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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Surface mining: soil, coal, and society  

SciTech Connect

The book concentrates on the effects of surface mining of coal upon the utilization of another resource, soil. Possible planning and management strategies for land reclamation are studied and the problem of choosing the correct solution for a particular situation is considered taking the many factors into account. The goal of reconstructing soil after mining is to equal or exceed the productivity of pre-mine soils, with a change in landscape if necessary, with minimum disturbance to the local community. (252 refs.)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Apparatus for mixing char-ash into coal stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for obtaining complete mixing of char with coal prior to the introduction of the mixture into the combustor (30) of a coal gasifier (10). The coal is carried in one air stream (22), and the char in another air stream (54), to a riffle plate arrangement (26), where the streams of solid are intimately mixed or blended.

Blaskowski, Henry J. (Avon, CT)

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

3

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO2 was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO2. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H2O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H2O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times and off-gas compositions

Mitchell, Reginald

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Gerber, M.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Soil Amendments Promote Vegetation Establishment and Control Acidity in Coal Combustion Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of adding various soil amendments and a pyrite oxidation inhibitor to aid in the establishment of vegetation and to reduce acid drainage (AD) from coal fly ash and coal reject (FA + CR*) were assessed...

R. M. Danker; D. C. Adriano; Bon-Jun Koo…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Alcohol flushing for enhanced removal of coal tar from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol flushing for enhancing the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and reducing coal tar concentrations in the aqueous-phase leachate was investigated. Four soil columns were packed with relatively undisturbed coal tar contaminated soils collected from a former coal gasification site. These columns were leached with water and then flushed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solutions. Initially, total coal tar concentrations in water leachate ranged from = 0.1 to 150 mg/L for the four columns. Coal tar concentrations in the column effluent generally increased three to five orders of magnitude during the initial IPA flush. Each column was flushed with 1-3 pore volumes of an IPA solution. Reduction of coal tar concentrations in water leachate, attributed to the alcohol flushing, was noted in three of the four columns. The total coal tar removed from the soil columns during the IPA flushes constituted from 54 to 97% of the total coal tar removed during both water leaching (240-800 pore volumes) and alcohol flushing (1-3 pore volumes). The alcohol flushing removed from 3 to 19 % of the total coal tar in the various soil columns. Results indicated that alcohol flushing can enhance the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and can reduce the aqueous-phase coal tar concentrations in the leachate. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hayden, N.J. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Van der Hoven, E.J. [Living Technologies, Inc., Burlington, VT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

Ha Myung Jeong; Myung Won Seo; Sang Mun Jeong; Byung Ki Na; Sang Jun Yoon; Jae Goo Lee; Woon Jae Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Effect of freeze–thaw cycles on the strength and physical properties of cement-stabilised soil containing recycled bassanite and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Earth materials deteriorate physically under freeze–thaw cycling. It is thus important to determine how freeze–thaw cycling affects their properties of new man-made materials in areas experiencing seasonal frost. The effect of variable freeze–thaw cycling on the durability of cement-stabilised soils containing bassanite and coal ash was quantified to promote the use of bassanite in earthwork project in seasonal frost areas. For this purpose, very soft clay was stabilised with 5% cement content by weight of dry soil, and bassanite and coal ash were mixed with it in differing proportions. These stabilised soil samples were subjected to differing numbers of freeze–thaw cycles (up to five cycles), after curing for 28 days. Unconfined compressive strength and several physical properties were investigated after freeze–thaw cycling. The results show that the addition of both bassanite and coal ash improves the strength and durability of stabilised soils significantly, whereas the addition of coal ash alone has a negative effect on strength improvement. Unconfined compressive strength increases with increased bassanite and coal ash contents. With respect to freezing and thawing durability, the first or second cycles of freeze–thaw action markedly decrease the unconfined compressive strength of both treated and untreated cement-stabilised soils, but further cycles have little additional influence. The use of both additives improves durability, and retains 65–85% strength compared to corresponding non-frozen stabilised soils; if either additive is used, the strength is 55–65%; and if no additives are used, about 50%. The effects of freeze–thaw cycling on water content and dry density are negligible compared to those of additive contents. Volume after freezing increased slightly with increase in the number of freeze–thaw cycles, although volume after thawing fell slightly and reached minimum at the first thawing process.

Toshihide Shibi; Takeshi Kamei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil  

SciTech Connect

The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Mixed integer model for optimizing equipment scheduling and overburden transport in a surface coal mining operation  

SciTech Connect

The lack of available techniques prompted the development of a mixed integer model to optimize the scheduling of equipment and the distribution of overburden in a typical mountaintop removal operation. Using this format, a (0-1) integer model and transportation model were constructed to determine the optimal equipment schedule and optimal overburden distribution, respectively. To solve this mixed integer program, the model was partitioned into its binary and real-valued components. Each problem was successively solved and their values added to form estimates of the value of the mixed integer program. Optimal convergence was indicated when the difference between two successive estimates satisfied some pre-specific accuracy value. The performance of the mixed integer model was tested against actual field data to determine its practical applications. To provide the necessary input information, production data was obtained from a single seam, mountaintop removal operation located in the Appalachian coal field. As a means of analyzing the resultant equipment schedule, the total idle time was calculated for each machine type and each lift location. Also, the final overburden assignments were analyzed by determining the distribution of spoil material for various overburden removal productivities. Subsequent validation of the mixed integer model was conducted in two distinct areas. The first dealt with changes in algorithmic data and their effects on the optimality of the model. The second area concerned variations in problem structure, specifically those dealing with changes in problem size and other user-inputed values such as equipment productivities or required reclamation.

Goodman, G.V.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Workers Will Clean Up Groundwater Contamination Source With Deep Soil Mixing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

PADUCAH, Ky. – Beginning in January 2015, EM and its Paducah site cleanup contractor, LATA Environmental Services of Kentucky, LLC (LATA Kentucky), will treat groundwater contamination with deep soil mixing, which uses an eight-foot-diameter auger to mix the soil to a depth of about 60 feet.

14

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning in mixed-conifer and hardwood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning in mixed-conifer and hardwood forests (SRR) in a mixed-conifer and hardwood forest that had undergone various treatments from June to August 2003. The mixed-conifer forest, located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, had been treated

North, Malcolm

16

Changes in Nitrogen-Fixing and Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in Soil of a Mixed Conifer Forest after Wildfire  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Communities in Soil of a Mixed Conifer Forest after Wildfire Chris M. Yeager...severely burned soils of a mixed conifer forest. PCR results indicated that the...severely burned soils of a mixed conifer forest following the Cerro Grande Fire...

Chris M. Yeager; Diana E. Northup; Christy C. Grow; Susan M. Barns; Cheryl R. Kuske

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references  

SciTech Connect

In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Study on the Respirable Particulate Matter Generated from the Petroleum Coke and Coal Mixed-Fired CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dust generated from the fuel combustion is one of the important sources for air pollution. This paper has made a comprehensive research on the particulate matter generated from the petroleum coke and coal mixed-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) ... Keywords: petroleum coke, respirable particulate matter, air pollution, circulating fluidized bed boiler

Yan Ma; Hao Bai; Lihua Zhao; Yang Ma; Daqiang Cang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effects of trenching on soil processes and properties in a New Mexico mixed-conifer forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trenching was used to reduce root activity in treeless plots in a New Mexico mixed-conifer forest to examine the effects of plant roots...2, respectively, than control soils. Amending incubated trenched and contr...

F. M. Fisher; J. R. Gosz

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Investigation of swirling flow mixing for application in an MHD pulverized coal combustor using isothermal modeling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate combustor reactant mixing with swirling oxidizer flow. The combustor configuration that was considered was designed to simulate a 4 lbm/sec mas flow pulverized coal combustor being tested in The University of Tennessee Space Institute MHD Facility. A one-fourth dimensionally scaled combustor model was developed for isothermal flow testing. A comparison was made of cold flow tests using 3 swirler designs with a base case oxidizer injector design of perforated plated which demonstrated acceptable performance in the 4 lbm/sec MHD combustor. The three swirlers that were evaluated were designed to allow a wide range of swirl intensity to be investigated. The design criterion of the swirler was the swirl number which has been related to swirler geometry. The results of the study showed that the swirlers that were tested fell short of the mixing characteristics displayed with the perforated plate base case oxidizer injector. Test data obtained with the cold flow model established that the actual swirl numbers of two of the swirlers were much lower than the design swirl numbers. Recirculation zones were defined for all configurations that were tested, and a comparison of velocity profiles was made for the configurations.

Power, W. H.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Potassium Fixation and Supply by Soils with Mixed Clay Minerals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplied onl!. Studies were made on three agriculturally important me/me of exchangeable K. The capacity of all a soils of South Texas and Northern Mexico to determine soils to fix K increased with increasing remo\\dl i their potassium (K)-supplying power...- T east and Southeast United States has been investigated. Little work has been done, however, on soils of the Southwest. Soils of the West and Southwest are generally quite high in K, and responses are not usually obtained from the addition of K...

Hipp, Billy W.

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R Management Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland The kinetics of mixed Ni-Al Ni- Al LDH formation. The initial Ni concentration was 3 mM with a solid/solution ratio of 10 g L-1

Sparks, Donald L.

24

Mechanized fuel treatment effects on soil compaction in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer stands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanized fuel treatment effects on soil compaction in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer stands Emily E need to treat forest fuels is often justified as a need to reduce potential fire behavior as well in the United States, and fuel treatments are being prescribed at unprecedented scales. In many cases

Stephens, Scott L.

25

Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals  

SciTech Connect

HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Soil and litter respiration rates in different microhabitats of a mixed oak-conifer forest and their control by edaphic conditions and substrate quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil and litter respiration rates were measured under canopies ofQuercus floribunda, Q. leucotrichophora, Cedrus deodara, Cupressus torulosa and mixed tree species by alkali absorption. The soil and litter sample...

C. K. Tewary; Uma Pandey; J. S. Singh

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Co-gasification of Biomass and Non-biomass Feedstocks: Synergistic and Inhibition Effects of Switchgrass Mixed with Sub-bituminous Coal and Fluid Coke During CO2 Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of biomass, namely, switchgrass, with coal and fluid coke was performed to investigate the availability of the gasification catalysts to the mixed feedstock, especially alkali and alkaline earth elements, naturally present on switchgrass. ...

Rozita Habibi; Jan Kopyscinski; Mohammad S. Masnadi; Jill Lam; John R. Grace; Charles A. Mims; Josephine M. Hill

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fate of Spinosad in Litter and Soils of a Mixed Conifer Stand in the Acadian Forest Region of New Brunswick  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fate of Spinosad in Litter and Soils of a Mixed Conifer Stand in the Acadian Forest Region of New Brunswick ... Previous studies (15?17) demonstrate that only a small portion (typically forests in the Acadian forest region of New Brunswick under conditions of both closed and open canopies and (b) to determine the vertical movement of spinosad (spinosyns A and D) and their primary demethylated metabolites through litter and underlying soils. ...

Dean G. Thompson; Brenda J. Harris; Leonard J. Lanteigne; Teresa M. Buscarini; Derek T. Chartrand

2002-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

30

Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China  

SciTech Connect

Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support.

Dai, L.J.; Wei, H.Y.; Wang, L.Q. [Shaanxi Normal University, Xian (China)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China  

SciTech Connect

Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support.

Dai Lijun [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China); Wei Haiyan [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: yuxidlj@stu.snnu.edu.cn; Wang Lingqing [College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062 (China)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

34

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Fractionation and transport of nutrients among coal ash residues and in soil covered with fly ash-amended organic compost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate different types of ash residues and discharge small particles and vapors to the atmosphere. The ash residues which account for the major part ... the byproducts are collected and ...

M. P. Menon; K. S. Sajwan; G. S. Ghuman; J. James…

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

38

Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

Fox, J.F. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

40

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Impact of postfire logging on soil bacterial and fungal communities and soil biogeochemistry in a mixed-conifer forest in central Oregon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil microbes can indirectly influence soil productivity by enhancing nutrient availability for plant uptake, or reducing plant productivity through competition for nutrients with plant roots by promoting nutr...

Tara N. Jennings; Jane E. Smith; Kermit Cromack Jr.; Elizabeth W. Sulzman…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Community D Mixed/Pine Hardwood D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D Bottomland Hardwood Mixed Swamp Forest Soils 540 Soils Soil Series and Phase DCh .OrC .Sh .Ta o 540 1080 Meters N A sc Figure 7-2. Plant communities and soils associated...

43

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total energy consumption, energy mix and carbon emission;current coal- dominated energy mix. In conjunction with theproduct mix; low production costs; high energy conversion

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Evaluation of vegetative cover on reclaimed land by color infrared videography relative to soil properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Soil Properties. (August 1988) Anne Augusta Pfordresher, B. A. , Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. L. P. Wilding Color infrared video imagery, soil samples and penetration resis- tance measurements... requires reclamation of land disturbed in the mining process. Lignite seams mined in East Texas are overlain by unconsolidated geologic sediments which, after mining, are placed into the pit from which the coal was taken. This "mixed overburden...

Pfordresher, Anne Augusta

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

47

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Linking microbial community composition and soil processes in a California annual grassland and mixed-conifer forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the potential role of microbial community composition in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, we transplanted soil cores between a grassland and a conifer ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada California ...

Teri C. Balser; Mary K. Firestone

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Geotechnical characterization of mixed sandy and silty soils using piezocone tests: Analysis of partial drainage phenomena and rate effects on the experimental soil response.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cone penetration test (CPT), together with its recent variation (CPTU), has become the most widely used in-situ testing technique for soil profiling and geotechnical… (more)

Garcia Martinez, Maria Fernanda and#60;1986and#62

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash is recognized as an alternative fill material to the conventional natural soils near a coal fired thermal power station where its large ... This paper presents experimental investigations on footings on

Ashutosh Trivedi; Vijay Kumar Sud

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

53

Biophysical Controls on Soil Respiration in the Dominant Patch Types of an Old-Growth, Mixed-Conifer Forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Ho¨gberg et al. 2001). These processes are interrelated and affected by multiple biophysical factors). Soil respiration is related to many ecological processes, such as photosyn- thesis, root respiration in an ecosys- tem. Soil respiration is also associated with physical CO2 diffusion processes affected

Chen, Jiquan

54

Process for selective grinding of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effect of Crude Oil and Chemical Additives on Metabolic Activity of Mixed Microbial Populations in Fresh Marsh Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Crude Oil and Chemical Additives on Metabolic Activity of Mixed Microbial Populations remineralization rates. Crude oil, which is known to contain toxins and reduce microbial diversity organic matter (Panicum hemitomon Shult. or Sagittaria lancifolia L. dominated marshes), crude oil

Nyman, John

57

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The determination of the specific heat of a fine-grained soil by a non-mixing method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for detenaining ths specific heat oi' soils. It consisted of an inner oan& a double- walled container which enolosed ths inner can sm the sides and the bottom, end a cover (reference Figure 8, page 6) ~ The inner can was approximately 18e4 centimeters... to the longitudinal axis of the capsule to faoilitate the transi'er of heat from the specimen tc the calorimeter bath. These wires had a longitudinal spacing of one-half' oentimeter and a radial spacing of sixty degrees& in succession. This wixe maze extended about...

