin. In this study, basin-averaged ...

Michele Y. Morris; Melinda M. Hall; Louis C. St. Laurent; Nelson G. Hogg

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ocean Boundary Mixing during Ekman Layer Arrest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a water parcel comes into contact with an ocean boundary, energy is dissipated within the boundary layer with some fraction directed into vertical mixing. In a stratified flow this increases the potential energy associated with the density ...

Scott A. Condie

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The properties of mixed reality boundaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed reality boundaries establish transparent windows between physical and virtual spaces. We introduce a set of properties that allow such boundaries to be configured to support different styles of co-operative activity. These properties are grouped ...

Boriana Koleva; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Mixed mode execution with context threading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interpreters are widely used to implement portable language runtime environments. Programs written in these languages may benefit from performance beyond that obtainable by optimizing interpretation alone. A modern high-performance mixed-mode virtual ...

Mathew Zaleski; Marc Berndl; Angela Demke Brown

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mixing and Spreading of the Mediterranean Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrographic and current profiler data taken during the 1988 Gulf of Cadiz Expedition have been analyzed to diagnose the mixing, spreading, and descent of the Mediterranean outflow. The ?–S properties and the thickness and width of the outflow ...

Molly O’Neil Baringer; James F. Price

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Determining Velocities and Mixing Coefficients from Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effort to determine oceanic velocities from tracer distributions relies on a knowledge of the effects of mixing. However, the macroscopic diffusion coefficient, K, is generally not known and must be calculated along with the velocity. The ...

Jae Hak Lee; George Veronis

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The ...

J. Verlinde; J. Y. Harrington; V. T. Yannuzzi; A. Avramov; S. Greenberg; S. J. Richardson; C. P. Bahrmann; G. M. McFarquhar; G. Zhang; N. Johnson; M. R. Poellot; J. H. Mather; D. D. Turner; E. W. Eloranta; D. C. Tobin; R. Holz; B. D. Zak; M. D. Ivey; A. J. Prenni; P. J. DeMott; J. S. Daniel; G. L. Kok; K. Sassen; D. Spangenberg; P. Minnis; T. P. Tooman; M. Shupe; A. J. Heymsfield; R. Schofield

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen transport, mixing, and combustion studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport, mixing, and burning of hydrogen inside containments are receiving a great deal of attention. We present detailed models describing this important phenomena and provide several example calculations to show the versatility and accuracy of the methods.

Travis, J.R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Turbulent Mixing in Stably Stratified Shear Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical mixing of momentum and heat is investigated in turbulent stratified shear flows. It is assumed that the flow has uniform shear and stratification with homogeneous turbulence and that an equilibrium is reached between kinetic and ...

U. Schumann; T. Gerz

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Mixed Layer Deepening Due to Langmuir Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between wind-driven Langmuir circulation and preexisting stratification is examined in order to elucidate its role in the deepening of the ocean surface mixed layer. For linear stratification, a numerical model suggests that ...

Ming Li; Chris Garrett

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Treatment of Mixed Incinerable Waste, IG-0588  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

We found the Department of Energy (Department) was not treating its mixed incinerable solid waste expeditiously or cost-effectively. Specifically, the Department: • Did not fully utilize the Toxic...

378

Turbulent Mixing at the Pacific Subtropical Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some advection of water across the North Pacific subtropical front occurs by the subduction of surface mixed layers from the north side of the front underneath surface waters on the south side. Cross-frontal advection in the thermocline is ...

Rolf G. Lueck

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

First stars VI - Abundances of C, N, O, Li, and mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Galactic evolution of the light elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the poorly-understood origin of nitrogen in the early Galaxy by determining N abundances in 35 extremely metal-poor halo giants (22 stars have [Fe/H]N conversion through CN cycling and strong Li dilution, a signature of mixing. The second group shows no evidence for C to N conversion, and Li is only moderately diluted, and we conclude that their C and N abundances are very close to those of the gas from which they formed in the early Galaxy. These "unmixed" stars reflect the abundances in the early Galaxy: the [C/Fe] ratio is constant (about +0.2 dex) and the [C/Mg] ratio is close to solar at low metallicity, favouring a high C production by massive zero-metal supernovae. The [N/Fe] and [N/Mg] ratios scatter widely. The larger values of these ratios define a flat upper plateau ([N/Mg]= 0.0, [N/Fe]= +0.1), which could reflect higher values within a wide range of yields of zero-metal Sne II. Alternatively, by analogy with the DLA's, the lower abundances ([N/Mg]= -1.1, [N/Fe]= -0.7) could reflect generally low yields from the first Sne II, the other stars being N enhanced by winds of massive Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. At present it cannot be decided whether primary N is produced primarily in SNe II or in massive AGB stars, or in both. The stellar N abundances and [N/O] ratios are compatible with those found in Damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems.

