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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

2

Magnetically coupled system for mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in Air Samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Montaña de Oro, California, USA (January 2004) image Abstract graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Stanley C. Tyler Department of Earth System Science University of California Irvine, CA DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1022 Description and Methods Air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) and Montaña de Oro, CA (35°N, 121°W) have been collected at approximately semi-monthly to monthly intervals since the mid 1990s. The beginning dates for each gas and isotope analyzed are as follows: GASLAB Flask Sampling Network Data Available (April 2003) Gas or isotope Niwot Ridge Montaña de Oro

4

Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta-analysis of Four Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and combustion conditions in determining OA loadings from biomass burning. 1. INTRODUCTION Biomass burningCharacterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta: Characteristic organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ERs) and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) for biomass

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

5

Mixing in complex coastal hydrogeologic systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The mixing zone developed at freshwater-seawater interface is one of the most important features in complex coastal hydrogeologic systems, which controls subsurface flow and reactive… (more)

Lu, Chunhui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

8

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Theoretical study on a novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios is proposed and investigated. In the combined system, a modified Kalina subcycle and an ammonia absorption cooling subcycle are interconnected by mixers, splitters, absorbers and heat exchangers. The proposed system can adjust its cooling to power ratios from the separate mode without splitting/mixing processes in the two subcycles to the combined operation modes which can produce different ratios of cooling and power. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of operation parameter on system performance. The results indicate that the combined system efficiency can reach the maximum values of 37.79% as SR1 (split ratio 1) is equal to 1. Compared with the separate system, the combined efficiency and COP values of the proposed system can increase by 6.6% and 100% with the same heat input, respectively. In addition, the cooling to power ratios of the proposed system can be adjusted in the range of 1.8–3.6 under the given operating conditions.

Zeting Yu; Jitian Han; Hai Liu; Hongxia Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Behavioral Model Equivalence Checking for Large Analog Mixed Signal Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis proposes a systematic, hierarchical, optimization based semi-formal equivalence checking methodology for large analog/mixed signal systems such as phase locked loops (PLL), analog to digital convertors (ADC) and input/output (I...

Singh, Amandeep

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

12

The E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the {Delta} from polarized photo-reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In constituent quark models, a tensor interaction, mixing quark spins with their relative motion, is introduced to reproduce the observed baryon spectrum. This has a consequence completely analogous to the nuclear tensor force between the n and p in deuterium. A D state component is mixed into what would otherwise be a purely S-wave object. The D-wave component breaks spherical symmetry, resulting in a non-vanishing matrix element for the nucleon and a static quadrupole moment and deformation for its first excited state, the {Delta} resonance, at {approximately}325 MeV. The magnitude and sign of this D-state component are quite sensitive to the internal structure of the proton and have been of great interest in recent years. The intrinsic deformation of the spin 1/2 nucleon cannot be observed directly; it must be inferred from transition amplitudes such as N {yields} {Delta}. In a spherical bag model, the {Delta} is viewed as a pure quark-spin-flip transition proceeding only through M1 excitation. If there are D-state admixtures in the ground state of the nucleon and/or {Delta}, quadrupole excitation, in addition to spin-flip M1, is also allowed. The problem is to evaluate the relative magnitude of this E2 excitation in the presence of the dominant M1 transition. A variety of models predict this mixing ratio to be quite small, anywhere from {minus}0.9% to {minus}6%, so that a high degree of precision is demanded of experiment.

The LEGS Collaboration

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

14

Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Qualitative chemical geothermometers utilize anomalous concentrations of various "indicator" elements in groundwaters, streams, soils, and soil gases to outline favorable places to explore for geothermal energy. Some of the qualitative methods, such as the delineation of mercury and helium anomalies in soil gases, do not require the presence of hot springs or fumaroles. However, these techniques may also outline fossil thermal areas that are now cold. Quantitative chemical geothermometers and mixing models can provide information about present probable minimum

15

Optimal Shipboard Power System Management via Mixed Integer Dynamic Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Shipboard Power System Management via Mixed Integer Dynamic Programming Harry G. Kwatny' power systems using a logical specification to define the transition dynamics of the discrete subsystem following component failure(s) is a central goal of power system management including electric shipboard

Kwatny, Harry G.

16

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Mixed Pyrophyllite-Montmorillonite System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Mixed Pyrophyllite-Montmorillonite System E. J. Elzinga Surface the mechanism responsible for the initial stage of Ni sorption, and surface precipitation being the slower structure (EXAFS) data on sorption studies on Ni/clay systems revealed that the Ni sorption behavior

Sparks, Donald L.

17

Coordination Assistance for Mixed Human and Computational Agent Systems 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will discuss the design of a set of distributed autonomous computer programs (``agents'') that assist peopleCoordination Assistance for Mixed Human and Computational Agent Systems 1 Keith S. Decker Commander) and his staff (intelligence, operations, logistics, weather, etc.). As the human planner makes

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

18

Coordination Assistance for Mixed Human and Computational Agent Systems 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will discuss the design of a set of distributed autonomous computer programs ("agents") that assist peopleCoordination Assistance for Mixed Human and Computational Agent Systems 1 Keith S. Decker Commander) and his staff (intelligence, operations, logistics, weather, etc.). As the human planner makes

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

19

INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MIXING MULTICHANNEL AUDIO Joshua D. Reiss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the engineering tasks and requirements that must be addressed during the audio production process. Although't have the time, expertise or inclination to perform all the audio engineering required. Similarly, [2INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS FOR MIXING MULTICHANNEL AUDIO Joshua D. Reiss Centre for Digital Music, Queen

Reiss, Josh

20

Mixed-mode oscillations in chemical systems Valery Petrov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, leading to correspondingly more complete Devil's staircases. An ex- actly comparable scenario is shown. The relative extents of the mixed-mode and nonmixed- mode forms are summarized in terms of a Devil's staircase. The completeness of the staircase as a second parameter is varied is discussed. The mechanisms by which the system

Showalter, Kenneth

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

23

Phase Mixing in Unperturbed and Perturbed Hamiltonian Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper summarises a numerical investigation of phase mixing in time-independent Hamiltonian systems that admit a coexistence of regular and chaotic phase space regions, allowing also for low amplitude perturbations idealised as periodic driving, friction, and/or white and colored noise. The evolution of initially localised ensembles of orbits was probed through lower order moments and coarse-grained distribution functions. In the absence of time-dependent perturbations, regular ensembles disperse initially as a power law in time and only exhibit a coarse-grained approach towards an invariant equilibrium over comparatively long times. Chaotic ensembles generally diverge exponentially fast on a time scale related to a typical finite time Lyapunov exponent, but can exhibit complex behaviour if they are impacted by the effects of cantori or the Arnold web. Viewed over somewhat longer times, chaotic ensembles typical converge exponentially towards an invariant or near-invariant equilibrium. This, however, need not correspond to a true equilibrium, which may only be approached over very long time scales. Time-dependent perturbations can dramatically increase the efficiency of phase mixing, both by accelerating the approach towards a near-equilibrium and by facilitating diffusion through cantori or along the Arnold web so as to accelerate the approach towards a true equilibrium. The efficacy of such perturbations typically scales logarithmically in amplitude, but is comparatively insensitive to most other details, a conclusion which reinforces the interpretation that the perturbations act via a resonant coupling.

Henry E. Kandrup; Steven J. Novotny

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

25

36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results

26

Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure Ian Melbourne renewal sequences in the context of infinite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical systems technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise asymptotics and hence sharp mixing rates

29

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mixed Reality Simulations for Developing UAV Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mixed Reality Simulations for Developing UAV Systems Ian Yen Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system can be long and challenging. Mixed Reality (MR) simulations can reduce cost for prototyping a UAV sys- tem to be deployed for a dairy farming monitoring task. We show that by augmenting

Sun, Jing

30

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

FINITE ENERGY SOLUTIONS OF MIXED 3D DIV-CURL SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FINITE ENERGY SOLUTIONS OF MIXED 3D DIV-CURL SYSTEMS GILES AUCHMUTY AND JAMES C. ALEXANDER Abstract. This paper describes the existence and representation of certain finite energy (L2 -) solutions of weighted div-curl systems on bounded 3d regions with C2 -boundaries and mixed boundary data. Necessary

Auchmuty, Giles

32

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in nite measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with in#12;nite measure Ian of operator renewal sequences in the context of in#12;nite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical for mixing rates. Sarig [37] introduced a powerful new technique, operator renewal theory, to obtain precise

33

Syncretic Post-Biological Digital Identity: Hybridizing Mixed Reality Data Transfer Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper offers a contribution to an emerging culturally orientated discourse regarding mixed reality interaction. It seeks to analyse syncretic, hybridized agency, particularly in mixed reality data transfer systems. Recent developments in bridging ... Keywords: Art, Media art, Performing Arts, Metaverse, dual reality, cross-reality, transhumanism, post-humanism

Julian Stadon; Raphael Grasset

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Network Synthesis for a Class of Mixed Quantum-Classical Linear Stochastic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to formulate and solve a synthesis problem for a class of linear quantum equations that may describe mixed quantum-classical systems. A general model and a standard model for mixed quantum-classical linear stochastic systems are proposed for our design processes and then we show how the former may be transformed into the latter, which can clearly present the internal structure of a mixed quantum-classical system. Physical realizability conditions are derived separately for the two models to ensure that they can correspond to physical systems. Furthermore, a network synthesis theory is developed for a mixed quantum-classical system of the standard form and an example is given to illustrate the theory.

Shi Wang; Hendra I. Nurdin; Guofeng Zhang; Matthew R. James

2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

35

A mixed groundwater system at Midway, UT: discriminating superimposed local and regional discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed thermal and cold water groundwater occurs in the Midway area, UT. Midway is located in the western Heber Valley, an alluvial-filled intermontane basin behind the crest of the Wasatch Mountains. In addition to streams and thermal springs, groundwater discharges from alluvium, bedrock, and karstified tufa. Evaluation of the thermal system reveals that it has been circulated to depths of ?2 km and temperatures of ?150 °C. Most groundwater characteristics of the area can be explained by subsurface mixing between isotopically depleted, Pleistocene-aged thermal water and isotopically enriched, cold, modern, low TDS groundwater. Because the entire system exhibits evidence of mixing, it is possible to define the regional extent of upwelling of thermal water, as well as mixing fractions between the two end-members. The subsurface mixing of thermal and non-thermal waters is highly controlled by the superimposition of local irrigation recharge.

Concepción Carreón-Diazconti; Stephen T. Nelson; Alan L. Mayo; David G. Tingey; Maren Smith

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Lensing by Lyman Limit Systems: Determining the Mass to Gas Ratio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method to determine the total mass-to-neutral gas ratio in Lyman-limits systems. The method exploits the relation between the neutral hydrogen column density and the magnification of background sources due to the weak gravitational lensing that these systems induce. Because weak lensing does not provide a direct measure of mass, one must use this relation in a statistical sense to solve for the average mass-to-gas ratio and its distribution. We use a detailed mock catalog of quasars (sources) and Lyman-limit systems (lenses) to demonstrate the applicability of this approach through our ability to recover the parameter. This mock catalog also allows us to check for systematics in the method and to sketch its limitations. For a universal constant mass-to-gas ratio and a sample of N quasars, we obtain an unbiased estimate of its value with 95% confidence limits (independent of its actual value) of +/- 140 {10^5/N)^0.5.

Ariyeh Maller; Tsafrir Kolatt; Matthias Bartelmann; George R. Blumenthal

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the… (more)

Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Microfluidic systems for chemical kinetics that rely on chaotic mixing in droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...system is particularly appropriate for chemical kinetics and biochemical assays. The...required. 9. Using the microfluidic platform to measure kinetics This plug-based...Press. Ottino, J. M. 1994 Mixing and chemical-reactions--a tutorial. Chem. Engng...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Mixed-Criticality Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems: Energy Consumption vs Deadline Misses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mixed-Criticality Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems: Energy Consumption vs Deadline Misses Vincent that using the best compromise, the energy consumption can be reduced up to 17% while the percentage the energy consumption of MC systems. The energy consumption of embedded real-time systems is indeed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Harmonic Analysis of a Static VAR Compensated Mixed Load System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??As power electronic based controllers and loads become more prevalent in power systems, there is a growing concern about how the harmonics generated by these… (more)

Ruckdaschel, James David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste.

Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Mixing blade system for high-resistance media  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A blade system is described for stirring and agitating a medium, comprising a shaft bearing a plurality of paddles, each having a different geometry and each having approximately the same rotational moment. The geometrically different paddles sweep through different volumes of the medium to minimize shear zone development and maximize the strength of the system with respect to medium-induced stress. 6 figures.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

43

An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

Spencer Pack

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mixed moments of random mappings and chaotic dynamical systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and signi cance in computer implementations and...contradictions. Analysis of the properties...discretizations, including computer implementations of dynamical systems, constitutes a new...mathematics. This analysis is not straightforward...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Seasonal Mixing Processes in an Arctic Fjord System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies of water movement in the Aafardlikavsâ/Qaumarujuk fjord system in West Greenland have barn carried out in order to understand the movement of mine tailings discharged into Agfardlikavsâ Fjord. Observations are explained in terms of ...

E. L. Lewis; R. G. Perkin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Performance analysis of mixed passive solar heating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The various situations in which interactions between south-facing systems serving a single thermal zone may affect the performance of the mixture are discussed. In particular, the nature of direct gain interactions with unvented Trombe walls was explored using a detailed thermal network computer program. The results are compared with predictions from the simple design analysis procedures which neglect interactions. This comparison showed that system interactions can significantly improve the peformance of a mixture under certain conditions.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Geodesic deviations: modeling extreme mass-ratio systems and their gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The method of geodesic deviations has been applied to derive accurate analytic approximations to geodesics in Schwarzschild space-time. The results are used to construct analytic expressions for the source terms in the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli-Moncrief equations, which describe the propagation of gravitational waves emitted by a compact massive object moving in the Schwarzschild background space-time. The wave equations are solved numerically to provide the asymptotic form of the wave at large distances for a series of non-circular bound orbits with periastron distances up to the ISCO radius, and the power emitted in gravitational waves by the extreme-mass ratio binary system is computed. The results compare well with those of purely numerical approaches.

G. Koekoek; J. W. van Holten

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

48

Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Ratio of Heat to Power Based on a Conceptual CHP System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The CHP system not only produces electrical energy, but also produces thermal energy. An extensive analysis of the CHP market reveals that one of the most important engineering characteristics is flexibility. A variable heat-to-power ratio has...

Liu, Z.; Li, X.; Liu, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Climate response to tropical cyclone-induced ocean mixing in an1 Earth system model of intermediate complexity2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate response to tropical cyclone-induced ocean mixing in an1 Earth system model of intermediate system model of intermediate complexity. The parameterization is based on21 previously published global. Abstract19 We introduce a parameterization of ocean mixing by tropical cyclones (TCs) into20 an Earth

51

Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

Akatay, M. Cem [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Forney Hall of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Baumann, Philipp [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)] [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Stach, Eric A., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

53

Extreme wind studies in Singapore. An area with mixed weather system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an extreme wind studies in Singapore, which is an area with mixed weather systems. The extreme winds in Singapore are generated by both monsoon and thunderstorms (or squalls). Thus, the design wind speed is expected to be influenced by these weather systems. Two methods, i.e. Gumbel's and Independent Storm methods, were used in this study. However, the co-existence of the weather systems suggested that the estimation of the design wind speed might not be done in a straightforward manner. Extreme wind data need to be sorted according to the different wind producing weather system before any analyses could be carried out. In this study, the wind extreme data were separated into two weather systems, namely the large- and small-scale systems. Although the area of Singapore is about 40 km×20 km, the result suggests that the wind characteristics at Tengah (west side of Singapore) were different from Seletar (central) and Changi (east of Singapore).

E.C.C Choi; A Tanurdjaja

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The effects of R/X ratios on power system minimum loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impedanoe 20+$40 20+ 40 R/X ratio 1/2 1 2 X17 Angle (degrees -5 -7. 5 -10. 0 -12. 5 -15. 0 10 I R 2, 03 2 ' 44 3e04 3. 68 4. 60 5+76 2. 45 3. 77 5. 68 TOTAL 4, 06 4. 88 6. 08 7. 36 9 ~ 20 lla52 4 ' 90 7+54 11, 36 I Z 4 ' 53..., itions: (1) The line impedanoes and R/X ratios are, Line 134 Im edanoe 0 100 5 10 R ratio 1 2 1 2 X17 Angle (degrees) 2 ~ 5 o95 i+90 TOTAL IR IX ~ 87 i 1. 74 I Z 1 ~ 95 2. 12 P 0' OS I R I X I Z 100. 0 108 ' 8 -5 ' 0 i+13 2+26 2...

Denison, John Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Mixed solitons in a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave–short-wave system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We derive a (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent long-wave?short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system as the evolution equation for propagation of N-dispersive waves in weak Kerr-type nonlinear medium in the small-amplitude limit. The mixed- (bright-dark) type soliton solutions of a particular (2+1)-dimensional multicomponent LSRI system, deduced from the general multicomponent higher-dimensional LSRI system, are obtained by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method. Particularly, we show that the solitons in the LSRI system with two short-wave components behave like scalar solitons. We point out that for an N-component LSRI system with N>3, if the bright solitons appear in at least two components, interesting collision behavior takes place, resulting in energy exchange among the bright solitons. However, the dark solitons undergo standard elastic collision accompanied by a position shift and a phase shift. Our analysis on the mixed bound solitons shows that the additional degree of freedom which arises due to the higher-dimensional nature of the system results in a wide range of parameters for which the soliton collision can take place.

T. Kanna; M. Vijayajayanthi; M. Lakshmanan

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Control of mixed-state quantum systems by a train of short pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A density matrix approach is developped for the control of a mixed-state quantum system using a time-dependent external field such as a train of pulses. This leads to the definition of a target density matrix constructed in a reduced Hilbert space as a specific combination of the eigenvectors of a given observable through weighting factors related with the initial statistics of the system. A train of pulses is considered as a possible strategy to reach this target. An illustration is given by considering the laser control of molecular alignment / orientation in thermal equilibrium.

D. Sugny; A. Keller; O. Atabek; D. Daems; C. M. Dion; S. Guérin; H. R. Jauslin

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Universality and quantization of the power-to-heat ratio in nanogranular systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study heating and dissipation effects in granular nanosystems in the regime of weak coupling between the grains. We focus on the cotunneling regime and solve the heat-dissipation problem in an array of grains exactly. We show that the power to heat ratio has a universal quantized value, which is geometrically protected: It depends only on the number of grains.

N. M. Chtchelkatchev; A. Glatz; I. S. Beloborodov

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

Lattice vibration in homogeneously-mixed-valent systems of rare-earth materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the essential feature of interplay between lattice vibration and valence fluctuation in the homogeneously-mixed-valent systems of rare-earth materials rigorously within simple models, paying special attention to studying the collective nature of excitations in lattice vibration as well as in valence fluctuation. We compare our results with experiments and find that the general features of the experiments of Sm0.75Y0.25S are well understood within the present model if we assume the characteristic energy of the valence fluctuation to be comparable to the phonon energy.

S. Ichinose and Y. Kuroda

1982-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Tuning the current ratio of a CPV system to maximize the energy harvesting in a particular location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method based on experimental data is proposed to optimize the energy harvesting of a silicone-on-glass Fresnel-lens based CPV system. It takes into account the spectral variations along the year in a particular location as well as the thermal and spectral sensitivities of the optics and solar cell. In addition different alternatives to tune the top/middle subcells current ratio in a CPV module are analyzed and their capacity to maximize the annually produced energy is quantified.

M. Victoria; S. Askins; R. Nuñez; C. Domínguez; R. Herrero; I. Antón; G. Sala; J. M. Ruíz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A Mixed Basis Density Functional Approach for Low Dimensional Systems with B-splines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mixed basis approach based on density functional theory is employed for low dimensional systems. The basis functions are taken to be plane waves for the periodic direction multiplied by B-spline polynomials in the non-periodic direction. B-splines have the following advantages:(1) the associated matrix elements are sparse, (2) B-splines possess a superior treatment of derivatives, (3) B-splines are not associated with atomic positions when the geometry structure is optimized, making the geometry optimization easy to implement. With this mixed basis set we can directly calculate the total energy of the system instead of using the conventional supercell model with a slab sandwiched between vacuum regions. A generalized Lanczos-Krylov iterative method is implemented for the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. To demonstrate the present approach, we apply it to study the C(001)-(2x1) surface with the norm-conserving pseudopotential, the n-type delta-doped graphene, and graphene nanoribbon with Vanderbilt...

Ren, Chung-Yuan; Chang, Yia-Chung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Scaling of high-wavenumber energy spectra in the unit aspect-ratio rotating Boussinesq system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phenomenological and numerical studies of the small scale spectra of energy are presented for high Reynolds number rotating Boussinesq flows in unit aspect-ratio domains. We introduce a non-dimensional parameter Gamma such that when the potential vorticity is nearly linear in the dynamical variables, we deduce that for Gamma much less than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of horizontal kinetic energy into wavemodes with large horizontal component k_h while forcing it to become independent of vertical wavevector component k_z, scaling as k_h^{-5}. When Gamma much greater than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of potential energy into the wavemodes with large vertical component k_z while forcing it to become independent of k_h, scaling as k_z^{-5) power. Spectra computed from high-resolution simulations of the Boussinesq equations with isotropic low-wavenumber forcing are used to explore such anisotropic constraints on the energy and provide a posteriori justification for the joint flux ansatz used to obtain the (-5) scaling exponent. In all cases the empirical evidence points to both energy and potential enstrophy being jointly transferred downscale with the spectral scaling of the the former constrained by the latter.

Susan Kurien

2010-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Injection of Short-Lived Radionuclides into the Early Solar System from a Faint Supernova with Mixing-Fallback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) were present in the early solar system, some of which should have formed just prior to or soon after the solar system formation. Stellar nucleosynthesis has been proposed as the mechanism for production of SLRs in the solar system, but no appropriate stellar source has been found to explain the abundances of all solar system SLRs. In this study, we propose a faint supernova with mixing and fallback as a stellar source of SLRs with mean lives of <5 Myr (26Al, 41Ca, 53Mn, and 60Fe) in the solar system. In such a supernova, the inner region of the exploding star experiences mixing, a small fraction of mixed materials is ejected, and the rest undergoes fallback onto the core. The modeled SLR abundances agree well with their solar system abundances if mixing-fallback occurs within the C/O-burning layer. In some cases, the initial solar system abundances of the SLRs can be reproduced within a factor of 2. The dilution factor of supernova ejecta to the solar system materials is ~10E-4 and the time interval between the supernova explosion and the formation of oldest solid materials in the solar system is ~1 Myr. If the dilution occurred due to spherically symmetric expansion, a faint supernova should have occurred nearby the solar system forming region in a star cluster.

A. Takigawa; J. Miki; S. Tachibana; G. R. Huss; N. Tominaga; H. Umeda; K. Nomoto

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

65

Review of the design and performance features of hvdc systems connected to low short circuit ratio ac systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and performance of an HVdc system is significantly impacted by the relative strength of the ac system to which it is connected. In this paper, design and performance features of ten HVdc systems are discussed. All of these systems are connected to ac systems that are relatively weak compared to the rating of the dc system. Six of these systems are back-to-back, two are overhead lines, and two are undersea cable connections. AC and dc system interaction problems and how they are addressed in the design and specification of each of these systems, are described.

Thallam, R.S. (Salt River Project, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

Schwinkendorf, W.E.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

Pueyo, Laurent [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Monnier, John D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 941 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Parry, Ian [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3, OHA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

69

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Designing an Optimal Urban Community Mix for an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research examined what mix of building types result in the most efficient use of a technology known as Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Hourly… (more)

Zizzo, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Quantum effects and competing interactions in crystals of the mixed rubidium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantum corrections are introduced in a simple two-sublattice model, which describes well both para-ferro (TC) and para-antiferroelectric (TN) phase transitions in mixed crystals of the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family, leading to a determination of the phase diagram in satisfactory agreement with that observed in rubidium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate mixed crystals.

Julio A. Gonzalo

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Extended Near-Infrared Resonance Raman Investigations of an Organic Mixed-Valence System: Diazatetracyclodiene Radical Cation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extended Near-Infrared Resonance Raman Investigations of an Organic Mixed-Valence System near-infrared region show that six modes are coupled to the intramolecular charge-transfer transition transfer (IVCT) absorption bands in the red to near- infrared region of the spectrum, which are, at least

74

Hopf-Turing mixed mode and pattern selection in reaction diffusion systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The amplitude equation of Gierer-Mainhardt model has been actually derived near the boundary abuot which Turing and Hopf modes exist. In a parameter region where Hopf-Turing mixed mode solution is stable, a chaotic state that generally results from interaction between mixed modes, is observed. This chaotic region follows a strong selection of a spatially periodic order followed by a local, resonant, very large frequency temporal oscillation. A spatio-temporal forcing, responsible for what obseved, has been identified.

A. Bhattacharyay

2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

Tom Leininger

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Move Frame Scheduling and Mixed SchedulingAllocation for the Automated Synthesis of Digital Systems y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steps: 1) Data path synthe­ sis (operation scheduling and hardware allocation), and 2) Control path design. In the scheduling phase, operations are assigned to the appropriate control steps. The allocaMove Frame Scheduling and Mixed Scheduling­Allocation for the Automated Synthesis of Digital

Nourani, Mehrdad

78

Development of a control algorithm for a dynamic gas mixing system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An algorithm was developed to control the partial pressures of N2, O2, and CO2 in a gas mixing tank. The gases were premixed before being introduced into the low pressure Mars Dome. As an attempt to reduce the effects of pressure, the number...

Lovelady, April

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

A Criterion for Thermal Stratification in a Wind-Mixed System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The onset of thermal stratification in an isohaline, wind-mixed water body is shown, by a simple model and observations, to be determined by the parameter u*3/hB?, where u* is the friction velocity of the air just above the water surface, h the ...

