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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Restored Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand on Surface Water Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pierina noceti Pierina noceti Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5428 pierina.noceti@netl.doe.gov steven I. apfelbaum Principal Investigator Applied Ecological Services, Inc. 17921 Smith Road P.O. Box 256 Brodhead, WI 53520 608-897-8641 steve@appliedeco.com Wetland Water Cooling PartnershiP: the Use of restored Wetlands to enhanCe thermoeleCtriC PoWer Plant Cooling and mitigate the demand on sUrfaCe Water Use Background Thermoelectric power plants require a significant volume of water to operate, accounting for 39 percent of freshwater (136 billion gallons per day) withdrawn in the United States in 2000, according to a U.S. Geological Survey study. This significant use of water ranks second only to the agricultural sector

2

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak- Demand Mitigation NicholasDispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation Nicholasdetermine whether the peak demand on the substation feeder

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation Title Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation Publication Type Conference Proceedings Refereed Designation Refereed...

4

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions in Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Name Transportation Demand Management in Beijing -...

5

Poster: Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poster: Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike Title Poster: Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity...

6

Resource allocation for demand surge mitigation during disaster response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale public health emergencies can result in an overwhelming demand for healthcare resources. Regional aid in the form of central stockpiles and resource redistribution can help mitigate the resulting demand surge. This paper discusses a resource ... Keywords: Decision support, Optimization, Pandemic flu, Resource allocation

Hina Arora; T. S. Raghu; Ajay Vinze

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions in Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Name Transportation Demand Management in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in urban transport Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Transportation Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA Website http://www.tdm-beijing.org/ Program Start 2011 Program End 2014 Country China Eastern Asia References Transport Management in Beijing[1] Program Overview The project aims to improve transport demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in

8

Transportation Demand Management in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in urban transport Jump to: navigation, search Name Transportation Demand Management in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions in urban transport Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Transportation Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA Website http://www.tdm-beijing.org/ Program Start 2011 Program End 2014 Country China Eastern Asia References Transport Management in Beijing[1] Program Overview The project aims to improve transport demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in Beijing to enable them to calculate baselines and assess reduction

9

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Climate change mitigation and co-benefits of feasible transport demand policies in Beijing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change mitigation and co-benefits of feasible transport demand policies in Beijing Felix Creutzig a,*, Dongquan He b a Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, USA b Energy i n f o Keywords: Climate change mitigation Transport demand management External costs Urban

Kammen, Daniel M.

11

Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Transportation Demand Management in Beijing - Mitigation of emissions...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the implementation of transport demand management measures. Appropriate Transport Demand Management (TDM) strategies and measures can affect travel behaviour and therefore reduce...

13

On the Use of Cool Materials as a Heat Island Mitigation Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mitigation of the heat island effect can be achieved by the use of cool materials that are characterized by high solar reflectance and infrared emittance values. Several types of cool materials have been tested and their optical and thermal ...

A. Synnefa; A. Dandou; M. Santamouris; M. Tombrou; N. Soulakellis

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone TemperatureUniversity of California. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-shifted in time and the peak demand is reduced. The building

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

CO{sub 2} mitigation potential of efficient demand-side technologies: The case of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the techno-economic potential of selected demand-side efficient appliances to mitigate CO{sub 2} emission from the power sector in Thailand under national, consumer, and utility perspectives. A key finding of this study is that about 5.5--7% of the total annual CO{sub 2} emission from the electricity sector of the country can be reduced during 1996--2011 from the national perspective.

Shrestha, R.M.; Biswas, W.K.; Timilsina, G.R. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program; Khummongkol, P.; Sinbanchongjit, S. [King Mongkut`s Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Enhancement Strategies for Mitigating Potential Operational Impacts of Cooling Water Intake Structures: Approaches for Enhancing Env ironmental Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes environmental enhancement or restoration approaches that may be applicable for mitigating impingement and entrainment impacts associated with cooling water intake structures (CWISs).

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Enhancement Strategies for Mitigating Potential Operational Impacts of Cooling Water Intake Structures: Approaches for Enhancing Env ironmental Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report describes environmental enhancement or restoration approaches that may be applicable for mitigating impingement and entrainment impacts associated with cooling water intake structures (CWISs). These approaches are described with respect to their underlying objectives, implementation and operational requirements, costs, current use by government and the private sector, and advantages and limitations for potentially mitigating CWIS operational impacts.

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air-ingress mitigation methods are proposed in this study. Among them, the following two mitigation ideas are extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD): (1) helium injection in the lower plenum, and (2) reactor enclosure opened at the bottom. The main idea of the helium injection method is to replace air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force. This method reduces graphite oxidation damage in the severe locations of the reactor inside. To validate this method, CFD simulations are addressed here. A simple 2-D CFD model is developed based on the GT-MHR 600MWt design. The simulation results showed that the helium replace the air flow into the core and significantly reduce the air concentration in the core and bottom reflector potentially protecting oxidation damage. According to the simulation results, even small helium flow was sufficient to remove air in the core, mitigating the air-ingress successfully. The idea of the reactor enclosure with an opening at the bottom changes overall air-ingress mechanism from natural convection to molecular diffusion. This method can be applied to the current system by some design modification of the reactor cavity. To validate this concept, this study also uses CFD simulations based on the simplified 2-D geometry. The simulation results showed that the enclosure open at the bottom can successfully mitigate air-ingress into the reactor even after on-set natural circulation occurs.

Chang H. Oh

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thermal energy storage for space cooling. Technology for reducing on-peak electricity demand and cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off-peak hours when electricity rates are lower. In addition, some system configurations may result in lower first costs and/or lower operating costs. Cool storage systems of one type or another could potentially be cost-effectively applied in most buildings with a space cooling system. A survey of approximately 25 manufacturers providing cool storage systems or components identified several thousand current installations, but less than 1% of these were at Federal facilities. With the Federal sector representing nearly 4% of commercial building floor space and 5% of commercial building energy use, Federal utilization would appear to be lagging. Although current applications are relatively few, the estimated potential annual savings from using cool storage in the Federal sector is $50 million. There are many different types of cool storage systems representing different combinations of storage media, charging mechanisms, and discharging mechanisms. The basic media options are water, ice, and eutectic salts. Ice systems can be further broken down into ice harvesting, ice-on-coil, ice slurry, and encapsulated ice options. Ice-on-coil systems may be internal melt or external melt and may be charged and discharged with refrigerant or a single-phase coolant (typically a water/glycol mixture). Independent of the technology choice, cool storage systems can be designed to provide full storage or partial storage, with load-leveling and demand-limiting options for partial storage. Finally, storage systems can be operated on a chiller-priority or storage priority basis whenever the cooling load is less than the design conditions. The first section describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. The next three sections define the savings potential in the Federal sector, present application advice, and describe the performance experience of specific Federal users. A step-by-step methodology illustrating how to evaluate cool storage options is presented next, followed by a case study of a GSA building using cool storage. Latter sections list manufacturers, selected Federal users, and reference materials. Finally, the appendixes give Federal life-cycle costing procedures and results for a case study.

None

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products or systems that heat, cool and heat domestic water, which are also referred to as integrated systems, have been available for several years. The concept is simple and appeals to consumers. This paper presents methods for evaluating the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in the refrigeration cycle. The methods may be applied for any specific location, and their accuracy will depend on the accuracy of building loads and water usage estimates. Power demand can also be affected by electric water heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks.

Cawley, R.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Relative Effects of U.S. Population Shifts (1930-80) on Potential Heating, Cooling and Water Demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects on potential heating, cooling and water demand induced by the shift and growth of population from cooler and wetter regions of the country to warmer and drier areas were examined. Heating and cooling degree day totals for each of the ...

Henry F. Diaz; Ronald L. Holle

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Architects in hot climates have long recognized that reflective roof colors can reduce building cooling load. Experimentation spanning nearly three decades has shown that white roofing surfaces can significantly reduce surface temperatures and cooling loads (Givoni and Hoffmann, 1968; Reagan and Acklam, 1979; Griggs and Shipp, 1988; Anderson, 1989; Anderson et al., 1991 and Bansal et al., 1992). More importantly, measured cooling energy savings of white surfaces have been significant in California's climate (Akbari et al., 1991, 1992, 1997). In Florida, field research by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) since 1993 has quantified the impact of reflective roof coatings on sub-metered air conditioning (AC) consumption in tests in a dozen occupied homes (Parker et al., 1993; 1994; 1995; 1997). The coatings were applied to the roofs of each home in mid-summer after a month-long period of monitoring during which meteorological conditions, building temperatures and AC energy use were recorded. Using weather periods with similar temperatures and solar insolation, air conditioning energy use was reduced by 10% - 43% in the homes. The average drop in space cooling energy use was about 7.4 kWh/day or 19% of the pre-application air conditioning consumption. Unfortunately, until this project there has been little objective testing of the impact of roof whitening on the AC load of commercial buildings in Florida. Two demonstration sites have been monitored. The first was an elementary school in Cocoa Beach, Florida, which was monitored for a year before and after a white roof coating was applied. A final report on this project was published in the CADDET Newsletter (Parker et al., 1996a, b). The project demonstrated a 10% annual savings in chiller energy with a 30% reduction in peak cooling electrical demand. This paper summarizes the findings from the second demonstration at a commercial strip mall.

Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equivalent and its electricity demand at 19 Mtoe. If wastemeet water heating and electricity demand in the residentialJournal Vol.4, No.4 electricity demand, fuel requirements

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the present level. Natural gas demand is expected to avoid2030 to 2050, however, natural gas demand will fall slowly

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an Energy-Efficient Economy. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-shifted in time and the peak demand is reduced. The building

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cool Earth - Innovative Energy Technology Plan," (14) AgencySuper-Long-Term Energy Technology Roadmap (Super-Long-TermTechnology Strategy Map (Energy Technology Strategy 2007),"

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Inherent Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Safety challenges for sodium-cooled fast reactors include maintaining core temperatures within design limits and assuring the geometry and integrity of the reactor core. Due to the high power density in the reactor core, heat removal requirements encourage the use of high-heat-transfer coolants such as liquid sodium. The variation of power across the core requires ducted assemblies to control fuel and coolant temperatures, which are also used to constrain core geometry. In a fast reactor, the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation. Accidents leading to fuel melting, fuel pin failure, and fuel relocation can result in positive reactivity, increasing power, and possibly resulting in severe accident consequences including recriticalities that could threaten reactor and containment integrity. Inherent safety concepts, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, can be used to increase the level of safety to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not credible, for such severe accident consequences to occur.

Roald A. Wigeland; James E. Cahalan

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency and in the coke manufacturing efficiency in thesystems and next-generation coke ovens. Demand for steamingsystems and next-generation coke ovens. Steaming coal

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

Information Center

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

higlily efficient natural gas power generation) Developing Ccoal natural gas thermal power generation Sources : Preparednatural gas demand will fall slowly because of improvements in L N G thermal power generation

Komiyama, Ryoichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy costs during the cooling season as well as the heating season. To achieve air conditioning savings, the system separates dehumidification from sensible cooling; dehumidifies by desiccant absorption, using heat from storage to dry the desiccant; and then cools at an elevated temperature improving overall system efficiency. Efficient heat for desiccant regeneration is provided by a selective-energy system coupled with thermal storage. The selective-energy system incorporates diesel cogeneration, solar energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility energy for refrigeration; 10 to 20% in refrigeration equipment; and space savings due to smaller ductwork and equipment.

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Consumer demand analysis: solar heating and cooling of buildings. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study concerns the acceptability of solar heating and cooling to homebuyers for residential applications. The study assesses the extent of homeowner awareness of solar technologies, estimates the acceptability of elevated first costs including willingness to trade higher initial costs for life cycle savings, and investigates the impact of solar aesthetics. Also explored are other areas of potential concern to homeowners in evaluating a solar alternative as well as positive motivations that would encourage purchase. Finally, the socioeconomic and attitudinal characteristics of individuals more likely to purchase a solar home rather than a conventional home were studied. The results are based on group depth interviews and personal interviews with active homeseekers, top executives of large residential development firms, and architects. The sample was split evenly between Denver, Colorado and the Philadelphia, Pa./Wilmington, Del. areas. Implications of the results for the commercialization of solar energy and possible public policy decisions are also discussed.

Scott, J.E.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demand shifting are thermal energy storage systems, whichlockout, pre-cooling, thermal energy storage, cooling loadlockout Pre-cooling Thermal energy storage Cooling

Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Peak Electric DemandDX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Scenario Supply/ ReturnDX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Peak Electric Demand

Shehabi, Arman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Study on Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Commercial Buildings with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

072010 Keywords auto-dr, demand response, demand response and distributed energy resources center, demand response research center, demand shed, demand shifting (pre-cooling),...

45

Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

studies also suggest that this would increase significantly the worldwide demand for natural gas and renewable technologies. Country studies show that the aggregate mitigation...

46

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can also reduce peak electricity demand. Cool roofs transferthe cool roof on peak electricity demand, we inspected theEstimate of Peak Electricity Demand Use and Savings Using

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

48

Current trends in commercial cool storage. Final report. [Use of chilled water and ice storage to reduce demand charges and electric bills; 85 projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to identify, by means of a phone-and-mail survey, recent installations of off-peak cool storage air conditioning systems in commercial buildings; to monitor new developments; and to indicate trends. This report contains descriptions of over 80 systems installed since 1981, plus findings and conclusions based on site-specific information. Analysis of the findings suggests that storage cooling systems in commercial buildings can, in many cases, offer technical and cost advantages over nonstorage systems. The detailed information should be of value to potential customers and HVAC engineers in making cooling equipment decisions that would be advantageous to customer, utility, and HVAC industry alike. 20 refs.

Hersh, H.N.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Comparison of energy modeling and laboratory tests on green roof potential to decrease the cooling demand for North European office buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenroofs have been shown to reduce the rooftop heat transfer, offering enhancement to a building's thermal resistance or R-value in warm climate zones. However a comprehensive study of neither the magnitude of that effect, nor the impact of green roof ... Keywords: cooling load, energy efficiency, energy modeling, greenroofs

Hendrik Voll; Teet-Andrus Kiv

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand Response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

52

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

53

Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art chemistry programs help to ensure the continued operation of open cooling water systems while mitigating corrosion and fouling mechanisms. This document, Open Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, prepared by a committee of industry experts, reflects field and laboratory data on corrosion and fouling issues of open cooling systems.BackgroundService Water System Chemical Addition Guideline (Electric Power Research Institute ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

54

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Light and Heavy Mass Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effort to understand pre-cooling thermal mass as a Demandof Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEKey words: Pre-cooling, demand response, thermal mass

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electricity demand changes in predictable patterns - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... winter months tend to be higher than demand levels during the fall and spring "shoulder" seasons when system demand for space conditioning (heating or cooling) ...

56

Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(at 97 deg. F) #12;Cool Keeper Unit Installation #12;Cool Keeper Test Shed Load Profile 3350 3400 3450 operating according to their 'Natural Duty Cycle' 93 o F Expected load profile w/o Cool Keeper intervention, Demand Side Management #12;Current Programs/Tariffs ­ Load Control Programs Cool Keeper, Utah (currently

57

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices Title Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and...

58

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices Title Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices...

59

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USA ABSTRACT Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand

Feustel, H.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evaluation of the Heating & Cooling Energy Demand of a Case Residential Building by Comparing The National Calculation Methodology of Turkey and EnergyPlus through Thermal Capacity Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In all around the world, because of the rapid population growth and exhausting energy sources over time, energy efficiency and energy conservation gradually come into prominence. Hence, in 2002, a directive (EPBD) which obligates reducing energy usage and energy performance in buildings was published by European Union. In this scope, Turkey has developed a National Building Energy Performance Calculation Methodology, BepTr, which is based on simple hourly method in ISO EN 13790 Umbrella Document to determine the energy performance of buildings. The aim of the paper is to display the energy demand differences resultant from only the envelopes thermal capacity between simplified method which is projected in ISO EN 13790 Umbrella Document and EnergyPlus which is based on full dynamic simulation method.

Atamaca, Merve; Kalaycioglu, Ece; Yilmaz, Zerrin

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Aspen and Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Solar Heating Buying & Making Electricity Water Heating Wind Program Info State Colorado Program Type Building Energy Code Provider Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) The City of Aspen and Pitkin County have adopted the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), with some amendments, as their official energy code effective March 9, 2010. The [http://www.aspenpitkin.com/Portals/0/docs/county/countycode/Building%20C...

65

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling offset by absorption cooling, but mostly extensivecooling demand increases, this can constitute a stable heat sink if waste heat for absorption

Stadler, Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

68

Paving materials for heat island mitigation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paving materials for heat island mitigation Paving materials for heat island mitigation Title Paving materials for heat island mitigation Publication Type Report Year of Publication 1997 Authors Pomerantz, Melvin, Hashem Akbari, Allan Chen, Haider Taha, and Arthur H. Rosenfeld Keywords Cool Pavements, Heat Island Abstract This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

69

A New Ventilation System Integrates Total Energy Recovery, Conventional Cooling and a Novel 'Passive' Dehumidification Wheel to Mitigate the Energy, Humidity Control and First Cost Concerns Often Raised when Designing for ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Compliance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a novel, ''passive" desiccant based outdoor air preconditioning system (PDH) that is shown to be significantly more energy-efficient than all known alternatives, and has the unique ability to dehumidify outdoor air streams to very low dewpoints unattainable with conventional cooling approaches. The system allows for precise control of the indoor space humidity while delivering high quantities of outdoor air, at both peak and part load conditions, and during both occupied and unoccupied modes. Low operating cost, reasonable first cost and a significant reduction in cooling plant capacity requirements provide a life cycle cost that is substantially less than that of more conventional system approaches.

Fischer, J. C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

EIA forecasts increased oil demand, need for additional supply ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

World oil demand is forecast to increase by 1.7 million barrels per day (bbl/d) ... Cooling demand in the Middle East is expected to rise to record levels this summer.