M. Spite; R. Cayrel; B. Plez; V. Hill; F. Spite; E. Depagne; P. Francois; P. Bonifacio; B. Barbuy; T. Beers; J. Andersen; P. Molaro; B. Nordstroem; F. Primas

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material.

McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

382

Solar neutrinos with three flavor mixings  

SciTech Connect

The recent{sup 71}Ga solar neutrino observation is combined with the {sup 37}Cl and Kamiokande-II observations in an analysis for neutrino masses and mixings. The allowed parameter region is found for matter enhanced mixings among all three neutrino flavors. Distortions of the solar neutrino spectrum unique to three flavors are possible and may be observed in continuing and next generation experiments.

Harley, D.; Pantaleone, J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Kuo, T.K. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Solar neutrinos with three flavor mixings  

SciTech Connect

The recent[sup 71]Ga solar neutrino observation is combined with the [sup 37]Cl and Kamiokande-II observations in an analysis for neutrino masses and mixings. The allowed parameter region is found for matter enhanced mixings among all three neutrino flavors. Distortions of the solar neutrino spectrum unique to three flavors are possible and may be observed in continuing and next generation experiments.

Harley, D.; Pantaleone, J. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Kuo, T.K. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

JACKSON VL

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Turbulent Mixing with Chemical Reaction in the Planetary Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed statistics of the fluctuating concentration field produced by large-eddy simulations (LES) of the chemically reactive mixing of two species in a convectively driven mixed layer are presented. The effect of the turbulent mixing on the ...

R. I. Sykes; S. F. Parker; D. S. Henn; W. S. Lewellen

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

None

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

387

Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Neutral Higgs Bosons in the Higgs Triplet Model with nontrivial mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revisit the neutral Higgs sector of the Higgs Triplet Model, with non-negligible mixing in the CP-even Higgs sector. We examine the possibility that one of the Higgs boson state is the particle observed at the LHC at 125 GeV, and the other is either the small LEP excess at 98 GeV; or the CMS excess at 136 GeV; or that the neutral Higgs bosons are (almost) degenerate and have both mass 125 GeV. We show that, under general considerations, an (unmixed) neutral Higgs boson cannot have an enhanced decay branching ratio into gamma gamma with respect to the Standard Model one. An enhancement is however possible for the mixed case, but only for the heavier of the two neutral Higgs bosons, and not for mass-degenerate Higgs bosons. At the same time the branching ratios into WW^*,ZZ^*, bb and tau tau are similar to the Standard Model, or reduced. We correlate the branching ratios of both Higgs states into Z gamma to those into gamma gamma for the three scenarios. The mixed neutral sector of the Higgs triplet model exhibits some features which could distinguish it from other scenarios at the LHC.

Fatemeh Arbabifar; Sahar Bahrami; Mariana Frank

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

389

Thermodynamics of electrolyte mixtures. Activity and osmotic coefficients consistent with the higher-order limiting law for symmetrical mixing  

SciTech Connect

The parameters for symmetrical mixing of ions of the same sign in the virial-coefficient (Pitzer) system are evaluated from literature data for 25/sup 0/C in a manner consistent with the higher-order limiting law of Friedman. Twenty-four systems involve cation mixing with a common anion and fourteen involve anion mixing with a common cation. Heat of mixing data were similarly treated in a recent publication; the results give the temperature coefficients of some of these same parameters. The combined results yield the mixing parameters as functions of temperature on a basis both self-consistent and in accord with the limiting law. The results also yield, for a few systems without a common ion, predicted values in good agreement with experimental data.

Yang, J.; Pitzer, K.S.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June...

391

DOE intends to extend the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE intends to extend the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project contract for four months as competition for long-term contract continues. Scene from inside the Advanced Mixed...

392

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Eligibility Utility Program Information Maine Program Type Generation Disclosure Maine's 1997 restructuring...

393

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Eligibility Utility Program Information Nevada Program Type Generation Disclosure In 2001, Nevada enacted...

394

Mixed n-Step MIR Inequalities: Facets for the n-Mixing Set  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 29, 2011 ... Mathematical Programming 120(2009) 313-346] introduced the n-step MIR inequalities for the mixed integer knapsack set through a ...