Peter E. Holloway

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Characterization of High- Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Microrequire  a  high  stroke  of  10?m  of   mechanical  that  provide  only  a  stroke  of  less  than   6?m  for  

Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

System-size dependence of particle-ratio fluctuations in Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New measurements by the NA49 experiment of the centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of the particle yield ratios (K++K?)/(?++??), (p+p¯)/(?++??), and (K++K?)/(p+p¯) are presented for Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV. The absolute values of the dynamical fluctuations of these ratios, quantified by the measure ?dyn, increase by about a factor of two from central to semiperipheral collisions. Multiplicity scaling scenarios are tested and found to apply for both the centrality and the previously published energy dependence of the (K++K?)/(?++??) and (p+p¯)/(?++??) ratio fluctuations. A description of the centrality and energy dependence of (K++K?)/(p+p¯) ratio fluctuations by a common scaling prescription is not possible since there is a sign change in the energy dependence.

T. Anticic et al. (NA49 Collaboration)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

84

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle systems and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time-dependent measures of performance including uranium usage, TRU inventory, and radiotoxicity to evaluate the complex impacts of transition from the current uranium-fueled LWR system, and other more realistic impacts that may not be intuited from the time-independent steady-state conditions of the end-state fuel cycle. These analyses were performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model VISION. Compared with static calculations, dynamic results paint a different picture of option space and the urgency of starting a FR fleet. For example, in a static analysis, there is a sharp increase in uranium utilization as CR exceeds 1.0 (burner versus breeder). However, in dynamic analyses that examine uranium use over the next 1 to 2 centuries, behavior as CR crosses the 1.0 threshold is smooth, and other parameters such as the time required outside of reactors to recycle fuel become important. Overall, we find that there is no unambiguously superior value of TRU CR; preferences depend on the relative importance of different fuel cycle system objectives.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Adjusting the ratio of the clock rates in a PDA system to reduce the jitter through wireless VoIP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a setting method to adjust the ratio of the CPU, RAM and BUS clock speeds of a PDA to balance the processing time and reduce the jitter of the arrival voice packets. To maintain the balance and fluency among compression, encoder-decoder, ... Keywords: PDA, VoIP (voice over internet protocol), clock rate, jitter

Ying-Wen Bai; Yung-De Cheng

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Screening of mixed surfactant systems: Phase behavior studies and CT imaging of surfactant-enhanced oil recovery experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic chemical screening study was conducted on selected anionic-nonionic and nonionic-nonionic systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate and determine combinations of these surfactants that would exhibit favorable phase behavior and solubilization capacity. The effects of different parameters including (a) salinity, (b) temperature, (c) alkane carbon number, (c) hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) of nonionic component, and (d) type of surfactant on the behavior of the overall chemical system were evaluated. The current work was conducted using a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combinations of several anionic systems with various hydrocarbons. Efforts to correlate the behavior of these mixed systems led to the development of several models for the chemical systems tested. The models were used to compare the different systems and provided some guidelines for formulating them to account for variations in salinity, oil hydrocarbon number, and temperature. The models were also evaluated to determine conformance with the results from experimental measurements. The models provided good agreement with experimental results. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. CT-monitored corefloods were conducted to examine the effect of changing surfactant slug size injection on oil bank formation and propagation. Reducing surfactant slug size resulted in lower total oil production. Oil recovery results, however, did not correlate with slug size for the low-concentration, alkaline, mixed surfactant system used in these tests. The CT measurements showed that polymer mobility control and core features also affected the overall oil recovery results.

Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Lorenz, P.B.; Cook, I.M.; Scott, L.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)] [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

What makes end-user training successful? A mixed method study of a business process management system implementation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Under what conditions is end-user training (EUT) as part of the implementation of a business process management (BPM) system successful? This question is addressed in this paper. Based on the literature on EUT and implementation success, we first argue that user involvement with, and attitude towards, a BPM system, both have a conditional effect on the relationship between EUT and the implementation success of the system. Secondly, we investigated this expectation empirically, by measuring the practice of EUT as perceived by end-users. Using a mixed method approach, survey data was collected from 143 end-users of a BPM system in a large Dutch social insurance organisation, and by 49 additional semi-structured interviews. Regression analysis of the survey data shows that attitude variables indeed have a significant moderating influence on implementation success. In addition, the interviews revealed that specific attention must be paid to the arrangements for EUT when deploying BPM systems in this type of organisations. Arguments are given for a more comprehensive way of measuring and optimising EUT during the implementation of information systems/information technology in organisations.

Benny M.E. De Waal; Ronald Batenburg

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories.

Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bastian, R.E. [Focus Environmental, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davis, W.T. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

An interval fixed-mix stochastic programming method for greenhouse gas mitigation in energy systems under uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an interval fixed-mix stochastic programming (IFSP) model is developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction management under uncertainties. In the IFSP model, methods of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and fixed-mix stochastic programming (FSP) are introduced into an integer programming framework, such that the developed model can tackle uncertainties described in terms of interval values and probability distributions over a multi-stage context. Moreover, it can reflect dynamic decisions for facility-capacity expansion during the planning horizon. The developed model is applied to a case of planning GHG-emission mitigation, demonstrating that IFSP is applicable to reflecting complexities of multi-uncertainty, dynamic and interactive energy management systems, and capable of addressing the problem of GHG-emission reduction. A number of scenarios corresponding to different GHG-emission mitigation levels are examined; the results suggest that reasonable solutions have been generated. They can be used for generating plans for energy resource/electricity allocation and capacity expansion and help decision makers identify desired GHG mitigation policies under various economic costs and environmental requirements.

Y.L. Xie; Y.P. Li; G.H. Huang; Y.F. Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Optimal Synthesis of Mixed-Refrigerant Systems for Low-Temperature Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2-4 MacKenzie and Donnelly5 demonstrated that MR systems are more efficient than turbo-expander systems in natural gas liquid (NGL) recovery processes. ... This article show that proven refrigeration cycles using expanders are the best choice for offshore developments. ...

G. C. Lee; R. Smith; X. X. Zhu

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Precision Gas System (PGS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This precision gas system (PGS) makes high-accuracy, high-precision measurements of CO2 mixing ratio (ppmv dry air) in air sampled at 2, 4, 25, and 60 m above the ground.

Torn, M

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic infilling of a Neogene carbonate shelf-valley system: Tampa Bay, West-Central Florida  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shelf-valley system underlying Tampa Bay, Florida’s largest estuary, is situated in the middle of the Neogene carbonate Florida Platform. Compared to well-studied fluvially incised coastal plain valley systems, this shelf-valley system is unique in its karstic origin and its alternating carbonate-siliciclastic infill. A complex record of sea-level changes, paleo-fluvial variability and marine processes have controlled the timing and mechanisms of this ‘compound’ shelf-valley infill. A dense grid of high-resolution, single-channel seismic data were collected at the mouth of Tampa Bay, in an attempt to define this stratigraphy, determine the controls on deposition, and define the underlying structure of this shelf-valley system. The seismic data were correlated with nearby wells and boreholes for lithologic and age control. Sequence stratigraphic methods were incorporated in order to develop an integrated chronostratigraphy for the depositional infilling of the shelf-valley system. Five seismic sequences were identified. Sequence boundaries generally show erosional truncation and karstification, with downlap of overlying sequences. Structure contour and isopach maps indicate that the Tampa Bay shelf-valley system has remained in essentially the same location since its formation in the early Miocene, although the provenance of sedimentary infill has changed. This change is due to increasing amounts of siliciclastic material during the Neogene. Seismic facies interpretations indicate lower-energy, northward prograding deposition dominated by predominantly carbonate sediments within the lowest Sequence A. Higher energy, siliciclastic fluvio-deltaic deposition within sequences B and C originates to the east and northeast of the shelf-valley system related to a Pliocene pulse of sedimentation onto the Florida Platform. Finally, marine processes (longshore transport, ebb-tidal delta formation) dominate the upper two sequences (D and E), reworking these siliciclastic sediments into a spatially mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional setting.

David S Duncan; Stanley D Locker; Gregg R Brooks; Albert C Hine; Larry J Doyle

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Mixed valence and spin fluctuations in Ce(Ni, Co)/sub 2/ and related systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pseudobinary alloys Ce(Ni/sub x/Co/sub 1-x/)/sub 2/, (Ce/sub x/La/sub 1-x/)Ni/sub 2/ and (Ce/sub x/Y/sub 1-x/)Ni/sub 2/, where 0 < x < 1, were studied. The room-temperature lattice constant, the magnetic susceptibility in the 6 to 300 K temperature range, the low-temperature specific heat in the 0.4 to 25 K range, and the electrical resistivity in the 0.4 to 300 K range were measured. Additionally, x-ray absorption around the L/sub 3/ edge was studied using the synchroton radiation. Both thermodynamic and L/sub 3/ probes yield similar results for the changes of valence of Ce across these systems. It was established that Ce is in the saturated valence state in the Ce(Ni/sub x/Co/sub 1-x/)/sub 2/ for x < 0.25. The valence decreases with x in the 0.25 to 1 concentration range. Similarly, the valence of Ce decreases in the (Ce, Y)Ni/sub 2/ systems upon substitution of Y for Ce. The results obtained for the (Ce/sub x/La/sub 1-x/)Ni/sub 2/ system are interpreted in terms of changes of the Ce/sup 3 +/ impurity levels. Spin fluctuations due to the 3d electrons play an important role in these systems

Andraka, B.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Study of hydrogen mixing within the combustion engineering system 80+ containment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scoping study is performed to determine how hydrogen distributes throughout an evolutionary, advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) spherical containment given a variety of hydrogen inflows and delivery locations. The study uses MAAP and a preliminary containment design for the Combustion Engineering (C-E) System 80+{trademark} standard design as the bases for the detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses. Results are compared to applicable design criteria from the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. The C-E System 80+ containment design is based on the Cherokee-Perkins System 80{sup R} spherical containment design, revised to accommodate ALWR Requirements Document design criteria. A feature of this design is the 500,000-gal in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) located in the lower region of the containment building. This tank is the source for the safety injection and containment spray pumps, and the discharge location for the primary system safety and bleed valves. The containment design directs water accumulation on lower floors to the IRWST to preclude its depletion.

Hawley, J.T.; Hammersley, R.J.; Plys, M.G. (Fauske Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Special Effect of -Cyclodextrin on the Aggregation Behavior of Mixed Cationic/Anionic Surfactant Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a following micelle-to-vesicle transition, which in turn greatly influences the viscosity and absorbance can be employed to load substances into the inner pool of the vesicles or to reconstitute membrane, metal ions, or organic additives,10 they are rather system-dependent and do not follow a general rule

Huang, Jianbin

99

Analog Baseband Filters and Mixed Signal Circuits for Broadband Receiver Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to design of multi-million transistor system-on-chip (SoC) solutions with remarkable digital signal processing and memory capabilities. Low power mobile handheld devices featuring instant access to voice, video and Internet are one example of a... of a modern wireless device. The first part of this work (Sections 2, 3 and 4) addresses some of the research challenges for low power wireless communication devices. Section 2 provides an in- troduction to modern digital and analog communication...

Kulkarni, Raghavendra Laxman

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Innovative systems for mixed waste retrieval and/or treatment in confined spaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fernald established operations in 1951 and produced uranium and other metals for use at other DOE facilities. A part of the sitewide remediation effort is the removal, treatment, and disposal of the K-65 wastes from Silos 1 and 2. These silos contain radium-bearing residues from the processing of pitchblende ore. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis was prepared to evaluate the removal action alternatives using the preliminary characterization data and select a preferred alternative. The selected alternative consisted of covering the K-65 residues and the silo dome. The remediation of the K-65 wastes consists of the retrieval and treatment of the wastes prior to final disposal, which has not yet been determined. Treatment will be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the silos. The wastes must be retrieved from silos in an efficient and reliable way and delivered to the treatment facility. The first challenge of covering the wastes with bentonite has been successfully met. The second phase of retrieving the wastes from the silos is not due for a few years. However, conceptual design and configuration of the retrieval system have been developed as part of the Conceptual Design Report. The system is based on the utilization of hydraulic mining techniques, and is based on similar successful applications. This report describes the emplacement of the bentonite grant and the design for the slurry retrieval system.

Fekete, L.J.; Ghusn, A.E. [Parsons Environmental Services, Inc., Fairfield, OH (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Precise and accurate determination of boron isotope ratios by multiple collector ICP-MS: origin of boron in the Ngawha geothermal system, New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for the measurement of boron isotope ratios in fluids using a double focusing multiple collector inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometer. Sample introduction using a direct injection nebuliser was found to eliminate memory problems that are common where spray chambers are involved. The 4–9% mass bias can be corrected for by bracketing sample measurements with standards. As matrices were found to affect the mass bias all samples must be purified and that sample and standard solutions must be similar. A new purification technique was developed that yields adequately purified samples. Using this technique, it is possible to make rapid measurements (4 min) from samples containing 250 ng B to a precision of ±0.2‰. This analytical technique has been applied to the Ngawha geothermal system in New Zealand in an attempt to determine the source of B in geothermal fluids where the B concentrations can exceed 100 mmol/l. The ?11B values range between ?3.1‰ and ?3.9‰ indicating that no seawater sources are involved and that the elevated B concentrations can only be accounted for by low water/rock ratios with the B being derived from basement greywacke/argillite. The similarity of B isotope ratios for hydrothermal fluids that have been diluted and cooled with groundwaters indicates that isotope fractionation due to adsorption is unlikely to occur in cool geothermal fluids (<40 °C).

J.K. Aggarwal; D. Sheppard; K. Mezger; E. Pernicka

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

isotopic ratio | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

isotopic ratio isotopic ratio Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate...

104

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be measured with a thermometer. Latent heat, on the other hand, is released or absorbed during transformations...

105

Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf{sub 10}Ta{sub 3}S{sub 3} was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the known gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported {open_quotes}stuffed{close_quotes} gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo K{alpha} X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co{sub 2}Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.

Marking, G.A.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Neutrino Mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this review we present the main features of the current status of neutrino physics. After a review of the theory of neutrino mixing and oscillations, we discuss the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that the current data can be nicely accommodated in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. We discuss also the problem of the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale through Tritium beta-decay experiments and astrophysical observations, and the exploration of the Majorana nature of massive neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, future prospects are briefly discussed.

Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cost-Effectiveness Ratio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost?effectiveness ratio (CER) is a calculation that summarizes the intervention's net cost and effectiveness. The three types of CER are: the average cost?effectiveness ratio (ACER), the marginal cost?...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Atomistic modeling of femtosecond laser-induced melting and atomic mixing in Au film Cu substrate system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including laser surface alloying, cladding, annealing, and hardening, e.g. [1­6]. The improvement of surfaceAtomistic modeling of femtosecond laser-induced melting and atomic mixing in Au film ­ Cu substrate modification by laser irradiation is in the core of many modern processing and fabrication techniques

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

109

D^0 Mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of selected experimental results in the field of $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ oscillations is presented. The average results for the mixing parameters, $x=(0.89\\pm{0.26\\atop 0.27})%$ and $y=(0.75\\pm{0.17\\atop 0.18})%$, exclude the no-mixing hypothesis at the level of 6.7 standard deviations. No sign of CP violation in the $D^0$ system is observed. The measurements impose constraints on the parameter space of many New Physics models.

B. Golob

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

110

EMSL - isotopic ratio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

isotopic-ratio en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-def...

111

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

112

Unit Operation Efficiency Improvement Through Motionless Mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

instances, the power consumption associated with mix ing operations constitutes the major energy demand of a plant or factory. Generally speaking, most industrial mixing occurs in a tank with a motor driven shaft and a mixing blade or paddle assembly... 1/4 inch in diameter, to units many feet in diameter weighing tons. (Figs. 4 and 5). MECHANICAL AND MOTIONLESS MIXERS COMPARED Figure 6 shows a typical mechanical mixing system when materials A and Bare pumped to a mix tank, and the mixed pro...

King, L. T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Trapped diurnal internal tides, propagating semidiurnal internal tides, and mixing estimates in the California Current System from sustained glider observations, 2006–2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract From 2006–2012, along 3 repeated cross-shore transects (California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations lines 66.7, 80, and 90) in the California Current System, 33 609 shear and 39 737 strain profiles from 66 glider missions are used to estimate mixing via finescale parameterizations from a dataset containing over 52 000 profiles. Elevated diffusivity estimates and energetic diurnal (D1) and semidiurnal (D2) internal tides are found: (a) within 100 km of the coast on lines 66.7 and 80 and (b) over the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge (SRCR) in the Southern California Bight (SCB) on line 90. While finding elevated mixing near topography and associated with internal tides is not novel, the combination of resolution and extent in this ongoing data collection is unmatched in the coastal ocean to our knowledge. Both D1 and D2 internal tides are energy sources for mixing. At these latitudes, the D1 internal tide is subinertial. On line 90, D1 and D2 tides are equally energetic over the SRCR, the main site of elevated mixing within the SCB. Numerous sources of internal tides at the rough topography in the SCB produce standing and/or partially-standing waves. On lines 66.7 and 80, the dominant energy source below about 100 m for mixing is the D1 internal tide, which has an energy density of the D2 internal tide. On line 80, estimated diffusivity, estimated dissipation, and D1 energy density peak in summer. The D1 energy density shows an increasing trend from 2006 to 2012. Its amplitude and phase are mostly consistent with topographically-trapped D1 internal tides traveling with the topography on their right. The observed offshore decay of the diffusivity estimates is consistent with the exponential decay of a trapped wave with a mode-1 Rossby radius of 20–30 km. Despite the variable mesoscale, it is remarkable that coherent internal tidal phase is found.

T.M. Shaun Johnston; Daniel L. Rudnick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Structural characterization of the CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed system by synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural determination of the CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed system is a non-trivial problem because of the close resemblance between the ionic sizes of Ce{sup 4+} and Gd{sup 3+} and between the crystal structures of CeO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (Ce{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O{sub 2-x/2} powder samples with x ranging between 0 and 1 have been synthesized by coprecipitation of mixed oxalates and subsequent thermal decomposition in air at 1200 Degree-Sign C followed by slow cooling. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data were collected and refined by the Rietveld method. Lattice parameters do not follow Vegard's law and no peak splitting has been observed for any composition, meaning that no biphasic regions exist over the whole compositional range. The same hybrid structural model - a proper mixture of the structures of the two pure oxides - was used for the refinements, allowing to account for the data observed. - graphical abstract: Substituting Ce{sup 4+} by Gd{sup 3+}, a gradual transition from the F structure (typical of CeO{sub 2}) to the C structure (typical of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) takes place. The lattice parameters do not follow Vegard's law. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural study of Ce-Gd mixed oxides has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In (Ce{sub 1-x}Gd{sub x})O{sub 2-x/2} a solid solution forms for 0{<=}x{<=}0.3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For x>0.3 a gradual transition from the C to the F structure is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice parameters do not follow Vegard's law.

Artini, Cristina, E-mail: c.artini@ge.ieni.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Costa, Giorgio A., E-mail: costa@chimica.unige.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); CNR-SPIN Genova, Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Pani, Marcella, E-mail: marcella@chimica.unige.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita degli Studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lausi, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.lausi@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., ss 14, km 163, 5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Plaisier, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.plaisier@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., ss 14, km 163, 5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Enrichment of the dust-to-gas mass ratio in Bondi/Jeans accretion/cloud systems due to unequal changes in dust and gas incoming velocities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ratio of the Bondi and Jeans lengths is used to develop a cloud-accretion model that describes both an inner Bondi-type regime where gas pressure is balanced by the gravity of a central star and an outer Jeans-type regime where gas pressure is balanced by gas self-gravity. The gas density profile provided by this model makes a smooth transition from a wind-type inner solution to a Bonnor-Ebert type outer solution. It is shown that high-velocity dust impinging on this cloud will tend to pile-up due to having a different velocity profile than gas so that the dust-to-gas ratio is substantially enriched above the 1% ISM level.

P. M. Bellan

2008-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

ITER have a need for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) as part of the plasma heating system mix to reach the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background ITER have a need for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) as part of the plasma heating system ITER ion cyclotron heating systems design Section view through antenna module Thermal model of antenna The ion cyclotron heating antenna is currently in its preliminary design phase and is undergoing detailed

118

Introduction: mixing in microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wiggins Introduction: mixing in microfluidics Julio M. Ottino 1 Stephen...comprising the Theme Issue. Microfluidics|Mixing|Chaos|Diffusion...Introduction: mixing in microfluidics. | In this paper we briefly...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Lean manufacturing system design and value stream management in a high-mix, low-volume environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Value Stream Mapping is a powerful tool for identifying sources of waste and for creating the vision for the future state of a production system. As a management tool, however, it lacks in specific focus of roles, ...

Gates, Matthew David, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Review of models and actors in energy mix optimization – can leader visions and decisions align with optimum model strategies for our future energy systems?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organizational behavior and stakeholder processes continually influence energy strategy choices and decisions. Although theoretical optimizations can provide guidance for energy mix decisions from a pure physical systems engineering point of view, these solutions might not be optimal from a political or social perspective. Improving the transparency of our vision sharing and strategy making processes in a systematic way is therefore as important as the actual systems engineering solutions proposed by the modeling tools. Energy trend forecasting and back-casting, scenarios and system analysis have matured into powerful modeling tools for providing advice on optimizing our future energy solutions. The integrated use and iterative improvement of all these approaches can result in energy systems that become better optimized. Such an integrated approach is particularly important to those who have decision-making power over our future energy direction. Some of the challenges and opportunities for energy strategists that strive to promote optimal decisions on our future energy solutions are highlighted in this state-of-the-art review.

Ruud Weijermars; Peter Taylor; Olivier Bahn; Subir Ranjan Das; Yi-Ming Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fuel Equivalence Ratio Imaging for Methane Jets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 2-D fuel/oxygen equivalence ratio imaging system has been developed. The technique exploits the efficient quenching of the fluorescence of organic molecules by molecular oxygen in...

Ni, T Q; Melton, L A

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

Trussell, S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Spence, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A stable and reproducible superconductivity transition between 80 and 93 K has been unambiguously observed both resistively and magnetically in a new Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure. An estimated upper critical field Hc2(0) between 80 and 180 T was obtained.

M. K. Wu; J. R. Ashburn; C. J. Torng; P. H. Hor; R. L. Meng; L. Gao; Z. J. Huang; Y. Q. Wang; C. W. Chu

1987-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modeling without categorical variables : a mixed-integer nonlinear program for the optimization of thermal insulation systems.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimal design applications are often modeled by using categorical variables to express discrete design decisions, such as material types. A disadvantage of using categorical variables is the lack of continuous relaxations, which precludes the use of modern integer programming techniques. We show how to express categorical variables with standard integer modeling techniques, and we illustrate this approach on a load-bearing thermal insulation system. The system consists of a number of insulators of different materials and intercepts that minimize the heat flow from a hot surface to a cold surface. Our new model allows us to employ black-box modeling languages and solvers and illustrates the interplay between integer and nonlinear modeling techniques. We present numerical experience that illustrates the advantage of the standard integer model.

Abhishek, K.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Lehigh Univ.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Peak power ratio generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the n {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.]|[Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Testing solar lepton mixing sum rules in neutrino oscillation experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small discrete family symmetries such as S4, A4 or A5 may lead to simple leading-order predictions for the neutrino mixing matrix such as the bimaximal, tribimaximal or golden ratio mixing patterns, which may be brought into agreement with experimental data with the help of corrections from the charged-lepton sector. Such scenarios generally lead to relations among the parameters of the physical leptonic mixing matrix known as solar lepton mixing sum rules. In this article, we present a simple derivation of such solar sum rules, valid for arbitrary neutrino and charged lepton mixing angles and phases, assuming only {\\theta}13^{\

Ballett, Peter; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mixed Conifer Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed Conifer Forest occurs in an elevational band below Spruce-Fir Forest and above Ponderosa Pine Forest. It has diverse stands reflecting elevation, ... and others. A primary driver of Mixed Conifer Forest has...

John L. Vankat; John L. Vankat…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Warm Mix Asphalt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technologies have potential to reduce the application temperature of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and improve workability without ... a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, decreased energy cons...

Martins Zaumanis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Energy Profit Ratio Compared  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

Amano, Osamu [2-11-1, Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

HFAG Charm Mixing Averages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently the first evidence for charm mixing has been reported by several experiments. To provide averages of these mixing results and other charm results, a new subgroup of the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group has been formed. We here report on the method and results of averaging the charm mixing results.

B. Aa. Petersen

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Mixing of Pseudoscalar Mesons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eta-eta' mixing is discussed in the quark-flavor basis with the hypothesis that the decay constants follow the pattern of particle state mixing. On exploiting the divergences of the axial vector currents - which embody the axial vector anomaly - all mixing parameters are fixed to first order of flavor symmetry breaking. An alternative set of parameters is obtained from a phenomenological analysis. We also discuss mixing in the octet-singlet basis and show how the relevant mixing parameters are related to those in the quark-flavor basis. The dependence of the mixing parameters on the strength of the anomaly and the amount of flavor symmetry breaking is investigated. Finally, we present a few applications of the quark-flavor mixing scheme, such as radiative decays of vector mesons, the photon-pseudoscalar meson transition form factors, the coupling constants of eta and eta' to nucleons, and the isospin-singlet admixtures to the pi^0 meson.

Th. Feldmann; P. Kroll

2002-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per...

135

Abundance ratios in hierarchical galaxy formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemical enrichment and stellar abundance ratios of galaxies which form in a hierarchical clustering scheme are calculated. For this purpose I adopt the star formation histories (SFH) as they are delivered by semi-analytic models in Kauffmann (1996}. It turns out that the average SFH of cluster ellipticals does not yield globally alpha-enhanced stellar populations. The star burst that occurs when the elliptical forms in the major merger plays therefore a crucial role in producing alpha-enhancement. Only under the assumption that the IMF is significantly flattened with respect to the Salpeter value during the burst, a Mg/Fe overabundant population can be obtained. In particular for the interpretation of radial gradients in metallicity and alpha-enhancement, the mixing of global and burst populations are of great importance. The model predicts bright field galaxies to be less alpha-enhanced than their counterparts in clusters.