71

The Greenest Way to Stay Cool - NREL  

Coolerado The Elevator Brief Patented Heat Exchanger that cools air using 50 -90% less energy peak demand and total KWh -than conventional AC

72

Demand Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE identified four areas of interest: 1. Transmission Reliability 2. Demand Side Issues 3. Water and Energy 4. Other Topics * Argonne, NREL, and ORNL support for EIPC/SSC/EISPC and the EISPC Energy Zone is funded through Area 4. * Area 2 covers LBNL and NREL work in WECC and

73

Mitigation Efforts Calculator (MEC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mitigation Efforts Calculator (MEC) has been developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) as an online tool to compare greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation proposals by various countries for the year 2020. In this paper, ... Keywords: Business intelligence, Cost curves, Decision model, Interactive system, Optimisation

Thanh Binh Nguyen; Lena Hoeglund-Isaksson; Fabian Wagner; Wolfgang Schoepp

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

MITIGATION ACTION PLAN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MITIGATION ACTION PLAN MITIGATION ACTION PLAN KEMPER COUNTY IGCC PROJECT KEMPER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory September 2010 2 INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Kemper County IGCC Project (Project) (DOE/EIS-0409) in May 2010 and a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 2010 (75 FR 51248). The ROD identified commitments to mitigate potential adverse impacts associated with the project. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) describes the monitoring and mitigation actions the recipient must implement during the design, construction, and demonstration of the Project. DOE prepared this MAP in accordance with 10 CFR § 1021.331. PURPOSE Section 1021.331 of the DOE regulations implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021) provides

75

Mitigation Action Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation Title Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 -...

77

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

78

Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"  

SciTech Connect

As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.Keywords: Pre-cooling, demand response, thermal mass, hot

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the installation of distributed generation and other energyof 2 MW. The presence of distributed generation and storage

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TOU tariff, which levies high fees for both energy and powerE-20 Industrial Tariff (PG&E 2012) The Distributed Energya TOU electricity tariff. These energy improvementsalong

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bills incurred under a TOU electricity tariff. These energyTable 1 Time of Use Electricity Tariff at SRJ Period Summerby imposing the tariff rates to the electricity purchases of

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity. The benefits of microgrids are however a two-customer-operated microgrids can potentially reduce theIf the utility expects microgrids like SRJ to engage in this

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Reliability, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.myriad of on-site distributed energy resources (DER) locatedTariff (PG&E 2012) The Distributed Energy Resources Customer

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2009 SRJ Electricity Bills DER-CAM Optimization Managingthe composition of 2009 electricity bills at SRJ. Note thatTable 2 August Electricity Bill by Storage Schedule Charge

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The installed battery has an energy capacity of 4 MWh and acapacity appears to be decreasing with increasing battery

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-equal opportunity employer. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogridutility customers, microgrid solutions the installation of

DeForest, Nicholas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Spray Cooling Enhancement of Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry cooling of power plants may be an attractive alternative to wet cooling, particularly where water conservation and environmental protection pose critical siting issues. However, dry cooling technology may be unable to maintain design plant output during the hottest periods of the year, which are often periods of peak system demand. This studycosponsored by EPRI, the California Energy Commission, and Crockett Cogeneration Co.evaluated the use of a low-pressure spray enhancement system to...

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

90

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Field Tests, Simulation and Audits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Braun (Purdue). 2004. Peak demand reduction from pre-coolingmass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has beenpre-cooling strategies on peak demand. In addition, a set of

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. E. Braun. 2004. Peak demand reduction from pre-coolingReducing electrical peak demand has a huge economic andmass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits  

SciTech Connect

Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

95

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case Studies and Tools Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: March 9, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The idea of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling energy in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads during the peak periods. Savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Case studies in a number of office buildings in California has found that a simple demand limiting strategy reduced the chiller power by 20-100% (0.5-2.3W/ft2) during six

97

Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation  

SciTech Connect

Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

Akbari, Hashem

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Comparative Demonstration of Alternative Milk Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly-designed groundwater-ice bank milk cooling system significantly reduces energy use and peak electric demand by about 30% over a conventional direct expansion bulk tank cooling system. This study compared the energy efficiency, electrical demands, and milk quality obtained using the new and conventional systems. Overall, the new system represents a viable, cost-effective alternative for dairy farms that are upgrading or replacing milk cooling equipment.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either theiralternative metric, defined as the modules power index, PI, is the ratio of power demand for the cooling

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either theiralternative metric, defined as the modules power utilization index, PI , is the ratio of power demand for the cooling

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Monitoring and Mitigation of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation of Mitigation of Sustained Localized Pitting Corrosion FINAL REPORT DOE FEW 49297 YuPo J. Lin, Edward J. St.Martin, and James R. Frank Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 January 2003 Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Monitoring and Mitigation of Sustained Localized Pitting Corrosion Submitted to: Nancy C. Comstock U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Petroleum Technology Office By: YuPo J. Lin, Edward J. St.Martin, and James R. Frank Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 January 2003 The submitted manuscript has been created by the University of Chicago as Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne") under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on

102

SO3 Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of current utility operating experience in control of gas phase sulfuric acid emissions. It provides guidance for those contemplating the installation of an SO3 mitigation technology based on experience and lessons learned from utilities that have retrofitted different technologies.

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

103

Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management  

SciTech Connect

The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center Technical Advisory Group Meeting August 31, 2007 10:30 AM - Noon Meeting Agenda * Introductions (10 minutes) * Main Presentation (~ 1 hour) * Questions, comments from panel (15 minutes) Project History * Lighting Scoping Study (completed January 2007) - Identified potential for energy and demand savings using demand responsive lighting systems - Importance of dimming - New wireless controls technologies * Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) Objectives * Provide up-to-date information on the reliability, predictability of dimmable lighting as a demand resource under realistic operating load conditions * Identify potential negative impacts of DR lighting on lighting quality Potential of Demand Responsive Lighting Control

105

Demand Response Spinning Reserve  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Title Demand Response Spinning Reserve Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2007 Authors Eto, Joseph H., Janine Nelson-Hoffman, Carlos...

106

Transportation Demand This  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates...

107

Addressing Energy Demand  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices Bo Shen, Girish Ghatikar, Chun Chun Ni, and Junqiao Dudley Environmental Energy...

108

Propane Sector Demand Shares  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... agricultural demand does not impact regional propane markets except when unusually high and late demand for propane for crop drying combines with early cold ...

109

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

110

Shrinkage Mitigation Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The normal weight sand was oven dried and cooled for 24 h before mixing. ... cast that was identical to the mortar without NWA in air-tight plastic vials. ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

112

CO2 MITIGATION VIA ACCELERATED LIMESTONE WEATHERING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The climate and environmental impacts of our current, carbon-intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO2 mitigation strategies be found. As part of this effort, various means of capturing and storing CO2 generated from fossil-fuel-based energy production are being investigated. One of the proposed methods involves a geochemistry-based capture and sequestration process that hydrates point-source, waste CO2 with water to produce a carbonic acid solution. This in turn is reacted and neutralized with limestone, thus converting the original CO2 gas to calcium bicarbonate in solution, the overall reaction being:

Rau, G H; Knauss, K G; Langer, W H; Caldeira, K G

2004-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

113

Mitigation Action Plan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

212 212 Mitigation Action Plan for the Lease of Land for the Development of a Research Park at Los Alamos National Laboratory Departme~t of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office Los Alamos Area Office Los Alamos, New Mexico MITIGATION ACTION PLAN for the LEASE OF LAND FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH PARK AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY Background on the Lease of Land at Los Alamos National Laboratory: The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has approved an Environmental Assessment (EA) on the Lease of Land for the Development of a Research Park at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)(DOE/EA-1212), Los Alamos, New Mexico. The DOE released a Predecisional Draft of this EA for State and Tribal review and made the draft document available to the public on July 24, 1997 for

114

Risk Mitigation Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update builds upon the development of attack/failure and cyber-physical attack scenarios focused on combined cyber-physical attacks. These scenarios include threats and vulnerabilities that may be exploited by well-financed and motivated entities. It also leverages risk assessment processes developed to address combined cyber-physical attack scenarios. The framework in this update supports the further development of risk mitigation strategies focused on combined cyber-physical ...

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers Title Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers...

117

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response

Shen, Bo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Demand Trading: Building Liquidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand trading holds substantial promise as a mechanism for efficiently integrating demand-response resources into regional power markets. However, regulatory uncertainty, the lack of proper price signals, limited progress toward standardization, problems in supply-side markets, and other factors have produced illiquidity in demand-trading markets and stalled the expansion of demand-response resources. This report shows how key obstacles to demand trading can be overcome, including how to remove the unce...

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

119

Buffer Gas Cooling: A Tool for Trapping Neutral Atoms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buildings Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Demand Response Energy Efficiency Program and Market Trends High Technology and Industrial Buildings Lighting Systems Residential Buildings...