Evans, Leighton Allen

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

SciTech Connect

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Multisolvent successive extractive refining of coal  

SciTech Connect

A selected group of commercial solvents, namely, anthracene oil (AO), ethylenediamine (EDA), and liquid paraffin (LP), were used for successive extraction of Assam coal. Hot AO provided a wide range of mixed solvents that dissociate chemically and interact favorably with dissociated and undissociated coal macromolecules (like dissolves like). This resulted in the enhancement of the EDA extractability of the AO-pretreated residual coal. EDA is a good swelling solvent and results in physical dissociation of coal molecules. The residual coal obtained after EDA extraction was subjected to extraction with LP, an H-donor, high-boiling (330--360 C) solvent. LP thermally dissociates coal macromolecules and interacts with the coal at its plastic stage at the free radical pockets. The mechanism and molecular dynamics of the multisolvent successive extraction of Assam coal using AO-EDA-LP solvents are discussed. In early attempts, successive extractions did not modify the extraction yield in the single solvent showing the maximum extraction. However, the AO-EDA-LP extraction resulted in the extraction of 70% coal, more than for any of the individual solvents used. Therefore, AO-EDA-LP extraction of coal affords a process yielding a superclean, high-heating value fuel from coal under milder conditions. Several uses of superclean coal have been recommended. Present studies have revealed a new concept concerning the structure of coal having 30% polyaromatic condensed entangled rings and 70% triaromatic-heterocyclic-naphthenic-aliphatic structure. The insolubility of coal is due to the polyfunctional-heterocyclic-condensed structure having a polyaromatic core with intermacromolecular entanglements.

Sharma, D.K.; Singh, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Study on Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Coal and Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion characteristics of Qilianta-coal and rice straw ... ignition temperature and time decreases after adding the biomass to the coal; When the sample mixed ... the chemical reaction kinetic parameters ...

Hongbo Lu; Chunxia Jia; Lei Zhang; Guiqiu Su

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

66

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)-amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting and ASC application rates were at 25 and 20%, respectively.

Wong, J.W.C.; Selvam, A. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - NETL H2-from-Coal Separations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf and Coal/Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf NETL H2-from-Coal Separations Project Reviews April 29-30, 2008 National Energy Technology Laboratory Morgantown, WV Presentations NETL/ORD In-House Membrane Research Bryan Morreale - National Energy Technology Laboratory Development of Mixed-Conducting Dense Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation [PDF-1.4MB] Hydrogen Production by Water Dissociation Using Ceramic Membranes Balu Balachandran - Argonne National Laboratory High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors [PDF-505KB] Robert Buxbaum - REB Research and Consulting Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes for IGCC and FutureGen Plants Doug Jack - Eltron Research Sulfur and Halide Tolerance Kent Coulter - Southwest Research Institute

73

Emission of inorganic particulate matter during the combustion of biomass, biochar and Collie coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal is an important part of Australia's energy mix and is expected to continue to play an essential role in supplying cheap and secure energy… (more)

Gao, Xiangpeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

80

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Chapter 10 - Coal and Coalbed Gas: Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The future of coal and coalbed gas future is intertwined as source and reservoir rocks. Coal generates coalbed gas during coalification (e.g. thermogenic gas) and methanogenesis (biogenic gas). These gas types occur as singular and mixed accumulations. Accumulation of biogenic coalbed gas has received worldwide research and development interests on sustaining production. The new coal-to-biogenic coalbed gas technology centers on stimulating indigenous microbes in coal and associated groundwater with bioengineered nutrients and amendments to “farm” gas from abandoned wells and non-gas-producing coals. Coal mainly as a basic fuel for electric power generation since the Industrial Revolution continues to be utilized despite environmental concerns. The outlook of coal is dimmed in the United States where natural gas has replaced power generation. However, in Asia and Europe continued economic growth is going to be fueled by coal and coalbed gas as liquefied natural gas will rely on combustion from more efficient, high-temperature power plants in the future.

Romeo M. Flores

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Influence of coal thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 2 – A study of binary coal blends and specific additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of coal blends and pitch/coal blends were evaluated using rheometry, thermogravimetric analysis and microscopy to confirm and further elucidate the coking pressure mechanism previously proposed by Duffy et al. (2007) [1]. We confirm that blending a low rank, high fluidity, low coking pressure coal, with a high rank, low fluidity, high coking pressure coal can significantly reduce the coking pressure associated with the latter. Interestingly, blending does not necessarily result in a fluidity that is midway between that of the two coals; sometimes the fluidity of the blend is less than that of the low fluidity coal, especially when the coals are significantly different in rank. This occurs because the increase in complex viscosity (?*) through resolidification of the low rank, high fluidity coal counteracts the reduction in ?* resulting from softening of the high rank, low fluidity coal. It has also been confirmed that the ?* of the resultant blend can be estimated from the ?* of each component coal using a logarithmic additivity rule commonly employed for polymer blends. Polarised light microscopy has indicated that the degree of mixing between coals of different rank is minimal, with fusion restricted to the particle surface. It is therefore inappropriate to think of such a coal blend in the same way as a single coal, since each component coal behaves relatively independently. This limited fusion is important for understanding the coking pressure mechanism for blends. It is proposed here that the lower rank coal, which softens at lower temperature, is able to expand into the interparticle voids between the high rank coal that is yet to soften, and these voids can create channels for volatiles to traverse. Then, and importantly, when the high rank coal begins to expand, the pore structure developed in the resolidified structures of the low rank coal can facilitate removal of volatiles, while the resolidified material may also act as a suitable sorbent for volatile matter. This is considered to be the primary mechanism by which coal blending is able to alleviate coking pressure, and applies to addition of inert material also. Addition of a coal tar pitch was found to increase fluidity but also to extend the thermoplastic range to lower temperatures. This caused an increase in the swelling range, which was accompanied by a long plateau in ?*, a feature which has previously been observed for certain high fluidity, high pressure coals. Elasticity and ?* at the onset of expansion were also higher for both the pitch impregnated coals and the high pressure blends, which supports previous findings for singly charged high pressure coals, and confirms the potential use of such criteria for identifying potentially dangerous coals/blends.

John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

85

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

86

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

87

California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

89

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

91

Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction of oxy-coal flame stand-off using high-fidelity thermochemical models and the one Abstract An Eulerian one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to simulate oxy-coal combustion temperature and mixing rate on oxy-coal flame is simulated and discussed where flame stand-off is used

92

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Site clean up of coal gasification residues  

SciTech Connect

The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These two coals represent the two main types of non-lignite coals currently used in the U.S.: a medium-sulfur eastern bituminous coal and a low-sulfur western sub-bituminous coal. ... At a commercial scale, this would likely mean that there could be a roughly 3-fold decrease in the size of the gasifier compared to the case of dry mixing coal and the regenerated calcium oxide. ...

Nicholas S. Siefert; Dushyant Shekhawat; Shawn Litster; David A. Berry

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

95

GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require ultimate disposal when it is put to use. Each task three waste was evaluated for utilization potential based on its physical properties, bulk chemical composition, and mineral composition. Only one of the thirteen materials studied might be suitable for use as a pozzolanic concrete additive. However, many wastes appeared to be suitable for other high-volume uses such as blasting grit, fine aggregate for asphalt concrete, road deicer, structural fill material, soil stabilization additives, waste stabilization additives, landfill cover material, and pavement base course construction.

Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

98

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

99

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

100

Water and energy exchange above a mixed European Beech – Norway Spruce forest canopy: a comparison of eddy covariance against soil water depletion measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evapotranspiration of a mixed European beech – Norway spruce forest was measured by means of ... the results by (1) the degree of energy balance closure (EBC), (2) footprint...

H. Schume; H. Hager; G. Jost

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil  

SciTech Connect

Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

105

Markets for coal and coal technologies in Asian and Pacific Basin countries  

SciTech Connect

In a new market analysis available from the Utility Data Institute (UDI), Viking Systems International (VSI) of Pittsburgh, PA, argues that the nations in the Pacific Basin and South Asia provide an exciting market opportunity for vendors and suppliers of coal power technology, services, and fuel. Critical market factors for increased coal use include: (1) availability of domestic coal resources; (2) price of competing fuels; (3) infrastructure for mining and transportation; (4) environmental regulations concerning coal use; and (5) the development and application of new coal technologies. An overview is presented of the current energy situation and future development options in thirteen different countries: Afghanistan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, People's Republic of China, Philippines, Republic of China (Taiwan), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Thailand. More than 150 detailed tables, charts, and maps present analyses of existing coal reserves, coal characteristics, domestic energy production by fuel mix, energy consumption, electric power generation, and regulatory practices in each country. The report was developed by VSI from two computerized data bases---one on coal characteristics and reserves, the other on electric utilities and power plants in Asian countries. A chapter in the report describes the data bases in more detail.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Short-Term Effects of Experimental Burning and Thinning on Soil Respiration in an Old-Growth, Mixed-Conifer Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To understand the roles of forest management practices in meeting the goals of forest sustainability and CO2...sequestration, we evaluated the effects of burning and thinning treatments on soil respiration and so...

Siyan Ma; Jiquan Chen; Malcolm North; Heather E. Erickson…

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

111

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

112

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

113

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

114

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

117

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

118

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

120

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

123

Indonesian coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

NETL: Coal Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification Systems News Gasifipedia Gasifier Optimization Feed Systems Syngas Processing Systems Analyses Gasification Plant Databases International Activity Program Plan...

126

Coal gasification development intensifies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification development intensifies ... Three almost simultaneous developments in coal gasification, although widely divergent in purpose and geography, rapidly are accelerating the technology's movement into an era of commercial exploitation. ... A plant to be built in the California desert will be the first commercialsize coal gasification power plant in the U.S. In West Germany, synthesis gas from a coal gasification demonstration plant is now being used as a chemical feedstock, preliminary to scaleup of the process to commercial size. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ore components in coal  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Coal Study Guide for Elementary School  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

129

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Prices..AEO 2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmissionregimes. Sensitivity to Coal Prices Figure 9 is similar to

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effect of Mineral and Organic Soil Constituents on Microbial Mineralization of Organic Compounds in a Natural Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...remediation technology of in situ soil washing (10, 28). Most modern surfactants...Knaebel and Vestal (20). The surfactant-soil constituent complexes were added...small amount (100 mg) of the surfactant-soil constituent complex was mixed...

David B. Knaebel; Thomas W. Federle; Drew C. McAvoy; J. Robie Vestal

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

134

Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

135

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Coal dust explosibility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports US Bureau of Mines (USBM) research on the explosibility of coal dusts. The purpose of this work is to improve safety in mining and other industries that process or use coal. Most of the tests were conducted in the USBM 20 litre laboratory explosibility chamber. The laboratory data show relatively good agreement with those from full-scale experimental mine tests. The parameters measured included minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, maximum rates of pressure rise, minimum oxygen concentrations, and amounts of limestone rock dust required to inert the coals. The effects of coal volatility and particle size were evaluated, and particle size was determined to be at least as important as volatility in determining the explosion hazard. For all coals tested, the finest sizes were the most hazardous. The coal dust explosibility data are compared to those of other hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene dust and methane gas, in an attempt to understand better the basics of coal combustion.

Kenneth L. Cashdollar

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue acquisition of data pertinent to coal characterization that would help in determining the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration. Structural analysis and detailed correlation of coal zones are important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Evaluation of existing well logs indicates local structural complexity that complicates interpretations of continuity of the Wilcox Group coal zones. Therefore, we have begun searching for published structural maps for the areas of potential injection CO{sub 2}, near the coal-fired power plants. Preliminary evaluations of data received from Anadarko Petroleum Corporation suggest that coal properties and gas content and chemical composition vary greatly among coal seams. We are assessing the stratigraphic and geographic distributions and the weight of coal samples that Anadarko has provided to select samples for further laboratory analysis. Our goal is to perform additional isotherm analyses with various pure and/or mixed gases to enhance our characterization model. Additionally, we are evaluating opportunities for field determination of permeability with Anadarko, utilizing one of their wells.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Heavy metal pollution in the territory of Chelyabinsk upon coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution of the territory of Chelyabinsk by heavy metals (Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mo, and Hg) upon coal combustion is evaluated. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Hg in the soils of this territory...

R. V. Galiulin; R. A. Galiulina

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Pollution of the territory of Chelyabinsk and the suburbs with arsenic upon coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution of the territory of Chelyabinsk and the suburbs with arsenic upon coal combustion is evaluated. The found concentrations of arsenic as a carcinogenic substance in the soils of this territory are ...

R. V. Galiulin; R. A. Galiulina

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Contamination from a Coal Tar Processing Chemical Industry: Investigations and Remedial Actions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major cases of soil contamination in The Netherlands is presented: the site of a coal tar processing chemical industry and its surroundings. The environmental contamination, with PAH’s in particular, i...