D. Thomas

1999-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

136

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

SSA Mixed Canopy Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) Mixed Canopy Site (SSA-Mix) The TE canopy tower The mixed trees Terrestrial Ecology canopy access tower at the SSA mixed coniferous/deciduous site. A picture taken looking down from the TE canopy access tower at the SSA mixed auxiliary site, showing the aspen and spruce canopies. Back to the BOREAS Photo Page Index Other Sites: NSA Photos ||NSA-BP Photos | NSA-Fen Photos | NSA-OA Photos | NSA-OBS Photos | NSA-OJP Photos | NSA-UBS Photos | NSA-YJP Photos | NSA-Ops Photos SSA Photos || SSA-Airport Photos | SSA-Fen Photos | SSA-Mix Photos | SSA-OA Photos | SSA-OBS Photos | SSA-OJP Photos | SSA-YA Photos | SSA-YJP Photos | SSA-Ops Photos | ORNL DAAC Home || ORNL Home || NASA || Privacy, Security, Notices || Data Citation || Rate Us || Help | User Services - Tel: +1 (865) 241-3952 or E-mail: uso@daac.ornl.gov

138

Transient multiwave mixing in a nonlinear medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a detailed quantitative theory of transient multiwave mixing effects in a nonlinear medium produced by two incident coherent laser beams. Our theory accounts for all the relevant parameters such as laser pulse widths, medium response times, nonlinearities, interaction length, intensities, beam ratio, phase-modulation effects, losses, side diffractions, and explicitly shows how the dynamics and the multiwave mixing processes are interrelated with these parameters. The crucial role played by the diffracted beams and the time-dependent phase shifts among the beams and the interplay among the various intensity and index gratings are explicitly evaluated. In particular, the gain experienced by a weak incident probe beam via these mixing effects from the incident strong pump beam is investigated as a function of the aforementioned parameters.

I. C. Khoo and Ping Zhou

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscatter depolarization ratio The ratio of cross polarized to co-polarized elastic backscatter. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai MPL-AIR : Micropulse Lidar- Airborne

140

Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal.

Beitel, G.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastic Wastes for the Recovery of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene (BTX) Aromatics in a Fluidized Bed and Chlorine Removal by Applying Various Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It seems that the char removal system, which was composed of a cyclone and a hot filter, almost perfectly removed the char particles. ... To absorb the hydrogen chloride that was formed from the degradation of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the mixed plastic wastes, additives (calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, crushed oyster shells, and rice straw) were added to a fraction of the mixed plastic wastes. ... For different additives, different Ca/Cl ratios should be chosen based on the cost, HCl removal efficiency and utilization efficiency of additive. ...

Min-Hwan Cho; Su-Hwa Jung; Joo-Sik Kim

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Mixed Semiconductor Nanocrystal Compositions Composition comprising one or more energy donors and one or more energy acceptors, wherein energy is transferred from the energy donor to the energy acceptor and wherein: the energy acceptor is a colloidal nanocrystal having a lower band gap energy than the energy donor; the energy donor and the energy acceptor are separated by a distance of 40 nm or less; wherein the average peak absorption energy of the acceptor is at least 20 meV greater than the average peak emission energy of the energy donor; and

143

Fuel Mix Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hawaii requires the state’s retail electric suppliers to disclose details regarding the fuel mix of their electric generation to retail customers. Such information must be provided on customers’...

144

Brush Busters Mixing Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This easy-to-use guide gives mixing instructions for sprays to control huisache, mesquite, redberry cedar, saltcedar, tallowtree and yucca and to treat hardwood cut stumps. It can easily be attached to a sprayer if desired...

McGinty, Allan; Ueckert, Darrell

2004-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

145

Fuel Mix Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

California's retail electricity suppliers must disclose to all customers the fuel mix used in the generation of electricity. Utilities must use a standard label created by the California Energy...

146

Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fundamentals   of   mixed   protonic   and   electronic  the  fundamentals  of  mixed  protonic  and  electronic  better  fundamental  understanding  of  mixed  electronic  

Ray, Hannah Leung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Fission Product Ratios as Treaty Monitoring Discriminants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently under construction. The IMS is intended for monitoring of nuclear explosions. The radionuclide branch of the IMS monitors the atmosphere for short-lived radioisotopes indicative of a nuclear weapon test, and includes field collection and measurement stations, as well as laboratories to provide reanalysis of the most important samples and a quality control function. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington hosts the United States IMS laboratory, with the designation “RL16.” Since acute reactor containment failures and chronic reactor leakage may also produce similar isotopes, it is tempting to compute ratios of detected isotopes to determine the relevance of an event to the treaty or agreement in question. In this paper we will note several shortcomings of simple isotopic ratios: (1) fractionation of different chemical species, (2) difficulty in comparing isotopes within a single element, (3) the effect of unknown decay times. While these shortcomings will be shown in the light of an aerosol sample, several of the problems extend to xenon isotopic ratios. The result of the difficulties listed above is that considerable human expertise will be required to convert a simple mathematical ratio into a criterion which will reliably categorize an event as ‘reactor’ or ‘weapon’.

Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Arthur, Richard J.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

ADVANCED MIXING MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank with one to four dual-nozzle jet mixers located within the tank. The typical criteria to establish a mixed condition in a tank are based on the number of pumps in operation and the time duration of operation. To ensure that a mixed condition is achieved, operating times are set conservatively long. This approach results in high operational costs because of the long mixing times and high maintenance and repair costs for the same reason. A significant reduction in both of these costs might be realized by reducing the required mixing time based on calculating a reliable indicator of mixing with a suitably validated computer code. The work described in this report establishes the basis for further development of the theory leading to the identified mixing indicators, the benchmark analyses demonstrating their consistency with widely accepted correlations, and the application of those indicators to SRS waste tanks to provide a better, physically based estimate of the required mixing time. Waste storage tanks at SRS contain settled sludge which varies in height from zero to 10 ft. The sludge has been characterized and modeled as micron-sized solids, typically 1 to 5 microns, at weight fractions as high as 20 to 30 wt%, specific gravities to 1.4, and viscosities up to 64 cp during motion. The sludge is suspended and mixed through the use of submersible slurry jet pumps. To suspend settled sludge, water is added to the tank as a slurry medium and stirred with the jet pump. Although there is considerable technical literature on mixing and solid suspension in agitated tanks, very little literature has been published on jet mixing in a large-scale tank. If shorter mixing times can be shown to support Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or other feed requirements, longer pump lifetimes can be achieved with associated operational cost and schedule savings. The focus of the present work is to establish mixing criteria associated with the waste processing at SRS and to quantify the mixing time required to suspend sludge particles with the submersible jet pump. Literature results for a turbulent jet flow are reviewed briefly, since the decay of the axial jet velocity and the evolution of the jet flow patterns are important phenomena affecting sludge suspension and mixing operations. One of the main objectives in the waste processing is to provide the DWPF a uniform slurry composition at a certain weight percentage (typically {approx}13 wt%) over an extended period of time. In preparation of the sludge for slurrying to DWPF, several important questions have been raised with regard to sludge suspension and mixing of the solid suspension in the bulk of the tank: (1) How much time is required to prepare a slurry with a uniform solid composition for DWPF? (2) How long will it take to suspend and mix the sludge for uniform composition in any particular waste tank? (3) What are good mixing indicators to answer the questions concerning sludge mixing stated above in a general fashion applicable to any waste tank/slurry pump geometry and fluid/sludge combination? Grenville and Tilton (1996) investigated the mixing process by giving a pulse of tracer (electrolyte) through the submersible jet nozzle and by monitoring the conductivity at three locations within the cylindrical tank. They proposed that the mixing process was controlled by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the region far away from the jet entrance. They took the energy dissipation rates in the regions remote from the nozzle to be proportional to jet velocity and jet diameter at that location. The reduction in the jet velocity was taken to be proportional to the nozzle velocity and distance from the nozzle. Based on their analysis, a correlation was proposed. The proposed correlation was shown to be valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (50,000 to 300,000) with a relative standard deviation of {+-} 11.83%. An improved correlat

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; David Tamburello, D

2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Mixed crystal organic scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

A non-Boussinesq model of mixing in a 2-D closed cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixing of fluids inside a cavity under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions is studied with a two-fluid model. This model involves the solution of separate transport equations for zone-averaged variables of each fluid with allowance for interface transport of momentum and energy. The effects of solutal Grashof number, thermal Grashof number, buoyancy ratio and Prandtl number on the flow field, interface behavior and temporal evolution are considered. The calculations are performed over the parameter range: 1 {le} Gr{sub s} {le} 3.7 {times} 10{sup 5}, 0 {le} Gr{sub T} {le} 7.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, 0 {le} N {le} {proportional_to} and 1 {le} Pr {le} 1,000. The material interface is represented by the contour of volume fraction separating the fluids. Solutal buoyancy predominates over thermal buoyancy for comparable Grashof numbers. The system exhibits asymmetric behavior at low buoyancy ratio and low Prandtl number.

Ilegbusi, O.J.; Mat, M.D. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

The mixed economy in China: through rhetorical perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mixed economies gradually emerge in many countries. China is no exception. China's traditional planned economy system is limited to state-owned enterprises, which are undergoing reform. In the private sector, the market system has begun to play a...

Yuan, Yuchun

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Introduction: mixing in microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...droplet act like a tiny chemical reactor. The mixing is produced by...technological issues to do with the reliability of possible mechanisms. In...frontier developments about analysis take place. It is our belief...micromixer: three-dimensional analysis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Mixed waste characterization reference document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

D0-D0 Mixing at BaBar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The BaBar and Belle collaborations have recently found evidence for mixing within the D meson system. We present some of the mixing search techniques used by BaBar and their status as of the beginning of the summer 2007. These have culminated in a measurement in the K decay final state of the D that is inconsistent with the no-mixing hypothesis with a significance of 3.9 standard deviations.

A. Seiden

2007-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

156

Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Title Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3048E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Sherman, Max H., and Iain S. Walker Journal HVAC & Research Journal Keywords air distribution, indoor air quality, mechanical ventilation, mixing, other, resave, residential ventilation, ventilation effectiveness Abstract Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing already, but that new, high-performance homes may require additional mixing. Also our results suggest that some differentiation should be made in policies and standards for systems that provide continuous exhaust, thereby reducing relative dose for occupants overall

157

Mixing of equations of state for xenon-deuterium using density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a theoretical study of equation of state (EOS) properties of fluid and dense plasma mixtures of xenon and deuterium to explore and illustrate the basic physics of the mixing of a light element with a heavy element. Accurate EOS models are crucial to achieve high-fidelity hydrodynamics simulations of many high-energy-density phenomena, for example inertial confinement fusion and strong shock waves. While the EOS is often tabulated for separate species, the equation of state for arbitrary mixtures is generally not available, requiring properties of the mixture to be approximated by combining physical properties of the pure systems. Density functional theory (DFT) at elevated-temperature is used to assess the thermodynamics of the xenon-deuterium mixture at different mass ratios. The DFT simulations are unbiased as to elemental species and therefore provide comparable accuracy when describing total energies, pressures, and other physical properties of mixtures as they do for pure systems. The study focuses on addressing the accuracy of different mixing rules in the temperature range 1000-40 000 K for pressures between 100 and 600 GPa (1-6 Mbar), thus, including the challenging warm dense matter regime of the phase diagram. We find that a mix rule taking into account pressure equilibration between the two species performs very well over the investigated range.

Magyar, Rudolph J.; Mattsson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Is mixing a thermodynamic process?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixing processes exist with positive entropy change and negative free energy change. However the idea that the i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y of the mixing processes is responsible for the so?called free energy and entropy of mixing is faulty. The mixing as well as the demixing processes may be associated with either reversible or irreversible phenomena depending on the particular conditions. For ideal gases the word ‘‘mixing’’ in the terms ‘‘mixing entropy’’ and ‘‘mixing free energy’’ may sometimes be used d e s c r i p t i v e l y but never c a u s a t i v e l y. The quantity ?? N i R?ln?X i usually referred to as ‘‘mixing entropy ’’ has nothing to do with the mixing phenomenon. Therefore the terms ‘‘mixing entropy’’ and ‘‘mixing free energy’’ are essentially misconceptions. In fact it is shown that the process of mixing of ideal gases has by itself no relevance to any thermodynamic quantity. Therefore in a thermodynamical sense it is a nonprocess. The concepts of assimilation and deassimilation are introduced. It is shown that the ‘‘deassimilation process is essentially irreversible.’’ This should replace the traditional principle that ‘‘the mixing process is essentially irreversible.’’

A. Ben?Naim

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Sol State Behavior and Gelation Kinetics in Mixed Nanoclay Dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter investigates sol and gel state behavior, in aqueous salt free dispersions, of clays Laponite (L) and Na Montmorillonite (MMT) at various mixing ratios (L:MMT = r = 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2). Percolation...

Ravi Kumar Pujala

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Performance evaluation of mixed model assembly lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance evaluation for a Mixed Model Assembly Line Balancing Problem is complicated as a multitude of factors affect operational objectives while the objectives themselves can not be represented easily. This paper reports a study of the effect of four factors namely number of workstations, number of models, demand pattern and stochastic variability of task times on performance measures used for representing the operational objectives. Analysis of Variance and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio have been used to evaluate the ability of performance measures in representing the operational objectives and to identify the impact of the factors/interactions on the behaviour of performance measures.

Jonnalagedda V.L. Venkatesh; Balaji M. Dabade

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Role of shocks and mix caused by capsule defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Eulerian code with a turbulent mix model is used to model a set of plastic (CH) ablator capsules with and without equatorial grooves. The 'perfect' capsule results were used to calibrate simulations of capsules with equatorial grooves of different depths that provided information on increasingly perturbed implosions. Simulations with a turbulence model were able to calculate the same yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) of 0.2 to 0.3 for thin (8-{mu}m thick) and thick shell (15-{mu}m thick) capsules with no grooves and thin capsules with shallow grooves. When the capsules have deep grooves, the YOM ratio increases to greater than unity, probably because the deformed shocks focus too strongly on the symmetry axis in our two-dimensional simulations. This is supported by a comparison of simulated and experimental x-ray images.

Bradley, P. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S. H.; Magelssen, G. R.; Fincke, J. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Wysocki, F. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Charm mixing and CP violation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental results on charm mixing and CP violation searches are reviewed. This paper focus on results released after FPCP 2013.

Alberto Correa dos Reis

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

163

Magnetic particle mixing with magnetic micro-convection for microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper we discuss the magnetic micro-convection phenomenon as a tool for mixing enhancement in microfluidics systems in cases when one of the miscible fluids is a magnetic particle colloid. A system of a water-based magnetic fluid and water is investigated experimentally under homogeneous magnetic field in a Hele–Shaw cell. Subsequent image analysis both qualitatively and quantitatively reveals the high enhancement of mixing efficiency provided by this method. The mixing efficiency dependence on the magnetic field and the physical limits is discussed. A suitable model for a continuous-flow microfluidics setup for mixing with magnetic micro-convection is also proposed and justified with an experiment. In addition, possible applications in improving the speed of ferrohydrodynamic sorting and magnetic label or selected tracer mixing in lab on a chip systems are noted.

Guntars Kitenbergs; Kaspars E¯rglis; Régine Perzynski; Andrejs C?bers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds.

Trussell, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Minnesota Department of Commerice In September 2002, the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) issued an order requiring the state's regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers details on the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation. Utilities must provide this information to customers in a standard format twice annually. Utilities may distribute this information to customers electronically. Disclosure information must also be filed with the PUC. In addition, in 2009, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency began to transition to an inventory data management system that consolidates

166

The effects of mixing energy on water column oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/water system was mixed in a reactor and sampled after 48 h. Three experimental runs were performed for eight increasing mixing energies: 0 s?¹, 2.6 s?¹, 7.4 s?¹, 10.8 s?¹, 13.4 s?¹, 14.6 s?¹, 15.6 s?¹ and 20.4 s?¹. GC-MS was used to analyze the samples...

Rogers, Ellen Tiffany

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

167

Page 12 MONEY TALK$ VOLUME 5 LINK TO YOUR FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION THROUGH MIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 12 MONEY TALK$ VOLUME 5 LINK TO YOUR FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION THROUGH MIX The Financial Aid on the MIX system p 12 Inside this issue: Money Talk$ West Virginia University Financial Aid and Scholars

Mohaghegh, Shahab

168

Hierarchical Mixed-Domain Circuit Simulation, Synthesis and Extraction Methodology for MEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emerging results for mixed-domain circuit simulation, a component-level synthesis strategy, and a layout extractor is presented for use in design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The mixed-domain circuit representation is based on Kirchhoffian ...

Tamal Mukherjee; Gary K. Fedder

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

170

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Signature for Shell Mixing in NIF capsules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present analytic calculations and results from computational simulations showing that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons act as a robust indicator for mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in DT capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to downscattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

A. C. Hayes; P. A. Bradley; G. P. Grim; Gerard Jungman; J. B. Wilhelmy

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Signature for Shell Mixing in NIF capsules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present analytic calculations and results from computational simulations showing that reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons act as a robust indicator for mixing of the ablator shell material into the fuel in DT capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. The sensitivity of RIF neutrons to hydrodynamical mixing arises through the dependence of RIF production on charged-particle stopping lengths in the mixture of DT fuel and ablator material. Since the stopping power in the plasma is a sensitive function of the electron temperature and density, it is also sensitive to mix. RIF production scales approximately inversely with the degree of mixing taking place, and the ratio of RIF to downscattered neutrons provides a measure of the mix fraction and/or the mixing length. For sufficiently high-yield capsules, where spatially resolved RIF images may be possible, neutron imaging could be used to map RIF images into detailed mix images.

Hayes, A C; Grim, G P; Jungman, Gerard; Wilhelmy, J B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Preconditioning for the mixed formulation of linear plane elasticity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An overlapping Schwarz preconditioner and a multigrid preconditioner for the discrete system are developed and analyzed. We start by introducing the mixed formulation (stress-displacement formulation) for the linear plane elasticity problem and its discretization...

Wang, Yanqiu

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

175

fuel mix | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

mix mix Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) publishes an annual "fuel mix disclosure data table" as defined in the Electricity (Fuel Mix Disclosure) Regulations 2005. This dataset represents April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 31st, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords fuel mix UK Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon UK.fuel_.mix_.disclosure.4.2009.4.2010.xlsx (xlsx, 38.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment UK Open Government License (OGL)

176

On Symmetric Lepton Mixing Matrices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrary to the quark mixing matrix, the lepton mixing matrix could be symmetric. We study the phenomenological consequences of this possibility. In particular, we find that symmetry would imply that |U_{e3}| is larger than 0.16, i.e., above its current 2 sigma limit. The other mixing angles are also constrained and CP violating effects in neutrino oscillations are suppressed, even though |U_{e3}| is sizable. Maximal atmospheric mixing is only allowed if the other observables are outside their current 3 sigma ranges, and sin^2 theta_{23} lies typically below 0.5. The Majorana phases are not affected, but the implied values of the solar neutrino mixing angle have some effect on the predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay. We further discuss some formal properties of a symmetric mixing matrix.

Hochmuth, K A; Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Rodejohann, Werner

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

178

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

179

Halton Sequences for Mixed Logit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Customers’ Choice Among Energy Supplier Simulation based oncustomers’ choice of energy supplier. Surveyed customerspreferences for energy suppliers, such that a mixed logit is

Train, Kenneth

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The E2/M1 ratio in {Delta} photoproduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of the transition from the nucleon to the {Delta}(1232) serve as a benchmark for models of nucleon structure. To first order, N {r_arrow} {Delta} photo-excitation is dominated by a simple M1 quark spin-flip transition. At higher order, small L = 2 components in the N and {Delta} wavefunctions allow this excitation to proceed via an electric quadrupole transition. Since Nucleon models differ greatly on the mechanisms used to generate these L = 2 components,, the ratio of E2/M1 transitions (EMR) provides a sensitive test for structure models. Here, new high-precision measurements of p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}) and p({rvec {gamma}}, {gamma}) cross sections and beam asymmetries have been combined with other polarization ratios in a simultaneous analysis of both reactions. Compton scattering has provided two important new constraints on the photo-pion amplitude. The E2/M1 mixing ratio for the N {r_arrow} {Delta} transition extracted from this analysis is EMR = {minus}3.0% {+-} 0.3 (stat+sys) {+-} 0.2 (model).

Sandorfi, A.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Blanpied, G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Blecher, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Physics Dept.] [and others; LEGS Collaboration

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two perform¬ance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

CP Violation and Flavor Mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......July 2009 research-article Special Issue CP Violation and Flavor Mixing *) *) Copyright...Physics, Vol. 122, No. 1, July 2009 CP Violation and Flavor Mixing~) Makoto Kobayashi...proposed the six quark model to explain CP violation with Dr. Toshihide Maskawa in......

Makoto Kobayashi

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

CP violation and generation mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore the possibility of defining maximal CP violation by requiring that generation mixing disappears when the CP-violating terms go to zero in the standard model. This leads to a family of cases related to ‘‘different CP operations being maximized’’ and corresponding to the existing variety of proposals for mixing matrix parametrizations. A favored choice, useful for model building, seems to emerge.

M. Gronau; V. Gupta; R. Johnson; J. Schechter

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mixed Waste Working Group report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

Not Available

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Quantum ferroelectrics of mixed crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The inverse dielectric susceptibility for quantum ferroelectrics in mixed crystals is computed. As in the perfect crystals we find a logarithmic correction to the quantum mean-field theory. For mixed crystals the correction increases faster in the vicinity of the critical point.

D. Schmeltzer

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system functional life, and energy mix consumed duringlocation influences the energy mix consumed duringlocation influences the energy mix offset by the output of

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Measures on Mixing Angles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address the problem of the apparently very small magnitude of CP violation in the standard model, measured by the Jarlskog invariant J. In order to make statements about probabilities for certain values of J, we seek to find a natural measure on the space of Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, the double quotient U(1)^2\\SU(3)/U(1)^2. We review several possible, geometrically motivated choices of the measure, and compute expectation values for powers of J for these measures. We find that different choices of the measure generically make the observed magnitude of CP violation appear finely tuned. Since the quark masses and the mixing angles are determined by the same set of Yukawa couplings, we then do a second calculation in which we take the known quark mass hierarchy into account. We construct the simplest measure on the space of 3 x 3 Hermitian matrices which reproduces this known hierarchy. Calculating expectation values for powers of J in this second approach, we find that values of J close to the observed value are now rather likely, and there does not seem to be any fine tuning. Our results suggest that the choice of Kobayashi-Maskawa angles is closely linked to the observed mass hierarchy. We close by discussing the corresponding case of neutrinos.

Gary W. Gibbons; Steffen Gielen; C. N. Pope; Neil Turok

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

188

Stability and Mixing Characterization of Industrial Lean Premixed Nozzles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Mixing Characterization of and Mixing Characterization of Industrial Lean Premixed Nozzles * Unique research capabilities have been developed for the study of fuel mixing and combustion instabilities in lean premixed combustors. * These capabilities have been used to characterize the performance of industrial lean premixed nozzles for Solar Turbines, United Technologies and General Electric. * This information has been used by the gas turbine manufacturers to gain understanding and new insights for the development of stable low emissions lean premixed combustors. Cooling ring Solar Turbines Centaur 50 Nozzle Stainless steel exhaust Fused silica combustor Photo of Stable Flame Photo of Unstable Flame InAs Detector HeNe Laser (3.39 μm) InAs Detector Centaur 50 Nozzle Measurement of equivalence ratio

189

Abundance Ratios in Early-Type Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although evidence is accumulating that abundance ratios in galaxies are often non-solar, they are far from understood. I resume the current evidence for non-solar abundance ratios, supplementing the recent review by Worthey (1998) with some new results. It appears that the Mg/Fe abundance ratio only depends on the mass of the galaxy, not on the formation time-scale. For massive galaxies [Mg/Fe] > 0, while small galaxies show solar abundance ratios. Information about abundances of other element is scarce, but new evidence is given that [Ca/Fe] is solar, or slightly lower than solar, contrary to what is expected for an alpha-element.

Reynier Peletier

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Contribution of a system experiment in designing a mixed crop-livestock farming system aimed at i) improving self-sufficiency, and ii) producing biodiversity and benefiting from it.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in relation to the three sustainability pillars (multi-criteria approach): i) environmental (biodiversity-30, 2010 2 Key words : biodiversity, farming system research and development, indicators, sustainable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Generalized matrix method for calculation of internal light energy flux in mixed coherent and incoherent multilayers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generalized matrix method to treat multilayer systems with mixed coherent and incoherent optical behavior is presented. The method is based on the calculation of the light energy...

Centurioni, Emanuele

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Community D Mixed/Pine Hardwood D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed Swamp Forest Soils 540 Soils Soil Series and Phase DCh .OrC .Sh .Ta o 540 1080 Meters N A sc Figure 7-2. Plant communities and soils associated...

193

Contribution of a system experiment in designing a mixed crop-livestock farming system aimed at i) improving self-sufficiency, and ii) producing biodiversity and benefiting from it.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in relation to the three sustainability pillars (multi-criteria approach): i) environmental (biodiversity Author manuscript, published in "ISDA 2010 - Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, farming system research and development, indicators, sustainable agriculture, system-experiment Résumé

Boyer, Edmond

194

Thermal photons to dileptons ratio at LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that the ratio of transverse momentum (p_T) distribution of thermal photons to dileptons produced in heavy ion collisions reaches a plateau above p_T=1 GeV. We argue that the value of the ratio in the plateau region can be used to estimate the initial temperature.

Jajati K. Nayak; Jan-e Alam; Sourav Sarkar; Bikash Sinha

2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Measurement of D[superscript 0]–[line over D][subscript 0] Mixing Parameters and Search for CP Violation Using D[subscript 0] ? K[subscript +]?[subscript -] Decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of charm mixing parameters from the decay-time-dependent ratio of D[superscript 0] ? K[superscript +]?[superscript ?] to D[superscript 0] ? K[superscript ?]?[superscript +] rates and the charge-conjugate ratio ...

Williams, Michael

196

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2001, Nevada enacted legislation requiring the state’s electric utilities to provide details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of electric generation to their customers. Utilities must...

198

Mixed-mu superconducting bearings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Iowa adopted regulations in 2003 that generally require rate-regulated electric utilities to disclose to customers the fuel mix and estimated emissions, in pounds per megawatt-hour (MWh), of...

200

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.Department of Environmental Building Research Establishment

Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Quality in Green Buildings”. Indoor Air; 14 (Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.

Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The Kinetic Effect on Structural Behavior of Mixed LiMn2O4–LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Materials Studied by In Situ Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How the structural changes of each active material in mixed cathode systems take place at different charge-discharge rates is quite important in the application of the system in which the mixed cathode materials with different rate capabilities are formed into one composite electrode. Here we report the results of the real time structural change studies of mixed LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} composite cathode in a Li-ion cell by using in situ synchrotron-based time resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) technique. The layer structured component in the mixed composite cathode system shows less utilization at fast discharge rate (high power mode) whereas the spinel structured component is fully utilized. This clearly demonstrates that the reduced capacity at fast discharge rate for this system is caused by the less utilization of the layer structured component. The real time monitoring of the structural behavior at various discharge rates is a great tool to design the best ratios of active materials with different rate capabilities in the mixed cathode systems for different applications.

Yoon W. S.; Nam K.; Jang, D.; Chung, K.Y.; Cho, Y.-H.; Choi, S.; Hanson, J.C.; Yang, X.-Q.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank

205

Extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate by a 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone/ethylene carbonate mixed solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase equilibria for the extraction of aromatics from petroleum naphtha reformate (with a boiling range of 338--403 K) using a mixed solvent of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) and ethylene carbonate (EC) have been correlated using the universal function-group activity coefficients model (UNIFAC). The interaction parameters of CHP and EC with different hydrocarbon groups present in the reformate such as CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), ACH (aromatic CH), ACCH{sub 2} (aromatic CCH{sub 2}), and each of the two solvents have been fitted to experimental concentrations of three ternary systems that contain these groups. The extraction runs have been carried out at different temperatures, solvent compositions, and solvent-to-feed ratios. Experimental results compared favorably with those predicted from the UNIFAC method. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by calculation of the minimum energy of separation. In this study these conditions were found to be at a mixed solvent composition of 65% EC (by weight) and 35% CHP. The solvent-to-feed ratio was 1.8 on a volume basis, and the extraction temperature was 329 K.

Radwan, G.M.; Al-Muhtaseb, S.A.; Dowaidar, A.M.; Fahim, M.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.] [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Dept.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al Ni- Al LDH formation. The initial Ni concentration was 3 mM with a solid/solution ratio of 10 g L-1

Sparks, Donald L.

207

The mixed waste management facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During FY96, the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Project has the following major objectives: (1) Complete Project Preliminary Design Review (PDR). (2) Complete final design (Title II) of MWMF major systems. (3) Coordinate all final interfaces with the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) for facility utilities and facility integration. (4) Begin long-lead procurements. (5) Issue Project Baseline Revision 2-Preliminary Design (PB2), modifying previous baselines per DOE-requested budget profiles and cost reduction. Delete Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) as a treatment process for initial demonstration. (6) Complete submittal of, and ongoing support for, applications for air permit. (7) Begin detailed planning for start-up, activation, and operational interfaces with the Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Division (HWM). In achieving these objectives during FY96, the Project will incorporate and implement recent DOE directives to maximize the cost savings associated with the DWTF/MWMF integration (initiated in PB1.2); to reduce FY96 new Budget Authority to {approximately}$10M (reduced from FY97 Validation of $15.3M); and to keep Project fiscal year funding requirements largely uniform at {approximately}$10M/yr. A revised Project Baseline (i.e., PB2), to be issued during the second quarter of FY96, will address the implementation and impact of this guidance from an overall Project viewpoint. For FY96, the impact of this guidance is that completion of final design has been delayed relative to previous baselines (resulting from the delay in the completion of preliminary design); ramp-up in staffing has been essentially eliminated; and procurements have been balanced through the Project to help balance budget needs to funding availability.

Streit, R.D.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios (i.e. magmatic He, ~10 Ra; atmospheric He, R,sub>a; and crustal He, ~0.1 Ra) and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio (hydrologic mixing, U-Th series alpha production and weathering release of crustal He, magma aging and

209

Isotope ratio determination in boron analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traditionally, boron (B) isotope ratios have been determined using thermal ionization...+, Cs+, or O-...for analyte ionization. TIMS can be used in negative or positive ion modes with high sensitivity and precisi...

Ram N. Sah; Patrick H. Brown

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Mixed finite elements for global tide models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study mixed finite element methods for the linearized rotating shallow water equations with linear drag and forcing terms. By means of a strong energy estimate for an equivalent second-order formulation for the linearized momentum, we prove long-time stability of the system without energy accumulation -- the geotryptic state. A priori error estimates for the linearized momentum and free surface elevation are given in $L^2$ as well as for the time derivative and divergence of the linearized momentum. Numerical results confirm the theoretical results regarding both energy damping and convergence rates.

Cotter, Colin J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences - the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environmental packages' apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J. R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J. A. (CLS-CI); ( MCS); (Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany); (Jacombs University Bremen gGmbH, Bremen, Germany); (Natural Environment Research Council Environmental Bioinformatics Centre, Wallington CEH); (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado); (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, California); (Ribosomal Database Project, Michigan State University)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed Conifer TypeConifer Type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed Conifer TypeConifer Type Wayne D. Shepperd Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed ConiferAssumptions Mixed conifer forests are a collection of different species, each with different ecologic requirements

213

Pseudosteady-state mixed convection inside rotating spherical containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational study of the pseudosteady-state two-dimensional mixed convection within rotating spherical containers is presented. The computations are based on an iterative, finite-volume numerical procedure using primitive dependent variables, whereby the time-dependent continuity, momentum and energy equations in the spherical coordinate system are solved. Natural convection effect is modeled via the Boussinesq approximation. For a fixed Prandtl number of 4.62, parametric studies were performed by varying the Rayleigh number in order to cover the laminar regime adequately. For a given Rayleigh number, the ratio of Gr/Re{sup 2} was varied between 0.1 and 10. Given a Rayleigh number, the streamline patterns maintain their general shape with a dominant rotating vortex. As the forced convection effect becomes less marked, the streamlines exhibit less pronounced gradients near the surface of the sphere. As the rotational effect become more marked, the extent of the deviation from the limiting case of non-rotating spheres becomes more noticed. However, the bottom of the sphere still remains to be the region with enhanced heat transfer. Given a rotational Reynolds number, the streamline patterns are not affected greatly as the natural convection is promoted, however the temperature gradients near the surface are markedly enhanced. It is noticed that as natural convection effects are promoted, the greater portion of the sphere's surface experiences enhanced heat transfer rates. Given a Rayleigh number, the contours of the azimuthal velocity exhibit a nearly vertical equally-spaced pattern suggesting that solid-body rotation for high rotational Reynolds numbers. However, as the natural convection effects are enhanced, the contours become more slanted. The variation of the mean Nusselt number with the Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers is also quantified.

Khodadadi, J.M.; Li, W.; Shi, X.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Advances in compressible turbulent mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cooling system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a head-side water jacket and a block-side water jacket made independent of each other; and a radiator and a cooling fan shared between the two water jackets. The improvement comprises: a first cooling water conduit for connecting the outlet of the head-side water jacket and the inlet of the radiator; a mixing valve having two water inlets and one water outlet; a second cooling water conduit for connecting one of the water inlets of the mixing valve and the outlet of the radiator; a third conduit for connecting the water outlet of the block-side water jacket and the remaining one of the water inlets of the mixing valve; a water pump, a fourth conduit branched midway from the second conduit and connected with the water inlet of the head-side water jacket; an auxiliary water pump; a fifth conduit branched midway from the third conduit and connected with the first conduit; one-way valve; and a control unit for controlling the mixing ratio of the mixing valve, the displacement of the auxiliary water pump and the operation of the cooling fan.

Itakura, M.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

216

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

Yio, M.H.N., E-mail: marcus.yio11@imperial.ac.uk; Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Viscosity to entropy ratio at extremality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming gauge theory realization at the boundary, we show that the viscosity to entropy ratio is 1/(4 pi) where the bulk is represented by a large class of extremal black holes in anti-de Sitter space. In particular, this class includes multiple R-charged black holes in various dimensions.

Sayan K. Chakrabarti; Sachin Jain; Sudipta Mukherji

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

219

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quantification of Nanoscale Density Fluctuations in Biological Cells/Tissues: Inverse Participation Ratio (IPR) Analysis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ratio (IPR) Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscopy Images and Implications for Early-Stage Cancer analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscales. First, the IPR analysis is validated in experiments with models of disordered systems fabricated

Pradhan, Prabhakar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Master thesis project at the Netherlands Forensic Development and validation of Likelihood Ratio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Master thesis project at the Netherlands Forensic Institute: Development and validation of Likelihood Ratio methods In the forensic scientific community, it is widely accepted to present a likelihood in contributions from the Netherlands Forensic Institute to the Dutch legal system. A LR is defined as the ratio

Boucherie, Richard J.

222

Mixcoin Anonymity for Bitcoin with accountable mixes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. We propose Mixcoin, a protocol to facilitate anonymous payments in Bitcoin and similar cryptocurrencies. We build on the emergent phenomenon of currency mixes, adding an accountability mechanism to expose theft. We demonstrate that incentives of mixes and clients can be aligned to ensure that rational mixes will not steal. Our scheme is efficient and fully compatible with Bitcoin. Against a passive attacker, our scheme provides an anonymity set of all other users mixing coins contemporaneously. This is an interesting new property with no clear analog in better-studied communication mixes. Against active attackers our scheme offers similar anonymity to traditional communication mixes. 1

Joseph Bonneau; Arvind Narayanan; Andrew Miller; Jeremy Clark; Joshua A. Kroll; Edward W. Felten

223

Mixing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bandwidth <> Individual pulse sub-ps resolution Individual lines <> Train resolution improvement needed "Streak camera" :) Single-shot :( Low resolution (10 ps ) :) Train...

224

CRITICAL ISING ON THE SQUARE LATTICE MIXES IN POLYNOMIAL TIME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRITICAL ISING ON THE SQUARE LATTICE MIXES IN POLYNOMIAL TIME EYAL LUBETZKY AND ALLAN SLY Abstract. The Ising model is widely regarded as the most studied model of spin-systems in statistical physics and by now the most popular means of sampling the Ising measure. Intensive study throughout the last three

Lubetzky, Eyal

225

Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

Anderson Hall

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Internal Tides and Abyssal Mixing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Generated where currents induced by surface tides flow over sloping bottoms, internal tides can transport energy over thousands of kilometers in the ocean. During the past decade, intensive field work, data analysis, and numerical modeling have revealed the ubiquitous nature of these flows and details of their generation and initial propagation. Attention is now turning to how and where these waves break to drive abyssal mixing.

M.C. Gregg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Neutrino mixing, flavor states and dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We shortly summarize the quantum field theory formalism for the neutrino mixing and report on recent results showing that the vacuum condensate induced by neutrino mixing can be interpreted as a dark energy component of the Universe.

M. Blasone; A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Theater SBI cost-effectiveness ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To address M missiles spaced at intervals longer than the constillation reconstitution time t, the defense needs at the absentee ratio N{sub a} of SBIs to fill the belt plus the M SBIs needed for the intercepts; the resulting cost effectiveness scales as M/(M + N{sub a}). N{sub a} is large and CER small for small ranges and numbers of missiles. For several-hundred missile threats, CERs are greater than unity for ranges of interest.

Canavan, G.H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Scanned Treatment of Mixed Incin. Waste  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Treatment of Mixed Incinerable Treatment of Mixed Incinerable Waste DOE/IG-0588 March 2003 Page 17 Page 18 Use of Treatment Resources Details of Finding ........................................................................1 Recommendations and Comments ............................................6 Appendices Prior Reports ...............................................................................8 Objective, Scope, and Methodology ...........................................9 Management Comments ...........................................................11 TREATMENT OF MIXED INCINERABLE WASTE TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1 Waste Stored Rather Than Treated We found the Department of Energy (Department) was not treating its mixed incinerable solid waste expeditiously or cost-effectively.

230

Dark energy induced by neutrino mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy content of the vacuum condensate induced by the neutrino mixing is interpreted as dynamically evolving dark energy.

Antonio Capolupo; Salvatore Capozziello; Giuseppe Vitiello

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

MixedConifer Forests in Southwest Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

April 2010 Mixed­Conifer Forests in Southwest Colorado A Summary of Existing Knowledge and Considerations for Restoration and Management #12;Mixed Conifer Forests in Southwest Colorado 1Mixed-Conifer Forests in Southwest Colorado 1 ABOUT THE COLORADO FOREST RESTORATION INSTITUTE The Colorado Forest

233

CharacteristicGalerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characteristic­Galerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible­disposal contamination in porous media is modeled by a coupled system of partial differential equations for the brine, radionuclides, and heat and by a mixed finite element method for the pressure and velocity

Chou, So-Hsiang

234

Nano-CMOS Mixed-Signal Circuit Metamodeling Techniques: A Comparative Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-CMOS Mixed-Signal Circuit Metamodeling Techniques: A Comparative Study Oleg Garitselov1 , Saraju P. Mohanty2 , Elias Kougianos3 , and Priyadarsan Patra4 NanoSystem Design Laboratory (NSDL, http Abstract--Fast design space exploration of complex nano- CMOS mixed-signal circuits is an important problem

Mohanty, Saraju P.

235

Modeling, Optimization, and Experimentation with a Two Stage Mixed Gas Cascaded Joule Thomson Cryoprobe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling, Optimization, and Experimentation with a Two Stage Mixed Gas Cascaded Joule Thomson-stage Mixed Gas Joule Thomson (MGJT) cycle is capable of providing compact cooling for cryoprobes". A computational model of a commercially available two stage MGJT cryoprobe donated by American Medical Systems

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

236

Prediction of Corrosion of Alloys in Mixed-Solvent Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion is much less predictable in organic or mixed-solvent environments than in aqueous process environments. As a result, US chemical companies face greater uncertainty when selecting process equipment materials to manufacture chemical products using organic or mixed solvents than when the process environments are only aqueous. Chemical companies handle this uncertainty by overdesigning the equipment (wasting money and energy), rather than by accepting increased risks of corrosion failure (personnel hazards and environmental releases). Therefore, it is important to develop simulation tools that would help the chemical process industries to understand and predict corrosion and to develop mitigation measures. To create such tools, we have developed models that predict (1) the chemical composition, speciation, phase equilibria, component activities and transport properties of the bulk (aqueous, nonaqueous or mixed) phase that is in contact with the metal; (2) the phase equilibria and component activities of the alloy phase(s) that may be subject to corrosion and (3) the interfacial phenomena that are responsible for corrosion at the metal/solution or passive film/solution interface. During the course of this project, we have completed the following: (1) Development of thermodynamic modules for calculating the activities of alloy components; (2) Development of software that generates stability diagrams for alloys in aqueous systems; these diagrams make it possible to predict the tendency of metals to corrode; (3) Development and extensive verification of a model for calculating speciation, phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (4) Integration of the software for generating stability diagrams with the mixed-solvent electrolyte model, which makes it possible to generate stability diagrams for nonaqueous or mixed-solvent systems; (5) Development of a model for predicting diffusion coefficients in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems; (6) Development of fundamentals of a detailed kinetic model of general corrosion, which includes a detailed treatment of local chemistry changes near the metal/solution interface coupled with transport through a liquid layer and solid phases at the interface; (7) Development of parameters for OLI's kinetic model of general corrosion of common engineering alloys in aqueous systems with a variety of solutes. With this model, the users will be able to predict the effect of various process conditions (such as environment composition, temperature, pressure) on the general corrosion of alloys; (8)Comprehensive review of the fundamentals of the models by an Academic Review Panel, which was performed in conjunction with three annual review meetings; (9)Development and commercial release of the Corrosion Analyzer, a Windows software product that encompasses the thermodynamic model, a facility for generating stability diagrams and the model for predicting the rates of general corrosion of selected alloys in aqueous systems.

A. Anderko, P. Wang, R. D. Young, D. P. Riemer, P. McKenzie and M. M. Lencka (OLI Systems Inc.); S. S. Babu and P. Angelini (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

237

Challenge in Urea Mixing Design | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in Urea Mixing Design This project reviews existing urea mixing technologies for automobile applications and discusses some critical issues in urea mixing design using bench...

238

Urea Mixing Design -- Simulation and Test Investigation | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mixing Design -- Simulation and Test Investigation Urea Mixing Design -- Simulation and Test Investigation Effective urea mixing design should be based on the placement and nature...

239

Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ?{sub pe}t{sub mix}?[(6/?{sup 2})((2??){sup 5/2}/(1??))]{sup 1/3}, where “?” and “?” (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ?{sub pe}??(4?n{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.

Maity, Chandan [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mixed Conifer ManagementMixed Conifer Management in Southwest Coloradoin Southwest Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forest 1,864,839 Acres 93,600 215,500 1,555,739 Warm, Dry Mixed Conifer Cool, Moist Mixed Conifer OtherMixed Conifer ManagementMixed Conifer Management in Southwest Coloradoin Southwest Colorado Tom TroxelTom Troxel Intermountain Forest AssociationIntermountain Forest Association Colorado Timber

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their  metal  to  phosphorous  ratio  can  be  varied;  materials,   as   the   phosphorous   to   metal   ratio  tetrahedron.    As   the  phosphorous  content  of  the  

Ray, Hannah Leung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A Natural Gas, High Compression Ratio, High Efficiency ICRE ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Natural Gas, High Compression Ratio, High Efficiency ICRE A Natural Gas, High Compression Ratio, High Efficiency ICRE Using natural gas and gasoline modeling, indications are...

243

Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit:...

244

Development of a Micropyrolyzer for Enhanced Isotope Ratio Measurement...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Micropyrolyzer for Enhanced Isotope Ratio Measurement. Development of a Micropyrolyzer for Enhanced Isotope Ratio Measurement. Abstract: This paper presents design, fabrication and...

245

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Meteorological Effects on Air/Fuel Ratio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. "Temperature Compensat d Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace," by J. L. Ferri. GTE Products Corporation, Towanda, PA, lECTC '83 2. Chemical Engineers Handbook, PerTY and Chilton, 5th ed.., (McGraw Hlln, p. 12-7. 3. "Technology..., E = (100 ... 10) (ill) - 100 = 17.2% excess a . 2 Example 2 A furnace uses recuperators which prehe~t the combustion air to 1200 OF using 30 OF air. WithJlOO OF air, the preheated air temperature will be approxIjrnately 1270 OF, a 70 OF increase...

Ferri, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fuel Mix Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Colorado Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission In January 1999, the Colorado Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted regulations requiring the state's utilities to disclose information regarding their fuel mix to retail customers. Utilities are required to provide this information as a bill insert or as a separate mailing twice annually, in April and October of every year. The PUC provides a suggested format for the disclosure. Fuel mix percentages are to be based on the power supply mix for the previous calendar year. Supporting documentation concerning the calculations used to determine the power supply mix percentages must be submitted to the PUC for approval.

248

Experimental study of an active grid-generated shearless mixing layer and comparisons with large-eddy simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A shearless mixing layer characterized by interactions between two regions with different turbulence intensities but without mean shear is investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. Reynolds numbers higher than those of prior studies [B. Gilbert “Diffusion mixing in grid turbulence without mean shear ” J. Fluid Mech.100 349 (1980); S. Veeravalli and Z. Warhaft “The shearless turbulent mixing layer ” J. Fluid Mech.207 191 (1989); B. Knaepen O. Debliquy and D. Carati “Direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation of a shear-free mixing layer ” J. Fluid Mech.514 153 (2004); D. Tordella and M. Iovieno “Numerical experiments on the intermediate asymptotics of shear-free turbulent transport and diffusion ” J. Fluid Mech.549 429 (2006); D. A. Briggs J. H. Ferziger J. R. Koseff and S. G. Monismith “Entrainment in a shear-free turbulent mixing layer ” J. Fluid Mech.310 215 (1996)] are achieved by using an active grid with rotating winglets on one-half of its cross section. Stationary flow-conditioning fine meshes are used to avoid mean velocity gradients. Measurements are performed at five different downstream wind-tunnel locations using an X-type hot-wire probe and a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system. The Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor microscale in the high- and low-kinetic energy regions are 170 and 88 respectively. The energy and integral length-scale ratios between the two regions are 4.27 and 1.73 respectively. The inlet turbulence in the upper and lower portions of the shearless mixing layer is not fully isotropic with the streamwise velocityfluctuations being between 6% and 13% higher than the cross-stream ones. Fundamental statistical properties of the flow are documented and analyzed at various scales using band-pass box-filtered velocities. Downstream evolution of variance and half-width of the mixing layer skewness and flatness factors as well as the statistics of two-point velocity increments at various displacements are presented. It is found that much of the deviations from Gaussian statistics originate from large-scale motions. The data are well suited to be used as initial condition for simulations and as test for large-eddy simulation(LES)models and codes. Comparison studies for three LESmodels including Smagorinsky dynamic Smagorinsky and dynamic mixed nonlinear models are implemented in simulations of temporally decaying shearless mixing layer using a pseudospectral code. Initial conditions are prescribed by matching the longitudinal energy spectra at all heights across the layer for both streamwise and cross-stream velocity components. LES with all three subgrid scale models tested underpredicts the kinetic energy and exhibits deviations from the measured non-Gaussian behaviors. Overall the dynamic Smagorinsky model predicts statistics slightly better than the other two models.

Hyung Suk Kang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Statistics of modifier distributions in mixed network glasses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The constituents of any network glass can be broadly classified as either network formers or network modifiers. Network formers such as SiO2 Al2O3 B2O3 P2O5 etc. provide the backbone of the glass network and are the primary source of its rigid constraints. Network modifiers play a supporting role such as charge stabilization of the network formers or alteration of the network topology through rupture of bridging bonds and introduction of floppy modes. The specific role of the modifiers depends on which network formers are present in the glass and the relative free energies of modifier interactions with each type of network former site. This variation of free energy with modifier speciation is responsible for the so-called mixed network former effect i.e. the nonlinear scaling of property values in glasses having fixed modifier concentration but a varying ratio of network formers. In this paper a general theoretical framework is presented describing the statistical mechanics of modifier speciation in mixed network glasses. The model provides a natural explanation for the mixed network former effect and also accounts for the impact of thermal history and relaxation on glass network topology.

John C. Mauro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Mixing with Intermittent Jets with Application in Handling Radioactive Waste Sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology for performing reduced-scale mixing tests with intermittent jet mixing systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from single mixing jet tests in a non-Newtonian simulant. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws performed. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The key similarity parameters were found to be the non-dimension jet frequency, the yield Reynolds number, and the jet Reynolds number. The validated scaling laws provided the basis for reduced-scale testing of plant-scale mixing systems. In this article, only the initial results for a single jet and the developed model and scaling laws will be discussed.

Meyer, Perry A.; Etchells, Arthur W.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Correlation Between Lightning Flash Count and Meteorological ParCorrelation Between Lightning Flash Count and Meteorological Parametersameters [[AE31AAE31A--0027]0027] Results: Mixing Ratio, CAPE, and TemperatureResults: Mixing Ratio, CAPE, and Temperatur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlation Between Lightning Flash Count and Meteorological ParCorrelation Between Lightning Flash with afternoon lightning, with average correlation coefficients [Taylor96] of 0.7. We also found, in Oklahoma, the dry-bulb temperature at 500 hPa (weakly) inversely correlates with lightning. We noted with interest

Mass, Clifford F.

252

PAGE 12 MONEY TALK$ VOLUME 5 LINK TO YOUR FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION THROUGH MIX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PAGE 12 MONEY TALK$ VOLUME 5 LINK TO YOUR FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION THROUGH MIX The Financial Aid system 12 Meet the Financial Aid Office Staff 5 Purchasing Your Text- books 11 Inside this issue: Money

Mohaghegh, Shahab

253

Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Part of the welfare mix: The third sector as an intermediate area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents a conceptional framework which analyses the third sector as a part of a mixed welfare system, otherwise made up of the market, the state and the informal private household spheres. From t...

Adalbert Evers

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Reduction on Synthesis Gas Costs by Decrease of Steam/Carbon and Oxygen/Carbon Ratios in the Feedstock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The costs for syngas production at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios have been analyzed for simplified process schemes of the main syngas production technologies (steam?CO2 reforming, autothermal reforming, and combined reforming) and different synthesis gas compositions. ... The process scheme is shown in Figure 2. Natural gas, saturated steam, and CO2 are preheated to 300?500 °C and mixed in the reactor burner at a pressure of 30 kg/cm2. ...

L. Basini; L. Piovesan

1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Lagrangian with U(1)-SU(2) mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Principal axis transformation is performed for a Lagrangian with a U(1)-SU(2) mixing term, that can cause a SU(2) deconfining transition.

Bernd A. Berg

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Lanthanide doped strontium barium mixed halide scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a lanthanide-doped strontium barium mixed halide useful for detecting nuclear material.

Gundiah, Gautam; Bizarri, Gregory; Hanrahan, Stephen M; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

259

TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

Lee, S.

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

260

Probing the symmetry energy with isospin ratio from nucleons to fragments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of ImQMD05, we study several isospin sensitive observables, such as DR(n/p) ratios, isospin transport ratio (isospin diffusion), yield ratios for LCPs between the projectile region and mid-rapidity region for the reaction systems Ni+Ni, Zn+Zn, Sn+Sn at low-intermediate energies. Our results show that those observables are sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, and also depend on the cluster formation mechanism. By comparing these calculations to the data, the information of the symmetry energy and reaction mechanism is obtained.

Zhang, Yingxun; Zhou, Chengshuang; Chen, Jixian; Colonna, M; Danielewicz, P; Tsang, M B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Probing the symmetry energy with isospin ratio from nucleons to fragments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the framework of ImQMD05, we study several isospin sensitive observables, such as DR(n/p) ratios, isospin transport ratio (isospin diffusion), yield ratios for LCPs between the projectile region and mid-rapidity region for the reaction systems Ni+Ni, Zn+Zn, Sn+Sn at low-intermediate energies. Our results show that those observables are sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, and also depend on the cluster formation mechanism. By comparing these calculations to the data, the information of the symmetry energy and reaction mechanism is obtained.