120

Occupancy based demand response HVAC control strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, cooling and ventilation accounts for 30% energy usage and for 50% of the electricity usage in the United States. Currently, most modern buildings still condition rooms assuming maximum occupancy rather than actual usage. As a result, rooms are ... Keywords: HVAC, demand response, energy savings, occupancy, ventilation

Varick L. Erickson; Alberto E. Cerpa

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline: Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. The chemical additives used for these purposes depend on plant-design characteristics, water quality, operating parameters, and the specifications of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) suppliers. The list of chemicals is not as extensive as that ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Urban Policies and Earthquake Risk Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The paper aims at proposing some considerations about some recent experiences of research carried out on the theme of earthquake risk mitigation and combining policies and actions of mitigation with urban development strategies. The objective was to go beyond the classical methodological approach aiming at defining a 'technical' evaluation of the earthquake risk through a procedure which can correlate the three 'components' of danger, exposure and vulnerability. These researches experiment, in terms of methodology and application, with a new category of interpretation and strategy: the so-called Struttura Urbana Minima (Minimum urban structure).Actually, the introduction of the Struttura Urbana Minima establishes a different approach towards the theme of safety in the field of earthquake risk, since it leads to a wider viewpoint, combining the building aspect of the issue with the purely urban one, involving not only town planning, but also social and managerial implications.In this sense the constituent logic of these researches is strengthened by two fundamental issues:- The social awareness of earthquake;- The inclusion of mitigation policies in the ordinary strategies for town and territory management. Three main aspects of the first point, that is of the 'social awareness of earthquake', characterize this issue and demand to be considered within a prevention policy:- The central role of the risk as a social production,- The central role of the local community consent,- The central role of the local community capability to planTherefore, consent, considered not only as acceptance, but above all as participation in the elaboration and implementation of choices, plays a crucial role in the wider issue of prevention policies.As far as the second point is concerned, the inclusion of preventive mitigation policies in ordinary strategies for the town and territory management demands the identification of criteria of choice and priorities of intervention and, as a consequence, the opportunity to promote an approach to the theme of mitigation policies realized through strategic principles and systemic logics able to shift the problem from the building to the town. The critical aspects of this theme are tied to three main issues:- The sharing of the way of interpreting town planning,- The integration of multiple objectives in one intervention tool,- The measures which can be adopted for an effective prevention policy.The above-mentioned elements have inspired these researches experimented on Calabrian towns.In particular, in this paper the experience carried out on Reggio Calabria is proposed. Its cultural roots derive from the principles and criteria experimented in small Calabrian towns, but it modifies them according to the complexity of the urban settlement, introducing also some experimental concepts and methodological approaches.

Sarlo, Antonella [Department of Architecture and Analysis of Mediterranean City Mediterranea University, via Melissari-Feo di Vito, 89124 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

124

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Case Studies and Tools Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: March 9, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The idea of pre-cooling...

125

Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand  

SciTech Connect

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy optionsone which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use change to meet 21st Century demands for food, fuel, and fiber will occur in the context of both a changing climate as well as societal efforts to mitigate climate change. This changing natural and human environment will have large consequences for forest resources, terrestrial carbon storage and emissions, and food and energy crop production over the next century. Any climate change mitigation policies enacted will change the environment under which land-use decisions are made and alter global land use change patterns. Here we use the GCAM integrated assessment model to explore how climate mitigation policies that achieve a climate stabilization at 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing in 2100 and value carbon in terrestrial ecosystems interact with future agricultural productivity and food and energy demands to influence land use in the tropics. The regional land use results are downscaled from GCAM regions to produce gridded maps of tropical land use change. We find that tropical forests are preserved only in cases where a climate mitigation policy that values terrestrial carbon is in place, and crop productivity growth continues throughout the century. Crop productivity growth is also necessary to avoid large scale deforestation globally and enable the production of bioenergy crops. The terrestrial carbon pricing assumptions in GCAM are effective at avoiding deforestation even when cropland must expand to meet future food demand.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chini, Louise Parsons; Hurtt, George; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Frolking, Steve; Wise, Marshall A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

127

Demand Side Bidding. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

Spahn, Andrew

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Peaking World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation and Risk Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking. In 2003, the world consumed nearly 80 million barrels per day (MM bpd) of oil. U.S. consumption was almost 20 MM bpd,

Robert L. Hirsch; Roger H. Bezdek; Robert M. Wendling

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Demand Impacted by Weather  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

When you look at demand, its also interesting to note the weather. The weather has a big impact on the demand of heating fuels, if its cold, consumers will use ...

130

Mass Market Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Market Demand Response Mass Market Demand Response Speaker(s): Karen Herter Date: July 24, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory,

131

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary of transportation greenhouse gas mitigation optionsof alternative fuels. Low greenhouse gas fuels Mixing ofreplacement. Greenhouse gas budgets for households and

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Demand Trading Toolkit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Download report 1006017 for FREE. The global movement toward competitive markets is paving the way for a variety of market mechanisms that promise to increase market efficiency and expand customer choice options. Demand trading offers customers, energy service providers, and other participants in power markets the opportunity to buy and sell demand-response resources, just as they now buy and sell blocks of power. EPRI's Demand Trading Toolkit (DTT) describes the principles and practice of demand trading...

2001-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Industrial Lift Truck Battery Charger Demand Response Impact Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand response and load shifting are two common energy management strategies used by lift truck fleet operators to mitigate on-peak energy consumption, reduce electricity costs, and react to electric system emergency curtailment requests. When customers elect to participate in demand response programs, they are contacted and asked to reduce load during power shortage situations. Alternatively, customers may implement longer-term economic load shifting strategies by reducing power to their lift truck bat...

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

134

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Establish Building Locations for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation October 7, 2013 - 10:53am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 After estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by building type, building location is an important consideration in evaluating the relevance of energy-saving strategies due to variations in heating and cooling needs, and the GHG reduction potential due to variability of emissions factors across regions of the grid. If site-level energy use estimates are available for each of the program's key building types, the program can identify building locations with the greatest emission reduction potential by using the benchmarking approach. Locations with the worst energy performance relative to the benchmark are

137

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

138

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graa, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Engineering & Natural Disaster Mitigation For more than 45 years, Western University has been internationally recognized as the leading university for wind engineering and wind- related research. Its of environmental disaster mitigation, with specific strengths in wind and earthquake research. Boundary Layer Wind

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

140

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers Title Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers Publication Type...

142

Electrical Demand Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Demand Management Plan set forth in this paper has proven to be a viable action to reduce a 3 million per year electric bill at the Columbus Works location of Western Electric. Measures are outlined which have reduced the peak demand 5% below the previous year's level and yielded $150,000 annual savings. These measures include rescheduling of selected operations and demand limiting techniques such as fuel switching to alternate power sources during periods of high peak demand. For example, by rescheduling the startup of five heat treat annealing ovens to second shift, 950 kW of load was shifted off peak. Also, retired, non-productive steam turbine chillers and a diesel air compressor have been effectively operated to displaced 1330 kW during peak periods each day. Installed metering devices have enabled the recognition of critical demand periods. The paper concludes with a brief look at future plans and long range objectives of the Demand Management Plan.

Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Demand Dispatch-Intelligent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and energy efficiency throughout the value chain resulting in the most economical price for electricity. Having adequate quantities and capacities of demand resources is a...

145

Study on Auto-DR and Pre-Cooling of Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keywords: Pre-cooling; Demand response; Thermal mass; Auto-discharged cooling energy from building thermal mass. If theand Pre-cooling of Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in

Yin, Rongxin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response Spinning Reserve

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

U.S. Propane Demand  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand is higher in 1999 due to higher petrochemical demand and a strong economy. We are also seeing strong demand in the first quarter of 2000; however, ...

149

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

xxxv Option Value of Electricity Demand Response, Osmanelasticity in aggregate electricity demand. With these newii) reduction in electricity demand during peak periods (

Heffner, Grayson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation Planning The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Planning section of the FEMP website is designed to provide Federal agency personnel with guidance to achieve agency GHG...

151

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation Planning to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program:...

152

Ultrasonic mitigation investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Mitigation analysis for Estonia  

SciTech Connect

The present report provides data on the mitigation analysis of Estonia. The results for energy, forest and agricultural sectors and macro-economic analysis are given. The Government of Estonia has identified the development of energy production as the main strategical means in the movement towards market economy. Now 99% of electricity generation and about 25% of heat production in Estonia is based on oil shale combustion. To increase the efficiency of oil shale-fired power plants and decrease CO{sub 2} emissions, the State Enterprise (SE) Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy) is planning to reconstruct these power plants and introduce the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustion technology for oil shale burning to replace the Pulverized Combustion (PC). According to the Estonian Forest Policy, two general objectives are of importance: sustainability in forestry and efficiency in forest management. For the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of production resource usage. The growth of the GDP in 1995 was 2.9% as a result of large-scale privatization activities in Estonia and re-introduction of the available, but unused production capacities with the help of foreign and domestic investments. It is assumed that the medium growth rate of GDP reaches 6% in 1998.

Martins, A.; Roos, J.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

156

CONSULTANT REPORT DEMAND FORECAST EXPERT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSULTANT REPORT DEMAND FORECAST EXPERT PANEL INITIAL forecast, end-use demand modeling, econometric modeling, hybrid demand modeling, energyMahon, Carl Linvill 2012. Demand Forecast Expert Panel Initial Assessment. California Energy

157

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air conditioning load, which is highly coincident with HL&P's system peak, provided a large market for cool storage technologies. Initial market research made it very clear that a special cool storage rate was required to successfully market the technology. Development of the rate required an integrated, multidepartment effort and extensive use of DSManager, an integrated resource planning model. An experimental version of the rate was initially implemented as part of the initial phase of the cool storage program. A permanent rate, incorporating lessons learned from the experimental rate, was then developed for the long term implementation of the program. The permanent rate went through a lengthy regulatory approval process which included intervention by a local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation.