Martien W. F. Yland

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Study on reaction property of China Yangcun coal with heavy oils  

SciTech Connect

The reaction properties in coprocessing of China Yangcun coal with three heavy oils (coal tar, petroleum residua and mixed heavy oil) were investigated at different temperatures and 7.0 MPa cold-initial pressure (H{sub 2}) by using a GJ-02 resonance agitation tube reactor. The analyses of feedstock and reaction residua were conducted with GC-MS and FTIR. Experimental results showed: (1) A quantity of low molecular compounds were dissolved in Yangcun coal and these compounds mostly were preasphaltene. (2) The temperature of the highest conversion of Yangcun coal was 390 C. The highest conversion temperature mainly depended upon the coal property and not upon the categories of heavy oils. (3) Conversion order of coprocessing of Yangcun coal with three heavy oils: coal tar > mixed heavy oils > petroleum residua. Aromatic components in heavy oils were media which produced and transferred active hydrogen during reactions. (4) Ash in the coal had a self-catalytic effect. FeS in the coal was catalyst species during coprocessing of coal with heavy oils. (5) Conversion-time curves of coprocessing of Yangcun coal with petroleum residua at 390 C and 430 C were studied. It was discussed that the coprocessing process could be divided into three stages: beginning high reactivity stage, slower-rate hydrogenation stage and condensation polymerization stage. Reaction rate constant of each stage was also calculated. (6) The reaction mechanism of coprocessing was discussed.

Ling Kaicheng; Shen Jun; Zhou Gangming; Wang Zhizhong [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Industrial coking of coal batch without bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years, Kuznetsk-coal batch has always included bituminous coal. Depending on the content of such coal, the batch may be characterized as lean ... classification was adopted by specialists of the Eastern

P. V. Shtark; Yu. V. Stepanov; N. K. Popova; D. A. Koshkarov…

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

150

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The clinkering properties of rammed coking coal and coal batches are investigated. There is a close relation between the clinkering properties and coke quality.

V. M. Shmal’ko; M. A. Solov’ev

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

156

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

157

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio...

158

Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

159

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Coal extraction process  

SciTech Connect

Sub-divided coal is extracted under non-thermally destructive conditions with a solvent liquid containing a compound having the general formula:

Hammack, R. W.; Sears, J. T.; Stiller, A. H.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

162

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

163

Clean coal technology applications  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Coal is a stratified rock formed of the more or less altered remains of plants (together with associated mineral matter) which flourished in past ages{hor_ellipsis} The problem of the origin and maturing of coal is complicated by the fact that every coal contains, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, variable proportions of nitrogen and sulfur which are combined in unknown ways in the organic molecules...{close_quotes}. The challenge with coal has always been the management of its mineral matter, sulfur and nitrogen contents during use. The carbon content of fuels, including coal, is a more recent concern. With clean coal technologies, there are opportunities for ensuring the sustained use of coal for a very long time. The clean coal technologies of today are already capable of reducing, if not eliminating, harmful emissions. The technologies of the future will allow coal to be burned with greatly reduced emissions, thus eliminating the necessity to treat them after they occur.

Bharucha, N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Spitsbergen Tertiary Coal Fossils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... grains and spores to be observed in coal deposits of Tertiary age in west Spitsbergen (Norsk Polarinstitutt, Med. 79, pp. 1-9; 1954; English summary).

1955-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Coal Gasification Systems Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Coal Conversion to High Hydrogen Syngas; FE0023577 Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation; FE0023497 OTM-Enhanced...

166

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

170

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

173

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

175

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

176

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Coal Gasification in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... P. S. Andrews gave a full account of the Federal project for the pressure gasification of non-coking coals for the combined purpose of town's gas ' and the ... of town's gas ' and the production of synthetic liquid fuel. Work on the gasification of brown coal in. Victoria was commenced in 1931 by the technical staff of ...

1955-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, 1974; J. B. Howard...Petras, in Coal Pro-cessing Technology (American Institute of Chem-ical...with the solidifcation of a fluid bituminous coal as it undergoes...Policy Analyst, Science and Technology Policy Office (Staff to the...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

179

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

180

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

182

Alteration of belowground carbon dynamics by nitrogen addition in southern California mixed conifer forests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture use by mixed conifer forest in a summer- dryand nitrification in a mixed-conifer forest southern Cali-in California mixed conifer forests, Environ. Pollut. , 155,

Nowinski, Nicole S; Trumbore, Susan E; Jimenez, Gloria; Fenn, Mark E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Acidic soil amendment with a magnesium-containing fluidized bed combustion by-product  

SciTech Connect

Removal of SO{sub 2} from the emissions of coal-fired boilers produces by-products that often consist of CaSO{sub 4}, residual alkalinity, and coal ash. These by-products could be beneficial to acidic soils because of their alkalinity and the ability of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center{underscore}dot}2H{sub 2}O) to reduce Al toxicity in acidic subsoils. A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the liming efficacy of a fluidized bed combustion boiler by-product (FBC) that contained 129 g Mg kg{sup {minus}1} as CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgO and its effects on surface and subsurface soil chemistry. The FBC was mixed in the surface 10 cm of two acidic soils (Wooster silt loam, an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf, and Coshocton silt loam, an Aquultic Hapludalf) at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 times each soil's lime requirement (LR). Soils were sampled in 10-cm increments to depths ranging from 20 to 110 cm, and corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown. Application of Mg-FBC increased alfalfa yields in all six site-years, whereas it had no effect on corn grain yield in five site-years and decreased grain yield in one site-year. Plant tissue concentrations of Mg, S, and Mo were increased by Mg-FBC, while most trace elements were either unaffected or decreased. Application of Mg-FBC at one or two times LR increased surface soil pH to near 7 within 1 wk. Although surface soil pH remained near 7 for 2 yr, there was minimal effect on subjacent soil pH. Application of Mg-FBC increased surface soil concentrations of Ca, Mg, and S, which promoted downward movement of Mg and SO{sub 4}. This had different effects on subsoil chemistry in the two soils: in the high-Ca-status Wooster subsoil, exchangeable Ca was decreased and exchangeable Al was increased, whereas in the high-Al-status Coshocton subsoil, exchangeable Al was decreased and exchangeable Mg was increased. The Mg-FBC was an effective liming material and, because of the presence of both Mg and SO{sub 4}, may be more effective than gypsum in ameliorating subsoil Al phytotoxicity.

Stehouwer, R.C.; Dick, W.A.; Sutton, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

185

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report April-June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed to Paulette Young at (202) 426-1150, email

186

By Coal Destination State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Colorado Total 2,113 - - - 2,113 Colorado Railroad 2,113 - - - 2,113 Illinois Total 336 - - - 336 Illinois River 336 - - - 336 Indiana Total 1,076

187

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

188

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

189

Coal in China  

SciTech Connect

The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

By Coal Origin State  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 7,906 821 1,242 - 9,969 Alabama Railroad 3,604 49 285 - 3,938 Alabama River 3,979 - - - 3,979 Alabama Truck 322 773 957 - 2,051 Florida Total - - 15 - 15 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Total 196 - 15 - 211 Georgia Railroad 189 - 1 - 190 Georgia Truck

191

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products - Utilization Projects -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Stabilizing Feedlots Using Coal Ash Environmental Evaluation for Utilization of Ash in Soil Stabilization Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Background CAEEC is a cooperation among industry, government, and the research community to work together to solve CCB- related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable utilization and disposal of CCBs. Objectives To improve the technical and economic aspects of coal combustion by-product (CCB) management. Description CARRC tasks fall into three general categories: Member-prioritized research tasks, Technical and administrative tasks, and Special projects that support CARRC objectives and strengthen and increase the availability of sound technical data for CARRC use.

193

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program December 18, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Uncovering Coal’s Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant

195

Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants  

SciTech Connect

The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

196

Linking heavy metal bioavailability (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in Scots pine needles to soil properties in reclaimed mine areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations in mine soils. An exception was in the case of Cd in soils on sand quarry and hard coal spoil heap. Introduction Post-mining facilities such as open pit quarries, lignite mine spoil heaps, open pit sulphur mine

Battles, John

197

Conditioner for flotation of coal  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering coal is described which comprises the steps of floating coal in an aqueous frothing medium containing an amount of a condensation product of an alkanolamine and naphthenic acid sufficient to increase the recovery of coal as compared to the recovery of coal in an identical process using none of the condensation product.

Nimerick, K.H.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Coal market momentum converts skeptics  

SciTech Connect

Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Structure and thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T. (eds.)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

202

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

203

Soluble arsenic and selenium species in fly ash/organic waste-amended soils using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Mixing coal fly ash with an organic waste increases macronutrient content and may make land application of fly ash a viable disposal alternative. However, trace element chemistry of these mixed waste products warrants investigation. Speciation of As and Se in soil solutions of fly ash-, poultry litter- and sewage sludge-amended soils was determined over a 10-day period by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Detection limits were 0.031, 0.028, 0.051, 0.161, 0.497, and 0.660 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} for dimethylarsinate (DMA), As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI), respectively. Arsenic was highly water-soluble from poultry litter and appeared to be predominantly As(V). Arsenic(V) was the predominant species in soil amended with two fly ashes. Application of fly ash/poultry litter mixtures increased As solubility and led to the prevalence of DMA as the major As species. DMA concentrations of these soil solutions decreased rapidly over the sampling period relative to As(V), suggesting that DMA readily underwent mineralization in the soil solution. Se(VI) was the predominant soluble Se species in all treatments indicating rapid oxidation of Se(IV) initially solubilized from the fly ashes.

Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences] [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Colorado Railroad 575 - - - 575 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 241 - - - 241 Kentucky Railroad 827 - 12 - 839 Kentucky (East) Railroad 76 - - - 76 Kentucky (West) Railroad

205

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Colorado Railroad 514 - - - 514 Illinois River 99 - - - 99 Indiana River 172 - - - 172 Kentucky Railroad 635 - 11 - 647 Kentucky (East) Railroad 45 - - - 45 Kentucky (West)

206

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Colorado Railroad 385 - - - 385 Illinois River 15 - - - 15 Indiana Railroad 1 - - - 1 Indiana River 350 - - - 350 Indiana Total 351 - - - 351 Kentucky Railroad 682 - 2 - 685 Kentucky (East)

207

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) June 2010 DOE/EIA-0121 (2010/01Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2010 June 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/ _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

208

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Colorado Railroad 640 - - - 640 Illinois River 123 - - - 123 Indiana River 312 - - - 312 Kentucky Railroad 622 - 36 - 658 Kentucky (East) Railroad 96 - 36 - 132 Kentucky (West)

209

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Colorado Total 468 - - - 468 Colorado Railroad 468 - - - 468 Illinois Total 90 - 26 - 116 Illinois River 90 - 26 - 116 Indiana Total 181 - - - 181 Indiana River 181 -

210

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2012 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Colorado Total 82 - - - 82 Colorado Railroad 82 - - - 82 Illinois Total 149 - 14 - 163 Illinois Railroad 44 - - - 44 Illinois River 105 - 14 - 119 Indiana Total 99 - - - 99

211

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2008 July 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

212

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2009 September 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

213

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7/01Q) 7/01Q) Quarterly Coal Report January - March 2007 June 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

214

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 914 12 66 - 992 Alabama River 949 - - - 949 Alabama Truck 78 189 237 - 504 Alabama Total 1,941 201 303 - 2,445 Georgia Railroad 23 - - - 23 Georgia Truck s - - - s Georgia Total 23 - - - 23 Indiana Railroad - 115 - - 115 Indiana Truck - 71 - - 71 Indiana Total - 186 - - 186 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Tennessee Truck

215

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3Q) 3Q) Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2008 December 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

216

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2Q) 2Q) Quarterly Coal Report April - June 2008 September 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

217

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8/04Q) 8/04Q) Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2008 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 _____________________________________________________________________________ This report is available on the Web at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/quarterly/qcr.pdf _____________________________________________ This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization.

218

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Colorado Railroad 600 - - - 600 Illinois River 203 - 13 - 217 Indiana River 180 - - - 180 Kentucky Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Kentucky (West) Railroad 465 - 10 - 475 Utah Railroad 18 - - -

219

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

220

Modelling coal gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal gasification processes in a slurry-feed-type entrained-flow gasifier are studied. Novel simulation methods as well as numerical results are presented. We use the vorticity-stream function method to study the characteristics of gas flow and a scalar potential function is introduced to model the mass source terms. The random trajectory model is employed to describe the behaviour of slurry-coal droplets. Very detailed results regarding the impact of the O2/coal ratio on the distribution of velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. Simulation results show that the methods are feasible and can be used to study a two-phase reacting flow efficiently.

Xiang Jun Liu; Wu Rong Zhang; Tae Jun Park

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,486 155 328 - 1,970 Alabama Railroad 1,020 - 75 - 1,095 Alabama River 417 - - - 417 Alabama Truck 49 155 253 - 458 Colorado Total 195 - - - 195 Colorado Railroad 195 - - - 195 Illinois Total 127 - 18 - 145 Illinois Railroad 20 - - - 20 Illinois River 107 - 18 - 125 Indiana Total

224

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,407 184 231 - 1,822 Alabama Railroad 801 9 49 - 859 Alabama River 519 - - - 519 Alabama Truck 87 175 182 - 444 Georgia Total s - s - s Georgia Truck s - s - s Indiana Total - 98 - - 98 Indiana Railroad - 98 - - 98 Kentucky Total - - 12 - 12 Kentucky Truck - - 12 - 12 Ohio Total - 30 - - 30 Ohio

225

By Coal Destination State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Colorado Total 621 2 - - 623 Colorado Railroad 621 2 - - 623 Illinois Total 113 - 11 - 123 Illinois River 113 - 11 - 123 Indiana Total 265 - - - 265 Indiana Railroad

226

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,896 182 327 - 2,405 Alabama Railroad 1,192 2 74 - 1,268 Alabama River 655 - - - 655 Alabama Truck 50 180 253 - 482 Georgia Total s - - - s Georgia Truck s - - - s Indiana Total - 72 - - 72 Indiana Railroad - 72 - - 72 Tennessee Total - - 7 - 7 Tennessee Truck - - 7 - 7 Origin State Total 1,896

227

Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of a Pilot-Scale Transport Coal Gasifier: Evaluation of Reaction Kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was found that appropriate chemical kinetics for gasification reactions are key to the numerical prediction of syngas composition and the kinetics from Niksa Energy Associate’s PC Coal Lab yielded reasonable agreement to the experimental data. ... Air for the primary burner is present below the recycle feed, and additional air is fed into the mixing zone from various locations between coal and recycle inlets; this arrangement evenly distributes heat generated from the partial combustion of the circulating solids. ... Char burning rates become faster with coals of progressively lower rank, although the reactivity is somewhat less sensitive to coal quality at elevated pressure than at atm. pressure. ...