Yingxun Zhang; Zhuxia Li; Chengshuang Zhou; Jixian Chen; M. Colonna; P. Danielewicz; M. B. Tsang

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Scaled Tests and Modeling of Effluent Stack Sampling Location Mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code to evaluate the mixing at a sampling system location of a research and development facility. The facility requires continuous sampling for radioactive air emissions. Researchers sought to determine whether the location would meet the criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration as prescribed in the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standard, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. Standard ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requires that the sampling location be well-mixed and stipulates specific tests (e.g., velocity, gas, and aerosol uniformity and cyclonic flow angle) to verify the extent of mixing.. The exhaust system for the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory was modeled with a CFD code to better understand the flow and contaminant mixing and to predict mixing test results. The CFD results were compared to actual measurements made at a scale-model stack and to the limited data set for the full-scale facility stack. Results indicated that the CFD code provides reasonably conservative predictions for velocity, gas, and aerosol uniformity. Cyclonic flow predicted by the code is less than that measured by the required methods. In expanding from small to full scale, the CFD predictions for full-scale measurements show similar trends as in the scale model and no unusual effects. This work indicates that a CFD code can be a cost-effective aid in design or retrofit of a facility’s stack sampling location that will be required to meet Standard ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barnett, J. M.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Bootstrapping Mixed Correlators in the 3D Ising Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the conformal bootstrap for systems of correlators involving non-identical operators. The constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity for such mixed correlators can be phrased in the language of semidefinite programming. We apply this formalism to the simplest system of mixed correlators in 3D CFTs with a $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ global symmetry. For the leading $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-odd operator $\\sigma$ and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-even operator $\\epsilon$, we obtain numerical constraints on the allowed dimensions $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ assuming that $\\sigma$ and $\\epsilon$ are the only relevant scalars in the theory. These constraints yield a small closed region in $(\\Delta_\\sigma, \\Delta_\\epsilon)$ space compatible with the known values in the 3D Ising CFT.

Kos, Filip; Simmons-Duffin, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Between-Source Modelling for Likelihood Ratio Computation in Forensic Biometric Recognition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Between-Source Modelling for Likelihood Ratio Computation in Forensic Biometric Recognition Daniel, Switzerland Abstract. In this paper, the use of biometric systems in forensic ap- plications is reviewed. Main differences between the aim of commercial biometric systems and forensic reporting are highlighted, showing

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

265

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencapsulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed during FY 1997 as part of the Evaluation of Sulfur Polymer Cement Fast-Track System Project. The project is in support of the ``Mercury Working Group/Mercury Treatment Demonstrations - Oak Ridge`` and is described in technical task plan (TTP) OR-16MW-61. Macroencapsulation is the treatment technology required for debris by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Based upon the results of previous work performed at Oak Ridge, the concept of using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) for this purpose was submitted to the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). Because of the promising properties of the material, the MWFA accepted this Quick Win project, which was to demonstrate the feasibility of macroencapsulation of actual mixed waste debris stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The waste acceptance criteria from Envirocare, Utah, were chosen as a standard for the determination of the final waste form produced. During this demonstration, it was shown that SPC was a good candidate for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris, especially when the debris pieces were dry. The matrix was found to be quite easy to use and, once the optimum operating conditions were identified, very straightforward to replicate for batch treatment. The demonstration was able to render LDR compliant more than 400 kg of mixed wastes stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mattus, C.H.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA`s mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997.

Conner, J.E. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho Operations Office; Williams, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 B-B Mixing and CP Violation Observation of Mixing and CP Violation Just as for K0 and K 0-strange B0 d = bd and the strange B0 s = bs. The mixing does not require CP violation, but depends only

Murayama, Hitoshi

270

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both radioactive materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying Mixed Chemical and Radioactive Waste Mixed waste is: any waste material containing both as noted on the list, you do not have a mixed waste and it may be managed as a normal radioactive waste radioactive waste after initially dating the container, the hold for decay time is extended, but you cannot

Straight, Aaron

271

Neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

Balantekin, A. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

272

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fuel Mix Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Delaware Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Delaware Public Service Commission Delaware's 1999 restructuring law (HB 10) authorized the state Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop environmental disclosure requirements and consumer protection standards for green power marketing. The PSC's rules require all electric suppliers to disclose to the commission aggregate proportions of fuel resource mix for the electricity supplied to customers in Delaware for each quarter. In addition, electric suppliers must disclose their fuel resource mix to retail electric customers annually via bill inserts and "each other quarter' on the supplier's web site or by customer request. A standard label is not required; however, the reports

274

Argonne CNM Highlight: Mixing up surface properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixing up surface properties Mixing up surface properties Mixed self-assembled monolayers This image was selected for the "Back Scatter" back cover feature of Physics Today, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Feb. 2009) Mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) offer the intriguing possibility of tailoring wetting properties, surface energy, and other interfacial characteristics by combining suitable molecular constituents. This atomic force micrograph, 800 nm tall, shows the onset of nanoscopic phase separation in an ideally mixed two-component SAM. The small domains of each material can be distinguished with topographic contrast because of their 2-Ã… length difference. The larger domains are due to atomic terracing of the underlying gold surface. Seth Darling (CNM) and Steven Sibener (University of Chicago) are working

275

Robertsons Ready Mix | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Robertsons Ready Mix Robertsons Ready Mix Jump to: navigation, search Name Robertsons Ready Mix Facility Robertsons Ready Mix Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Foundation Windpower Developer Foundation Windpower Energy Purchaser Robertsons Ready Mix Location Cabazon CA Coordinates 33.915842°, -116.81325° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.915842,"lon":-116.81325,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

276

The Role of Cohesive Particle Interactions on Solids Uniformity and Mobilization During Jet Mixing: Testing Recommendations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste that is currently stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site will be staged in selected double-shell tanks (DSTs) and then transferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Before being transferred, the waste will be mixed, sampled, and characterized to determine if the waste composition and meets the waste feed specifications. Washington River Protection Solutions is conducting a Tank Mixing and Sampling Demonstration Program to determine the mixing effectiveness of the current baseline mixing system that uses two jet mixer pumps and the adequacy of the planned sampling method. The overall purpose of the demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risk associated with the mixing and sampling systems meeting the feed certification requirements for transferring waste to the WTP.The purpose of this report is to analyze existing data and evaluate whether scaled mixing tests with cohesive simulants are needed to meet the overall objectives of the small-scale mixing demonstration program. This evaluation will focus on estimating the role of cohesive particle interactions on various physical phenomena that occur in parts of the mixing process. A specific focus of the evaluation will be on the uniformity of suspended solids in the mixed region. Based on the evaluation presented in this report and the absence of definitive studies, the recommendation is to conduct scaled mixing tests with cohesive particles and augment the initial testing with non-cohesive particles. In addition, planning for the quantitative tests would benefit from having test results from some scoping experiments that would provide results on the general behavior when cohesive inter-particle forces are important.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Fort, James A.; Chun, Jaehun; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains with Life Cycle Optimization Based on Functional Unit: General Modeling Framework, Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming Algorithms and Case Study on Hydrocarbon Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stopping tolerance for the parametric algorithm is set to 1%. ... The model covers the biomass feedstock supply system, integrated biorefineries, preconversion facilities, upgrading facilities, and the liquid fuel distribution system. ... As can be observed, the parametric algorithm is demonstrated to be the most efficient among the five algorithms, of which the solution time for all 10 instances ranges from 1.5 to 373.5 CPUs. ...

Dajun Yue; Min Ah Kim; Fengqi You

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Frequency Scalable Non-Linear Waveform Generator for Mixed-Simal Power-Factor-Correction IC Controller'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operates with a fixed switching frequency fs and variable duty ratio R, and can be analyzed using standard of a switching period, a fixed-frequency clock pulse sets the switch drive high. A signal proportionalFrequency Scalable Non-Linear Waveform Generator for Mixed-Simal Power-Factor-Correction IC

280

Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in feed CM chicken manure C/N carbon-nitrogen ratio, g CNA/g N CNA non-acid carbon, g COD chemical oxygen demand CPDM continuum particle distribution model D standard deviation EIA Energy Information Agency Fi bulk fermentation mass in Fermentor i... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PILOT-SCALE FERMENTATION AND LABORATORY NUTRIENT STUDIES ON MIXED-ACID FERMENTATION A Dissertation by AARON DOUGLAS SMITH...

Smith, Aaron Douglas

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the treatment and disposal of an inventory of approximately 160,000 tons of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). Most of this LLMW is stored in drums, barrels and steel boxes at 20 different sites throughout the DOE complex. The basic objective of low-level mixed waste treatment systems is to completely destroy the hazardous constituents and to simultaneously isolate and capture the radionuclides in a superior final waste form such as glass. The DOE is sponsoring the development of advanced technologies that meet this objective while achieving maximum volume reduction, low-life cycle costs and maximum operational safety. ThermoChem, Inc. is in the final stages of development of a steam-reforming system capable of treating a wide variety of DOE low-level mixed waste that meets these objectives. The design, construction, and testing of a nominal 1 ton/day Process Development Unit is described.

Voelker, G.E.; Steedman, W.G. [Thermochem, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

JACKSON VL

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Measurement of Bd mixing using opposite-side flavor tagging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a measurement of the Bd0 mixing frequency and the calibration of an opposite-side flavor tagger in the D0 experiment. Various properties associated with the b quark on the opposite side of the reconstructed B meson are combined using a likelihood-ratio method into a single variable with enhanced tagging power. Its performance is tested with data, using a large sample of reconstructed semileptonic B??D0X and B??D*X decays, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1??fb-1. The events are divided into groups depending on the value of the combined tagging variable, and an independent analysis is performed in each group. Combining the results of these analyses, the overall effective tagging power is found to be ?D2=(2.48±0.21-0.06+0.08)%. The measured Bd0 mixing frequency ?md=0.506±0.020(stat)±0.016(syst)??ps-1 is in good agreement with the world average value.

V. M. Abazov et al. (D0 Collaboration)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mixed refrigerants proven efficient in natural-gas-liquids recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lower processing temperatures for higher recoveries of natural gas liquids (NGL) leads to increasingly complex and expensive refrigeration techniques. This paper describes the mixed component refrigeration technique and that it has been proven as a viable alternative to the turboexpander plant. Mixed component refrigeration systems have been primarily used in applications such as LNG terminals and peak-shaving plants, where overall compression horse-power requirements are of primary concern due to operating cost. Recently, development of high pressure, brazed aluminum plate/fin exchangers and increasing compression costs have made economic potential of the mixed refrigerant alternative apparent. If the residue gas must be compressed to the same pressure as the plant inlet using the turbo-expander design, the mixed refrigerant system will require approximately 15% less horsepower for the same liquids production.

Mac Kenzie, D.H.

1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mixing properties in the advection of passive tracers via recurrences and extreme value theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we characterize the mixing properties in the advection of passive tracers by exploiting the extreme value theory for dynamical systems. With respect to classical techniques directly related to the Poincar\\'e recurrences analysis, our method provides reliable estimations of the characteristic mixing times and distinguishes between barriers and unstable fixed points. The method is based on a check of convergence for extreme value laws on finite datasets. We define the mixing times in terms of the shortest time intervals such that extremes converge to the asymptotic (known) parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Our technique is suitable for applications in the analysis of other systems where mixing time scales need to be determined and limited datasets are available.

Davide Faranda; Xavier Leoncini; Sandro Vaienti

2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Marketing Mix for Next Generation Marketing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Marketing mix has under gone a sea change in last few decades. Every stake holder involved in the marketing process looks for ‘Value’. The customer enters in the marketing process for better ‘value’ for his money through ‘Value to Customer’. The marketers would like to concentrate on the ‘valued customer’. The prime objective of any business is to sought value from the business ‘value to the marketer’. The marketer and customer would like to keep society's interest intact through ‘Value to society’. The new marketing mix model even though is at conceptual level but it certainly answers many questions of modern marketers which are not answered by traditional theories of marketing mix.

B.R. Londhe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces MAH-3 Code: Mixed Cells and Markers to Reconstruct Interfaces Nina N. Anuchina, Nikolay S. Es'kov, Viatcheslav A. Gordeyhuck, Oleg M. Kozyrev & Vladimir I. Volkov MAH-3 [1, 2] code simulates nonstationary 3D hydrodynamic multi-component flows with strongly distorted interfaces. Following from a priori information, the system to be simulated is presented by a set of computational domains. In each domain, an unstructured hexahedral mesh is used. 1. Anuchina N.N., Volkov V.J., Gordeychuk V.A., Es'kov N.S., Ilytina O.S., Kozurev O.M. Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using MAX-3 code. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 168 (2004), pp. 11-20. 2. Volkov V.I., Gordeychuk V.A., Es'kov N.S., Kozyrev O.M. Numerical

289

Recent results on D^0 mixing from Belle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on recent measurements of the $D^0-\\bar{D}^0$ mixing and $CP$ violation parameters performed by the Belle experiment. The evidence for the mixing phenomena in the system of neutral $D$ mesons, arising in the study of $D^0\\to K^+K^-, \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays is presented first. Using a time dependent Dalitz analysis of $D^0\\to K_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays we also obtained the most precise up-to-date determination of the mass difference of the two $D$ meson mass eigenstates. The presented results are based on 540 fb$^{-1}$ of data recorded by the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ collider. We conclude with short prospects for the future measurements.

B. Golob

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

290

Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058

Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chaotic Lagrangian transport and mixing in the ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical systems theory approach has been successfully used in physical oceanography for the last two decades to study mixing and transport of water masses in the ocean. The basic theoretical ideas have been borrowed from the phenomenon of chaotic advection in fluids, an analogue of dynamical Hamiltonian chaos in mechanics. The starting point for analysis is a velocity field obtained by this or that way. Being motivated by successful applications of that approach to simplified analytic models of geophysical fluid flows, researchers now work with satellite-derived velocity fields and outputs of sophisticated numerical models of ocean circulation. This review article gives an introduction to some of the basic concepts and methods used to study chaotic mixing and transport in the ocean and a brief overview of recent results with some practical applications of Lagrangian tools to monitor spreading of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean.

S. V. Prants

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

292

Chaotic Lagrangian transport and mixing in the ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical systems theory approach has been successfully used in physical oceanography for the last two decades to study mixing and transport of water masses in the ocean. The basic theoretical ideas have been borrowed from the phenomenon of chaotic advection in fluids, an analogue of dynamical Hamiltonian chaos in mechanics. The starting point for analysis is a velocity field obtained by this or that way. Being motivated by successful applications of that approach to simplified analytic models of geophysical fluid flows, researchers now work with satellite-derived velocity fields and outputs of sophisticated numerical models of ocean circulation. This review article gives an introduction to some of the basic concepts and methods used to study chaotic mixing and transport in the ocean and a brief overview of recent results with some practical applications of Lagrangian tools to monitor spreading of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean.

Prants, S V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Estimation of boron isotope ratios using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the production of 10B enriched steels, the production–recycling process needs to be closely monitored for inadvertent mix-up of materials with different B isotope levels. A quick and simple method for the estimation of boron isotope ratios in high alloyed steels using high resolution continuum source flame AAS (HR-CS-FAAS) was developed. On the 208.9 nm B line the wavelength of the peak absorption of 10B and 11B differs by 2.5 pm. The wavelength of the peak absorption of boron was determined by fitting a Gauss function through spectra simultaneously recorded by HR-CS-FAAS. It was shown that a linear correlation between the wavelength of the peak absorption and the isotope ratio exists and that this correlation is independent of the total boron concentration. Internal spectroscopic standards were used to compensate for monochromator drift and monochromator resolution changes. Accuracy and precision of the analyzed samples were thereby increased by a factor of up to 1.3. Three steel reference materials and one boric acid CRM, each certified for the boron isotope ratio were used to validate the procedure.

Helmar Wiltsche; Karl Prattes; Michael Zischka; Günter Knapp

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO2 was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO2. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H2O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H2O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times and off-gas compositions

Mitchell, Reginald

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

None

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Quantum Noise and Correlations in Resonantly Enhanced Wave Mixing Based on Atomic Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the quantum properties of fields generated by resonantly enhanced wave mixing based on atomic coherence in Raman systems. We show that such a process can be used for generation of pairs of Stokes and anti-Stokes fields with nearly perfect quantum correlations, yielding almost complete (i.e., 100%) squeezing without the use of a cavity. We discuss the extension of the wave mixing interactions into the domain of a few interacting light quanta.

M. D. Lukin; A. B. Matsko; M. Fleischhauer; M. O. Scully

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Accepted June 2008 HYDROGEN STORAGE FOR MIXED WIND-NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY Accepted June 2008 1 HYDROGEN STORAGE FOR MIXED WIND-NUCLEAR evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity

Cañizares, Claudio A.

299

Mixed Conifer Forests of the Sierra Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mixed conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada in California is ... States with visible symptoms of ozone injury to conifers (the other areas are the San Bernardino ... ]). The Sierra Nevada contains the largest forest

D. L. Peterson; M. J. Arbaugh

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fast Transport of Mixed Ion-Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of mixed-species ion crystals during transport between spatially distinct locations in a linear Paul trap in the diabatic regime. In a general mixed-species crystal, all degrees of freedom along the direction of transport are excited by an accelerating well, so unlike the case of same-species ions, where only the center-of-mass-mode is excited, several degrees of freedom have to be simultaneously controlled by the transport protocol. We design protocols that lead to low final excitations in the diabatic regime using invariant-based inverse-engineering for two different-species ions and also show how to extend this approach to longer mixed-species ion strings. Fast transport of mixed-species ion strings can significantly reduce the time overhead in certain architectures for scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions.

M. Palmero; R. Bowler; J. P. Gaebler; D. Leibfried; J. G. Muga

2014-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

302

$D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ mixing and CP violation results from Belle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results on $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ mixing in the decays of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ and $D^0\\to K_S^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$, and CP violation in $D^0\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of about 1~ab$^{-1}$ recorded with the Belle detector, at different center of mass energies. The mixing is observed in $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ with the mixing parameters $x'^2=(0.09\\pm 0.22)\\times 10^{-3}$, $y'=(4.6\\pm 3.4)\\times 10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_{D}=(3.53\\pm0.13)\\times 10^{-3}$, where the quoted uncertainties combine both statistical and systematic contributions. For the $D^0\\to K_S^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay, assuming CP conservation we measure mixing parameters $x=(0.56\\pm 0.19^{+0.03+0.06}_{-0.09-0.09})\\%$ and $y=(0.30\\pm 0.15^{+0.04+0.03}_{-0.05-0.06})\\%$, where the uncertainties are statistical, experimental systematics, and that due to amplitude model. We measure the mixing parameters allowing CP violation for this decay mode, and obtain $|q/p|=0.9...

Nisar, N K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

Ward, C.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Investigating Jet Mixing Using Electrical Resistance Tomography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coaxial jet and side entry mixers are used in a wide range of industries for a variety of processes including precipitation polymerization and neutralization duties. Jet mixers are characterized by short contact times between the fluids and can be operated continuously or semi?batch. Coaxial and side entry jets can be designed in order to deliver rapid turbulent mixing using short sections of pipeline. As the energy required for mixing is provided by the addition stream the process?side pressure drop required for homogeneity is very low. A key design parameter for jet mixers is the mixing length the length of pipe downstream of the injection point required to achieve a given degree of homogeneity. The mixing length can be affected by the addition geometry (for example coaxial or side entry) orifice size and shape operating conditions and material properties. This paper presents the use of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to monitor jet mixing via the addition of a conductivity tracer through coaxial and side entry jets. Multiple ERT sensors are fitted along the pipe downstream of the jet addition point. The ERT sensors enable real time non?invasive measurement of conductivity within the pipe furnishing approximately 2500 conductivity measurements per ERT sensor when modeled independently in 3D. The effect of secondary (main pipe) flow rate and jet configuration on the nature of the tracer plume evolution and axial mixing is determined using this technique.

D. R. Stephenson; M. Cooke; A. Kowalski; T. A. York

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Mixing time for the Ising model and random walks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.2.2 The Ising model on trees . . . . . . . .I Mixing time for the Ising model 2 Mixing evolutionmean-field Ising model 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . .

Ding, Jian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via...

307

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

308

Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

309

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

310

DOE intends to extend the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project contract for four months as competition for long-term contract continues. Scene from inside the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility....

311

SciTech Connect: Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of...

312

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt...

313

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June...

314

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency...

315

Benchmarking Mixed Use Buildings in Portfolio Manager | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Benchmarking Mixed Use Buildings in Portfolio Manager Benchmarking Mixed Use Buildings in Portfolio Manager This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program...

316

BOUDREAU, BERNARD P. Mean mixed depth of sediments: The ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

bioturbation. Bioturbation is the mixing of surficial sediments as a re- sult of the activity .... that the mixed depth is limited by the increasing energy costs of deeper

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

318

Scaling analysis for a reactor vessel mixing test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse AP600 advanced pressurized water reactor design uses a gravity-forced safety injection system with two nozzles in the reactor vessel downcomer. In the event of a severe overcooling transient such as a steam-line break, this system delivers boron to the core to offset positive reactivity introduced by the negative moderator defect. To determine if the system design is capable of successfully terminating this type of reactivity transient, a test of the system has been initiated. The test will utilize a 1:9 scale model of the reactor vessel and cold legs. The coolant will be modeled with air, while the safety injection fluid will be simulated with a dense gas. To determine the necessary parameters for this model, a scaling analysis was performed. The continuity, diffusion, and axial Navier-Stokes equations for the injected fluid were converted into dimensionless form. A Boussinesq formulation for turbulent viscosity was applied in these equations. This procedure identified the Richardson, mixing Reynolds, diffusion Fourier, and Euler numbers as dimensionless groups of interest. Order-of-magnitude evaluation was used to determine that the Richardson and mixing Reynolds numbers were the most significant parameters to match for a similar experiment.

Radcliff, T.D.; Parsons, J.R.; Johnson, W.S. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Ekeroth, D.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

322

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

323

GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Very Low Fruit:Flower Ratios in Grevillea (Proteaceae) are Independent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

breeding systems: G. linearifolia was self-incompatible (SI = 0.003), G. sphacelata, G. mucronulata, and G.61). Intrapopulation variability in the level of self-incompatibility was high in all species but G. linearifolia-specific compatibility was compared using the self-compatibility index (SI = ratio of selfed fruit set to crossed fruit

Innes, David J.

325

Detailed measurements of equivalence ratio modulations in premixed flames using laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- stabilities observed in modern lean premixed combustion systems. The present work intends to investigate and hydrocarbon infrared absorption respectively, are employed to give insight into the spatial and temporal- imental data and compare the relative effects of velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations. Keywords

Boyer, Edmond

326

Dual equilibrium in a finite aspect ratio tokamak  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

achievable in conventional tokamaks. Previous research hasin a ?nite aspect ratio tokamak P. -A. Gourdain a , b ,? ,fusion reactor is the tokamak concept, a closed magnetic

Gourdain, P A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Window Air Conditioner 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: General Electric - Fairfield, CT...

328

Effect of aspect ratio on transverse diffusive broadening: A lattice Boltzmann study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study scaling laws characterizing the inter-diffusive zone between two miscible fluids flowing side by side in a Y-shape laminar micromixer using the lattice Boltzmann method. The lattice Boltzmann method solves the coupled 3D hydrodynamics and mass transfer equations and incorporates intrinsic features of 3D flows related to this problem. We observe the different power law regimes occurring at the center of the channel and close to the top/bottom wall. The extent of the inter-diffusive zone scales as square root of the axial distance at the center of the channel. At the top/bottom wall, we find an exponent 1/3 at early stages of mixing as observed in the experiments of Ismagilov and coworkers [Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2376 (2000)]. At a larger distance from the entrance, the scaling exponent close to the walls changes to 1/2 [J.-B. Salmon et al J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074902 (2007)]. Here, we focus on the effect of finite aspect ratio on diffusive broadening. Interestingly, we find the same scaling laws regardless of the channel's aspect ratio. However,the point at which the exponent 1/3 characterizing the broadening at the top/bottom wall reverts to the normal diffusive behavior downstream strongly depends on the aspect ratio. We propose an interpretation of this observation in terms of shear rate at the side walls. A criterion for the range of aspect ratios with non-negligible effect on diffusive broadening is also provided.

S. G. Ayodele; F. varnik; D. Raabe

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

TWO COUNTRIES - ONE MARKETING MIX? HOW TO ADOPT COMPANY’S MARKETING MIX TO FOREIGN MARKET - CASE STUDY OF VOLVO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The discussion about 4P’s marketing mix covers two aspects. On the one hand, marketing mix activities are used to apply product into market and… (more)

Szwejkowska, Aneta; Puczynski, Leszek

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non-Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work addresses the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. This work is follow-on to the previous tasks 'Demonstration of Mixer Jet Pump Rotational Sensitivity on Mixing and Transfers of the AY-102 Tank' and 'Demonstration of Simulated Waste Transfers from Tank AY-102 to the Hanford Waste Treatment Facility'. The cohesive simulants were investigated and selected jointly by SRNL and PNNL and a white paper was written on this evaluation. The testing and demonstrations of cohesive simulants was a joint effort performed as collaboration between SRNL and PNNL staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using the 1/22nd scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. Seed particles are particles of contracting color added to mixing tank for visual inspection and an indicator of how well the contents of the tank are mixing. Also the seed particles serve as a measuring stick for how well the contents of the tank are transferred from the mixing tank during batch transfers. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative.

Adamson, D.; Gauglitz, P.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

Evaluation of steam-generator fluid mixing during layup. Final report. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop practical methods of achieving an adequately mixed chemical environment on the secondary side of PWR steam generators during periods of shutdown, cold shutdown (layup), and startup. Layup chemicals introduced into the steam generator could then be evenly dispersed to minimize corrosion processes which may occur if the chemical environment was not properly maintained. Systems for chemical feed, mixing, sampling, and removal of contaminant chemicals in the steam generator secondary side were also evaluated and recommendations have been made. Test results from a plexiglass model indicated that forced circulation and turbulent mixing were the most effective methods of achieving a rapid, homogeneous chemical environment. Natural convection and diffusion, on the other hand, were found to be less effective in achieving a thorough mixing.