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

internal conditions. Maximum Demand Saving Intensity [W/ft2]automated electric demand sheds. The maximum electric shed

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron July 15, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron, built in 1941. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab Public Affairs Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron,

160

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron July 15, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron, built in 1941. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab Public Affairs Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Commercial Demand Module The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module generates projections of commercial sector energy demand through 2035. The definition of the commercial sector is consistent with EIA's State Energy Data System (SEDS). That is, the commercial sector includes business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial activity (e.g., agriculture, mining or construction). The bulk of commercial sector energy is consumed within buildings; however, street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial. Since most of commercial energy consumption occurs in buildings, the commercial module relies on the data from the EIA

162

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Industrial Demand Module The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 15 manufacturing and 6 non-manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy- intensive manufacturing industries and non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries (Table 6.1). The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process-flow or end-use accounting procedure, whereas the non- manufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail. The petroleum refining industry is not included in the Industrial Demand Module, as it is simulated separately in the Petroleum Market Module of NEMS. The Industrial Demand Module calculates energy consumption for the four Census Regions (see Figure 5) and disaggregates the energy consumption

163

demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

164

Demand Response Database & Demo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Database & Demo Speaker(s): Mike Graveley William M. Smith Date: June 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Mary Ann Piette Infotility...

165

Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They...

166

Residential Sector Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

Owen Comstock

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

167

Industrial Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

Kelly Perl

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

168

Industrial Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

Kelly Perl

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Residential Sector Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

Owen Comstock

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

170

Transportation Demand This  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Transportation Demand Transportation Demand This page inTenTionally lefT blank 75 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific and associated technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight

171

Automated Demand Response Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report includes assessments and test results of four end-use technologies, representing products in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, each configured to automatically receive real-time pricing information and critical peak pricing (CPP) demand response (DR) event notifications. Four different vendors were asked to follow the interface requirements set forth in the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) standard that was introduced to the public in 2008 and currently used in two ...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Automated Demand Response Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, which is an update to EPRI Report 1016082, includes assessments and test results of four end-use vendor technologies. These technologies represent products in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, each configured to automatically receive real-time pricing information and critical peak pricing (CPP) demand response (DR) event notifications. Four different vendors were asked to follow the interface requirements set forth in the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) Communicat...

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

174

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

175

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The newly opened Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia, PA; Exxon's Computer Facility at Florham Park, NJ; The Center Square Building in Philadelphia, are success stories for demand shifting through thermal storage. These buildings employ a simple thermal energy storage system that already exists in almost every structure - concrete. Thermal storage calculations simulate sub-cooling of a building's structure during unoccupied times. During occupied times, the sub-cooled concrete reduces peak cooling demand, thereby lowering demand and saving money. In addition, significant savings are possible in the first cost of chilled water equipment, and the smaller chillers run at peak capacity and efficiency during a greater portion of their run time. The building, controlled by an Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), "learns" from past experience how to run the building efficiently. The result is an optimized balance between energy cost and comfort.

Kieninger, R. T.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

California Independent System Operator demand response & proxy demand resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand response programs are designed to allow end use customers to contribute to energy load reduction individually or through a demand response provider. One form of demand response can occur when an end use customer reduces their electrical usage ...

John Goodin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

time. 4 Reducing this peak demand through DR programs meansthat a 5% reduction in peak demand would have resulted insame 5% reduction in the peak demand of the US as a whole.

Shen, Bo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation, absorption cooling, solar thermal collection,activated cooling, photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors,activated cooling, solar electric and thermal equipment, and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation Mitigation Planning Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning October 7, 2013 - 10:08am Addthis The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Planning section provides Federal agency personnel with guidance to achieve agency GHG reduction goals in the most cost-effective way. Using a portfolio-based management approach for GHG mitigation planning, agencies will be able to prioritize strategies for GHG mitigation. Agencies can also use this guidance to set appropriate GHG reduction targets for different programs and sites within an agency. Learn more about the benefits of portfolio-based planning for GHG mitigation. Also see information about greenhouse gas mitigation planning data and tools. Step-by-Step The GHG mitigation planning process follows six key steps. Click on a step

183

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 39 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Commercial Demand Module The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module generates projections of commercial sector energy demand through 2035. The definition of the commercial sector is consistent with EIA's State Energy Data System (SEDS). That is, the commercial sector includes business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial activity (e.g., agriculture, mining or construction). The bulk of commercial sector energy is consumed within buildings; however, street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial.

184

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 12 manufacturing and 6 nonmanufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy-intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process flow or end use accounting procedure, whereas the nonmanufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail (Table 17). The Industrial Demand Module forecasts energy consumption at the four Census region level (see Figure 5); energy consumption at the Census Division level is estimated by allocating the Census region forecast using the SEDS 27 data.

185

Residential Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Residential Demand Module The NEMS Residential Demand Module projects future residential sector energy requirements based on projections of the number of households and the stock, efficiency, and intensity of energy-consuming equipment. The Residential Demand Module projections begin with a base year estimate of the housing stock, the types and numbers of energy-consuming appliances servicing the stock, and the "unit energy consumption" (UEC) by appliance (in million Btu per household per year). The projection process adds new housing units to the stock, determines the equipment installed in new units, retires existing housing units, and retires and replaces appliances. The primary exogenous drivers for the module are housing starts by type

186

Demand Response In California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency & Energy Efficiency & Demand Response Programs Dian M. Grueneich, Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich, Commissioner California Public Utilities Commission California Public Utilities Commission FUPWG 2006 Fall Meeting November 2, 2006 Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 1 Highest Priority Resource Energy Efficiency is California's highest priority resource to: Meet energy needs in a low cost manner Aggressively reduce GHG emissions November 2, 2006 2 Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 3 http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUBLISHED/REPORT/51604.htm Commissioner Dian M. Grueneich November 2, 2006 4 Energy Action Plan II Loading order continued "Pursue all cost-effective energy efficiency, first." Strong demand response and advanced metering

187

Automated Demand Response Today  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand response (DR) has progressed over recent years beyond manual and semi-automated DR to include growing implementation and experience with fully automated demand response (AutoDR). AutoDR has been shown to be of great value over manual and semi-automated DR because it reduces the need for human interactions and decisions, and it increases the speed and reliability of the response. AutoDR, in turn, has evolved into the specification known as OpenADR v1.0 (California Energy Commission, PIER Program, C...

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

188

Travel Demand Modeling  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

United States lubricant demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines United States Lubricant Demand for Automotive and Industrial Lubricants by year from 1978 to 1992 and 1997. Projected total United States Lubricant Demand for 1988 is 2,725 million (or MM) gallons. Automotive oils are expected to account for 1,469MM gallons or (53.9%), greases 59MM gallons (or 2.2%), and Industrial oils will account for the remaining 1,197MM gallons (or 43.9%) in 1988. This proportional relationship between Automotive and Industrial is projected to remain relatively constant until 1992 and out to 1997. Projections for individual years between 1978 to 1992 and 1997 are summarized.

Solomon, L.K.; Pruitt, P.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

Heffner, Grayson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

How much electricity is used for cooling in the United States ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much electricity is used for cooling in the United States? In 2011, EIA estimates that about 440 billion kilowatt-hours ... tariff, and demand charge data?

192

Absorption cooling in district heating network: Temperature difference examination in hot water circuit.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Lube Oil System Leakage Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lube Oil System Leakage Mitigation is the second in a series of training modules addressing leakage in nuclear power plants. The first planned modules in the leakage reduction series include leakage reduction program management, bolted joints with flat gaskets, valve packing, threaded joints, compression fittings, mechanical seals, and miscellaneous bolting issues.

1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

On Demand Guarantees in Iran.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??On Demand Guarantees in Iran This thesis examines on demand guarantees in Iran concentrating on bid bonds and performance guarantees. The main guarantee types and (more)

Ahvenainen, Laura

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Transportation Demand Management Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Demand Management Plan FALL 2009 #12;T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e m a n d M a n the transportation impacts the expanded enrollment will have. Purpose and Goal The primary goal of the TDM plan is to ensure that adequate measures are undertaken and maintained to minimize the transportation impacts

196

Commercial Sector Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

Kevin Jarzomski

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Commercial Sector Demand Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

Kevin Jarzomski

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California Title Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-3636e Year of Publication 2010 Authors Yin, Rongxin, Sila Kiliccote, Mary Ann Piette, and Kristen Parrish Conference Name 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Conference Location Pacific Grove, CA Keywords demand response and distributed energy resources center, demand response research center, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT Abstract This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30% using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

199

EIS-0397: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0397: Mitigation Action Plan Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project This Mitigation Action Plan identifies measures that are intended to avoid, reduce, or...

200

Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling for 12 hours. Pressurized argon and process water are used to expedite cooling. The proposed modifications aim to minimize cycling by reducing cooling time; they are grouped into three fundamental mechanisms. The first is a recommendation to modify current operating procedures. This entails opening the furnace doors at higher than normal temperatures. A furnace temperature model based on current parameters is used to show the reduction in cooling time in response to opening the furnace doors at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat from the furnace envelope. Heat transfer models based on convective Nusselt correlations are used to determine the increase in heat transfer rate. The last mechanism considers a modification to the current heat exchanger. By decreasing the temperature of the water jacket and increasing heat exchanger efficiency, heat transfer from the furnace is increased and cooling time is shortened. This analysis is done using the Effectiveness-NTU method.