Tingwen Li; Kiran Chaudhari; Dirk VanEssendelft; Richard Turton; Philip Nicoletti; Mehrdad Shahnam; Chris Guenther

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Rashid Khan, M.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

229

Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Dust Explosion Characteristics of Coal Dust in an Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to mix pulverised coal with oxygen at concentrations greater than the currently applied 21% may well provide advantages for burner design in oxy/coal fired systems. However the risk of dust explosions increases significantly with increasing oxygen concentration and temperature. In this study the influence of enriched oxygen concentrations is researched on the dust explosion characteristics of Indonesian (Sebuku) high volatile bituminous coal dust and on Pittsburgh Coal n¡8. Both ignition sensitivity characteristics (minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperatures) and explosion severity characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, Pmax, and maximum rate of pressure rise, Kst) are investigated.

Frederik Norman; Jan Berghmans; Filip Verplaetsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

232

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

delivered costs of coal, by year and primary transport mode Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton) Average Delivered Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)...

233

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Stoichiometric Analysis of Coal Gasification ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ... Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study ...

James Wei

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pore Structure of the Argonne Premium Coals ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

John W. Larsen; Peter Hall; Patrick C. Wernett

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

He Huang; Keyu Wang; David M. Bodily; V. J. Hucka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

237

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 2.6. International coal prices and18 International coal prices and trade In parallel with the2001, domestic Chinese coal prices moved from stable levels

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

Bhat, M.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to have indicated economic coal reserves of at least 15tonnes of indicated economic coal reserves. Map 1: Chinaand economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

244

Coal Utilization Science Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Coal Utilization SCienCe Program Description The Coal Utilization Science (CUS) Program sponsors research and development (R&D) in fundamental science and technology areas that have the potential to result in major improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced power generation systems using coal, the Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The challenge for these systems is to produce power in an efficient and environmentally benign manner while remaining cost effective for power providers as well as consumers. The CUS Program is carried out by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program supports DOE's Strategic Plan to:

245

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology EIA uses the confidential version of the STB Waybill data, which includes actual revenue for shipments that originate and terminate at specific locations. The STB Waybill data are a sample of all rail shipments. EIA's 2011 report describes the sampling procedure. EIA aggregates the confidential STB data to three different levels: national, coal-producing basin to state, and state to state. EIA applies STB withholding rules to the aggregated data to identify records that must be suppressed to protect business-sensitive data. Also, EIA adds additional location fields to the STB data, identifying the mine from which the coal originates, the power plant that receives the coal, and, in some cases, an intermediate delivery location where coal is terminated by the initial carrier but then

246

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrainment Coal Gasification Modeling ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ... Equivalent Reactor Network Model for Simulating the Air Gasification of Polyethylene in a Conical Spouted Bed Gasifier ...

C. Y. Wen; T. Z. Chaung

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

On Coal-Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1860-1862 research-article On Coal-Gas W. R. Bowditch The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. www.jstor.org

1860-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Aqueous coal slurry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

250

Quarterly coal report  

SciTech Connect

The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

Young, P.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Survey data. Each plant receiving CAPP or PRB coal in 2007 and 2010 were mapped and their data used to estimate costs for other cells by interpolating values based on inverse...

252

Clean Coal Research  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

253

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with the steam cycle of coal-fired power plants offers the potential to convert 40% of solar energy into electricity. This compares to 13% for large-scale photovoltaic systems,...

255

Coal Supply Region  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. For the composition of coal basins, refer to the definition of...

256

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Coal to Liquids Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By the mid-1940s, natural gas and oil production had become more developed and cost-competitive with coal, and technology for production of synthetic transportation fuels was not considered economic after the Sec...

Marianna Asaro; Ronald M. Smith

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Analyses of environmental impacts of underground coal mining in an arid region using remote sensing and GIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influences of coal mining in an arid environment on vegetation coverage, land-use change, desertification, soil and water loss were discussed. A series of available TM/ETM+ images with no cloud cover from ...

Zheng-fu Bian; Hai-xia Zhang; Shao-gang Lei

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Corrosion performance of aluminum in coal railcars  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum has been used for construction of coal railcars and on an experimental basis as a metallized coating over steel railcars. When aluminum is used in areas which contact the lading, resistance to general corrosion has been outstanding. Galvanic corrosion of joints which connect the aluminum to a steel undercarriage has not been a problem provided appropriate measures were taken during vehicle construction. Laboratory test data are presented which illustrate the impact of variations in joint preparation on galvanic corrosion performance. Painting the steel and the use of a sealant are recommended to obtain satisfactory long term joint performance. The corrosion performance and long term durability of an aluminum metallized coating has been demonstrated when applied to new cars constructed of carbon steel. Test results of coating durability when applied to cars constructed of constructed of weathering steel or carbon steel which were in revenue coal service prior to coating have been mixed.

Hersh, J.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Section 5 - Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal has the longest history of use among the fossil fuels, with use as a fuel dating to 3000 BC in China and Wales. Marco Polo’s “Description of the World” (1298) comments on many novel customs and practices of China, including the use of “stones that burn like logs” (coal). By the thirteenth century the mining of coal was widespread in England in regions such as Durham, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and North and South Wales. By the early seventeenth century nearly half of England’s maritime trade consisted of coal exports. Coal was the fuel that launched the Industrial Revolution in Europe and then the United States. By the late 1890s, the U.S. assumed the lead in world coal production. Britain now ranked second, after having been the world leader since the beginnings of the formal industry in the 1500s. Germany was third, an indication of its growing industrial power relative to continental rival France. Coal’s leading role in energy use peaked in the early twentieth century, after which it was supplanted by oil and natural gas. By the late twentieth century China’s rapid economic expansion, surging demand for electricity, and prodigious coal resources combined to propel it to become the world leader in production. Continuous improvements in coal mining technology have produced lower costs, improved safety, and greater labor productivity. John Buddle introduced the first air pump to ventilate coal mines (1803), followed shortly by the miner’s safety lamps that were developed independently by Sir Humphry Davy, William Clanny, and George Stephenson (1813-1816). Coal mining underwent a rapid transition in the 1880s to mechanical coal cutting in mines in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia. The St. Joseph Lead Company of Missouri (1900) invented the first underground mine roof bolts that became a key safety feature in underground coal mines. The first commercially successful bucket wheel excavator was used at the Luise Mine in Braunkohlemwerke, Germany (1925), followed by the first successful continuous miners in U.S. underground coal mining (1948). The first mechanized U.S. longwall mining system appeared in 1951, and was followed by the self-advancing hydraulic longwall support system that provided greater support for the roof of the mine. LeTourneau Technologies, Inc. of Texas manufactured the largest rubber tired front-end wheel loader in the world, the L-2350, which would play an important role in loading coal in Wyoming’s large surface mines (2005). Coal mining has always been a very hazardous occupation, and has produced some of history’s worst industrial disasters. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, caused the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France (1906). An explosion in a coal mine in Liaoning province in northeastern China killed more than 1,500 Chinese miners (1942), as did other major accidents in Ky?sh?, Japan (1914), Wankie, Rhodesia (1972), Wales (1913), Bihar, India (1965), and West Virginia, U.S. (1907), to name just a few. Legislation such as the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act in the U.S. (1969) improved working conditions in many nations. The Great Smog of London (1952) occurred after an exceptionally cold winter forced homes and factories to burn large quantities of coal. A temperature inversion formed, trapping pollutants above the ground. More than 4,000 people died from respiratory ailments within the following week. The use of coal has been impacted by legislation to control the environmental impacts associated with its mining and combustion. The first known environmental regulation of coal dates to 1306 when King Edward II of England prohibited burning sea coal while Parliament was in session because of its offensive smoke. Sulfur dioxide from coal combustion was tied to acid rain in the 1960s, and carbon dioxide emissions became a concern beginning in the 1980s when climate change emerged as a critical environmental issue.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal science for the clean use of coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

Harrison, J.S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Weekly Coal Production by State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Weekly Coal Production Weekly Coal Production Data for week ended: December 14, 2013 | Release date: December 19, 2013 | Next release date: December 30, 2013 For the week ended December 14, 2013: U.S. coal production totaled approximately 18.9 million short tons (mmst) This production estimate is 3.1% higher than last week's estimate and 2.9% lower than the production estimate in the comparable week in 2012 Coal production east of the Mississippi River totaled 8.2 mmst Coal production west of the Mississippi River totaled 10.8 mmst U.S. year-to-date coal production totaled 957.1 mmst, 1.9% lower than the comparable year-to-date coal production in 2012 EIA revises its weekly estimates of state-level coal production using Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) quarterly coal production data.

263

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984  

SciTech Connect

Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

Paranjape, A.S.

1984-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Definition: Anthracite coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anthracite coal A hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal; contains 86-97% carbon, and generally has...

267

R&D to Prepare and Characterize Robust Coal/Biomass Mixtures for Direct Co-Feeding into Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Prepare and Characterize Robust to Prepare and Characterize Robust Coal/Biomass Mixtures for Direct Co-Feeding into Gasification Background Domestically abundant coal is a significant primary energy source and, when mixed with optimum levels of biomass, has lower carbon footprint compared to conventional petroleum fuels. Coal and biomass mixtures are converted via gasification into synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of predominantly carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be subsequently converted to produce liquid fuels and

268

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Coking properties of coal pitch in coal batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coking properties of coal pitch depend significantly on its fractional composition, ... : 2: 2. This is typical of coal pitch with a softening temperature of 75– ... Such pitch is the best clinkering additive...

S. G. Gagarin; Yu. I. Neshin

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence  

SciTech Connect

Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by Major Coal-Exporting States and Destination, 2001 Coal-Exporting State and Destination Metallurgical Steam Total Alaska - 761 761 South Korea - 761 761 Alabama 4,667 167 4,834 Argentina 155 - 155 Belgium 989 - 989 Brazil 1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920 - 920 France 22 - 22 Iceland 9 - 9 Italy 430 - 430 Netherlands 417 - 417 Spain 9 - 9 United Kingdom 323 - 323 Pennsylvania 1,086 14,326 15,722 Belgium - 203 203 Brazil 372 - 373 Canada - 12,141 12,418 France - 84 84 Germany 495 165 661 Ireland - 136 136 Netherlands 219 879 1,097 Norway - - 7 Peru - - 21 Portugal - 634 634 United Kingdom - 85 85 Venezuela - - 3 Utah - 1,420 1,420 Japan - 1,334 1,334 Taiwan - 86 86 Virginia 4,531

275

International Energy Outlook 1999 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal.jpg (1776 bytes) coal.jpg (1776 bytes) CoalÂ’s share of world energy consumption falls slightly in the IEO99 forecast. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia, but it is projected to lose market share to natural gas in some other areas of the world. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1996. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 30

276

Status of Coal Gasification: 1977  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-pressure technology is important to coal gasification for several reasons. When the end product ... of high pressures in all types of coal gasification reduces the pressure drop throughout the equipment,...

F. C. Schora; W. G. Bair

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

278

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide  

SciTech Connect

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

2008 Coal Age buyers guide  

SciTech Connect

The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

NONE

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

282

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The Asia-Pacific coal technology conference was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, November 14--16, 1989. Topics discussed included the following: Expanded Horizons for US Coal Technology and Coal Trade; Future Coal-Fired Generation and Capacity Requirements of the Philippines; Taiwan Presentation; Korean Presentation; Hong Kong Future Coal Requirements; Indonesian Presentation; Electric Power System in Thailand; Coal in Malaysia -- A Position Paper; The US and Asia: Pacific Partners in Coal and Coal Technology; US Coal Production and Export; US Clean Coal Technologies; Developments in Coal Transport and Utilization; Alternative/Innovative Transport; Electricity Generation in Asia and the Pacific: Power Sector Demand for Coal, Oil and Natural Gas; Role of Clean Coal Technology in the Energy Future of the World; Global Climate Change: A Fossil Energy Perspective; Speaker: The Role of Coal in Meeting Hawaii's Power Needs; and Workshops on Critical Issues Associated with Coal Usage. Individual topics are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-The similarity of the description of moon dust particles and that of pulverized coal ...coalash ...

D. J. THORNE; J. D. WATT

1969-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

285

Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report 2012 Annual Coal Report 2012 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Contacts This publication was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). General information about the data in this report can be obtained from:

286

Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report Full figure data for Figure 101. Reference Case Tables Table 1. Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary Table 15. Coal Supply, Disposition and Price Table 21. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - New England Table 22. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic Table 23. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central Table 24. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central Table 25. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic Table 26. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central Table 27. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South

287

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

288

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

289

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 907 10 59 - 975 Alabama River 903 - - - 903 Alabama Truck 150 144 253 - 546 Alabama Total 1,960 153 311 - 2,424 Florida Truck - - 3 - 3 Georgia Railroad 105 - 1 - 106 Georgia Truck s - 4 - 4 Georgia Total 105 - 5 - 110 Indiana Railroad - 106 - - 106 Tennessee Railroad - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,065 259 321 - 2,644

290

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 839 11 83 - 933 Alabama River 1,347 - - - 1,347 Alabama Truck 118 216 236 - 571 Alabama Total 2,304 227 320 - 2,850 Georgia Railroad 9 - - - 9 Georgia Truck 7 - 5 - 12 Georgia Total 16 - 5 - 21 Indiana Railroad - 126 - - 126 Tennessee Truck - - 1 - 1 Origin State Total 2,320 353 325 - 2,998 Railroad 848 137 83 - 1,068

291

coal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal coal Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 32.3 KiB)

292

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL & POWER SYSTEMS COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS STRENGTH THROUGH SCIENCE... A "GREENER, SOONER" PHILOSOPHY Coal, natural gas, and oil fuel about 70 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. As promising as renewable and other alternative fuels are, it will be several decades before they can make significant energy contributions to the Nation's

293

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 4th Quarter 2010 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 944 16 77 - 1,037 Alabama River 781 - - - 781 Alabama Truck 77 224 220 - 521 Alabama Total 1,802 240 298 - 2,340 Florida Railroad - - 11 - 11 Georgia Railroad 52 - - - 52 Georgia Truck s - 5 - 5 Georgia Total 52 - 5 - 57 Indiana Railroad - 65 - - 65 Origin State Total 1,855 304 313 - 2,472 Railroad 996 81 89 - 1,165

294

Pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 3rd Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 1,942 160 335 - 2,437 Alabama Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 Alabama River 741 - - - 741 Alabama Truck 52 160 278 - 490 Georgia Total s - 3 - 3 Georgia Truck s - 3 - 3 Ohio Total - 3 - - 3 Ohio River - 3 - - 3 Origin State Total 1,942 163 338 - 2,443 Railroad 1,149 - 57 - 1,206 River 741 3 - - 745 Truck 52 160

297

By Coal Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2011 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Railroad 1,040 18 80 - 1,138 Alabama River 668 - - - 668 Alabama Truck 52 164 223 - 438 Alabama Total 1,760 181 303 - 2,244 Georgia Truck s - 2 - 2 Indiana Railroad - 148 - - 148 Ohio Railroad - 25 - - 25 Ohio River - 18 - - 18 Ohio Total - 43 - - 43 Origin State Total 1,760 373 305 - 2,438 Railroad 1,040 191 80 - 1,311 River

298

Coal Gasification Report.indb  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Coal Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Recommendations and Strategies Produced for the Department of Energy (DOE)/ National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Gasification Technologies Council (GTC) September 2004 Coal-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle: Market Penetration Strategies and Recommendations Final Report Study Performed by:

299

EIA - AEO2010 - Coal projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Projections Coal Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Coal Projections Figure 88. Coal production by region, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 89. U.S. coal production in six cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 90. Average annual minemouth coal prices by region, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 91. Average annual delivered coal prices in four cases, 1990-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 92. Change in U.S. coal consumption by end use in two cases, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Coal production increases at a slower rate than in the past In the AEO2010 Reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation, along with the startup of several CTL plants, leads to growth in coal production averaging 0.2 percent per year from 2008 to 2035. This is significantly less than the 0.9-percent average growth rate for U.S. coal production from 1980 to 2008.