395

Water in Protoplanetary Disks: Deuteration and Turbulent Mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the D/H ratio of water ice from 2x10^-2, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10^-4-10^-2 in 10^6 yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the ...

Furuya, Kenji; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Accepted June 2008 HYDROGEN STORAGE FOR MIXED WIND-NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Accepted June 2008 1 HYDROGEN STORAGE FOR MIXED WIND evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity

Cañizares, Claudio A.

397

Lattice Boltzmann equation simulations of turbulence, mixing, and combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the capability of lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method for complex fluid flows involving turbulence, mixing, and reaction. In the first study, LBE schemes for binary scalar mixing and multi-component reacting flow with reactions are developed. Simulations of initially non-premixed mixtures yield scalar probability distribution functions that are in good agreement with numerical data obtained from Navier-Stokes (NS) equation based computation. One-dimensional chemically-reacting flow simulation of a premixed mixture yields a flame speed that is consistent with experimentally determined value. The second study involves direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) of decaying homogenous isotropic turbulence (HIT) with and without frame rotation. Three categories of simulations are performed: (i) LBE-DNS in both inertial and rotating frames; (ii) LBE-LES in inertial frame; (iii) Comparison of the LBE-LES vs. NS-LES. The LBE-DNS results of the decay exponents for kinetic energy k and dissipation rate ?, and the low wave-number scaling of the energy spectrum agree well with established classical results. The LBE-DNS also captures rotating turbulence physics. The LBE-LES accurately captures low-wave number scaling, energy decay and large scale structures. The comparisons indicate that the LBE-LES simulations preserve flow structures somewhat more accurately than the NS-LES counterpart. In the third study, we numerically investigate the near-field mixing features in low aspect-ratio (AR) rectangular turbulent jets (RTJ) using the LBE method. We use D3Q19 multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) LBE incorporating a subgrid Smagorinsky model for LES. Simulations of four jets which characterized by AR, exit velocity, and Reynolds number are performed. The investigated near-field behaviors include: (1) Decay of mean streamwise velocity (MSV) and inverse MSV; (2) Spanwise and lateral profiles of MSV; (3) Half-velocity width development and MSV contours; and (4) Streamwise turbulence intensity distribution and spanwise profiles of streamwise turbulence intensity. The computations are compared against experimental data and the agreement is good. We capture both unique features of RTJ: the saddle-back spanwise profile of MSV and axis-switching of long axis from spanwise to lateral direction. Overall, this work serves to establish the feasibility of the LBE method as a viable tool for computing mixing, combustion, and turbulence.

Yu, Huidan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

The effects of thermohaline mixing on low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the effects of thermohaline mixing on the composition of the envelopes of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We have evolved models of 1, 1.5 and 2 solar masses from the pre-main sequence to the end of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch with thermohaline mixing applied throughout the simulations. In agreement with other authors, we find that thermohaline mixing substantially reduces the abundance of helium-3 on the upper part of the red giant branch in our lowest mass model. However, the small amount of helium-3 that remains is enough to drive thermohaline mixing on the AGB. We find that thermohaline mixing is most efficient in the early thermal pulses and its efficiency drops from pulse to pulse. Nitrogen is not substantially affected by the process, but we do see substantial changes in carbon-13. The carbon-12 to carbon-13 ratio is substantially lowered during the early thermal pulses but the efficacy of the process is seen to diminish rapidly. As the process stops af...

Stancliffe, Richard J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins consumed by modern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins, IN 47907, USA 4 University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, 115 S 1460 E, Salt Lake City, UT acid hydrogen (d2 H) and oxygen (d18 O) isotope ratios is a common feature in systems where isotopic

Ehleringer, Jim

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, December 1,1978--February 28, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented concerning coolant mixing in bundle geometry and subchannel geometry; outlet plenum flow mixing; and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles.

Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Mixed Waste Integrated Program -- Problem-oriented technology development  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. Technology development is ongoing in technical areas required to process mixed waste: materials handling, chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction, off-gas treatment, final forms, and process monitoring/control. MWIP is currently developing a suite of technologies to process heterogeneous waste. One robust process is the fixed-hearth plasma-arc process that is being developed to treat a wide variety of contaminated materials with minimal characterization. Additional processes encompass steam reforming, including treatment of waste under the debris rule. Advanced off-gas systems are also being developed. Vitrification technologies are being demonstrated for the treatment of homogeneous wastes such as incinerator ash and sludge. An alternative to conventional evaporation for liquid removal--freeze crystallization--is being investigated. Since mercury is present in numerous waste streams, mercury removal technologies are being developed.