MacArthur, A.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Geometry of quantum dynamics and a time-energy uncertainty relation for mixed states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we establish important relations between Hamiltonian dynamics and Riemannian structures on phase spaces for unitarily evolving finite level quantum systems in mixed states. We show that the energy dispersion (i.e. $1/\\hbar$ times the path integral of the energy uncertainty) of a unitary evolution is bounded from below by the length of the evolution curve. Also, we show that for each curve of mixed states there is a Hamiltonian for which the curve is a solution to the corresponding von Neumann equation, and the energy dispersion equals the curve's length. This allows us to express the distance between two mixed states in terms of a measurable quantity, and derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for mixed states. In a final section we compare our results with an energy dispersion estimate by Uhlmann.

Ole Andersson; Hoshang Heydari

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

IEA Workshop 59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEA Workshop 59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamak SCOPE tokamak DEMO reactor. Many present tokamaks are addressing such operation for ITER and DEMO. Shape and aspect ratio is particularly important for achieving high beta and also for the optimization of edge

334

Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

?Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

Burdick, A.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

337

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Experiences with treatment of mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

1996-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mixed Qubit Cannot Be Universally Broadcast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that there does not exist any universal quantum cloning machine that can broadcast an arbitrary mixed qubit with a constant fidelity. Based on this result, we investigate the dependent quantum cloner in the sense that some parameter of the input qubit $\\rho_s(\\theta,\\omega,\\lambda)$ is regarded as constant in the fidelity. For the case of constant $\\omega$, we establish the $1\\to2$ optimal symmetric dependent cloner with a fidelity 1/2. It is also shown that the $1\\to M$ optimal quantum cloning machine for pure qubits is also optimal for mixed qubits, when $\\lambda$ is the unique parameter in the fidelity. For general $N\\to M$ broadcasting of mixed qubits, the situation is very different.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2006-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

342

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Charm CP violation and mixing at Belle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present charm CP violation and mixing measurements at Belle. They are the first observation of $D^0-\\bar{D}^0$ mixing in $e^+e^-$ collisions from $D^0\\rightarrow K^+\\pi^-$ decays, the most precise mixing and indirect CP violation parameters from $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries in $D^0\\rightarrow\\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S\\pi^0$ decays. Our mixing measurement in $D^0\\rightarrow K^+\\pi^-$ decays excludes the no-mixing hypothesis at the 5.1 standard deviation level. The mixing parameters $x=(0.56\\pm0.19^{+0.03+0.06}_{-0.09-0.09})%$, $y=(0.30\\pm0.15^{+0.04+0.03}_{-0.05-0.06})%$ and indirect CP violation parameters $|q/p|=(0.90^{+0.16+0.05+0.06}_{-0.15-0.04-0.05})$, arg$(q/p)=(-6\\pm11\\pm3^{+3}_{-4})^{\\circ}$ measured from $D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays, and the time-integrated CP asymmetries $A^{D^0\\rightarrow\\pi^0\\pi^0}_{CP}=(-0.03\\pm0.64\\pm0.10)%$ and $A^{D^0\\rightarrow K^0_S\\pi^0}_{CP}=(-0.21\\pm0.16\\pm0.07)%$ are the most precise measurements to date. Our measurements here are consistent with predictions of the standard model.

B. R. Ko; for the Belle Collaboration

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Energy mix optimization from an energy security perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this article, an integrated methodology is presented to assess an optimal mix and perspective development of energy generation technologies not only by technical, economic or other criteria, but also from an energy security perspective. The energy security is evaluated in terms of energy system resistance to disturbances. The methodology comprises several models, such as a stochastic model of energy systems disturbance parameters, economic-optimization model of energy systems functioning, metric and analysis techniques of energy security. The perspective development and functioning of the energy systems with stochastic disturbances is modelled using economic-optimization model with the development of different energy generation technologies. An open source energy modelling system is used as a tool for this model. The concept of energy security coefficient, which is calculated to assess energy security in terms of energy price increase and the amounts of unsupplied energy due to the disturbance consequences, is presented in the article as well. The developed methodology is applied to the case study of the reference energy system. Its various development scenarios with different energy generation technologies are analysed according to the share of technologies in the energy production. Scenarios are simulated in the stochastic environment of various disturbances and results are obtained in terms of variation of energy security coefficient over time by comparing scenarios from the energy security point of view. Finally, the results of the development scenarios are discussed, threshold shares in the energy production and optimal mix of energy generation technologies in terms of energy security are proposed, limitations of the case study are identified and some general conclusions are given.

Juozas Augutis; Linas Martišauskas; Ri?ardas Krikštolaitis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

346

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

347

Supernova observations for neutrino mixing parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neutrino spectra from a future galactic core collapse supernova could reveal information on the neutrino mixing pattern, especially on {theta}{sub 13} and the mass hierarchy. I briefly outline our current understanding of neutrino flavor conversions inside a supernova, and point out possible signatures of various neutrino mixing scenarios that the neutrino detectors should look for. Supernova neutrinos provide a probe for {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy that is complementary to, and sometimes even better than, the current and proposed terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments.

Dighe, Amol [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

348

B^0_s mixing at CDF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tevatron collider at Fermilab provides a very rich environment for the study of b-hadrons. One of the most important analyses within the B physics program of the CDF experiment is B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing. Since the time this school was held, several improvements in the B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing analysis have made possible the measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillation frequency, result that has been presented at the FPCP 2006 Conference.

Piedra, Jonatan; /Paris U., VI-VII

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Uses of chloride/bromide ratios in studies of potable water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In natural ground water systems, both chlorine and bromine occur primarily as monovalent anions, chloride and bromide. Although dissolution or precipitation of halite, biological activity in the root zone, anion sorption, and exchange can affect chloride/bromide ratios in some settings, movement of the ions in potable ground water is most often conservative. Atmospheric precipitation will generally have mass ratios between 50 and 150; shallow ground water, between 100 and 200; domestic sewage, between 300 and 600; water affected by dissolution of halite, between 1,000 and 10,000; and summer runoff from urban streets, between 10 and 100. These, and other distinctive elemental ratios, are useful in the reconstruction of the origin and movement of ground water, as illustrated by case studies investigating sources of salinity in ground water from Alberta, Kansas, and Arizona, and infiltration rates and pathways at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

Davis, S.N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources; Whittemore, D.O. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Kansas Geological Survey; Fabryka-Martin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The influence of cluster emission and the symmetry energy on neutron-proton spectral double ratios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of free neutrons and protons from the central collisions of 124Sn+124Sn and 112Sn+112Sn reactions are simulated using the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model with two different density dependence of the symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state. The constructed double ratios of the neutron to proton ratios of the two reaction systems are found to be sensitive to the symmetry terms in the EOS. The effect of cluster formation is examined and found to affect the double ratios mainly in the low energy region. In order to extract better information on symmetry energy with transport models, it is therefore important to have accurate data in the high energy region which also is affected minimally by sequential decays.

Y. X. Zhang; P. Danielewicz; M. Famiano; Z. Li; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

351

What is this thing called MixedWhat is this thing called Mixed Conifer Forest?Conifer Forest?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is this thing called MixedWhat is this thing called Mixed Conifer Forest?Conifer Forest? Bill Conifer Forests of SW ColoradoConifer Forests of SW Colorado How to restore & maintain the natural of this ecosystemecosystem #12;What causes mixed conifer forestsWhat causes mixed conifer forests to be so diverse?to be so

352

MIXING OF CLUMPY SUPERNOVA EJECTA INTO MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several lines of evidence, from isotopic analyses of meteorites to studies of the Sun's elemental and isotopic composition, indicate that the solar system was contaminated early in its evolution by ejecta from a nearby supernova. Previous models have invoked supernova material being injected into an extant protoplanetary disk, or isotropically expanding ejecta sweeping over a distant (>10 pc) cloud core, simultaneously enriching it and triggering its collapse. Here, we consider a new astrophysical setting: the injection of clumpy supernova ejecta, as observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, into the molecular gas at the periphery of an H II region created by the supernova's progenitor star. To track these interactions, we have conducted a suite of high-resolution (1500{sup 3} effective) three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations that follow the evolution of individual clumps as they move into molecular gas. Even at these high resolutions, our simulations do not quite achieve numerical convergence, due to the challenge of properly resolving the small-scale mixing of ejecta and molecular gas, although they do allow some robust conclusions to be drawn. Isotropically exploding ejecta do not penetrate into the molecular cloud or mix with it, but, if cooling is properly accounted for, clumpy ejecta penetrate to distances {approx}10{sup 18} cm and mix effectively with large regions of star-forming molecular gas. In fact, the {approx}2 M{sub Sun} of high-metallicity ejecta from a single core-collapse supernova is likely to mix with {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} of molecular gas material as it is collapsing. Thus, all stars forming late ( Almost-Equal-To 5 Myr) in the evolution of an H II region may be contaminated by supernova ejecta at the level {approx}10{sup -4}. This level of contamination is consistent with the abundances of short-lived radionuclides and possibly some stable isotopic shifts in the early solar system and is potentially consistent with the observed variability in stellar elemental abundances. Supernova contamination of forming planetary systems may be a common, universal process.

Pan Liubin; Desch, Steven J.; Scannapieco, Evan; Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Prominence seismology using the period ratio of transverse thread oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ratio of the period of the fundamental mode to that of the first overtone of kink oscillations, from here on the "period ratio", is a seismology tool that can be used to infer information about the spatial variation of density along solar magnetic flux tubes. The period ratio is 2 in longitudinally homogeneous thin tubes, but it differs from 2 due to longitudinal inhomogeneity. In this paper we investigate the period ratio in longitudinally inhomogeneous prominence threads and explore its implications for prominence seismology. We numerically solve the two-dimensional eigenvalue problem of kink oscillations in a model of a prominence thread. We take into account three nonuniform density profiles along the thread. In agreement with previous works that used simple piecewise constant density profiles, we find that the period ratio is larger than 2 in prominence threads. When the ratio of the central density to that at the footpoints is fixed, the period ratio depends strongly on the form of the density profi...

Soler, R; Ballester, J L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

OZI violation in low energy omega and phi production in the pp system in a quark-gluon model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate OZI violation in near-threshold omega and phi production in the pp system. Assuming ideal omega/phi mixing (corrections are estimated), the energy dependence of the ratio R(omega/phi) is analyzed in a perturbative quark-gluon exchange model up to the third other in the strong coupling constant alpha(s) with the proton represented as a quark - scalar diquark system. We give a very natural explanation of the violation of the OZI rule in omega/phi production and its energy dependence near the production thresholds.

M. Dillig

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Detection of internally mixed Asian dust with air pollution aerosols using a polarization optical particle counter and a polarization-sensitive two-wavelength lidar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract East Asia is a unique region where mineral dust (Asian dust) sources are located near urban and industrial areas. Asian dust is often mixed with air pollution aerosols during transportation. It is important to understand the mixing states of Asian dust and other aerosols, because the effects on the environment and human health differ depending on the mixing state. We studied the mixing states of Asian dust using a polarization particle counter (POPC) that measures the forward scattering and the two polarization components of backscattering for single particles and a polarization-sensitive (532 nm) two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) lidar. We conducted the simultaneous observations using the POPC and the lidar in Seoul from March to December 2013 and captured the characteristics of pure Asian dust and internally mixed polluted Asian dust. POPC measurements indicated that the density of large particles was lower in polluted Asian dust that transported slowly over the polluted areas than in pure Asian dust that transported quickly from the dust source region. Moreover, the backscattering depolarization ratio was smaller for all particle sizes in polluted dust. The optical characteristics measured using the lidar were consistent with the POPC measurements. The backscattering color ratio of polluted dust was comparable to that of pure dust, but the depolarization ratio was lower for polluted dust. In addition, coarse non-spherical particles (Asian dust) almost always existed in the background, and the depolarization ratio had seasonal variation with a lower depolarization ratio in the summer. These results suggest background Asian dust particles are internally mixed in the summer.

Nobuo Sugimoto; Tomoaki Nishizawa; Atsushi Shimizu; Ichiro Matsui; Hiroshi Kobayashi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Modeling of implantation and mixing damage during etching of SiO{sub 2} over Si in fluorocarbon plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energetic ion bombardment during plasma etching of microelectronics devices is necessary to activate chemical process and define features through the ions' anisotropic trajectories. These energetic fluxes can also cause damage and mixing of the constituents of crystalline lattices. These properties are likely best modeled using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The computational expense of these techniques makes feature scale simulations difficult, and so motivates development of approximate methods that can be used to model full features. In this regard, an implantation and mixing model has been developed and implemented into a Monte Carlo feature profile model to simulate the mixing and damage to the underlying Si during high aspect ratio (HAR) etching of SiO{sub 2} trenches. Fluxes to the surface were provided by a reactor scale model. The feature scale model was validated by comparison to the mixing produced by Ar{sup +} bombardment of Si with and without F and CF fluxes as predicted by MD simulations. Scaling of mixing damage of underlying Si during HAR of SiO{sub 2} etching in Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2} plasmas for rf bias powers of 1-4 kW was investigated. The authors found that mixing damage at the bottom of HAR features, though increasing in magnitude with increasing ion energy, does not scale as dramatically as on flat surfaces. This is due to the reflection of ions off of sidewalls which moderate the ion energies.

Wang Mingmei; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Thermal Processing Techniques to Improve Metal Sulfide Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research over several decades by several institutions has shown that alkali-promoted metal sulfide catalysts are capable of producing mixed alcohols from syngas with high selectivity and yield. Unfortunately, process models suggest that syngas to mixed alcohol processes, and especially thermochemical biomass to mixed alcohol processes, require improvements to sulfide catalyst activity and/or selectivity for acceptable economics. These improvements, if incremental, cannot result in increased process complexity, capital expenditure, or catalyst costs. It is well accepted among catalyst researchers that thermal processing techniques like calcining and reduction can have profound effects on the properties and performance of finished catalysts, and that small variations in thermal processing do not usually affect the overall cost of the catalyst. Metal sulfide catalysts are no exception but surprisingly, little attention has been given to the effects of thermal treatment on bulk metal sulfide mixed alcohol catalysts. This presentation will discuss how parameters like temperature, dwell time, metal ratios, and purge gas affect the performance and physical properties of K-Co/Mo catalysts.

Hensley, J.; Menart, M.; Costelow, K.; Thibodeaux, J.; Yung, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas derived from the biomass gasification. The Cu1Co1Fe1Mo1Zn0.5? 6%K catalyst exhibited a higher activity on the space-time yield of mixed alcohols compared with the other Mo-based catalysts. The carbon conversion significantly increases with rising temperature below 340 °C but the alcohol selectivity has an opposite trend. The maximum mixed alcohols yield derived from biomass gasification is 494.8 g/(kgcatal·h) with the C2+ (C2—C6 higher alcohols) alcohols of 80.4% under the tested conditions. The alcohol distributions are consistent with the Schulz-Flory plots except methanol. In the alcohols products the C2+ alcohols (higher alcohols) dominate with a weight ratio of 70%–85%. The Mo-based catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption/desorption. The clean bio-fules of mixed alcohols derived from bio-syngas with higher octane values could be used as transportation fuels or petrol additives.

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coupling (32, 33). Plasma instabilities with multiple...experiment (34) with 430-MHz incoher-ent backscatter...probing of ionospheric plasma with beat waves appears...four-wave mixing in a plasma opens up the possibility...important in future upper atmospheric research. Beat waves...

V. STEFAN; B. I. COHEN; C. JOSHI

1989-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

NASA's Protein Crystal Work Gets Mixed Reviews  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NASA's Protein Crystal Work Gets Mixed Reviews ... In a just released report, a National Research Council (NRC) task group agrees with NASA's critics that efforts to grow higher quality protein crystals in space have been incremental at best. ... Still, the task group offers NASA solace. ...

LOIS EMBER

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Concentration Distributions during Pulse Jet Mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Obtaining real-time, in situ slurry concentration measurements during unsteady mixing can provide increased understanding into mixer performance. During recent tests an ultrasonic attenuation sensor was inserted into a mixing vessel to measure the slurry concentration during unsteady mixing in real time during pulse jet mixer operation. These pulse jet mixing tests to suspend noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales. To understand the solids suspension process and resulting solids distribution, the concentration of solids in the cloud was measured at various elevations and radial positions during the pulse jet mixer cycle. In the largest scale vessel, concentration profiles were measured at three radial locations: r = 0, 0.5 and 0.9 R where R is the vessel radius. These radial concentration data are being analyzed to provide a model for predicting concentration as a function of elevation. This paper describes pulse jet mixer operation, provides a description of the concentration probe, and presents transient concentration data obtained at three radial positions: in the vessel center (O R), midway between the center and the wall (0.5 R) and near the vessel wall (0.9 R) through out the pulse to provide insight into pulse jet mixer performance.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Millimeter-Wave Mixing with Josephson Junctions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments are reported in which two millimeter-wave signals incident on point-contact Josephson junctions produced changes in the junction dc voltage versus current characteristic and an intermediate frequency output whose amplitude depended sensitively on both junction bias and applied power. Equations are derived, based on Josephson's phenomenological equations, for the Josephson current in a junction exposed to two applied rf signals. When the applied signals differ appreciably in frequency, additional constant-voltage steps in the V-I curve are predicted which are spaced at the difference frequency. These steps have been observed in experiments employing sources at 64 and 72 Gc/sec. Results of mixing experiments utilizing two sources nearly equal in frequency are reported at 23 and at 72 Gc/sec. In this case the two waves beat together and are equivalent in their effect to a single signal amplitude modulated at the difference frequency. Also explained on the same basis are experiments in which the third harmonic of a signal at 24 Gc/sec mixed with a signal at 72 Gc/sec. These results demonstrate the existence of the Josephson mixing mechanism as opposed to classical nonlinear mixing, and they show that it is operative at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies over a wide range of power.

C. C. Grimes and Sidney Shapiro

1968-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

The mixed waste management facility. Monthly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a project summary for the Mixed Waste Management facility from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for June, 1995. Key developments were the installation of the MSO Engineering Development Unit (EDU) which is on schedule for operation in July, and the first preliminary design review. This report also describes budgets and includes a milestone log of activities.

Streit, R.D.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Models of Neutrino Masses and Mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrino physics has entered an era of precision measurements. With these precise measurements, we may be able to distinguish different models that have been constructed to explain the small neutrino masses and the large mixing among them. In this talk, I review some of the existing theoretical models and their predictions for neutrino oscillations.

Mu-Chun Chen

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

365

Charm -- a thermometer of the mixed phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A charmed quark experiences drag and diffusion in the quark-gluon plasma, as well as strong interaction with the plasma surface. Our simulations indicate that charmed quarks created in heavy ion collisions will be trapped in the mixed phase and will come to equilibrium in it. Their momentum distribution will thus reflect the temperature at the confinement phase transition.

Benjamin Svetitsky; Asher Uziel

1997-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

Dark energy, cosmological constant and neutrino mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The today estimated value of dark energy can be achieved by the vacuum condensate induced by neutrino mixing phenomenon. Such a tiny value is recovered for a cut-off of the order of Planck scale and it is linked to the sub eV neutrino mass scale. Contributions to dark energy from auxiliary fields or mechanisms are not necessary in this approach.

A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

Starke, T.P.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Comment on Energy Level Statistics in the Mixed Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We comment on the recent paper by Abul-Magd (J.Phys.A: Math.Gen. 29 (1996) 1) concerning the energy level statistics in the mixed regime, i.e. such having the mixed classical dynamics where regular and chaotic regions coexist in the phase space. We point out that his basic assumption on the additive property of the level-repulsion function $r(S)$ (conditional probability density) in the sense of dividing it linearly into the regular and chaotic part in proportion to the classical fractional phase space volumes $\\rho_1$ and $\\rho_2=q$ is not justified, since among other things, it relies on the type of Berry's ergodic assumption, which however is right only in a homogeneous ensemble of ergodic systems, but not in the neighbourhood of an integrable system. Thus his resulting distribution cannot be regarded as a theoretically well founded object. We point out that the semiclassical limiting energy level spacing distribution must be of Berry-Robnik (1984) type, and explain what transitional behaviour of the Brody-type (with fractional power-law energy level repulsion) we observe in the near semiclassical regime where effective $\\hbar$ is not yet small enough. Thus we refer to the derivation, arguments and conclusions in our paper (Prosen and Robnik, J.Phys.A: Math.Gen. 26 (1994) 8059), and explain again the behaviour in this double transition region.

Marko Robnik; Tomaz Prosen

1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Abundances and Isotope Ratios in the Magellanic Clouds: The Star Forming Environment of N113  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the goal of deriving the physical and chemical conditions of star forming regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a spectral line survey of the prominent star forming region N113 is presented. The observations cover parts of the frequency range from 85 GHz to 357 GHz and include 63 molecular transitions from a total of 16 species, among them spectra of rare isotopologues. Maps of selected molecular lines as well as the 1.2 mm continuum distribution are also presented. Molecular abundances in the core of the complex are found to be consistent with a photon dominated region (PDR) that is nitrogen deficient, with the potential exception of N2H+. Densities range from 5x10^3 cm-3 for CO to almost 10^6 for CS and HCN, indicating that only the densest regions provide sufficient shielding even for some of the most common species. An ortho- to para-H_2CO ratio of ~3 hints at H_2CO formation in a warm (>=40 K) environment. Isotope ratios are 12C/13C ~ 49+-5, 16O/18O ~ 2000+-250, 18O/17O ~ 1.7+-0.2 and 32S/34S ~ 15. Agreement with data from other star forming clouds shows that the gas is well mixed in the LMC . The isotope ratios do not only differ from those seen in the Galaxy. They also do not form a continuation of the trends observed with decreasing metallicity from the inner to the outer Galaxy. This implies that the outer Galaxy, is not providing a transition zone between the inner Galaxy and the metal poor environment of the Magellanic Clouds. A part of this discrepancy is likely caused by differences in the age of the stellar populations in the outer Galaxy and the LMC.

M. Wang; Y. -N. Chin; C. Henkel; J. B. Whiteoak; M. Cunningham

2008-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

372

The Ne/O abundance ratio in the quiet Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: To determine the neon-to-oxygen abundance in the quiet Sun, a proxy for the photospheric abundance ratio. Method: An emission measure method applied to extreme ultraviolet emission lines of Ne IV-VI and O III-V ions observed by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on the SOHO satellite. Results: The average Ne/O abundance ratio in supergranule cell centre regions is 0.18 +/- 0.05, while in supergranule network regions is 0.16 +/- 0.04. A photospheric Ne/O ratio of 0.17 +/- 0.05 is suggested, in good agreement with the most recent compilation of solar photospheric abundances, but discrepant with a recent Ne/O ratio derived from stellar X-ray spectra and revised neon abundances suggested from solar interior models.

P. R. Young

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development of High Expansion Ratio Helium Turbo Expander  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors developed a high expansion ratio radial inflow turbine for a helium liquefier of 100 L/h capacity for use with a 70 MW superconductive generator. The following results were obtained from this devel...

N. Ino; A. Machida; K. Ttsugawa; Y. Arai; M. Matsuki…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Task 1.6 - mixed waste. Topical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For fifty years, the United States was involved in a nuclear arms race of immense proportions. During the majority of this period, the push was always to design new weapons, produce more weapons, and increase the size of the arsenal, maintaining an advantage over the opposition in order to protect U.S. interests. Now that the {open_quotes}Cold War{close_quotes} is over, we are faced with the imposing tasks of dismantling, cleaning up, and remediating the wide variety of problems created by this arms race. An overview of the current status of the total remediation effort within the DOE is presented in the DOE publication {open_quotes}ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1995{close_quotes} (EM 1995). Not all radioactive waste is the same though; therefore, a system was devised to categorize the different types of radioactive waste. These categories are as follows: spent fuel; high-level waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; mixed waste; and uranium-mill tailings. Mixed waste is defined to be material contaminated with any of these categories of radioactive material plus an organic or heavy metal component. However, for this discussion, {open_quotes}mixed waste{close_quote} will pertain only to low-level mixed waste which consists of low-level radioactive waste mixed with organic solvents and or heavy metals. The area of {open_quotes}mixed-waste characterization, treatment, and disposal{close_quotes} is listed on page 6 of the EM 1995 publication as one of five focus areas for technological development, and while no more important than the others, it has become an area of critical concern for DOE. Lacking adequate technologies for treatment and disposal, the DOE stockpiled large quantities of mixed waste during the 1970s and 1980s. Legislative changes and the need for regulatory compliance have now made it expedient to develop methods of achieving final disposition for this stockpiled mixed waste.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GA­A23168 TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO by C.P.C. WONG and R.D. STAMBAUGH or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23168 TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS JULY 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG AND R.D. STAMBAUGH TOKAMAK REACTOR DESIGNS AS A FUNCTION OF ASPECT RATIO

California at Los Angeles, University of

376

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM) with approximately 50 stations within the boundaries of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that measure a variety of meteorological parameters leads to the possibility of using the OKM to provide additional estimates of surface energy budget to augment

377

Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

Ha Myung Jeong; Myung Won Seo; Sang Mun Jeong; Byung Ki Na; Sang Jun Yoon; Jae Goo Lee; Woon Jae Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Comparisons of Predicted Plasma Performance in ITER H-mode Plasmas with Various Mixes of External He  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance in H-mode DT plasmas in ITER with various choices of heating systems are predicted and compared. Combinations of external heating by Negative Ion Neutral Beam Injection (NNBI), Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF), and Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) are assumed. Scans with a range of physics assumptions about boundary temperatures in the edge pedestal, alpha ash transport, and toroidal momentum transport are used to indicate effects of uncertainties. Time-dependent integrated modeling with the PTRANSP code is used to predict profiles of heating, beam torque, and plasma profiles. The GLF23 model is used to predict temperature profiles. Either GLF23 or the assumption of a constant ratio for ?ø/?i is used to predict toroidal rotation profiles driven by the beam torques. Large differences for the core temperatures are predicted with different mixes of the external heating during the density and current ramp-up phase, but the profiles are similar during the flattop phase. With ?ø/?i = 0.5, the predicted toroidal rotation is relatively slow and the flow shear implied by the pressure, toroidal rotation, and neoclassical poloidal rotation are not sufficient to cause significant changes in the energy transport or steady state temperature profiles. The GLF23-predicted toroidal rotation is faster by a factor of six, and significant flow shear effects are predicted.