300

Gasification of Coal and Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , said the Gas Council is spending £120,000 this year on research into coal gasification, and the National Coal Board and the Central Electricity Generating Board £680,000 and ... coal utilization. The Gas Council is spending about £230,000 on research into the gasification of oil under a programme intended to contribute also to the improvement of the economics ...

1960-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported ... RESULTS of a first step taken toward determining the feasibility of the underground gasification of coal were reported recently to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission by Milton H. Fies, manager of coal operations for the Alabama Power Co. ...

1947-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Problems of Expanding Coal Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metallurgical or coking coal marketed widely here and abroad. Appalachian coal generally has a high...are characteristic of Appalachia, al-though there has also been extensive strip mining including destructive...Mid-western bituminous coal has a large market as...

John Walsh

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

303

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

Subramanian, Venkat

304

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

305

Petroleum and Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bettinelli and others (A5) presented a method for the determination of arsenic, selenium, and mercury in coals based on a partial solublization of the coal sample in a microwave oven with aqua regia and the subsequent determination of As, Se, and Hg by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-HG-ICPMS); comparisons with other techniques are presented. ... Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change were discussed in a review with 8 references by Hoppe (A40). ...

Cliff T. Mansfield; Bhajendra N. Barman; Jane V. Thomas; Anil K. Mehrotra; James M. McCann

1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

306

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ultrasound enhanced soil washing  

SciTech Connect

The development of an ultrasonic enhanced soil-washing process requires a comprehensive, well-designed experimental program, with the results carefully analyzed on the basis of known ultrasonic cleaning mechanisms. There has been no systematic work carried out to develop information on the important variables that can affect the efficacy of ultrasonic enhancement of contaminant removal from soil. The goal of this study is to examine the potential of ultrasonic energy to enhance soil washing and to optimize conditions. Ultrasonic energy potentially can be used in enhancing contaminant removal from the entire soil mix, or it can be used as a polishing operation on the fines portion of the soil mixture after traditional soil washing operations. The research study was designed to demonstrate that ultrasonic energy can: improve process performance, e.g., remove contaminants to lower residual concentrations; and improve process economics, e.g., shorter treatment (residence) times, less surfactant use. This process was demonstrated using soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Meegoda, J.; Ho, W.; Bhattacharajee, M.; Wei, C.F.; Cohen, D.M.; Magee, R.S. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Frederick, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

NETL: Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C&CBTL C&CBTL Coal and Power Systems Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids The Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids program effort is focused on technologies to foster the commercial adoption of coal and coal/biomass gasification and the production of affordable liquid fuels and hydrogen with excellent environmental performance. U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness U.S. Economic Competitiveness Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits

310

Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8, 2013 8, 2013 Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program Uncovering Coal's Secrets Through the University Coal Research Program The challenges confronting the environmentally sound use of our country's fossil energy resources are best addressed through collaborative research and development. That's why this approach, which stretches federal dollars, is at the heart of the Office of Fossil Energy's University Coal Research (UCR) Program. Managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UCR program funds university research to improve understanding of the chemical and physical properties of coal, one of our nation's most abundant resources. The program has forged partnerships between academia and the private sector that have led to advances not only in how we use coal, but

312

Numerical modelling of MILD combustion for coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Moderate and Intensive Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a promising technology for decreasing pollutant emissions and improving combustion efficiency. A combination of air preheating and fuel dilution with combustion products of low oxygen concentration are the main features of this technique. In the MILD combustion mode, preheated air and fuel are gradually mixed with large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. The objective of the present work is to investigate the capability of present fuel NO mechanisms for pulverised coal combustion to predict the observed nitrogen oxide levels in MILD combustion mode. For this purpose, knowledge of the fate of coal nitrogen during the combustion process is vital. The interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled by an advanced Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC). The NOx model is used to predict NO profiles that are compared to measurements obtained from semi-industrial scale experiments.

Ju Pyo Kim; U. Schnell; G. Scheffknecht; A.C. Benim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

Anderson Hall

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Neutrino Mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this review we present the main features of the current status of neutrino physics. After a review of the theory of neutrino mixing and oscillations, we discuss the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that the current data can be nicely accommodated in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. We discuss also the problem of the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale through Tritium beta-decay experiments and astrophysical observations, and the exploration of the Majorana nature of massive neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Finally, future prospects are briefly discussed.

Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Chapter 8 - Coal Seam Degasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The chapter discusses various techniques for coal seam degasification. All coal seams are gassy but they differ in their degree of gassiness. Pre-mining and post-mining techniques for underground coal mines are discussed. With good planning, 50–80% of in-situ gas in coal can be removed before mining improving both safety and productivity. Similarly, 50–80% of gas from mined-out areas (gobs) can be removed to minimize ventilation air requirements. Gas transport in underground mines and economics of coal seam degasification are also discussed.

Pramod Thakur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The Public Subsidies of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I have spent most of my life in western Pennsylvania, in the Appalachian coal belt of the U.S. I have direct experience with the economic, environmental, and social impacts of coal extraction and use. ... Although coal was important in building the economy of western Pennsylvania as well as the economies of other coal regions, its extraction and use left a legacy of damage: thousands of miles of streams severely impacted by acid drainage from abandoned mines; large piles of coal mine refuse; old strip mines that have not been refilled; damaged groundwater resources; and land subsidence from underground mining. ...

David A. Dzombak

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

317

4 - Coal resources and reserves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Coal resources still make up a significant proportion of the world’s energy supplies. Coal resources are estimated to be 860 billion tonnes. These resources are geographically well distributed and current production provides fuel for 29% of the world’s primary energy consumption. The classification of coal resources and reserves has been redefined in recent years, with the standards and codes of practice adopted by the principal coal-producing countries being equated on a global basis. Details of the principal classifications are given, together with their international equivalents. Reporting of resources and reserves plus methods of calculation are also given, together with recent assessments of global coal reserves.

L.P. Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School...

319

Coal Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - Middle School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - High School...

320

Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate  

SciTech Connect

Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Coke and Coal Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A. Mott at the University of Sheffield, are concerned with problems affecting the hard coke industry, which enjoys facilities for large-scale experimentation through its member firms such as ... of the body organizing this work visited the Kingston and Fulham Laboratories of the British Coal Utilisation Research Association on September 9. Mr. J. G. Bennett, director of ...

1943-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

322

Methane and Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... stored source of the energy supplies of the world ; every twenty years the world burns a volume of coal equivalent to the volume of Snowdon (a cone of base ... hole method being most in favour. This method is being applied in about twelve British pits. The amount of methane drawn off appears to depend on the movement of the ...

ALFRED EGERTON

1952-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

323

Chemicals from Coal Coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemicals from Coal Coking ... Since 2009, she has been at INCAR-CSIC, researching the preparation and characterization of carbon materials (cokes and fibers) and nanomaterials (nanotubes and graphenes) and their catalytic, environmental, and energy applications. ... He then joined the Fundamental Studies Section of the British Coke (later Carbonization) Research Association, eventually becoming Head of Fundamental Studies. ...

Marcos Granda; Clara Blanco; Patricia Alvarez; John W. Patrick; Rosa Menéndez

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

325

International Energy Outlook 2000 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. Historically, trends in coal consumption have varied considerably by region. Despite declines in some regions, world coal consumption has increased from 84 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1985 to 93 quadrillion Btu in 1997. Regions that have seen increases in coal consumption include the United States, Japan, and developing Asia. Declines have occurred in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU). In Western Europe, coal consumption declined by 33 percent between 1985 and 1997, displaced in considerable measure by

326

International Energy Outlook 2001 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal picture of a printer Printer Friendly Version (PDF) Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2020. Coal continues to dominate many national fuel markets in developing Asia. World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since the late 1980s, a trend that is expected to continue. Although 1999 world consumption, at 4.7 billion short tons,9 was 15 percent higher than coal use in 1980, it was lower than in any year since 1984 (Figure 51). The International Energy Outlook 2001 (IEO2001) reference case projects some growth in coal use between 1999 and 2020, at an average annual rate of 1.5 percent, but with considerable variation among regions.

327

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Coal mine methane global review  

SciTech Connect

This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A New Hydrogen Bond in Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During our study on hydrogen bond in coal by diffuse reflectance IR, we found that a weak peak at 2514 cm-1 always occurred for some coals. ... Infrared absorption spectra of coals and coal extracts ... The FTIR spectra during the heat-up of eight coals (seven Argonne premium coals and an Australian brown coal), an ion-exchange resin, and a lignin were measured every 20 °C from room temp. ...

Dongtao Li; Wen Li; Baoqing Li

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Synergistic Effect of coal blends on thermoplasticity evaluated using a temperature-variable dynamic viscoelastic measurement  

SciTech Connect

To maximize the conversion of low-quality coal into good coke, we investigated the thermoplasticity of various binary blends of caking coals with slightly or noncaking coals using a dynamic viscoelastic technique with a temperature-variable rheometer. Coal blend samples were prepared by mixing two coals (1:1 by weight), which were heated from room temperature to 600 C at a rate of 3-80{sup o}C/min. At the slow rate of 3{sup o}C/min, the blends had a tan {delta} that was generally lower than the calculated value, showing that a negative interaction caused a loss of thermoplasticity. In contrast, at the rapid heating rate of 80{sup o}C/min, the tan {delta} of some blends was higher than the calculated value, indicating a positive interaction that enhanced the thermoplasticity. With rapid heating, the thermoplasticity of each coal itself increased, and their thermoplastic temperature ranges widened with rapid heating. Therefore, rapid heating was effective at converting these coal blends into good cokes. Moreover, even with slow heating, when a combination of coals (Gregory:Enshu, 1:1) showing some thermoplasticity in nearly the same temperature range was blended, a desirable synergistic effect of the blend was obtained. This suggests that blending coal with an overlapping thermoplastic temperature range is important for the synergistic effect, regardless of the heating rate. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Kensuke Masaki; Atsushi Dobashi; Kiyoshi Fukada [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal distribution, January-March 1985. [By district; 1981 to 1985  

SciTech Connect

US coal distribution to domestic and foreign markets totaled 210.8 million short tons in the first quarter of 1985. This was 5.1% below coal shipments in the first quarter of 1984, but 10.7% above the depressed levels of the comparable period in 1983. Coal shipments to various regions of the United States and abroad showed mixed trends during the first 3 months of 1985. This is attributable primarily to large inventory buildups by eastern and midwestern consumers during the first 9 months of 1984 in preparation for a possible strike by the United Mine Workers of America in October of last year. Coal inventories at producers and distributors rose by 3.1% during the first quarter of 1985, reaching 35.2 million short tons on March 31, 1985, compared to 34.1 million short tons on December 31, 1984. Compared with the first quarter of 1984: Coal shipments from mines in Appalachia were 12.6% lower, while shipments from western mines were up by 9.7%, reaching another record first-quarter high. Export shipments moved ahead of their 1984 pace by 9.9% despite a 30.0% decline in shipments to Canada. Major markets in the West continued to enlarge their coal requirements as eastern markets curtailed shipments while working off excess stocks. Texas expanded its lead as the Nation's top state to receive coal, and North Dakota experienced an upsurge in coal receipts due to the startup of the Great Plains coal gasification project. Coal production and purchases were 211.5 million short tons, 5.0% below last year's level. The reduction in shipments reflected a substantial decline in coal originating in the Appalachian Region, notably District 8, and to a lesser extent in the Interior Region. In contrast, shipments of coal from the Western Region reached another first-quarter high. 5 figs., 33 tabs.