Hart, P.W.; Wolf, S.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Berry, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

404

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing  

SciTech Connect

Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ristorcelli, Raymond J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

407

Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, Rtransformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1 ratio 2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois-60439 (United States)

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

408

Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

409

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

410

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

411

CONVERSION RATIOS IN SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM, WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is described in which the conversion ratios were measured using highly enriched U-Al foils as catchers. Data are included on the ratios of epi-cadmium to sub-cadmium fission rates of U/sup 235/ in l% enriched U light water moderated lattices, and on conversion ratios of 1% enriched U light water moderated lattices. (J.R.D.)

Tassan, S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

413

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

414

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Using A Ramped Bunch Train In A...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wakefleld accelerator - i.e. with either plasma or structure based wakefield accelerators. It is known that the transformer ratio cannot generally be greater than 2 for a...

415

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment: Results of Mixed Waste Treatment at the M-4 Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing alternatives for commercial nuclear plant mixed wastes are limited. In order to expand potential treatment options, EPRI entered a collaborative research agreement to process mixed wastes at an environmental facility. This report documents the success of that effort to date.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK  

SciTech Connect

In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non-Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work addresses the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. This work is follow-on to the previous tasks 'Demonstration of Mixer Jet Pump Rotational Sensitivity on Mixing and Transfers of the AY-102 Tank' and 'Demonstration of Simulated Waste Transfers from Tank AY-102 to the Hanford Waste Treatment Facility'. The cohesive simulants were investigated and selected jointly by SRNL and PNNL and a white paper was written on this evaluation. The testing and demonstrations of cohesive simulants was a joint effort performed as collaboration between SRNL and PNNL staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using the 1/22nd scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. Seed particles are particles of contracting color added to mixing tank for visual inspection and an indicator of how well the contents of the tank are mixing. Also the seed particles serve as a measuring stick for how well the contents of the tank are transferred from the mixing tank during batch transfers. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative.

Adamson, D.; Gauglitz, P.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Unified Graphical Summary of Neutrino Mixing Parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The neutrino mixing parameters are presented in a number of different ways by the various experiments, e.g. SuperKamiokande, K2K, SNO, KamLAND and Chooz and also by the Particle Data Group. In this paper, we argue that presenting the data in terms of $\\sin^2 \\theta$, where $\\theta$ is the mixing angle appropriate for a given experiment has a direct physical interpretation. For current atmospheric, solar and reactor neutrino experiments, the $\\sin^2 \\theta$'s are effectively the probability of finding a given flavor in a particular neutrino mass eigenstate. The given flavor and particular mass eigenstate varies from experiment to experiment, however, the use of $\\sin^2 \\theta$ provides a unified picture of all the data. Using this unified picture we present a graphical way to represent these neutrino mixing parameters which includes the uncertainties. All of this is performed in the context of the present experimental status of three neutrino oscillations.

Olga Mena; Stephen Parke

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coal combustion system  

SciTech Connect

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Mixed-hybrid discretization methods for the P1 equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider mixed-hybrid discretization methods for the linear Boltzmann transport equation which is extensively used in computational neutron transport. Mixed-hybrid methods combine attractive features of both mixed and hybrid methods, namely the simultaneous ... Keywords: 02.60.Cb, 02.70.Dh, 65N12, 65N30, Linear Boltzmann transport equation, Mixed-hybrid discretization methods, P1 approximation

S. Van Criekingen; R. Beauwens

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing  

SciTech Connect

New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

429

Shape Coexistence and Mixing in 152Sm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies of 152Sm using multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering provide key data that clarify the low-energy collective structure of this nucleus. No candidates for two-phonon beta-vibrational states are found. Experimental level energies of the ground-state and first excited (0+ state) rotational bands, electric monopole transition rates, reduced quadrupole transition rates, and the isomer shift of the first excited 2+ state are all described within ~10% precision using two-band mixing calculations. The basic collective structure of 152Sm is described using strong mixing of near-degenerate coexisting quasi-rotational bands with different deformations.