R.V. Budny

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

C. Jing, J. G. Power, M. Conde, W. Liu, Z. Yusof, A. Kanareykin, and W. Gai

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

380

Acoustic and biological studies of pitched blade mixing systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of blade construction on coalesence. Van't Riet also showed the dependence of power consumption on vessel geometry, hold up, bubble size, and the number of impeller blades present. Warmoeskerken et s. l (51 described gas loading regimes of the pitched... also be obtained with Fourier transforms. Strasberg reviewed sound emissions from: 1) bubble formation at a nozzle; 2) bubble coalescence and splitting; 3) bubble flow past bodies and constrictions; and 4) rising bubbles; all of which may have...

Hsi, Randolph Paul

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A stochastic mixed integer programming approach to wildfire management systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Scale Fire . . . 42 1. Basic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2. Analysis of Solution of the Instance wfcp 7 6 5 . . . . 44 3. Computational Results of wfcp Instances . . . . . . . 46 viii CHAPTER Page 4. Findings and Conclusions... $20 : : : : : : : : : 52 XIII Results of wfcp instances with NVC per hectare $1000 : : : : : : : : 53 XIV Summary of twfcpu1 instances with unconstrained budget : : : : : : 57 XV Summary of twfcpu0.5 instances with constrained budget : : : : : : : 58...

Lee, Won Ju

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four tasks are reported on: bundle geometry (wrapped and bare rods), subchannel geometry (bare rods), LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing, and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles. (DLC)

Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wold, L.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Scaling Surface Mixing/Mixed Layer Depth Under Stabilizing Buoyancy Flux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study concerns the combined effects of earth rotation and stabilizing surface buoyancy flux upon the wind-induced turbulent mixing in the surface layer. Two different length scales, Garwood scale and Zilitinkevich scale, have been proposed ...

Yutaka Yoshikawa

384

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

Gregg, D.W.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

386

Development of two mix model postprocessors for the investigation of shell mix in indirect drive implosion cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of shell mix in inertial confinement fusion implosion cores is an important characteristic. Mixing in this experimental regime is primarily due to hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov, which can affect implosion dynamics. Two independent theoretical mix models, Youngs' model and the Haan saturation model, were used to estimate the level of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a series of indirect drive experiments. The models were used to predict the radial width of the region containing mixed fuel and shell materials. The results for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing provided by Youngs' model are considered to be a lower bound for the mix width, while those generated by Haan's model incorporate more experimental characteristics and consequently have larger mix widths. These results are compared with an independent experimental analysis, which infers a larger mix width based on all instabilities and effects captured in the experimental data.

Welser-Sherrill, L.; Mancini, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Haynes, D. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Haan, S. W.; Koch, J. A.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Golovkin, I. E.; MacFarlane, J. J. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Radha, P. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Transmutation characteristics of minor actinides in a low aspect ratio tokamak fusion reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The transmutation characteristics of minor actinides in the transmutation reactor of a low aspect ratio (LAR) tokamak are investigated. One-dimensional neutron transport and burn-up calculations coupled with a tokamak systems analysis were performed to determine optimal system parameters. The dependence of the transmutation characteristics, including the neutron multiplication factor, produced power, and the transmutation rate, on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5–2.0 was examined. By adding Pu239 to the transmutation blanket as a neutron multiplication material, it was shown that a single transmutation reactor producing a fusion power of 150 MWth can destroy minor actinides contained in the spent fuels for more than 38 units of 1 GWe pressurized water reactors (PWRs) while producing a power in the range of 1.8–6.8 GWth.

B.G. Hong; S.Y. Moon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Performance of Low Energy Crumb Rubber Modified Bituminous Mixes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rising energy costs and increased awareness of emission problems in the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) have brought attention to the potential benefits of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) in India. Warm-mix asphalt is the generic term for a variety of technologies that allow the producers of hot-mix asphalt pavement material to lower the temperatures at which the material is mixed and placed on the road. Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) is a popular binder in India. CRMB is composed of bitumen binder and tyre rubber. Tyre rubber, at various percentages, is added to the binder, addition of tyre rubber into binder results in a new product, which requires higher mixing temperatures compared to the conventional one, as well as increased mixing time, so as to get the uniformity of the product. A laboratory study was conducted at CSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) to investigate, how a commercially available chemical additive can be used to bring down the mixing and compaction temperature of CRMB mix as compared to the hot mix CRMB. Four different temperature ranges were considered in this study viz 1000C to 1050C, 1100C to 1150C, 1200C to 1250C and 1300C to 1350C to determine the various performance characteristics. The CRMB bituminous mix was prepared in these four temperature ranges and various mix tests were carried out to indicate to how the lower production and compaction temperatures affect the properties and performance characteristics of the mixes. After the laboratory evaluation it was found that CRMB Warm mix can be successfully produced at temperature as low as 110 °C and can be compacted at 80- 900C as compared to CRMB hot mix (155 °C). Full scale performance study indicate that process is highly energy efficient and environment friendly, warm mixes performed equivalent to “Hot Bituminous Mixes” and indicated encouraging results. After laboratory evaluation, a test track was successfully laid using low energy Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen.

Ambika Behl; Gajendra Kumar; Girish Sharma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Finite element analysis of laminar mixed convection in the entrance region of horizontal annular ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The laminar mixed convection in the entrance region of horizontal straight ducts of an annular cross section is studied by means of a generally applicable finite element procedure based on the parabolized simplification of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations and on the Boussinesq approximation of the buoyancy term. The procedure is validated through comparisons of computed results with available data from the literature. New results concern annuli with radius ratios equal to 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 subjected to the fundamental boundary condition of the second and the third kinds, for Prandtl numbers equal to 0.7 and 7, and different values of Grashof number.

Nonino, C.; Giudice, S. del [Univ. di Udine (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica e Macchine

1996-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

391

Unsteady mixed convection in horizontal ducts with applications to chemical vapor deposition processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct of aspect ratio 4 heated from below with cold side walls was studied numerically for a non-Boussinesq fluid. Results are presented for a reduced temperature of 2.33 and a Rayleigh number of 130,700. The resulting flow field at Re = 25 consisted of four steady longitudinal vortices, symmetric about the duct centerline, with a leading transverse roll cell. A reduction to Re = 10 resulted in the introduction of traveling transverse waves. A further reduction Re = 5 resulted in a loss of symmetry about the duct centerline plane. Further work is underway to verify the Re = 5 results.

Spall, R.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Formation of Ti-B surface alloys by excimer laser mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have formed a surface Ti-B alloy by excimer laser mixing of a single B layer on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates a uniform B:Ti ratio of approximately 0.7 in the surface layer. A Boron layer 60 nm thick resulted in an alloy layer approximately 200 nm thick. There is little indication, by either Auger electron spectroscopy or nuclear reaction analysis, of substantial oxygen incorporation in the surface alloy despite the fact that the processing was done in air. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface alloy shows a completely amorphous surface layer underlain by a martensitic structure.

Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Zocco, T.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800?nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400?nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1??m to 18??m. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

Marceau, Claude, E-mail: claude.marceau.2@ulaval.ca; Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd [Centre d'Optique, Photonique et Laser, Pavillon d'optique-photonique Québec (Québec), Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Evidence of Self-correction of Child Sex Ratios in India: A District-Level Analysis of Child Sex Ratios From 1981 to 2011  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls’ future value, leading sex ratio...

Nadia Diamond-Smith; David Bishai

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

A New Method of Reduction and Decomposition of Mixed Scalar/Array Equations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modelica is designed to describe hybrid complex physical system in form of differential algebraic equations (DAEs), which usually consisting of scalar equations and array equations. General method of reduction and decomposition of modelica model can ... Keywords: reduction and decomposition, weighted bipartite graph, mixed scalar/array, DAEs, modelica

Junjie Tang; Jianwan Ding; Liping Chen

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan Department of Computer University of Virginia whitehouse@virginia.edu Abstract After space heating and cooling, water heating consumption. Current water heating systems waste up to 20% of their energy due to poor insulation in pipes

Whitehouse, Kamin

397

Simulation of Apple Tree Development Using Mixed Statistical and Biomechanical Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation of Apple Tree Development Using Mixed Statistical and Biomechanical Models Colin Smith1 that characterises the architecture of an apple tree over time. As indicated previously [9, 3, 4], the simulation dynamics in a developmental context, we have created an L-system simulation of a developing apple tree

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Adapting the Transmission Reach in Mixed Line Rates WDM Transport Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adapting the Transmission Reach in Mixed Line Rates WDM Transport Networks K. Christodoulopoulos, K to support the transmission at different line rates. Previously proposed planning algorithms, have used a transmission reach limit for each modulation format/line rate, mainly driven by single line rate systems

Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

399

Phenomenological modeling of tumor diameter growth based on a mixed effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phenomenological modeling of tumor diameter growth based on a mixed effects model T. Bastogne a,, A tumor volume-based models have been devel- oped for the phenomenological modeling of tumor growth-00390380,version1-2Jun2009 #12;1 Introduction In systems theory1,2 , phenomenological or black-box models

Boyer, Edmond

400

Why Sequence PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities? PCE-dechlorinating mixed communities? The poet John Donne once noted that no man is an island, and the same can be argued for bacteria. Dehalococcoides ethenogenes bacteria are often found in a community of other microorganisms at groundwater sites contaminated with compounds such as tetrachloroethne and trichloroethene. These chemicals are among most the pervasive organic groundwater pollutants because they're often used by industry as cleansers or degreasers. Of all the Dehalococcoides strains identified thus far, D. ethenogenes is the only bacterial strain known to be able to break down the chlorinated groundwater pollutants, and the only strain that has been sequenced. Part of the reason for the latter is the size of the bacteria's genome, which is small

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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401

Fuel Mix Disclosure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Disclosure Disclosure Fuel Mix Disclosure < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Generation Disclosure Provider Washington State Department of Commerce Washington's retail electric suppliers must disclose details regarding the fuel mix of their electric generation to customers. Electric suppliers must provide such information in a standard format annually to customers. In addition, most larger electric suppliers must provide at least two additional times annually a publication that contains the standard disclosure label, a customer service phone number to request the disclosure label or a reference to an electronic version of the disclosure label. (Small utilities and mutual light and power companies must provide the disclosure label at least annually to customers in the form of a

402

MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

403

DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Heavy Baryon Mixing in Chiral Perturbation Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the SU(3) and heavy quark spin-symmetry breaking mixing between the Xi_c and Xi'_c charmed baryons. Chromomagnetic hyperfine interactions are the leading source of spin-symmetry breaking and together with the SU(3) breaking mass differences between the lightest pseudo-Goldstone bosons gives the leading contribution to the mixing. Such contributions are computed in chiral perturbation theory and compared to quark model expectations. We also compute the leading contribution to the semileptonic decay Xi_b -> Xi'_c l nu at zero recoil, and find that it is an order of magnitude smaller than naive power counting would suggest. It appears that Xi_b -> Xi'_c l nu is dominated by incalculable counterterms, and we discuss the implications for quark models based on the essential role of hyperfine interactions.

C. Glenn Boyd; Ming Lu; Martin J. Savage

1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sideband Mixing in Intense Laser Backgrounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution on the sidebands. We show that the gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles. The identification of the propagator from the two-point function is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

LDV Measurement of Confined Parallel Jet Mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements were taken in a confinement, bounded by two parallel walls, into which issues a row of parallel jets. Two-component measurements were taken of two mean velocity components and three Reynolds stress components. As observed in isolated three dimensional wall bounded jets, the transverse diffusion of the jets is quite large. The data indicate that this rapid mixing process is due to strong secondary flows, transport of large inlet intensities and Reynolds stress anisotropy effects.

R.F. Kunz; S.W. D'Amico; P.F. Vassallo; M.A. Zaccaria

2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

Chase, J.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

W. E. Schwinkendorf

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Berkeley Lab Study Reveals Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes...

411

Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix | GE Global...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Affects the Future Energy Mix Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix Trevor Kirsten 2012.11.19 One of the fascinating things about my job is contemplating questions...

412

Designation of Mode Mix in Orthotropic Composite Delamination Problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In interfacial fracture modeling of composite delamination, mode mix is typically specified in terms of energy release rates. Other near-tip quantities can be used to designate mode mix, however. This paper consi...

S.H. Narayan; J.L. Beuth

413

Three Flavor Neutrino Mixing and Dark Energy Above GUT Scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutrino mixing lead to a non zero contribution to the dark energy of the universe. We assume that the neutrino masses and mixing arise through physics at a scale intermediate ... the electroweak scale. The mecha...

Bipin Singh Koranga; Rajesh Pandey

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Molten Salt Oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) can be characterized as a simple noncombustion process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes including chemical warfare agents, combustible solids, halogenated solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls, plutonium-contaminated solids, uranium-contaminated solvents and fission product-contaminated oil. The MSO destruction efficiency of the hazardous organic constituents in the wastes exceeds 99.9999%. Radioactive species, such as actinides and rare earth fission products, are retained in the salt bath. These elements can be recovered from the spent salt using conventional chemical processes, such as ion exchange, to render the salt as nonradioactive and nonhazardous. This paper reviews the principles and capabilities of MSO, previous mixed waste studies, and a new US Department of Energy program to demonstrate the process for the treatment of mixed wastes.

Gay, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Newman, C. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Uncertainty quantification for turbulent mixing simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have achieved validation in the form of simulation-experiment agreement for Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing rates (known as {alpha}) over the past decade. The problem was first posed sixty years ago. Recent improvements in our simulation technology allow sufficient precision to distinguish between mixing rates for different experiments. We explain the sensitivity and non-universality of the mixing rate. These playa role in the difficulties experienced by many others in efforts to compare experiment with simulation. We analyze the role of initial conditions, which were not recorded for the classical experiments of Youngs et al. Reconstructed initial conditions with error bars are given. The time evolution of the long and short wave length portions of the instability are analyzed. We show that long wave length perturbations are strong at t = 0, but are quickly overcome by the rapidly growing short wave length perturbations. These conclusions, based solely on experimental data analysis, are in agreement with results from theoretical bubble merger models and numerical simulation studies but disagree with models based on superposition of modes.

Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Glimm, James G [STONEY BROOK UNIV.; Kaman, Tulin [STONEY BROOK UNIV.

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

416

Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide.

Veil, J.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Experimental Study on Fluid Mixing for Evaluation of Thermal Striping in T-Pipe Junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water experiment is performed to investigate thermal striping phenomena in a T-pipe junction which is a typical geometry of fluid mixing. The flow velocity ratio and temperature difference were experimental parameters. The jet form was classified into four patterns; (1) impinging jet, (2) deflecting jet, (3) re-attachment jet and (4) wall jet according to the inflow condition. The parameter experiments showed that the jet form could be predicted by a momentum ratio between the two pipes. The thermo-chromic liquid crystal sheet showed that a cold spot was formed at the wall surface in the main pipe in the cases of the impinging jet and the wall jet. From the temperature measurement in the fluid, temperature fluctuation intensity was high along the edge of the jet exiting from branch piping. A database of temperature fluctuation and frequency characteristics was established for an evaluation rule of thermal striping in a T-pipe junction. (authors)

Minoru Igarashi; Masaaki Tanaka; Hideki Kamide [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute 4002, Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Shigeyo Kawashima [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

$D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ mixing and CP violation results from Belle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results on $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ mixing in the decays of $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ and $D^0\\to K_S^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$, and CP violation in $D^0\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of about 1~ab$^{-1}$ recorded with the Belle detector, at different center of mass energies. The mixing is observed in $D^0\\to K^+\\pi^-$ with the mixing parameters $x'^2=(0.09\\pm 0.22)\\times 10^{-3}$, $y'=(4.6\\pm 3.4)\\times 10^{-3}$ and the ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates $R_{D}=(3.53\\pm0.13)\\times 10^{-3}$, where the quoted uncertainties combine both statistical and systematic contributions. For the $D^0\\to K_S^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay, assuming CP conservation we measure mixing parameters $x=(0.56\\pm 0.19^{+0.03+0.06}_{-0.09-0.09})\\%$ and $y=(0.30\\pm 0.15^{+0.04+0.03}_{-0.05-0.06})\\%$, where the uncertainties are statistical, experimental systematics, and that due to amplitude model. We measure the mixing parameters allowing CP violation for this decay mode, and obtain $|q/p|=0.90^{+0.16+0.05+0.06}_{-0.15-0.04-0.05}$ and arg($q/p$)=$(-6\\pm 11 \\pm3^{+3}_{-4})^{\\circ}$ that are consistent with no CP violation. The time-integrated CP asymmetry in the decay $D^0\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ is measured to be, $[-0.03\\pm 0.64(stat) \\pm 0.10(syst)]\\%$, consistent with CP conservation. We also present an updated measurement of CP asymmetry in $D^0\\to K_S^0\\pi^0$.

N. K. Nisar

2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

419

Ownership mix of addiction treatment centres in the USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dominant presence of private Addiction Treatment Centres (ATCs) raises questions about how changes in ownership mix affect access to and quality of care. This paper examines the relationship between an ATC's ownership choice and the ownership mix in its market. Organisational and market characteristics are considered by using data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, North American Industry Classification System, Internal Revenue Service's Business Master File, US Census Bureau Population Estimate Survey, Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data and Local Area Unemployment Statistics. We use linear probability models to link the facility's choice of ownership with the ownership status of its competitors. The results indicate that the value of being non-profit is higher in markets where many ATCs are non-profit and lower in markets where many are for-profit. The likelihood of a non-profit status appears to be more influenced by the presence of incumbent non-profits, rather than by high earnings or longevity.

Guy David; Margo Lederhandler; Victoria Acevedo-Perez

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Self-mixing vibration measurement using emission frequency sinusoidal modulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, a simplified phase demodulation scheme is applied to recover vibration trail on a laser self-mixing interferometer for noncontact vibration measurement. The emission of semiconductor laser diode is modulated by injecting sinusoidal wave, and corresponding interference signal is a quasi-sinusoid wave. The vibration mathematical model for semiconductor laser diode is theoretically educed from basic self-mixing theory, the variation of target is converted into phase information. The simulation of demodulation algorithm and standard deviation are presented and the reconstructed waveform displays a desirable consistence with various moving trails. Following the principle, a minimum experimental system is established and position variation of the target mirror driven by voltage signal is translated into phase shifts, feedback is controlled at weak level during experiment, Fourier transform is implemented to analyze phase information. The comparisons of both amplitude and velocity with a Germany Doppler vibrometer are performed to testify vibration model, the error of proposed demodulation method is less than 30 nm and achieve a high accuracy in vibration frequency. The experimental results indicate the traditional phase technology can be applied on complex optical power signal after adaption providing a feasible application prospects in industrial and scientific situation with an inexpensive semiconductor laser.

Yufeng Tao; Ming Wang; Dongmei Guo; Hui Hao; Qiang Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Process development for remote-handled mixed-waste treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a treatment process for remote-handled (RH) liquid transuranic mixed waste governed by the concept of minimizing the volume of waste requiring disposal. This task is to be accomplished by decontaminating the bulk components so the process effluent can be disposed with less risk and expense. Practical processes have been demonstrated on the laboratory scale for removing cesium 137 and strontium 90 isotopes from the waste, generating a concentrated waste volume, and rendering the bulk of the waste nearly radiation free for downstream processing. The process is projected to give decontamination factors of 10{sup 4} for cesium and 10{sup 3} for strontium. Because of the extent of decontamination, downstream processing will be contact handled. The transuranic, radioactive fraction of the mixed waste stream will be solidified using a thin-film evaporator and/or microwave solidification system. Resultant solidified waste will be disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Berry, J.B.; Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; White, T.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a dynamic loop and an Ostwald-de Waele model was obtained. Keywords: CO2, TBPB, mixed hydrates, solubility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

International Environmental Agreements with Mixed Strategies and Investment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mixed strategies We ?rst review a canonical IEA model, then2001) and Barrett (2003) review this literature. IEA members

Hong, Fuhai; Karp, Larry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Independent Oversight Review, Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project- April 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Review of Radiation Protection Program Implementation at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project of the Idaho Site

425

Hall viscosity to entropy ratio in higher derivative theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper based on the basic principles of gauge/gravity duality we compute the hall viscosity to entropy ratio in the presence of various higher derivative corrections to the dual gravitational description embedded in an asymptotically $ AdS_{4} $ space time. As the first step of our analysis, considering the back reaction we impose higher derivative corrections to the abelian gauge sector of the theory where we notice that the ratio indeed gets corrected at the leading order in the coupling. Considering the probe limit as a special case we compute this leading order correction over the fixed background of the charged black brane solution. Finally we consider higher derivative ($ R^{2} $) correction to the gravity sector of the theory where we notice that the above ratio might get corrected at the sixth derivative level.

Dibakar Roychowdhury

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

426

Geochemical modeling of the near-surface hydrothermal system beneath the southern moat of Long Valley Caldera, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Geochemical reaction path and mass balance modeling techniques were used to test the hypothesis that an eastwardly flowing plume of thermal water in the southern moat of the Long Valley caldera system reacts with hydrothermally altered intra-caldera tuffs and mixes with non-thermal groundwater. Our conceptual model is based on hypotheses in the literature and published geochemical and petrologic data. Mixing of thermal and non-thermal waters and reaction with wall rock were simulated using the reaction path code EQ3/6. Mass balance calculations were conducted to estimate the extent of water–rock interaction between the intra-caldera tuffs and fluids. A mixing ratio of 82% thermal and 18% non-thermal water reacting with altered tuff minerals closely matches Casa Diablo fluid compositions and minerals observed in petrographic studies. Results of this study show that the mineralogy and fluid chemistry observed in the shallow reservoir at Long Valley caldera are formed in an open system. Further, calcite precipitated in the system serves as a sink for high levels of CO2 generated by the deeper magmatic system. Our study serves as an example that processes acting in a geothermal system can be effectively quantified using geochemical modeling and mass balance calculations.

Regina N. Tempel; Daniel M. Sturmer; Jill Schilling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Numerical analysis of the optimal turbine pressure drop ratio in a solar chimney power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In a solar chimney power plant, only a fraction of the available total pressure difference can be used to run the turbine to generate electrical power. The optimal ratio of the turbine pressure drop to the available total pressure difference in a solar chimney system is investigated using theoretical analysis and 3D numerical simulations. The values found in the literature for the optimal ratio vary between 2/3 and 0.97. In this study, however, the optimal ratio was found to vary with the intensity of solar radiation, and to be around 0.9 for the Spanish prototype. In addition, the optimal ratios obtained from the analytical approach are close to those from the numerical simulation and their differences are mainly caused by the neglect of aerodynamic losses associated with skin friction, flow separation, and secondary flow in the theoretical analysis. This study may be useful for the preliminary estimation of power plant performance and the power-regulating strategy option for solar chimney turbines.

Penghua Guo; Jingyin Li; Yuan Wang; Yingwen Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

MIXING RANK-ONE ACTIONS OF LOCALLY COMPACT ABELIAN GROUPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MIXING RANK-ONE ACTIONS OF LOCALLY COMPACT ABELIAN GROUPS Alexandre I. Danilenko and Cesar E. Silva that such transformations are mixing of all orders [Ka], [Ry1] and have minimal self-joinings of all orders [Ki], [Ry1 this progress, not so many concrete examples of rank-one mixing ac- tions are known. Most of them were obtained

Silva, Cesar E.

429

Mixing in seasonally stratified shelf seas: a shifting paradigm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tidal mixing front an energy balance is achieved...water-column potential energy is being reduced...barotropic tidal mixing efficiency, gamma0.0037...how inefficient the energy lost to turbulence...hand mixer to mix a swimming pool!), and, with...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY Guy MEUNIER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RISK AVERSION AND TECHNOLOGY MIX IN AN ELECTRICITY MARKET Guy MEUNIER Cahier n° 2013-23 ECOLE:chantal.poujouly@polytechnique.edu hal-00906944,version1-20Nov2013 #12;Risk aversion and technology mix in an electricity market Guy-aversion on the long-term equilibrium technology mix in an electricity market. It develops a model where firms can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

The muon charge ratio in cosmic ray air showers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The muon charge ratio of the lateral muon density distributions in single EAS is studied by simulations, in context of recent proposals to measure this observable in coincidence with EAS observations. While effects of the hadronic interaction do not lead to significant differences of the total muon plus and muon minus content, the differences of the azimuthal variation of the muon densities of opposite charges and the azimuthal variation of the muon charge ratio appear to be very much pronounced, dependent on the direction of EAS incidence. This is due to the influence of the geomagnetic field which induces related effects in radio emission from extended air showers.

H. Rebel; O. Sima; A. Haungs; C. Manailescu; B. Mitrica; C. Morariu

2008-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

Design and optimisation of a multi-powder feed system for the HVOF deposition process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently no specific method exists for the deposition of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray functionally graded coatings. This paper investigates the design and optimisation of a multi-powder HVOF thermal spray device in order to deposit aluminium/tool-steel functionally graded coatings. A multi-powder feed device concept was developed. The concept was based on a stand alone two powder chamber device which integrates with common hopper systems to allow the mixing of two powders during thermal spray deposition. This concept was verified by simulation the design of this device for multi-powder flow using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to arrive at the optimum dual feed design. The FEA model predicted the mixing and flow of two powders of various ratios' of mass flow rate and velocity based on an optimum designed shape and pressure ratios' of nitrogen gas in the chamber to pick-up shaft of 2.25:1. This yielded the best results in terms of carrying the powders from the mixing zone into the nitrogen gas flow path, inside the pick-up shaft and on towards the HVOF gun. Post finite element analysis the device was manufactured for the utilisation within the HVOF process. Optimisation tests of the device included; powder flow bench tests and HVOF thermal spraying of graded deposits. The results revealed a calibration graph for the two powders in question and the compositional variation across the deposit during functionally graded deposition. The composition of the graded deposits were close to that anticipated hence this showed the suitability of the newly designed multi-powder deposition system in mixing two powders for the purpose of producing HVOF graded coatings.