McNair, M.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

1983-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Chang’an Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect

In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

Popovic, N. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Oradell. NJ (United States); Daley, D.P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jacobsen, P.S. [Jacobsen (P. Stanley), Littleton, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 national security complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterization alternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedial action DARA solids storage facility (SSF)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allowing the use of macroencapsulation technologies. SCFADemonstration of Macroencapsulation of Mixed Waste Debrisoff-site for treatment. Macroencapsulation will meet the LDR

Hazen, Terry

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

FE Clean Coal News  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal clean-coal-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards http://energy.gov/fe/articles/netl-innovations-recognized-rd-100-awards NETL Innovations Recognized with R&D 100 Awards

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

342

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro

345

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

NETL: Coal and Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Technologies Coal and Power Systems Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Rotating Images Advancing our Nation's Portfolio of Coal RD&D Technologies - Read More! Focus of NETL RD&D RD&D efforts in coal and power systems fall into three categories: Technologies that enable existing coal power plants to cost-effectively meet environmental requirements. NETL and its research partners are developing environmental control technologies for retrofitting existing power plants, with application to new plants as well. Key areas of research include cost-effective control of mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulate emissions; beneficial uses for coal utilization byproducts; and innovations to minimize the impact of

347

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

2009 University Coal Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 University Coal Research Program 2009 University Coal Research Program Description The University Coal Research (UCR) Program provides grants to U.S. colleges and universities to support fundamental research and to develop efficient and environmentally responsible fossil energy technologies. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the program is carried out by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

349

Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

current Coal Distribution Report current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: November 7, 2012 | Next Release Date: November 2013 | full report Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin Foreign distribution of U.S. coal by major coal-exporting States and destination Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by origin State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1 Domestic distribution of U.S. coal by destination State, consumer, destination and method of transportation1

350

NETL: Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal/Biomass Feed & Gasification Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal/Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal and/or coal-biomass mixtures. Activities support research for handling and processing of coal/biomass mixtures, ensuring those mixtures are compatible with feed delivery systems, identifying potential impacts on downstream components, catalyst and reactor optimization, and characterizing the range of products and product quality. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Coal-biomass fuel preparation Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification Coal-biomass gasification modeling

351

Coal News and Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal News and Markets Coal News and Markets Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 24, 2013 "Coal News and Markets Report" summarizes spot coal prices by coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States. The report includes data on average weekly coal commodity spot prices, total monthly coal production, eastern monthly coal production, electric power sector coal stocks, and average cost of metallurgical coal at coke plants and export docks. The historical data for coal commodity spot market prices are proprietary and not available for public release. Average weekly coal commodity spot prices (dollars per short ton)

352

Transport and Other Effects in Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper summarizes the kinetics of coal char gasification excepted surface reactions (mechanisms). The following subjects controlling coal char gasification are treated: Coal as the raw material ... of particle...

K. J. Hüttinger

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Practical Use of Coal Combustion Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of coal rapid pyrolysis char yield and char reactivity, together with a simple model of pulverized coal combustion, have been used to predict coal combustion efficiency in utility boile...

P. T. Roberts; C. Morley

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Technological value of coal used for coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technological value of coal used for coking is analyzed, with particular attention to clinkering coal, the coke group, and lean additives, as well as G and GZhO coal. A relation is established between the tec...

A. S. Stankevich; V. S. Stankevich

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of natural gas, along with the coal reserve base of 326s Fossil Fuel Reserve Base, 2007 Oil Natural Gas Coal 233ensured reserves”) of coal, oil and natural gas published in

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

Ryan, M.

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Preliminary Experimental Studies of Waste Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining is one of Australia’s most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects ... . To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to ...

S. Su; Y. G. Jin; X. X. Yu; R. Worrall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Production of Oil from Coal in Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... British Commonwealth there are cheaper supplies of coal than in Great Britain, as well as reserves of brown coal and ... of brown coal and lignite. Dr. Parker stated that bombing attacks between May and September 1944 caused a reduction ...

1947-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although lignite composes 16% of China’s coal reserves bys coal reserves are estimated to be 16% lignite by volume.reserves are classified as bituminous coal by volume, versus 29% sub-bituminous and 16% lignite.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sequence optimization in longwall coal mining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BHP Billiton’s Illawarra Coal operates several longwall coal extraction systems in the Bulli and Wongawilli coal seams in the Southern Coalfields of the ... . This establishes a basis for comparing the economic m...

L. Rocchi; P. Carter; P. Stone

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Complete Gasification of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... plant designed by C. B. Tully, and operated at Bedford, for the complete gasification of coal. Altogether, since 1919, about two hundred such plants have been erected ...

J. S. G. THOMAS

1923-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

365

Appalachia: the land of coal  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian region of the United States is an area known worldwide for its long history as a source of coal. If any area of the Unted States is to gain from the projected growth of the coal industry, both domestic and international, it would surely be the coal mining areas of this region, including its biggest coal producing states - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. An important facet of the region's coal industry is not only the presence of the giant coal companies but also the small, independent operator. These men are owner-operators and every dollar spent for their operations must bring a return. There is no room for error. WORLD COAL editors have recently traveled to areas in Appalachia and visited mines that are run by these independent operators. One such area was Harlan County, Kentucky. Virtually all mining done in Harlan is underground. Shaft mines are uncommon; most operations have access to exposed seams in the hillsides. Most of the small operations in this region use room and pillar mining and productivity is quite good. It is imperative that the transportation infrastructure be improved so that the expected increased movement of coal out of the region be handled efficiently. Potential domestic consumers of coal from Appalachia are numerous. New England, New York, the mid-Atlantic states, and the South are all looking to this nearby region to help reduce their dependence on oil. Other countries also are looking to the area.

Schneiderman, S.J. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

367

Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

U. S. monthly coal production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal commodity regions (i.e., Central Appalachia (CAPP), Northern Appalachia (NAPP), Illinois Basin (ILB), Powder River Basin (PRB), and Uinta Basin (UIB)) in the United States....

369

The US coal industry 1996  

SciTech Connect

Several years ago a friend and former classmate, Dr. Doug Dahl, put the coal industry into perspective. At that time he worked for Consol, whose parent company was DuPont. I will use his story, but update it with today`s statistics. As can be seen in Figure 1, total US coal production continues to show healthy growth. In 1995 we produced 1,032,000,000 tons, and 1,046,000,000 tons are projected for 1996. Unfortunately as seen in Figure 2, the average price per ton of coal sold is still dropping. The coal industry is experiencing the unusual situation of falling coal prices with increasing coal demand! In 1994 (1995 data not available) the average price for a ton of coal was only $19.41. Multiplying the two numbers, yields the total sales value for our entire industry, $20.1 billion in 1994. That`s roughly half the approximately $40 billion per year sales value for a single chemical company, DuPont, Dr. Dahl`s parent company. As Dr. Dahl pointed out, the coal industry just isn`t that big. As we can see in Figure 3, the yearly trends show that the total value of the US coal production is shrinking. The total value has fallen through the 90`s and follows the average price per ton trend. Even increases in production have generally not been enough to offset the falling prices.

Campbell, J.A.L. [Custom Coals International, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Coal Transportation Rate Database  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Transportation Rate Database (CTRDB) adds new data for 2000 and 2001. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Form 580 "interrogatories" are the primary source for...

371

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies: A reevaluation of the United States coal resources  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative program between the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Bureau of Mines (USBM), and geological agencies of the principal coal-bearing States has began to (1) identify and delineate current major land-use/environmental and technologic/geologic restrictions on the availability of coal resources; (2) estimate the amount of remaining coal resources that may be available for development under those constraints; (3) estimate the amount that can be economically extracted and marketed; and (4) identify possible social and economic disruptions that could occur within local and regional economies as coal resources are exhausted. Within major coal-producing regions, selected 7.5-minute quadrangles are chosen to represent variations in geology, topography, and land-use patterns so that results might be extrapolated throughout the entire region. After identifying State and Federal coal mining regulations, USGS and State scientists consult with local coal-industry engineers, geologists, and mine operators to ascertain local mining practices. Coal bed outcrop lines, current and past mined areas, and restrictions to mining are plotted at 1:24,000 scale and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are applied. Coal availability/recoverability studies have expanded into the central and northern Appalachian regions, Illinois basin, and Powder River basin. The first four basins, with 75% of current US coal production, should be completed by 1998. The total program is designed to cover 150 quadrangles from within the 11 major coal regions of the US. These 11 regions represent 97% of current US coal production. Planned project completion is 2001.

Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal-bed methane production in eastern Kansas: Its potential and restraints  

SciTech Connect

In 1921 and again in 1988, workers demonstrated that the high volatile A and B coals of the Pennsylvanian Cherokee Group can be produced economically from vertically drilled holes, and that some of these coals have a gas content as high as 200 ft{sup 3}/ton. Detailed subsurface mapping on a county-by-county basis using geophysical logs shows the Weir coal seam to be the thickest (up to 6 ft thick) and to exist in numerous amoeba-shaped pockets covering several thousand acres. Lateral pinch-out into deltaic sands offers a conventional gas source. New attention to geophysical logging shows most coals have a negative SP response, high resistivities, and densities of 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. Highly permeable coals cause lost circulation during drilling and thief zones during cementing, and they are the source of abundant unwanted salt water. Low-permeability coals can be recognized by their high fracture gradients, which are difficult to explain but are documented to exceed 2.2. Current successful completions use both limited-entry, small-volume nitrogen stimulations or an open hole below production casing. Subsurface coals are at normal Mid-Continent pressures and may be free of water. Initially, some wells flow naturally without pumping. Saltwater disposal is often helped by the need for water in nearby waterflood projects and the easy availability of state-approved saltwater disposal wells in Mississippi and Arbuckle carbonates. Recent attempts to recomplete coal zones in slim-hole completions are having mixed results. The major restraints to coal-bed methane production are restricted to low permeability of the coals and engineering problems, not to the availability or gas content of the coals.

Stoeckinger, B.T.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and recovered CBM, the program includes additional monitoring wells to further examine horizontal and vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. This is the fifth Technical Progress report for the project. Progress this period was focused on reclamation of the north access road and north well site, and development of revised drilling methods. This report provides a concise overview of project activities this period and plans for future work.

William A. Williams

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Technological value of coal concentrates for coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Options are outlined for calculating the technological value of coal and coal concentrates in the context of contractual obligations and the quality of the coke produced.

E. N. Stepanov; G. V. Larin; A. E. Stepanova; I. V. Semiokhina

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s 2006 total primary energy consumption, compared to 24Coal Dependence of Primary Energy Consumption, 2007coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP Statistical

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The recovery of purified coal from solution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A new process is being developed to produce graphite from prime coking coal. Coal is dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF), on addition of sodium hydroxide. The… (more)

Botha, Mary Alliles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Central Appalachia: Coal industry profile  

SciTech Connect

Central Appalachia, the most complex and diverse coal-producing region in the United States, is also the principal source of very low sulfur coal in the East. This report provides detailed profiles of companies and facilities responsible for about 90% of the area's production, conveying a unique view of the aggregate industry as well as its many parts.

McMahan, R.L.; Kendall, L.K. (Resource Data International, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Commercialization of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

2009 coal preparation buyer's guide  

SciTech Connect

The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

NONE

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Consensus Coal Production Forecast for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rate Forecasts 19 5. EIA Forecast: Regional Coal Production 22 6. Wood Mackenzie Forecast: W.V. Steam to data currently published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), coal production in the state in this report calls for state production to decline by 11.3 percent in 2009 to 140.2 million tons. During

Mohaghegh, Shahab

383

The end of cheap coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... World energy policy is gripped by a fallacy — the idea that coal is destined to stay cheap for decades to come. This assumption supports investment in ... destined to stay cheap for decades to come. This assumption supports investment in 'clean-coal' technology and trumps serious efforts to increase energy conservation and develop alternative energy sources. ...

Richard Heinberg, David Fridley

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

385

coal supply | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal supply coal supply Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 15, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses gigawatts. The data is broken down into production, net imports, consumption by sector and price. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO coal coal supply disposition. prices EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Coal Supply, Disposition, and Prices- Reference Case (xls, 91.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

386

Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

December 2013 December 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. iii U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2012 Overview of Annual Coal Distribution Tables, 2012 Introduction The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state,

387

Soil Minerals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soil Minerals Soil Minerals Nature Bulletin No. 707 March 2, 1963 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor SOIL MINERALS We all depend upon the land Our food is obtained from plants and animals -- bread and meat, potatoes and fish, fruit and eggs and milk and the rest of it. Our livestock feed on plants and plant products such as grass and grain. Plants, by means of their root systems, take moisture and nutrients from the soils on which they grow. Their food values, for us or for animals that furnish us food, depend upon the available nutrients in those soils. Soils contain solids, water and air. The solids, the bulk of a soil -- except in purely organic types such as peat and muck -- are mostly mineral materials. Ordinarily they also contain some organic material: decayed and decaying remains of plants and animals.

388

Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

Swanson, Eric Scott

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)  

SciTech Connect

On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

Hazen, Terry

2002-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

390

Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation  

SciTech Connect

Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have been mixed results in the field using variable orifices in coal pipes. Development of other coal flow control devices has been limited. An underlying difficulty that, to date, has hindered the development of an accurate instrument for coal flow measurements is the fact that coal flow is characterized by irregular temporal and spatial variation. However, despite the inherent complexity of the dynamic system, the system is in fact deterministic. Therefore, in principle, the coal flow can be deduced from the dynamics it exhibits. Nonetheless, the interactions are highly nonlinear, rendering standard signal processing approaches, which rely on techniques such as frequency decomposition, to be of little value. Foster-Miller, Inc. has developed a methodology that relates the complex variation in such systems to the information of interest. This technology will be described in detail in Section 2. A second concern regarding the current measurement systems is installation, which can be labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive. A process that does not require the pulverizer to be taken off line would be highly desirable. Most microwave and electrostatic methods require drilling up to 20 holes in the pipe, all with a high degree of precision so as to produce a proper alignment of the probes. At least one electrostatic method requires a special spool piece to be fitted into each existing coal pipe. Overall, these procedures are both difficult and very expensive. An alternative approach is pursued here, namely the development of an instrument that relies on an acoustic signal captured by way of a commercial accelerometer. The installation of this type of sensor is both simpler and less invasive than other techniques. An accelerometer installed in a pipe wall need not penetrate through the wall, which means that the system may be able to remain on line during the installation. Further, due to the fact that the Dynamical Instruments technology, unlike other systems, does not rely on uniformity of the air or coal profile, the installation location need not be on a long, straight run

R. Demler

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Coal–biomass co-combustion: An overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energy sector in the global scenario faces a major challenge of providing energy at an affordable cost and simultaneously protecting the environment. The energy mix globally is primarily dominated by fossil fuels, coal being the major contributor. Increasing concerns on the adverse effect of the emissions arising from coal conversion technologies on the environment and the gradual depletion of the fossil fuel reserves had led to global initiatives on using renewables and other opportunity resources to meet the future energy demands in a sustainable manner. Use of coal with biomass as a supplementary fuel in the combustion or gasification based processes is a viable technological option for reducing the harmful emissions. Co-combustion of coal with biomass for electricity generation is gradually gaining ground in spite of the fact that their combustion behavior differ widely due to wide variations in their physical and chemical properties. This article deals with the technical aspects of co-combustion with emphasis on the fundamentals of devolatilization, ignition, burnout and ash deposition behavior along with the constraints and uncertainties associated with the use of different types of biomass of diverse characteristics and the likely impact of partial replacement of coal by biomass on the emission of CO2, SOx, NOx. Other issues of no less importance like sustained availability of biomass, transportation and storage, effect on biodiversity, etc., are left out in the study. The investigations reported in the study reflect the potential of biomass as co-fuel, and the scope of maximizing its proportion in the blend in the coal based power plants and the derived benefits.