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Combination pipe rupture mitigator and in-vessel core catcher  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device which mitigates against the effects of a failed coolant loop in a nuclear reactor by restricting the outflow of coolant from the reactor through the failed loop and by retaining any particulated debris from a molten core which may result from coolant loss or other cause. The device reduces the reverse pressure drop through the failed loop by limiting the access of coolant in the reactor to the inlet of the failed loop. The device also spreads any particulated core debris over a large area to promote cooling.

Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA); Markowski, Franz J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cooling Tower Fan Motor Power Optimization Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers are in use at more than 200 major electric generating plants in the United States, representing approximately 800 units and a total of more than 210,000 MW. The auxiliary power consumed by cooling tower fan motors can significantly reduce the net power output of steam-cycle power plants. Cooling tower specifications are established by the economic and operational requirements of maximum unit load and the most demanding environmental conditions expected in the towers locale. Since power pl...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline, Revision 1: Revision 1 to TR-107396, Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This "Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline" addresses the use of chemicals to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling water (CCW) systems of nuclear power plants. The chemical additives used for these purposes depend on plant design characteristics, water quality, operating parameters, and the specifications of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) suppliers. The list of chemicals is not as extensive as that for service water systems but can be confusing to utility ...

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colorado Name Aspen & Pitkin County - Renewable Energy Mitigation Program Incentive Type Building Energy Code Applicable Sector Commercial, Residential Eligible Technologies...

206

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry Title Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kong, Lingbo, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Lynn K. Price Date Published 12/2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords emerging technologies, energy efficiency, ghg, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, pulp and paper Abstract The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry's processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry's energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

207

Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in cities around the world can help reduce the demand for air conditioning, cool entire cities, and potentially cancel the heating effect of up to two years of worldwide carbon...

208

WIPPAnnualMitigationActionReport2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2-3322 2-3322 2012 ANNUAL MITIGATION REPORT FOR THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT JULY 10, 2012 DOE/CBFO-12-3322 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................. 3 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................... 4 THE 2012 ANNUAL MITIGATION REPORT ......................................................................... 5 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 14 DOE/CBFO-12-3322 3 ACRONYMS AMR Annual Mitigation Report ASER Annual Site Environmental Report

209

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

210

ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report to the California Energy Demand 2006-2016 Staff Energy Demand Forecast Report STAFFREPORT June 2005 CEC-400 .......................................................................................................................................1-1 ENERGY DEMAND FORECASTING AT THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION: AN OVERVIEW

211

Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required of any forecast of electricity demand and developing ways to reduce the risk of planning errors that could arise from this and other uncertainties in the planning process. Electricity demand is forecast

212

Industrial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Industrial Demand Module The NEMS Industrial Demand Module estimates energy consumption by energy source (fuels and feedstocks) for 15 manufacturing and 6 non-manufacturing industries. The manufacturing industries are further subdivided into the energy- intensive manufacturing industries and nonenergy-intensive manufacturing industries (Table 6.1). The manufacturing industries are modeled through the use of a detailed process-flow or end-use accounting procedure, whereas the non- manufacturing industries are modeled with substantially less detail. The petroleum refining industry is not included in the Industrial Module, as it is simulated separately in the Petroleum Market Module of NEMS. The Industrial Module calculates

213

Commercial Demand Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 The commercial module forecasts consumption by fuel 15 at the Census division level using prices from the NEMS energy supply modules, and macroeconomic variables from the NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM), as well as external data sources (technology characterizations, for example). Energy demands are forecast for ten end-use services 16 for eleven building categories 17 in each of the nine Census divisions (see Figure 5). The model begins by developing forecasts of floorspace for the 99 building category and Census division combinations. Next, the ten end-use service demands required for the projected floorspace are developed. The electricity generation and water and space heating supplied by distributed generation and combined heat and power technologies are projected. Technologies are then

214

On Demand Paging Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The power consumption of the network interface plays a major role in determining the total operating lifetime of wireless handheld devices. On demand paging has been proposed earlier to reduce power consumption in cellular networks. In this scheme, a low power secondary radio is used to wake up the higher power radio, allowing the latter to sleep or remain off for longer periods of time. In this paper we present use of Bluetooth radios to serve as a paging channel for the 802.11 wireless LAN. We have implemented an on-demand paging scheme on a WLAN consisting of iPAQ PDAs equipped with Bluetooth radios and Cisco Aironet wireless networking cards. Our results show power saving ranging from 19% to 46% over the present 802.11b standard operating modes with negligible impact on performance.

Bluetooth Radios On; Yuvraj Agarwal; Rajesh K. Gupta

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Net Demand3 Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contract Number: DE-FE0004002 (Subcontract: S013-JTH-PPM4002 MOD 00) Summary The US DOE has identified a number of materials that are both used by clean energy technologies and are at risk of supply disruptions in the short term. Several of these materials, especially the rare earth elements (REEs) yttrium, cerium, and lanthanum were identified by DOE as critical (USDOE 2010) and are crucial to the function and performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) 1. In addition, US DOE has issued a second Request For Information regarding uses of and markets for these critical materials (RFI;(USDOE 2011)). This report examines how critical materials demand for SOFC applications could impact markets for these materials and vice versa, addressing categories 1,2,5, and 6 in the RFI. Category 1 REE Content of SOFC Yttria (yttrium oxide) is the only critical material (as defined for the timeframe of interest for SOFC) used in SOFC 2. Yttrium is used as a dopant in the SOFCs core ceramic cells.. In addition, continuing developments in SOFC technology will likely further reduce REE demand for SOFC, providing credible scope for at least an additional 50 % reduction in REE use if desirable. Category 2 Supply Chain and Market Demand SOFC developers expect to purchase

J. Thijssen Llc

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

218

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Gas Demands..xi Annual natural gas demand for each alternativeused in natural gas demand projections. 34

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Pathways analysis Resource Type: Presentation, Training materials Website: unfccc.int/resource/cd_roms/na1/mitigation/index.htm UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments Screenshot References: UNFCCC-Mitigation Assessments[1] "This training package (containing PowerPoint presentations and notes, a handbook and reference materials) is designed to facilitate the preparation of the mitigation component of the national communications by non-Annex I teams based on UNFCCC guidelines contained in the annex to decision 17/CP.8." References

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum demand and Maximum demand incorporate assumptionslevels, or very minor Maximum demand household size, growthvehicles in Increasing Maximum demand 23 mpg truck share

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

223

Dividends with Demand Response  

SciTech Connect

To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

A study of industrial equipment energy use and demand control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Demand and duty factors were measured for selected equipment [air compressors, electric furnaces, injection-molding machines, a welder, a granulator (plastics grinder), a sheet metal press and brake, a lathe, a process chiller, and cooling tower pumps and fans] in two industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air compressors were found to be near 100 %, for lightly loaded centrifugal equipment (lathe, sheet metal shear and brake, and granulator) near 10 %, and for injection-molding machines near 50 %. The measured demand factors differ from those often estimated during energy surveys. Duty factors for some equipment were found to exceed 100 %, showing that some loads were on for longer periods than that indicated by plant personnel. Comparing a detailed summary of equipment rated loads to annual utility bills, when measurements are not available, can prevent over-estimation of the demand and duty factors for a plant. Raw unadjusted estimates of demand factors of 60 % or higher are often made, yet comparisons of rated loads to utility bills show that some equipment demand factors may be 50 % or less. This project tested a simple beacon alerting system, which used a blue strobe light to alert plant personnel when a preset demand limit had been reached. Tests of load shedding verified that the estimated demand savings of 50 kVA were realized (out of a total demand of almost 1200 kVA) when lighting and air conditioning loads were turned off.

Dooley, Edward Scott

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Renewable and cooling aware workload management for sustainable data centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, the demand for data center computing has surged, increasing the total energy footprint of data centers worldwide. Data centers typically comprise three subsystems: IT equipment provides services to customers; power infrastructure supports the ... Keywords: cooling optimization, demand shaping, renewable energy, scheduling, sustainable data center

Zhenhua Liu; Yuan Chen; Cullen Bash; Adam Wierman; Daniel Gmach; Zhikui Wang; Manish Marwah; Chris Hyser

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa zones and do not respect size limits in their quest for maximum financial returns. "I lack words economy. China's demand for hardwood drives illegal logging says "Both illegal and authorized

227

Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Properties of the AIDS Generalized Maximum Entropy Estimator 24 #12;Estimating a Demand SystemEstimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand Amos Golan* Jeffrey with nonnegativity constraints is presented. This approach, called generalized maximum entropy (GME), is more

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

228

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST Demand Forecast report is the product of the efforts of many current and former California Energy Commission staff. Staff contributors to the current forecast are: Project Management and Technical Direction

229

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

230

Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Efficient cooling: Making it happen  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a series of solutions that can help everyone to some basic questions about air conditioning: what`s the best way to size a residential air conditioner? to what extent do air conditioners tend to be oversized? how can energy research and programs help promote optimal sizing of cooling systems? Topics covered include the following: defining the debate over sizing of air conditioners; methods for sizing; evaluating simple {open_quotes}rules of thumb{close_quotes}; working with HVAC contractors; creating consumer demand for proper sizing. 1 fig. 1 tab.