Kulp, W D; Garrett, P E; Wu, C Y; Cline, D; Allmond, J M; Bandyopadhyay, D; Dashdorj, D; Choudry, S N; Hayes, A B; Hua, H; Lesher, S; Mynk, M; McEllistrem, M T; McKay, C J; Orce, J C; Teng, R; Yates, S W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Shape Coexistence and Mixing in 152Sm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies of 152Sm using multiple-step Coulomb excitation and inelastic neutron scattering provide key data that clarify the low-energy collective structure of this nucleus. No candidates for two-phonon beta-vibrational states are found. Experimental level energies of the ground-state and first excited (0+ state) rotational bands, electric monopole transition rates, reduced quadrupole transition rates, and the isomer shift of the first excited 2+ state are all described within ~10% precision using two-band mixing calculations. The basic collective structure of 152Sm is described using strong mixing of near-degenerate coexisting quasi-rotational bands with different deformations.

W. D. Kulp; J. L. Wood; P. E. Garrett; C. Y. Wu; D. Cline; J. M. Allmond; D. Bandyopadhyay; D. Dashdorj; S. N. Choudry; A. B. Hayes; H. Hua; S. R. Lesher; M. Mynk; M. T. McEllistrem; C. J. McKay; J. N. Orce; R. Teng; S. W. Yates

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

433

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and Backscatter Relationships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation consists of three parts, each devoted to a particular issue of significant importance for CALIPSO lidar observation of depolarization ratio (delta) and backscatter (gamma?) to improve current understanding of the microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols. The relationships between depolarization ratio and backscatter allow us to retrieve particle thermodynamic phase and shape and/or orientation of aerosols and clouds. The first part is devoted to the investigation of the relationships between lidar backscatter and the corresponding depolarization ratio for different cloud classifications and aerosol types. For each cloud and aerosol types, layer-averaged backscatter and backscattering depolarization ratio from the CALIPSO measurements are discussed. The present results demonstrate the unique capabilities of the CALIPSO lidar instrument for determining cloud phase and aerosols subtypes. In the second part, we evaluate the MODIS IR cloud phase with the CALIPSO cloud products. The three possible misclassifications of MODIS IR cloud phasealgorithm, which are studied by Nasiri and Kahn (2008) with radiative transfer modeling, are tested by comparing between MODIS IR phase and CALIOP observations. The current results support their hypotheses, which is that the MODIS phase algorithm may tend to classify thin cirrus clouds as water clouds or mixed phase clouds or unknown, and classify midlevel and/or mid-temperature clouds as mixed or unknown phase. In the third part, we present a comparison of mineral dust aerosol retrievals from two instruments, MODIS and CALIPSO lidar. And, we implement and evaluate a new mineral dust detection algorithm based on the analysis of thin dust radiative signature. In comparison, three commonly used visible and IR mineral dust detection algorithms, including BTD procedure, D parameter method, and multi-channel image algorithm, are evaluated with CALIPSO aerosol classification. The comparison reveals that those dust detection algorithms are not effective for optically thin dust layers, but for thick dust storm. The new algorithm using discriminant analysis with CALIPSO observation is much better in detecting thin dust layer of optical thickness between 0.1 and 2.

Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

High-Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Backscatter Ratio Using Barium Atomic Blocking Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial measurements of the aerosol backscatter ratio using a new atomic barium filter (FWHM from 2.0–3.0 GHz at 553.7 nm) in conjunction with a narrowband-pulsed dye laser system are reported. Using analog detection and a 0.2 m diameter ...

R. J. Alvarez II; L. M. Caldwell; V. H. Li; D. A. Krueger; C. Y. She

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Evaluation of steam-generator fluid mixing during layup. Final report. [PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop practical methods of achieving an adequately mixed chemical environment on the secondary side of PWR steam generators during periods of shutdown, cold shutdown (layup), and startup. Layup chemicals introduced into the steam generator could then be evenly dispersed to minimize corrosion processes which may occur if the chemical environment was not properly maintained. Systems for chemical feed, mixing, sampling, and removal of contaminant chemicals in the steam generator secondary side were also evaluated and recommendations have been made. Test results from a plexiglass model indicated that forced circulation and turbulent mixing were the most effective methods of achieving a rapid, homogeneous chemical environment. Natural convection and diffusion, on the other hand, were found to be less effective in achieving a thorough mixing.

MacArthur, A.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas turbine premixing systems  

SciTech Connect

Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fuel cell system combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

443

Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Golden Ratio Prediction for the Solar Angle from a Natural Model with A5 Flavour Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a consistent model predicting, in the leading order approximation, maximal atmospheric mixing angle, vanishing reactor angle and tan {\\theta}_12 = 1/{\\phi} where {\\phi} is the Golden Ratio.