S.G. Sahu; N. Chakraborty; P. Sarkar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Patterns of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in Appalachian former coal miners  

SciTech Connect

To aid in diagnostic chest film interpretation of coal workers' pneumoconiosis, a composite profile of common radiologic patterns was developed in 98 Appalachian former coal miners who were diagnosed as having coal miner's pneumoconiosis and who applied for black lung benefits. The mean age was 61 years, with a lifetime coal mine dust exposure of 18.7 years. Results showed that chest radiographs of coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis contained small irregular linear opacities more frequently (47%) than small rounded opacities. Sparse profusion of all small opacities was the rule. Small opacities involved two out of six lung zones simultaneously 39% of the time while other combinations occurred less frequently. Lower zones were involved more frequently than upper ones. Thickened pleura occurred in 18% of radiographs. Other frequent radiographic abnormalities were parenchymal calcifications (19%), marked emphysema (12%), and inactive tuberculosis (12%). Calcification of the aortic knob, a degenerative process reflecting age, occurred in 9%. Only one instance of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (progressive massive fibrosis) was encountered (0.7%). Many of the descriptive features of coal workers' pneumoconiosis noted in the literature were not observed in this study. Only one instance of complicated pneumoconiosis was encountered.43 references.

Young, R.C. Jr.; Rachal, R.E.; Carr, P.G.; Press, H.C. (College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

395

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by Method of Transportation Electricity Generation Coke Plants Industrial Plants (Except Coke) Residential and Commercial Total Alabama 7,212 375 6,032 3 13,622 Railroad 2,613 170 4,607 - 7,390 River 3,867 - - - 3,867 Truck 732 205 1,424 3 2,365 Illinois 1,458 - - * 1,458 Railroad 167 - - - 167 River 1,291 - - - 1,291 Truck - - - * * Kentucky Total 2,277 - 262 - 2,539 Railroad 1,928 - 165 - 2,093 River 349 - 83 - 432 Truck - - 14 - 14 Eastern 843 - 262 - 1,105 Railroad 843 - 165 - 1,008 River - - 83 - 83 Truck - - 14 - 14 Western 1,435 - - - 1,435 Railroad 1,086 - - - 1,086 River 349 - - - 349 Pennsylvania Total 242 - 62 - 304 Great Lakes - - 60 - 60 Railroad - - * - * River 242 - -

396

Low Rank Coal Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Rank Coal Optimization Low Rank Coal Optimization NETL Office of Research and Development Project Number: FWP-2012.03.03 Task 4 Project Description NETL's in-house research team is using an integrated approach to combine theory, computational modeling, experiment, and industrial input to develop physics-based methods, models, and tools to support the development and deployment of advanced gasification based devices and systems. The activities in this effort include developing and applying computational and modeling tools to simulate complex flows in applications such as transport or entrained flow gasifiers. TRIG Model Development - The primary objective of this work is to develop a hierarchy of models for numerical simulations of TRIG co-feed conditions that span fast running reduced order models (ROM's) to high fidelity multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Each model will have uncertainty quantification associated with its predictions to allow a user to choose a model based on the trade-offs between computational speed and uncertainty in the predictions.

397

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

398

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Hydrogen from Coal in a Single Step  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CO2 generated, a greenhouse gas with a potential to contribute to global warming, is generally released to the atmosphere. ... The H2/CH4 ratio in the product gases from three different rank coals Datong coal (bituminous), Taiheiyo coal (sub-bituminous), Wyoming coal (lignite) followed the order Datong>Taiheiyo>Wyoming. ...

Kanchan Mondal; Krzystof Piotrowski; Debalina Dasgupta; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

2005-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Insurance coverage for coal ash liabilities  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses how liability insurance can be a valuable tool for limiting coal ash liabilities.

Elkind, D.L. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...amounts of coal, because...Director-Mineral Re-sources...of Gas from Coal through a...on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...per ton of high-sulfur coal burned. Absorp-tion...particulate matter as well as...capable of remov-ing up to...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

403

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

Salyer, I.O.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

407

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Clean coal technologies: A business report  

SciTech Connect

The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Coal - prices tumble as the glut continues  

SciTech Connect

The oil price collapse was the major event affecting coal markets around the world in 1986. The 8% expansion in international coal trade in 1985 was halted, and prices fell considerably. World coking coal trade declined and import and export prices fell due to a decrease in steel production and the use of oil, rather than pulverized coal, in blast furnaces. However steam coal trade increased by about 5 million mt because of various institutional constraints to utilities switching from coal burning to oil burning. The article covers coal trade and production in the following countries: Australia; Canada; China; Colombia; Western Europe; Japan; Poland; South Africa; and the USSR.

Lee, H.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Limitations of a laboratory robot for extracting available nutrients from soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of a laboratory robot has been investigated for the extraction of soil samples prior to their analysis for available nutrients. Of critical importance is the effciency with which the soil is mixed wit...

N. Brenes; A.M. Bunnell; P.A. Langan…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2010 Coal In the IEO2010 Reference case, world coal consumption increases by 56 percent from 2007 to 2035, and coal's share of world energy consumption grows from 27 percent in 2007 to 28 percent in 2035. Figure 60. World coal consumption by country grouping, 1980-2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 61. Coal share of world energy consumption by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 62. OECD coal consumption by region, Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 63. Non-OECD coal consumption by region, 1980,2007,2020, and 2035. Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 64. Coal consumption in China by sector, 2007, 2020, and 2035.

412

Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future  

SciTech Connect

In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

Beck, R.A. [National Coal Council (United Kingdom)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS  

SciTech Connect

The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and CBM produced, the program includes a plan to monitor horizontal migration of CO{sub 2} within the lower seam. This is the second Technical Progress report for the project. Progress to date has been focused on pre-construction activities; in particular, attaining site approvals and securing property rights for the project. This report provides a concise overview of project activity this period and plans for future work. This is the second semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made in completing the environmental assessment report, securing land and coal rights, and evaluating drilling strategies. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

Gary L. Cairns

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

Johnson, C.J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect

US Bureau of Mines' research projects aimed at the reduction of coal dust during coal cutting operations are described. These include an investigation of the effects of conical bit wear on respirable dust generation, energy and cutting forces; the determination of the best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; a comparison between chisel- and conical-type cutters. In order to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

INAA multielemental analysis of Nigerian bituminous coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyzed Nigerian bituminous coal and ash. Good statistical agreement (p...?0.05) between the literature and reported elemental values of USGS AGV-1 sam...

V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coking of coal batch with different content of oxidized coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of oxidized coal in coking batch increases the analytical moisture content and ... increases the oxygen content; reduces the gross coke yield and the yield of tar, benzene ... of carbon dioxide, pyrogenet...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; I. D. Drozdnik; Yu. S. Kaftan; N. B. Bidolenko…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

THE DESORPTION OF SILVER AND THALLIUM FROM SOILS IN THE PRESENCE OF A CHELATING RESIN WITH THIOL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

isomorphic substitution for potassium leads to its environmental release Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 160 nonferrous mining, metal works, coal combustion, and cement plants (Schoer, 1984). Much more silver

Walter, M.Todd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering, and reconstitution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.

Wen, Wu-Wey (Murrysville, PA); Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Finleyville, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Investigation of coal structure. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present work is to conduct multi-stage sequences of extraction experiments and direct solvent swelling measurements of raw and extracted coal to study in a greater depth the role of intra- and intermolecular interactions in the structure of coal. One of the possible ways to investigate the structure of coal is to extract it with a series of procedures. The individual extraction step chosen will be such that it weaken or disrupt intra- and intermolecular interactions that are particular to the rank of the test coal. To date, we attempted to extract raw and pyridine extracted (PI) DECS 16 coal with two solvents; 1:1 volume percent carbon disulfide & 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMEP) mixed solvent and 1:3 volume percent 1M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) in methanol & pyridine. Also, raw DECS 16 coal was o-butylated followed by pyridine extraction in a soxhlet apparatus and the ultimate extraction yields were compared with o-butylated pyridine extracted coal.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

HYDROGEN FROM COAL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MT MT R 20 0 2- 31 M itr et ek T ec h n ic a l Pap e r HYDROGEN FROM COAL November 2001 D. Gray G. Tomlinson JULY 2002 ii Customer: U.S. DOE NETL Contract No.: DE-AM26-99FT40465 Dept. No.: H050 Project No.: 0601CTC2-C2 Center for Science and Technology Innovative Technology in the Public Interest (tm) iii Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States (U.S.) government. Neither the U.S., nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

424

Coal gasification vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coal bunker repairs  

SciTech Connect

Detroit Edison's St. Clair Power Plant (STCPP) Units 1 through 4 are 1950's vintage fossil fueled units with an average capacity of 163 megawatt per unit. Each unit had identical 2190 ton bunkers. The Unit No. 1 bunker had been experiencing noticeable exterior deterioration at the lower level internal support system. An internal bunker inspection revealed large deflections in the network of beams supporting the bunker side walls. A complete collapse of the internal support beams was imminent. Failure of these beams would have transferred the coal pressure loads to the bunker skin and external stiffeners which were not capable of sustaining the load and were also showing signs of distress. This paper presents the temporary repair installed immediately after inspection, the redesign of the lower internal support system and construction procedures involved in bringing the bunker back into operating condition.

Emmons, M.H.; Hoffman, M.G. (Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ultrasonically Enhanced Effectiveness of Various Surfactants on Diesel Removal from Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of ultrasound to enhance the efficiency of surfactant-aided soil washing was investigated with a series of laboratory tests on diesel-contaminated soil. Test conditions included the power and duration of sonic energy, the surfactant type, and mixing time. The results of the study show that the use of ultrasound in the soil washing process significantly enhanced the remediation of the contaminated soil. The degree of enhancement varied with sonication energy, treatment time, and mixing duration.

Young Uk Kim; Sang Hyun Park; Jun Ho Moon; Soon Mo Jang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

COAL LIQUEFACTION ALLOY TEST PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FY 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May, 1976. Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. ; "Solvent1976. Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co,; "Development ofanalyses. The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. , SRC

Levy, A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

category "Industrial Plants" includes coal distributed to synthetic fuel plants that transform coal into synthetic coal and then redistribute to a final end-use sector. The...

429

Chemical-looping combustion of Victorian brown coal.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Victoria has over 500 years of brown coal resources at present consumption rate. Current utilization of brown coal through conventional pulverized coal-fired power generation results… (more)

Saha, Chiranjib

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative Recovery Act: Clean Coal Power Initiative A report detailling the Clean Coal Power initiative funded under the American Recovery and...

431

Clean Coal Technology - From Research to Reality | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- From Research to Reality Clean Coal Technology - From Research to Reality Clean Coal Technology: From Research to Reality More Documents & Publications Fact Sheet: Clean Coal...

432

MULTIPHASE REACTOR MODELING FOR ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYZED COAL LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ix Introduction. A. Coal Liquefaction Overview B.L ZnCl 2-catalyzed Coal Liquefaction . . . . . . . . . • ,Results. . . • . ZnC1 2/MeOH Coal liquefaction Process

Joyce, Peter James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

National Coal Council Presentation/Prepared Remarks | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Coal Council PresentationPrepared Remarks National Coal Council PresentationPrepared Remarks LPO-Adv-Fossil-FINAL-Short.pptx Description National Coal Council...

434

Southern Coal finds value in the met market  

SciTech Connect

The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. , Trace Element Chemistry of Coal during Combustion andthe Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants. Prog. Energy Combust.Combustion of Pulverized Coal, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Pennucci, J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Research on Coal and Coke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE third annual report of the Northern Coke Research Committee records the many-sided activities of its staff working in the Armstrong College ... activities of its staff working in the Armstrong College, Newcastle, on problems of the coals and ...

1932-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

Coal Mining Reclamation (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Reclamation Division of the Public Service Commission is tasked with administering the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation. Specific regulations can be found in article 69-05.2 of...

440

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... struck by the similarity between the preliminary descriptions of moon dust and that of the ash residue collected from pulverized ... residue collected from pulverized coal-fired boilers (that is, pulverized fuel ...

A. B. HART; E. RAASK

1969-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modified coal batch in coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of volatile products from low-metamorphic poorly clinkering G coal on plasticmass formation in rammed batch during coking is considered. An experimental batch of modified coke has been produced at P...

A. G. Starovoit; E. I. Malyi; M. S. Chemerinskii; M. A. Starovoit…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Quality fluctuations of coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality fluctuations of coal from different sources is assessed, in terms of technical analysis, petrographic analysis, and plastometric data. Considerable fluctuations are seen in the moisture, ash, and s...

V. P. Lyalyuk; V. P. Sokolova; I. A. Lyakhova; D. A. Kassim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

An Overview of Coal based  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005. LFEE 2005-002 WP #12;#12;Table of Contents 1 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC

445

Coal Supply Basin Destination State  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product, as published by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. For the composition of coal basins, refer to the definition of...

446

Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration  

SciTech Connect

Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

2000-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Coal consumption | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

consumption consumption Dataset Summary Description Total annual coal consumption by country, 1980 to 2009 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal Coal consumption EIA world Data text/csv icon total_coal_consumption_1980_2009quadrillion_btu.csv (csv, 38.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1980 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments Login or register to post comments

448

New developments in coal briquetting technology  

SciTech Connect

Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical Geothermometers And Mixing Models For Geothermal Systems Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Qualitative chemical geothermometers utilize anomalous concentrations of various "indicator" elements in groundwaters, streams, soils, and soil gases to outline favorable places to explore for geothermal energy. Some of the qualitative methods, such as the delineation of mercury and helium anomalies in soil gases, do not require the presence of hot springs or fumaroles. However, these techniques may also outline fossil thermal areas that are now cold. Quantitative chemical geothermometers and mixing models can provide information about present probable minimum

450

Introduction: mixing in microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wiggins Introduction: mixing in microfluidics Julio M. Ottino 1 Stephen...comprising the Theme Issue. Microfluidics|Mixing|Chaos|Diffusion...Introduction: mixing in microfluidics. | In this paper we briefly...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF NITROGEN FROM COAL-DERIVED AND COAL-RELATED MATERIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. , An Introduction to Coal Technology, Academic Press (Cl Cox, J. L. , ncatalysts for Coal Conversion", from "Clean Fuels from Coal", IGT Symposium, Sept. 10-14 (1974).