Sherman, C.; Hildebrandt, E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

234

Demand Response | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in wholesale markets, and in turn, lead to lower retail rates. Methods of engaging customers in demand response efforts include offering time-based rates such as time-of-use pricing, critical peak pricing, variable peak pricing, real time pricing, and critical peak rebates. It also includes direct load control programs which provide the

235

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

236

ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT STAFFREPORT June 2005 ..............................................................................3 Residential Forecast Comparison ..............................................................................................5 Nonresidential Forecast Comparisons

237

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures  

SciTech Connect

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Overview of Demand Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

08 PJM 08 PJM www.pjm.com ©2003 PJM Overview of Demand Response PJM ©2008 PJM www.pjm.com ©2003 PJM Growth, Statistics, and Current Footprint AEP, Dayton, ComEd, & DUQ Dominion Generating Units 1,200 + Generation Capacity 165,000 MW Peak Load 144,644 MW Transmission Miles 56,070 Area (Square Miles) 164,250 Members 500 + Population Served 51 Million Area Served 13 States and DC Generating Units 1,200 + Generation Capacity 165,000 MW Peak Load 144,644 MW Transmission Miles 56,070 Area (Square Miles) 164,250 Members 500 + Population Served 51 Million Area Served 13 States and DC Current PJM RTO Statistics Current PJM RTO Statistics PJM Mid-Atlantic Integrations completed as of May 1 st , 2005 ©2008 PJM

239

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

EPRI Boiling Water Reactor Mitigation Performance Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation performance of 44 BWRs with or without noble metal chemical addition or On-Line NobleChem. Results are categorized by chemistry regime and include data from the most recently completed and current operating cycles. BWRs continue to strive for high hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) availability for IGSCC mitigation, and most plants achieve an overall mitigation performance indicator in the green (excellent) or white (satisf...

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Projecting market demand for residential heat pumps  

SciTech Connect

Primarily because of technological improvements and sharp increases in energy prices after the 1970s energy crises, the sale of residential electric heat pumps rose ninefold from 1970 to 1983. This report describes current and future market demand for heat pumps used for space heating and cooling. A three-step approach was followed. In the first step, the historical growth of residential electric heat pumps was analyzed, and factors that may have affected market growth were examined. Also examined were installation trends of heat pumps in new single-family and multifamily homes. A market segmentation analysis was used to estimate market size by categories. In the second step, several methods for forecasting future market demand were reviewed and evaluated to select the most suitable one for this study. The discrete-choice approach was chosen. In the third step, a market penetration model based on selected discrete-choice methods was developed to project heat pump demand in key market segments such as home type (single-family or multifamily), new or existing construction, and race-ethnic origin of household (black, Hispanic, or white).

Teotia, A.P.S.; Raju, P.S.; Karvelas, D.; Anderson, J.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) (Redirected from GCOMAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Website: ies.lbl.gov/taxonomy/term/34 References: GCOMAP Project [1] Logo: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) "The GCOMAP project reported on the global potential for carbon sequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenarios from 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typically seen in global

243

Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Website: ies.lbl.gov/taxonomy/term/34 References: GCOMAP Project [1] Logo: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) "The GCOMAP project reported on the global potential for carbon sequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenarios from 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typically seen in global

244

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GHG Mitigation Strategies Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental characteristics data on U.S....

245

Mitigating Climate Change through Energy Efficiency: Implications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigating Climate Change through Energy Efficiency: Implications of China's 20 % Energy Intensity Reduction Target Speaker(s): Jiang Lin Date: March 13, 2007 - 12:00pm Location:...

246

Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tool (EX-ACT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Brazil-Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an Application of the...

247

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mobile Equipment to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment on Facebook Tweet...

248

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Business Travel to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Business Travel on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy...

249

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Employee Commuting to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Employee Commuting on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy...

250

Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mitigate 21 MtCO 2 . Cogeneration (also called Combined Heatefficiencies. Industrial cogeneration is an important partpotential for industrial cogeneration is estimated at almost

Worrell, Ernst

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Utilization of Rainwater as a Supplementary Water Source for Cooling Tower Makeup: A Sustainability Strategy for Potable Water Use Reduction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The use of rainwater as a supplementary water source for cooling water makeup was explored in an effort to reduce the potable water demand (more)

Costello, Elizabeth Stassun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental and Analytical Simulation of MFCI (Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction) during CDA (Core Disruptive Accident) in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With increasing demand for understanding Severe Accident Scenario in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors, there is an urgent need of enhancing numerical and experimental simulation techniques. (more)

Natarajan, Venkataraman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

254

Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits  

SciTech Connect

The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fuzzy financial profitability analyses of demand side management alternatives from participant perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper derives fuzzy profitability models for the financial evaluation of different demand side management (DSM) alternatives. The present value of cost (PVC) and equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) models are selected to determine the least-cost ... Keywords: Mellin transform, cogeneration, cooling energy storage, demand side management, fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy ranking, profitability analyses

J. N. Sheen

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

257

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Demand Response Programs, 6. edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

NONE

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007 EMCS EPACT ERCOT FCM FERC FRCC demand side managementEnergy Regulatory Commission (FERC). EPAct began the processin wholesale markets, which FERC Order 888 furthered by

Shen, Bo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Gas cooling for large commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Energy costs typically account for 10% to 20% of the operating costs for commercial buildings. These costs have continued to rise over the past several years notwithstanding the implementation of energy conservation programs. Increasing electric demand charges have been a major cause of the problem, and as capital-intensive nuclear and coal plants under construction are rolled into the rate base, these demand penalties are likely to become more severe. Electric cooling is the major contributor to seasonal and daily electric peaks. The use of natural gas for cooling can provide relief from high peak period electric prices either directly through absorption systems and engine-driven chillers or indirectly via cogeneration and recovered heat-driven absorption cooling. Although a window of opportunity exists for gas cooling in some parts of the country today, technological advancement and cost reduction are required in order for gas cooling to realize widespread applicability. The Gas Research Institute has implemented a comprehensive development program in cooperation with industry to evolve engine-driven chiller systems in the 100-ton and larger size range with gas coefficients of performance of 2.4, first-cost premiums of less than $100/ton, and service intervals of 4000 hours. Maintenance records of several engine-driven systems installed in the early 1970's were studied. System reliability was found to be in-line with HVAC market requirements.

Davidson, K.; Brattin, H.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Summary of Slagging and Fouling Mitigation Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a report on novel slagging and fouling mitigation methods in the coal-fired power generation industry. The project was identified by EPRI in response to member needs to compile a snapshot of approaches to mitigating slagging and fouling of coal-fired boilers as the industry migrates to burning off design coal.

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

262

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

263

electricity demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description The New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development publishes energy data including many datasets related to electricity. Included here are three electricity consumption and demand datasets, specifically: annual observed electricity consumption by sector (1974 to 2009); observed percentage of consumers by sector (2002 - 2009); and regional electricity demand, as a percentage of total demand (2009). Source New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Date Released Unknown Date Updated July 03rd, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Electricity Consumption electricity demand energy use by sector New Zealand Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Electricity Consumption by Sector (1974 - 2009) (xls, 46.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Percentage of Consumers by Sector (2002 - 2009) (xls, 43.5 KiB)

264

Annual World Oil Demand Growth  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Following relatively small increases of 1.3 million barrels per day in 1999 and 0.9 million barrels per day in 2000, EIA is estimating world demand may grow by 1.6 million barrels per day in 2001. Of this increase, about 3/5 comes from non-OECD countries, while U.S. oil demand growth represents more than half of the growth projected in OECD countries. Demand in Asia grew steadily during most of the 1990s, with 1991-1997 average growth per year at just above 0.8 million barrels per day. However, in 1998, demand dropped by 0.3 million barrels per day as a result of the Asian economic crisis that year. Since 1998, annual growth in oil demand has rebounded, but has not yet reached the average growth seen during 1991-1997. In the Former Soviet Union, oil demand plummeted during most of the

265

Property:EnvironmentalMitigation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EnvironmentalMitigation EnvironmentalMitigation Jump to: navigation, search Property Name EnvironmentalMitigation Property Type Text Description Description of measures that could be used to mitigate environmental impact. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: E Exploration Drilling Pages using the property "EnvironmentalMitigation" Showing 24 pages using this property. 2 2-M Probe Survey + The use of off road vehicles should avoid overland travel during periods when soils are moist or wet. Backfilling of excavated probe holes. A Active Seismic Techniques + The environmental impacts of a seismic survey vary drastically and are survey-specific. Factors to consider are: terrain, land access, land usage, survey extent, seismic crew size, source (dynamite, vibroseis, etc.), accomodation for the crew, remoteness of survey location, among others.

266

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

267

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Commissioning Title Automated Demand Response and Commissioning Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-57384 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Piette, Mary...