M. Hasan; J. Stokes; L. Looney; M.S.J. Hashmi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

434

Resonant multiwave-mixing spectra of gas-phase sodium: Nonperturbative calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We perform nonperturbative calculations of resonant multiwave mixing of two high-intensity laser beams of different frequencies both for a general three-level system and for the 3 2S1/2–3 2P1/2 electronic resonance of the sodium atom. Our calculations proceed by direct numerical integration of the density-matrix equations and subsequent Fourier analysis of the calculated time-dependent density-matrix elements. We examine the case where two nearly degenerate input beams are each detuned many collisional linewidths from electronic resonance, and the frequency difference between the input beams is tuned through a ground-state resonance. Unlike previous high-intensity analyses, each input beam can be resonant with numerous transitions simultaneously; for a three-level system, we refer to this as an ‘‘M-type’’ system, in analogy with ?- and V-type systems. Calculated four-, six-, and eight-wave-mixing spectra exhibit subharmonic resonances of the type observed experimentally by Trebino and Rahn [Opt. Lett. 12, 912 (1987)]. The three-level system is studied to gain insight into the physics of these subharmonic resonances. For more quantitative comparison with experiment, we use a model that includes the 16 Zeeman and hyperfine states in the 3 2S1/2 and the 3 2P1/2 levels, and accounts for arbitrary linear polarization of the input laser radiation. The relative intensities of the resonance features in the calculated multiwave-mixing spectra show good agreement with experiment. These resonance features broaden and shift as laser intensity increases, as predicted for four-wave-mixing processes in previous, less general high-intensity analyses. Both theory and experiment also show additional resonant features in the eight-wave-mixing spectra that appear at very high intensity.

Robert P. Lucht; Rick Trebino; Larry A. Rahn

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Decision support system to select cover systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this technology is to provide risk managers with a defensible, objective way to select capping alternatives for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills. The process of selecting containment cover technologies for mixed waste landfills requires consideration of many complex and interrelated technical, regulatory, and economic issues. A Decision Support System (DSS) is needed to integrate the knowledge of experts from scientific, engineering, and management disciplines to help in selecting the best capping practice for the site.

Bostick, K.V.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning coolant mixing for wrapped and bare rod bundle geometry; bare rod subchannel geometry; LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing; and theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles.

Todreas, N.E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

CP violation through particle mixing and the H-A lineshape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of looking for CP-mixing effects in two-Higgs doublet models (and particularly in the MSSM) by studying the lineshape of the CP-even (H) and CP-odd (A) neutral scalars. In most cases H and A come quite degenerate in mass, and their s-channel production would lead to nearly overlapping resonances. CP-violating effects may connect these two Higgs bosons, giving origin to one-loop particle mixing, which, due to their mass proximity, can be resonantly enhanced. The corresponding transition amplitude contains then CP-even and CP-odd components; besides the signal of intereference between both amplitudes, leading to a CP-odd asymmetry, we propose to look for the mixing probability itself, a quantity which, although CP-even, can originate only from a CP-odd amplitude. We show that, in general, the effect of such a mixing probability cannot be mimicked by (or be re-absorbed into) a simple redefinition of the H and A masses in the context of a CP-conserving model. Specifically, the effects of the CP-mixing are such that, either the mass-splitting of the H and A bosons cannot be accounted for in the absence of CP-mixing, and/or the detailed energy dependence of the produced lineshape is clearly different from the one obtained by redefining the masses, but not allowing any mixing. This analysis suggests that the detailed study of the lineshape of this Higgs system may provide valuable information on the CP nature of the underlying theory.

J. Bernabeu; D. Binosi; J. Papavassiliou

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

439

Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, December 1, 1981-February 28, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning wrapped and bare rod bundle geometry; bare rod subchannel geometry; and LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing.

Todreas, N.A.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Evaluating The Effect Of Climate In A Sierran Mixed Conifer Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulation in the mixed conifer forests of California. Inin Sierran mixed conifer forests, and may not be appropriatein a Sierran Mixed Conifer forest Aimee Sprague Honor;

Sprague, Aimee

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixing ratio system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report and revised FY95 plan, May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the project summary, as well as the financial summary for the Mixed Waste Management Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Detailed accomplishments and milestone status are reported in the Task Summaries. The major accomplishments during this reporting period are included the following areas: preliminary design; systems integration; briefings for the Environmental Programs Scientific Advisory Committee; integrated cost/scheduling estimating system; feed preparation; mediated electrochemical oxidation; and molten salt oxidation.

Streit, R.D.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Transesterification of soybean oil catalyzed by Sr–Ti mixed oxides nanocomposite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sr–Ti mixed oxides as nanocomposite was prepared by sol–gel method and used as a basic heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel). The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) and CO2-TPD techniques. It was found that reaction of methanol and soybean oil with the molar ratio of 15 in the presence of 1% Sr–Ti (based on the soybean oil weight) with the molar ratio of 0.8 and calcined at 965 °C as catalyst affords biodiesel in excess of 98% at 60 °C within 15 min. Effect of catalyst calcination temperature, Sr to Ti molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time along with the key role of Sr2TiO4 phase in nanocomposite as an important factor on transesterification efficiency will be discussed in this presentation.

Elnaz Rashtizadeh; Faezeh Farzaneh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Tackling the Improved Control of Mixed-Mode Buildings: A Research Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tackling the Improved Control of Mixed-Mode Buildings: A Research Update Tackling the Improved Control of Mixed-Mode Buildings: A Research Update Speaker(s): Peter May-Ostendorp Date: March 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Fisk (This presentation by Peter May-Ostendorp will begin with an introduction to building energy research at UC Boulder, by Prof. Gregor Henze.) Mixed-mode (MM) cooling is a promising building design strategy for low-energy cooling that incorporates natural ventilation alongside other forms of space conditioning. A properly designed system will intelligently switch between modes of cooling to maximize energy savings, while preserving occupant comfort. The near-optimal operation of MM buildings is explored through a model-predictive control (MPC) study using a purpose-built optimization environment coupled to EnergyPlus. Preliminary

444

Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for low-level mixed waste stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of mixed waste streams which are amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes due to presence of volatiles such as heavy metal chloride and fluorides and/or pyrophorics in the wastes. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na and Zr are being developed as candidate matrix materials. In this paper, we present the fabrication procedures of phosphate waste forms using surrogates compositions of three typical mixed wastes streams -- ash, cement sludges, and salts. The performance of the final waste forms such as compression strength, leachability of the contaminants, durability in aqueous environment were conducted. In addition, parameteric studies have been conducted to establish the optimal waste loading in a particular binder system. Based on the results, we present potential applications in the treatment of various mixed waste streams.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mayberry, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

Mixed mode (I + II) fracture toughness of polymer nanoclay nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work the mixed mode fracture behaviour (I + II) of an epoxy/nanoclay nanocomposite system is analysed, discussing the results from Single Edge Notch Bending tests. It is found that nanomodification significantly enhances the fracture toughness of the epoxy resin on the entire range of mixed mode loadings (from pure mode I to pure mode II), improvements depend however on the mode mixity. Experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions based on different criteria for mixed mode fracture in brittle homogeneous materials. As expected, it is found that, while the data from pure epoxy are satisfactorily predicted almost independently of the adopted approach, the agreement is much worse in the case of nanomodified materials. Explanations of this behaviour can be found in the emergence of additional microscale and nanoscale toughening mechanisms due to nanomodification not properly described by conventional models.

Michele Zappalorto; Marco Salviato; Marino Quaresimin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite imag...

Prants, S V; Ponomarev, V I; Uleysky, M Yu; 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.008

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Simultaneous control of two four-wave-mixing fields via atomic spin coherence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental observation of simultaneous control of two four-wave-mixing fields via an induced atomic spin coherence formed by a Raman process with one coupling field and one probe field in a triple-{Lambda}-type {sup 85}Rb atomic system. It is shown that by changing the atomic density, intensity, or detuning of the coupling field, the relative intensities of the two four-wave-mixing fields can be manipulated. This behavior can be explained as the change in the spin coherence for varying the coupling field intensity and the large difference in the attenuation coefficients of the two produced four-wave-mixing fields for varying the atomic density. This controlling process may find applications in coherent control of nonlinear optical processes and quantum information processing.

Yang Xihua [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Sheng Jiteng; Khadka, Utsab; Xiao Min [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Limits on the Boron Isotopic Ratio in HD 76932  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data in the 2090 A B region of HD 76932 have been obtained at high S/N using the HST GHRS echelle at a resolution of 90,000. This wavelength region has been previously identified as a likely candidate for observing the B11/B10 isotopic splitting. The observations do not match a calculated line profile extremely well at any abundance for any isotopic ratio. If the B abundance previously determined from observations at 2500 A is assumed, the calculated line profile is too weak, indicating a possible blending line. Assuming that the absorption at 2090 A is entirely due to boron, the best-fit total B abundance is higher than but consistent with that obtained at 2500 A, and the best-fit isotopic ratio (B11/B10) is in the range ~10:1 to ~4:1. If the absorption is not entirely due to B and there is an unknown blend, the best-fit isotopic ratio may be closer to 1:1. Future observations of a similar metal-poor star known to have unusually low B should allow us to distinguish between these two possibilities. The constraints that can be placed on the isotopic ratio based on comparisons with similar observations of HD 102870 and HD 61421 (Procyon) are also discussed.

L. M. Rebull; D. K. Duncan; S. Johansson; J. Thorburn; B. Fields

1998-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

449

Branching ratios for the beta decay of Na-21  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the beta-decay branching ratio for the transition from Na-21 to the first excited state of Ne-21. A recently published test of the standard model, which was based on a measurement of the beta-nu correlation in the decay of Na-21...

Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, John C.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhai, Y.; Towner, I. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of ATP:ADP ratio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of ATP:ADP ratio Jim Berg1,2, Yin Pun Hung1 & Gary's affinity for Mg-ATP was o100 nM, as seen for other members of the bacterial PII regulator family, a surprisingly high affinity given that normal intracellular ATP concentration is in the millimolar range. ADP

Yellen, Gary

451

Application of Resource-Ratio Theory to Hydrocarbon Biodegradation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Resource-Ratio Theory to Hydrocarbon Biodegradation ... We suggest that the procedures outlined here can be used to help guide practical decisions about the nutrients that are most likely to be growth-limiting and help define the subsequent nutrient application rates. ...

Val H. Smith; David W. Graham; Dale D. Cleland

1998-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

452

Magnesium Isotope Ratios in omega Centauri Red Giants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used high resolution observations obtained at the AAT with UHRF (R ~ 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R ~ 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven omega Centauri red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = --1.78 to --0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The omega Centauri stars sample both the "primordial" (i.e., O-rich, Na and Al-poor) and the "extreme" (O-depleted, Na and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both omega Centauri and M4 show (25Mg, 26Mg)/24 Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the omega Centauri extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the 26Mg/24Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < --1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values....

Da Costa, G S; Yong, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Design studies of low aspect ratio quasi-omnigenous stellarators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optimization principles for the design of a more attractive reactor. These are 3 and 4 field period low aspect ratio quasi-omnigenous stellarators based on an optimization method that aims at improved confinement stability boundaries. 1. Configuration optimization The development of increasingly sophisticated

Martín-Solís, José Ramón

454

Holographic study of conventional and negative Poisson's ratio metallic foams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Inhomogeneous, non-affine deformation was observed holographically in both foam materials. Introduction in this series were determined from displacement measurements of high magnification video tapes of the tensile a very useful and reliable tool to determine the Poisson's ratio of orthotropic FRP (Fiber Reinforced

Lakes, Roderic

455

Measurement of Branching Ratio for K+?e+?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using a 2?-sr magnetic spectrometer, the branching ratio for K+?e+? relative to that for K+??+? has been measured to be (2.42 ± 0.42) × 10-5, in good agreement with the predictions of the V-A theory.

A. R. Clark, Bruce Cork, T. Elioff, L. T. Kerth, J. F. McReynolds, David Newton, and W. A. Wenzel

1972-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Lagrangian study of transport and mixing in a mesoscale eddy street  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use dynamical systems approach and Lagrangian tools to study surface transport and mixing of water masses in a selected coastal region of the Japan Sea with moving mesoscale eddies associated with the Primorskoye Current. Lagrangian trajectories are computed for a large number of particles in an interpolated velocity field generated by a numerical regional multi-layer eddy-resolving circulation model. We compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents for a comparatively long period of time by the method developed and plot the Lyapunov synoptic map quantifying surface transport and mixing in that region. This map uncovers the striking flow structures along the coast with a mesoscale eddy street and repelling material lines. We propose new Lagrangian diagnostic tools --- the time of exit of particles off a selected box, the number of changes of the sign of zonal and meridional velocities --- to study transport and mixing by a pair of strongly interacting eddies often visible at sea-surface temperature satellite images in that region. We develop a technique to track evolution of clusters of particles, streaklines and material lines. The Lagrangian tools used allow us to reveal mesoscale eddies and their structure, to track different phases of the coastal flow, to find inhomogeneous character of transport and mixing on mesoscales and submesoscales and to quantify mixing by the values of exit times and the number of times particles wind around the eddy's center.

S. V. Prants; M. V. Budyansky; V. I. Ponomarev; M. Yu. Uleysky

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

457

Retrieval process development and enhancements pulsed-air mixing DOE site assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the potential application of pulsed-air mixers to the slurry-mixing needs of the US Department of Energy`s waste retrieval programs. Pulsed-air mixers offer considerable cost and operational advantages compared to the baseline slurry mixing approach. Pulsed-air mixers should be deployed wherever it can be shown that their mixing performance will be adequate. This work was funded through the EM-50 Tanks Focus Area as part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The mission of RPD&E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing processes, gather performance data on those processes, and relate the data to specific tank problems to provide end users with the requisite technical bases to make retrieval and closure decisions. Pulsed-air mixing is a commercially available technology (from Pulsair Systems, Inc.) and is used extensively in the lube oil mixing industry, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other applications.

Powell, M.R.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Sum rules of four-neutrino mixing in matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming the existence of one light sterile neutrino, we investigate the neutrino flavor mixing matrix in matter. Sum rules between the mixing parameters in vacuum and their counterparts in matter are derived. By using these new sum rules, we obtain the simple but exact expressions of the effective flavor mixing matrix in matter in terms of neutrino masses and the mixing parameters in vacuum. The rephasing invariants, sides of unitarity quadrangles and oscillation probabilities in matter are also achieved. Our model-independent results will be very helpful for analyzing flavor mixing and CP violation in the future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

He Zhang

2006-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

A sustainable renewable energy mix option for the secluded society  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In developing countries though electrical energy has been recognized as a noteworthy input for their economic growth and societal development nearly 2 × 109 people lack access to electrical energy use. Many national policies were designed to provide electric service to an entire population; nevertheless all have encountered with significant barriers. Securing a passable electric service for isolated societies with small population and large distance from the main electricity grid has been proved to be a hard-hitting challenge to the energy policy strategists. To overcome the energy barriers and the energy scarcity of the secluded society this paper proposes a sustainable economic and environmental friendly energy mix option with fossil-fuelled wind and solar energy systems as a curative solution.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project principally undertook the investigation of the thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions were emphasized. Continuing efforts are underway at MIT to complete the investigation of the mixed convection regime initiated here. A number of investigations on outlet plenum behavior were also made. The reports of these investigations are identified.

Todreas, N.E.; Cheng, S.K.; Basehore, K.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Performance results from the operation of an MgO-base FGD system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An MgO-base wet FGD system was constructed and demonstrated with localized technology. The total capital cost is 40% lower than overseas price. This FGD system was developed for a 130 tons per hour steam, coal-fired cogeneration plant and has reached more than 95% of desulfurization without using any additive in the slurry absorbent. In order to meet the current SO{sub 2} emission control and the stringent regulation in, the future, a duct bypassing the FGD system was directly connected to stack to regulate the emission of mixed flue gas with and without desulfurization. The plume opacity is also improved. The nickel-base alloy sheet, INCO alloy C-276, was utilized in part as lining material at the intersections of mixing of cold and hot flows to enhance the local corrosion resistance. A process for preparing magnesium hydroxide slurry from magnesium oxide powder is also demonstrated. Performance results were obtained including SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, bypass flue gas mixing, liquid-to-gas ratio effect, scrubber pressure drop, and slurry pH effect.

Wu, S.R.; Hsu, H.W.; Uen, T.W. [Energy and Resources Labs., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

DUST-TO-GAS RATIO IN THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY I Zw 18  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal-poor systems known in the local universe (12+log(O/H) = 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from Spitzer, Herschel Space Telescope, and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both the far-infrared and the CO J = 1 {yields} 0 transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M{sub dust} {<=} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} (3{sigma} limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 {mu}m, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending on the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M{sub Dust}/M{sub gas} {<=} 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measured as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. We also show that the infrared spectral energy distribution is similar to that of starbursting systems.

Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuehl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donaldson, Jessica; Melendez, Marcio [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

Astro & cosmo-chemical consequences of accretion bursts I: the D/H ratio of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The D/H ratio of water in protostellar systems is a result of both inheritance from the parent molecular cloud and isotopic exchange in the disc. A possibly widespread feature of disc evolution, ignored in previous studies, is accretion bursts (or FU Orionis outbursts), which may thermally process a large fraction of the water. One proposed underlying mechanism for FU Orionis outbursts relies on the presence of a magnetically dead zone. Here we examine the evolution of (D/H)$_{\\rm water}$ in 1D simulations of a disc's evolution that include dead zones and infall from an envelope with given D/H ratio in the infalling water ($\\sim 10^{-3}$), and compare the results with similar calculations without dead zones. We find that the accretion bursts result in a significantly lower (D/H)$_{\\rm water}$ ratio and a more extended region (radius up to $\\sim 1-3$ AU) where water is equilibrated with hydrogen gas (D/H=$2\\times 10^{-5}$), when compared to burst-free models. Solar system constraints suggest that our solar neb...

Owen, James E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Permanence and periodicity of a delayed ratio-dependent predator-prey model with Holling type functional response and stage structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A periodic and delayed ratio-dependent predator-prey system with Holling type III functional response and stage structure for both prey and predator is investigated. It is assumed that immature predator and mature individuals of each species are divided ... Keywords: Periodic solution, Permanence, Ratio-dependence, Stage structure, Time delay

Zuxiong Li; Lansun Chen; Jianmin Huang

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Galaxy Merger Statistics and Inferred Bulge-to-Disk Ratios in Cosmological SPH Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct merger trees for galaxies identified in a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation and use them to characterize predicted merger rates as a function of redshift, galaxy mass, and merger mass ratio. At z=0.3, we find a mean rate of 0.054 mergers per galaxy per Gyr above a 1:2 mass ratio threshold for massive galaxies (baryonic mass above 6.4E10 \\Msun), but only 0.018 / Gyr for lower mass galaxies. The mass ratio distribution is proportional to R_merg^-1.2 for the massive galaxy sample, so high mass mergers dominate the total merger growth rate. The predicted rates increase rapidly with increasing redshift, and they agree reasonably well with observational estimates. A substantial fraction of galaxies do not experience any resolved mergers during the course of the simulation, and even for the high mass sample only 50% of galaxies experience a greater than 1:4 merger since z=1. Typical galaxies thus have fairly quiescent merger histories. We assign bulge-to-disk ratios to simulated galaxies by assuming that mergers above a mass ratio threshold R_major convert stellar disks into spheroids. With R_major of 1:4, we obtain a fairly good match to the observed dependence of early-type fraction on galaxy mass. However, the predicted fraction of truly bulge-dominated systems (f_bulge} > 0.8) is small, and producing a substantial population of bulge-dominated galaxies may require a mechanism that shuts off gas accretion at late times and/or additional processes (besides major mergers) for producing bulges.

Ariyeh Maller; Neal Katz; Dusan Keres; Romeel Dave; David H. Weinberg

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

HOLDEN, N.E.

2005-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Proton Form Factor Ratio Measurements at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ratio of the proton form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, has been measured from Q{sup 2} of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} to 8.5 GeV{sup 2}, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The discovery that the proton form factor ratio measured in these experiments decreases approximately linearly with four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, for values above #25;~1 GeV{sup 2}, is one of the most significant results to come out of JLab. These results have had a large impact on progress in hadronic physics; and have required a significant rethinking of nucleon structure. The increasingly common use of the double-polarization technique to measure the nucleon form factors, in the last 15 years, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the quality of all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}, G{sub Mp}, G{sub En} and G{sub Mn}. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(V), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV{sup 2}. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

Punjabi, Vina A. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Perdrisat, Charles F. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project Achieves Impressive Safety and Production Marks June 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Only the 620 employees at EM’s Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project earned the right to this vanity plate after working more than 14 million hours without a lost-time injury and safely and compliantly shipping more than 50,000 cubic meters of transuranic and mixed low-level radioactive waste for disposal. Only the 620 employees at EM's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project earned the right to this vanity plate after working more than 14 million hours without a lost-time injury and safely and compliantly shipping more than 50,000 cubic meters of transuranic and mixed low-level radioactive

469

Effect of mixing on polymerization of styrene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model R404 Differential Refractometer (DRI) was used to continuously monitor the reactor effluent. A portion of the liquid medium from the feed tank was used as a static reference in the DRI. To introduce a change in the refractive index of the fluid... the mixing pattern was made by desolving iodine crystals in the styrene used for pulse generation. A strobotact was used to monitor the rpm of the impeller shaft. To reduce the amount of degassing occurring in the reactor during the runs, the liquid...

Treybig, Michael Norris

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

470

Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

Farrington, R.B.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

471

CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

Baich, M.A.

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

472

Mixed analog and digital ASIC design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Design Issues 2 2 5 5 6 7 7 8 12 14 15 19 20 21 22 24 27 27 29 IV DESIGN METHODOLOGY A. Design Methodology 1. Transmission Gate Intensive Logic B. Standard Cell Design 1. I/O Pad Circuit 2. Full Adder 3. A/D Converter 4. Basic... Stack Cell 5. Logic Gates . 32 34 36 36 36 38 38 38 CHAPTER Page 6. Serial Communication Port 7. Interrupt C~enerator 8. 4 to 1 Multiplexer C. Layout Rules 1. Analog and Digital Interconnection . 2. Mixed Analog Digital Placement D...

Keskar, Shrinath A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Neutrino oscillations and mixings with three flavors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Global fits to all data of candidates for neutrino oscillations are presented in the framework of a three-flavor model. The analysis excludes mass regions where the MSW effect is important for the solar neutrino problem. The best fit gives ?1?28.9°, ?2?4.2°, ?3?45.0°, m22-m12?2.87×10-4 eV2, and m32-m22?1.11 eV2 indicating essentially maximal mixing between the two lightest neutrino mass eigenstates.

Tommy Ohlsson and Håkan Snellman

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

474

Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in entrance region of rectangular ducts rotating about a parallel axis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present work is to investigate the laminar mixed convection flow and heat transfer in the entrance region of heated rectangular ducts rotating about a parallel axis. Heating conditions of isothermal and iso-flux are both considered. Boussinesq approximation is invoked to take into account buoyancy effect induced by centrifugal force. Navier-Stokes/Boussinesq system can be cast into a dimensionless form, in which five governing parameters, the Prandtl number Pr, rotational Reynolds number J, rotational Grashof number Gr{sub {Omega}}, aspect ratio {gamma} and the eccentricity E, are involved. Mechanisms of secondary vortex development in the ducts are explored by a theoretical analysis on vorticity transport equation. The values of Pr and E are fixed as 0.7 and 10, respectively. For various combinations of the other thee parameters, a vorticity-velocity method implemented with a marching technique is employed to solve the resultant three-dimensional system for simultaneously developing flow and temperature fields. The emphasis is placed on the rotational effects, including both coriolis force and centrifugal buoyancy; on the non-isothermal flow and the related heat transfer. The results reveal that the friction factors and heat transfer rates can be enhanced by Coriolis and rotation-induced buoyancy effects; and the variations of the local values are closely related to the evolution of the secondary vortices in ducts. The differences in flow behaviors and thermal characteristics for UWT and UHF are also investigated by the present theoretical analysis on secondary flow mechanism as well as the computational results.

Soong, C.Y. [Chung Cheng Inst. of Tech., Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering; Yan, W.M. [Hua Fan Coll. of Humanities and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Iron-Phosphate Ceramics for Solidification of Mixed Low-Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of immobilizing mixed low-level waste is provided which uses low cost materials and has a relatively long hardening period. The method includes: forming a mixture of iron oxide powders having ratios, in mass %, of FeO: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} equal to 25-40: 40-10: 35-50, or weighing a definite amount of magnitite powder. Metallurgical cinder can also be used as the source of iron oxides. A solution of the orthophosphoric acid, or a solution of the orthophosphoric acid and ferric oxide, is formed and a powder phase of low-level waste and the mixture of iron oxide powders or cinder (or magnetite powder) is also formed. The acid solution is mixed with the powder phase to form a slurry with the ratio of components (mass %) of waste: iron oxide powders or magnitite: acid solution = 30-60: 15-10: 55-30. The slurry is blended to form a homogeneous mixture which is cured at room temperature to form the final product.

Aloy, Albert S.; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Koltsova, Tatiana I.; Macheret, Yevgeny; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Todd, Terry

1998-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

476

Iron-phosphate ceramics for solidification of mixed low-level waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of immobilizing mixed low-level waste is provided which uses low cost materials and has a relatively long hardening period. The method includes: forming a mixture of iron oxide powders having ratios, in mass %, of FeO:Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 equal to 25-40:40-10:35-50, or weighing a definite amount of magnetite powder. Metallurgical cinder can also be used as the source of iron oxides. A solution of the orthophosphoric acid, or a solution of the orthophosphoric acid and ferric oxide, is formed and a powder phase of low-level waste and the mixture of iron oxide powders or cinder (or magnetite powder) is also formed. The acid solution is mixed with the powder phase to form a slurry with the ratio of components (mass %) of waste:iron oxide powders or magnetite:acid solution=30-60:15-10:55-30. The slurry is blended to form a homogeneous mixture which is cured at room temperature to form the final product.

Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Kovarskaya, Elena N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Koltsova, Tatiana I. (St. Petersburg, RU); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID); Medvedev, Pavel G. (Ozersk, RU); Todd, Terry (Aberdeen, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Control of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure argon plasma characteristics by helium gas mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of plasma characteristics is one of the important issues in many atmospheric pressure plasma applications. In order to accomplish this control, a feasibility study was performed by investigating the role of helium gas in an argon glow plasma that were produced in ambient air by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to measure rotational temperature and emission spectra acquired between 300 and 840 nm. Based on electrical and optical measurements, parameters such as gas temperature, breakdown voltage, power coupling efficiency, spatial uniformity of rotational temperature, and the sum of the emission intensity were controlled by varying the argon and helium gas mixing ratio. The addition of