Frey, Douglas D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A landscape analysis of surface coal mine permits in the Coal River Watershed of West Virginia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In Appalachia, coal mining is a vital economic activity. Steps must be taken to ensure the future of the coal mining industry as well as… (more)

Kunkel, Lafe Joseph.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Formation of Coking Coal by Thermal Treatment of a Cannel Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the higher plants and the microplants (Ölalgen) have both played a part in coal formation: ... formation: coals formed from the former have been called humus ...

H. E. BLAYDEN; J. GIBSON; H. L. RILEY

1947-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

454

Geomechanics of coal-gas interactions : the role of coal permeability evolution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] Complex interactions between stress and sorptive chemistry exert strong influence on coal geomechanics. These include influences on gas sorption and flow, coal deformation,… (more)

Chen, Zhongwei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Development of a technology for coal conversion in the presence of coal tar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new process for the hydrogenation of coal in the presence of wide-cut coal tar was proposed; it involves cavitation treatment...

M. I. Baikenov; T. B. Omarbekov; Ma Fengyun; Sh. K. Amerkhanova…

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

458

PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water  

SciTech Connect

The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2008 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 93. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 94. U.S. coal production, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Western Coal Production Continues To Increase Through 2030 In the AEO2008 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at existing plants and construction of a few new coal-fired plants lead to annual production increases that average 0.3 percent per year from 2006 to 2015, when total production is 24.5 quadrillion Btu. In the absence of restrictions on CO2 emissions, the growth in coal production

460

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2008 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 65 percent and international coal trade increases by 53 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2005 to 29 percent in 2030. Figure 46. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 47. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 48. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2005, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 5 - Coal In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent from 2004 to 2030, international coal trade increases by 44 percent from 2005 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 26 percent in 2004 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 54. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 55. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data In the IEO2007 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 74 percent over the projection period, from 114.4 quadrillion Btu in 2004 to

462

FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, 2011 5, 2011 Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems. January 4, 2011 DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy supported project. December 16, 2010 Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology

463

NYMEX Coal Futures - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 NYMEX Coal Futures Near-Month Contract Final Settlement Price 2013 Data as of: December 13, 2013 | Release Date: December 16, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 30, 2013 U.S. coal exports, chiefly Central Appalachian bituminous, make up a significant percentage of the world export market and are a relevant factor in world coal prices. Because coal is a bulk commodity, transportation is an important aspect of its price and availability. In response to dramatic changes in both electric and coal industry practices, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) after conferring with coal producers and consumers, sought and received regulatory approval to offer coal futures and options contracts. On July 12, 2001, NYMEX began trading Central Appalachian Coal futures under the QL symbol.

464

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Coal Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production Coal Production Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030 Coal Production Figure 78. Coal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 79. U.S. coal production in four cases, 2007, 2015, and 2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Figure 80. Average minemouth coal prices by regionCoal production by region, 1970-2030 (quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. figure data Total Coal Production Increases at a Slower Rate Than in the Past In the AEO2009 reference case, increasing coal use for electricity generation at both new and existing plants and the startup of several CTL

465

Chapter 3 - Coal-fired Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal provides around 40% of the world’s electricity, more than any other source. Most modern coal-fired power stations burn pulverized coal in a boiler to raise steam for a steam turbine. High efficiency is achieved by using supercritical boilers made of advanced alloys that produce high steam temperatures, and large, high-efficiency steam turbines. Alternative types of coal-fired power plants include fluidized bed boilers that can burn a variety of poor fuels, as well as coal gasifiers that allow coal to be turned into a combustible gas that can be burned in a gas turbine. Emissions from coal plants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and trace metals, all of which must be controlled. Capturing carbon dioxide from a coal plant is also under consideration. This can be achieved using post-combustion capture, a pre-combustion gasification process, or by burning coal in oxygen instead of air.

Paul Breeze

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Chapter 5 - Coal Composition and Reservoir Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal consists of organic and mineral matter. Fixed carbon from organic matter measures the energy output of coal during combustion. Mineral matter determines how coal responds to combustion and affects reservoir porosity and permeability. Minerals infill pores, cleats, or fractures and replace the organic composition of coal. Organic composition is grouped into maceral association as microlithotypes and macrolithotypes, the latter for megascopic field descriptions (e.g. coal cores and mine face). Coal composition controls reservoir properties such as gas adsorption capacity, gas content, porosity, and permeability. Permeability is important to gas transport from coal matrix pores to the production well. Coal permeability is a function of the width, length, and height of cleats or fractures as well as the aperture, spacing, frequency or density, and connectivity of cleats or fractures. Coal cleats or fractures formed during burial, compaction, and coalification (endogenetic) and after coalification during deformation, uplift, and erosion of the basin of deposition.

Romeo M. Flores

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Materials in Combustion and Mixed-Gas Environments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Materials in Combustion and Mixed-Gas Environments Background A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal to clean fuels for power generation and for use as a feedstock in chemical plants. Coal con- version and combustion processes create by-products that affect the performance of the materials of which the plant components are fabricated, reducing the systems'

468

Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data This file contains data on the distribution of U.S. coal by coal-producing district of origin,...

469

Coal-tire co-liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Co-liquefaction of ground coal and tire rubber was studied at 400{degrees}C both with and without catalyst. Two different tire samples were used. In the non-catalytic runs, the conversion of coal increased with the addition of tire and the increase was dependent on tire/coal ratio and hydrogen pressure. Using a ferric sulfide-based catalyst, the coal conversion increased with an increase in the catalyst loading. However, the increase was more pronounced at loadings of around 0.5 wt%. The addition of tire to coal in the catalytic runs was not particularly beneficial, especially, when the tire/coal ratio was above 1.

Sharma, R.K.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Liu, Zhenyu; Stiller, A.H. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Introduction to the Special Issue on Sierran Mixed-Conifer Research Malcolm North and Jiquan Chen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fire suppression. The Sierra Nevada's largest forest type, mixed conifer, which is primary habitat that have a smooth, parklike surface . . ."; (Muir 1894). Now most mixed-conifer forest is characterized on forest processes was the duration and availability of soil moisture. Mixed conifer receives 90% of its

Chen, Jiquan

472

Coalbed gases and hydrocarbon source rock potential of upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata in upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) is one of the major Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the world. Its coalbed gas reserves to the depths of 1,000 m are estimated to be about 350 billion cubic meters (about 12.4 TCF). Coalbed gases in the USCB are variable in both molecular and stable isotope composition [{delta}{sup 13}C(CH{sub 4}), {delta}D(CH{sub 4}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), {delta}{sup 13}C(C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), {delta}{sup 13}C(CO{sub 2})]. Such variability suggests the effects of both primary reactions operating during the generation of gases and secondary processes such as mixing and migration. Coalbed gases are mostly thermogenic methane in which depth-related isotopic fractionation has resulted from migration but not from mixing with the microbial one. The stable carbon isotope composition indicates that the carbon dioxide, ethane and higher gaseous hydrocarbons were generated during the bituminous coal stage of the coalification process. The main stage of coalbed gas generation occurred during the Variscan orogeny, and generation was completed after the Leonian and Asturian phases of this orogeny. The coals and carbonaceous shales have high gas generation potential but low potential for generation and expulsion of oil compared to the known Type III source rocks elsewhere. In general, the carbonaceous shales have slightly higher potential for oil generation, but probably would not be able to exceed expulsion thresholds necessary to expel economic quantities of oil.

Kotarba, M.J.J. [Univ. of Mining and metallurgy, Cracow (Poland); Clayton, J.L.; Rice, D.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

Radiological Characterization around the Afsin-Elbistan Coal-Fired Power Plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiological Characterization around the Afsin-Elbistan Coal-Fired Power Plant in Turkey ... The environmental effect of natural radionuclides caused by coal-fired power plants was considered to be negligible because the Raeq values of the measured samples are generally lower than the limit value of 370 Bq·kg?1, equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv·y?1. ... Although significant variations were not observed with distance and direction, these results may be affected by several factors, such as soil formation, weather conditions (wind, rain, etc.) and human activity. ...

Ugur Cevik; Nevzat Damla; Bahad?r Koz; Selim Kaya

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is estimated that 47 % of global coal reserves consist of lignite and sub-bituminous coals [2]. Several

476

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Impact of Coal Ash Lagoons Upon the Surrounding Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash and slag are the waste products from thermal power stations (TPS). In one Polish TPS, 10,000 Mg of slag, and 48,700 Mg of ash are produced every year. All the slag is utilizedi whereas the ash is tipped of...

E. S. Kempa; A. J?drczak

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Evaluation of Effects of Rate of Heating and of Maximum Temperature on Pyrolysis of a Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric Oxidation of Coal at Moderate Temperatures. ... Effect of Oxidation on the Carbonizing Properties of Representative Coking Coals. ...

L Schmidt; J Elder; J Davis

1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mixed coal soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Clean Coal Program Research Activities  

SciTech Connect

Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

482

Chapter 14 - Coal bed methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Methane adsorbed to the surface of coal is a very old issue with some new commercial ramifications. This explosive gas has made underground coal mines dangerous both from the risk of explosion and the possibility of an oxygen-poor atmosphere that wouldn't support life. The miner's main concern with coal bed methane (CBM) has been how to get rid of it. Techniques to deal with CBM in mines have ranged from the classic canary in a cage to detect an oxygen-poor atmosphere to huge ventilation fans to force the replacement of a methane-rich environment with outside air, to drilling CBM wells in front of the coal face to try to degas the coal prior to exposing the mine to the CBM. All these techniques have met with some amount of success. None of the techniques to prevent CBM from fouling the air in an underground mine has been totally successful. With the CBM's unique method of gas storage, the preponderance of the gas is available only to very low coalface pressures. The coalface pressure is set by a combination of flowing wellhead pressure and the hydrostatic head exerted by standing liquid within the well bore. Effective compression strategies can lower the wellhead pressure to very low values. Effective deliquification techniques can reduce or remove the backpressure caused by accumulated liquid. CBM's economic impact is briefly explained in this chapter.

James F. Lea; Henry V. Nickens; Mike R. Wells

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR...

484

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......from 15 countries(4). The combustion of coal in a CFPP leads to an increase...of utilization of Turkish coal combustion fly ash in concrete production...7440-29-1 Thorium | Coal analysis Coal Ash analysis chemistry Environmental Exposure analysis......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Application of SEM Techniques to the Characterization of Coal and Coal Ash Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal is a major source of fuel for...(1)...The last decade has seen a significant increase in the use of coal for power generation. The increased demand for coal and the tendency to use a variety of coals to meet...

Michael L. Jones; David P. Kalmanovitch…

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth Report Title: Coal Production@nmsu.edu #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic Growth i Disclaimer This report States Government or any agency thereof. #12;Arrowhead Center: Coal Production and Regional Economic

Johnson, Eric E.

487

EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EFFECT OF COAL DUST ONEFFECT OF COAL DUST ON RAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTHRAILROAD BALLAST STRENGTH for Laboratory StudyFouling Mechanism / Need for Laboratory Study Mechanical Properties of Coal DustMechanical Properties of Coal Dust Grain Size AnalysisGrain Size Analysis AtterbergAtterberg LimitsLimits Specific

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

488

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

489

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

491

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: October 01, 2013 | Next Release Date: January 3, 2014 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. Quarterly data for all years are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the second quarter 2013: Total domestic coal distribution was an estimated 205.8 million short tons (mmst) in the second quarter 2013. This value is 0.7 mmst (i.e. 0.3 percent) higher than the previous quarter and 6.3 mmst (i.e. 3.1 percent) higher than the second quarter of 2012 estimates.

492

Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report | Revision/Correction The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for 2012 are final, and this report supersedes the 2012 quarterly coal distribution reports. Highlights for 2012: Total coal distributions for 2012 were 1,003.1 million short tons (mmst), a decrease of 7.9% compared to 2011. Distributions to domestic destinations were 877.3 mmst, a decrease of 104.1 mmst (i.e. 10.6% decrease) compared to 2011. Distributions to

493

Annual Coal Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Report Annual Coal Report Release Date: December 12, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report Previous Annual Coal / Coal Industry Annual Reports historical data (PDF): 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 before 2001 Industry Annual 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Go The Annual Coal Report (ACR) provides annual data on U.S. coal production, number of mines, productive capacity, recoverable reserves, employment, productivity, consumption, stocks, and prices. All data for 2012 and prior years are final. Highlights for 2012: U.S. coal production decreased 7.2 percent from 2011, driven by lower electric power sector demand, to roughly 1.02 billion short tons. Productive capacity of U.S. coal mines decreased 3.5 percent to 1.28

494

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 4 - Coal In the IEO2009 reference case, world coal consumption increases by 49 percent from 2006 to 2030, and coalÂ’s share of world energy consumption increases from 27 percent in 2006 to 28 percent in 2030. Figure 42. World Coal Consumption by Country Grouping, 1980-2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 43. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 44. OECD Coal Consumption by Region, 1980, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (Quadrillion Btu). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

495

International Energy Outlook 2006 - World Coal Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Markets Coal Markets International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 5: World Coal Markets In the IEO2006 reference case, world coal consumption nearly doubles from 2003 to 2030, with the non-OECD countries accounting for 81 percent of the increase. CoalÂ’s share of total world energy consumption increases from 24 percent in 2003 to 27 percent in 2030. Figure 48. World Coal Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 (Billion Short Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 49. Coal Share of World energy Consumption by Sector 2003, 2015, and 2030 (Percent). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Table 10. World Recoverable Coal Reserves (Billion Short Tons) Printer friendly version

496

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

497

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Underground Coal Gasification in the USSR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By accomplishing in a single operation the extraction of coal and its conversion into a gaseous fuel, underground gasification makes it possible to avoid the heavy capital investments required for coal gasification

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

The Role of Volatiles in Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our knowledge of the role of volatiles in coal combustion ranges at this time from the self-evident to the ambiguous. The clearest point on which all agree is that pyrolysis will occur during the total coal co...

Robert H. Essenhigh; Eric M. Suuberg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Tide May Be shifting versus coal  

SciTech Connect

Opinions about the future viability of coal as an energy source for generating electricity are presented. Positions of the coal lobby and environmental groups along with recent actions are included.

NONE

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z