268

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lvi Southern California Edison filed its SmartConnectinfrastructure (e.g. , Edison Electric Institute, DemandSouthern California Edison Standard Practice Manual

Heffner, Grayson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Demand Uncertainty and Price Dispersion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Demand uncertainty has been recognized as one factor that may cause price dispersion in perfectly competitive markets with costly and perishable capacity. With the persistence (more)

Li, Suxi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

1995 Demand-Side Managment  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management 1995 January 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels

271

2012 SG Peer Review - Expanded Demand Response Functionality - Graham Parker, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expanded Demand Response Functionality Expanded Demand Response Functionality Graham Parker Pacific Northwest National Laboratory June 7, 2012 December 2008 Expanded Demand Response Functionality Objectives Life-cycle Funding Summary ($K) Technical Scope (Insert graphic here) * Determine capabilities and customer benefits of smart appliances to mitigate impacts of renewables (PV/wind) and provide ancillary services in partnership with industry and stakeholders. * Advance the business case-from the consumer perspective-for smart appliances and home energy management systems (HEMs). * Assist developing national standardization and regulatory paradigms to enable mass consumer participation. * Model development and GridLAB-D(tm) modeling and analysis of smart appliances

272

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

273

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy efficiency and demand response programs and tariffs.energy efficiency and demand response program and tariffenergy efficiency and demand response programs and tariffs.

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency,Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,technical support from the Demand Response Research Center (

Federspiel, Clifford

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT) The opportunities for demand reduction and cost saving with building demand responsive control vary tremendously with building type...

276

Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8.4 Demand Response Integration . . . . . . . . . . .for each day type for the demand response study - moderatefor each day type for the demand response study - moderate

Papavasiliou, Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilitiesof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1. Economic demand response and real time pricing (Implications of Demand Response Programs in CompetitiveAdvanced Metering, and Demand Response in Electricity

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Figure 7: Maximum Demands Savings Intensity due toaddressed in this report. Maximum Demand Savings Intensity (Echelon Figure 7: Maximum Demands Savings Intensity due to

Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Modeling Space Heating Demand in Massachusetts Housing Stock and the Implications for Climate Change Mitigation Policy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research examines variation in average household energy consumption for space heating in municipalities in Massachusetts in order to explore the magnitude of variation among (more)

Robinson, Nathan H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

286

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

289

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect

This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Use of Degraded Water Sources as Cooling Water in Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In electricity production, nearly all thermal power plants reject heat either to a large body of water (once-through cooling) or to the atmosphere via wet cooling towers the predominant form of cooling in California. These towers, however, use considerable quantities of water. Competing state demands for freshwater have forced California thermal power plants to consider alternative cooling water supplies, though the availability of such supplies and data on their use and impact is limited. In fac...

2003-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

Harnessing the power of demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

China, India demand cushions prices  

SciTech Connect

Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

Boyle, M.

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

New coal plant technologies will demand more water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Photovoltaic-based Demand Response and Ancillary Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photovoltaic-based Demand Response and Ancillary Services Photovoltaic-based Demand Response and Ancillary Services Speaker(s): Bill Vogel Date: June 22, 2012 - 1:00pm Location: 90-1099 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: David S. Watson This presentation describes innovations in intelligent micro inverters for use with photovoltaic (PV) systems. The micro-inverters enable remotely adjustable phase angles (+/- up to 45 degrees). The technology includes dynamic impedance matching and ultra-low cost dynamic reactive power management of digital power sources. These attributes can help mitigate grid balancing challenges introduced by most renewable generation resources as we strive to reach aggressive renewable portfolio standards and their associated needs for voltage support and ancillary services. The software-enabled device eliminates several pieces of heavy equipment needed

297

Demand Response for Ancillary Services  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

EA-1456: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

456: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1456: Mitigation Action Plan Cheyenne-Miracle Mile and Ault-Cheyenne Transmission Line Rebuild Project Carbon, Albany and Laramie Counties, Wyoming...

299

Transmission/Resource Library/Enviromental Resources and Mitigation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resources and Mitigation < Transmission | Resource Library(Redirected from TransmissionResource LibraryMitigation) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

300

EA-1617: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation Action Plan EA-1617: Mitigation Action Plan Lovell-Yellowtail and Basin-Lovell Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Big Horn County, Wyoming, Big Horn and Carbon Counties,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

EIS-0422: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Action Plan EIS-0422: Mitigation Action Plan Central Ferry-Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project Mitigation measures and estimated time of implementation within...

302

FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation...

303

Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the Nationwide Inventory Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on...

304

EA-1611: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation Action Plan EA-1611: Mitigation Action Plan Colorado Highlands Wind Project, Logan County, Colorado Colorado Highlands Wind LLC applied to Western Area Power...

305

EA-1934: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan EA-1934: Mitigation Action Plan Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington This Mitigation Action Plan is an integral part of the Finding of No...

306

Mitigation of SCR-Ammonia Related Aqueous Effects in a Fly Ash Pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated fly ash resulting from secondary injection of ammonia to mitigate SO3 produced by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system altered the water quality of a fly ash pond at a coal-fired power generation station. This project attempted to improve water quality by encouraging the growth of algae in the pond to remove ammonia, while keeping other important parameters (pH, total suspended solids, Biological Oxygen Demand, and metals) within allowable limits.

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the silver bullet for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

309

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California...

310

Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the average and maximum peak demand savings. The electricity1: Average and Maximum Peak Electric Demand Savings during

Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

312

Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

Scott, K. Rebecca

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S. RetailNoureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandanalysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. Energy

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

Scott, K. Rebecca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

317

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy Speaker(s): Steven R. Schiller Date: December 8, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar HostPoint of Contact:...

318

Economical solutions to blast mitigation on bridges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mitigating the energy created from a blast has been a topic of utmost importance in the terrorism-feared world of today. Main targets of concern are passageways that are significant to a specific area, such as bridges. ...

DeRogatis, Austin (Austin Patrick)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Choosing Carbon Mitigation Strategies Using Ethical Deliberation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions change earths climate by altering the planets radiative balance. An important first step in mitigation of climate change is to reduce annual increases in these emissions. However, the many suggested means ...

Rebecca Bendick; Kyla M. Dahlin; Brian V. Smoliak; Lori Kumler; Sierra J. Jones; Athena Aktipis; Ezekiel Fugate; Rachel Hertog; Claus Moberg; Dane Scott

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acknowledgments SUMMARY Electricity Demand ElectricityAdverse Impacts ELECTRICITY DEMAND . . . .Demand forElectricity Sales Electricity Demand by Major Utility

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Demand Response Research in Spain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Research in Spain Demand Response Research in Spain Speaker(s): Iñigo Cobelo Date: August 22, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mary Ann Piette The Spanish power system is becoming increasingly difficult to operate. The peak load grows every year, and the permission to build new transmission and distribution infrastructures is difficult to obtain. In this scenario Demand Response can play an important role, and become a resource that could help network operators. The present deployment of demand response measures is small, but this situation however may change in the short term. The two main Spanish utilities and the transmission network operator are designing research projects in this field. All customer segments are targeted, and the research will lead to pilot installations and tests.

324

EIA - AEO2010 - Electricity Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Demand Electricity Demand Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Electricity Demand Figure 69. U.S. electricity demand growth 1950-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 60. Average annual U.S. retail electricity prices in three cases, 1970-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 61. Electricity generation by fuel in three cases, 2008 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 62. Electricity generation capacity additions by fuel type, 2008-2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 63. Levelized electricity costs for new power plants, 2020 and 2035 Click to enlarge » Figure source and data excel logo Figure 64. Electricity generating capacity at U.S. nuclear power plants in three cases, 2008, 2020, and 2035

325

Winter Demand Impacted by Weather  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: Heating oil demand is strongly influenced by weather. The "normal" numbers are the expected values for winter 2000-2001 used in EIA's Short-Term Energy Outlook. The chart...

326

Demand for money in China .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research investigates the long-run equilibrium relationship between money demand and its determinants in China over the period 1952-2004 for three definitions of money (more)

Zhang, Qing

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

building demand | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

demand demand Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

328

STEO December 2012 - coal demand  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in...

329

Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Notes: Well, distillate fuel demand wasn't the reason that stocks increased in January 2001 and kept prices from going higher. As you will hear shortly, natural gas prices spiked...

330

Thermal Mass and Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Mass and Demand Response Speaker(s): Gregor Henze Phil C. Bomrad Date: November 2, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Janie Page The topic of...

331

Automated Demand Response and Commissioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conference on Building Commissioning: May 4-6, 2005 Motegi,National Conference on Building Commissioning: May 4-6, 2005Demand Response and Commissioning Mary Ann Piette, David S.

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Leslie Mancebo (7234) Transportation Demand &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leslie Mancebo (7234) Transportation Demand & Marketing Coordinator 1 FTE, 1 HC Administrative Vice Chancellor Transportation and Parking Services Clifford A. Contreras (0245) Director 30.10 FTE Alternative Transportation & Marketing Reconciliation Lourdes Lupercio (4723) Michelle McArdle (7512) Parking

Hammock, Bruce D.

333

Cool Storage Economic Feasibility Analysis for a Large Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of economic feasibility for adding a cool storage facility to shift electric demand to off-peak hours for a large industrial facility is presented. DOE-2 is used to generate the necessary cooling load profiles for the analysis. The aggregation of building information for predicting central plant behavior at the site is discussed. The dollar benefits and costs for the project are favorable, providing a payback in the neighborhood of 4 to 5 years.

Fazzolari, R.; Mascorro, J. A.; Ballard, R. H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Evaluation of Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Two Large Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Building thermal mass can be used to reduce the peak cooling load. For example, in summer, the building mass can be pre-cooled during non-peak hours in order to reduce the cooling load in the peak hours. As a result, the cooling load is shifted in time and the peak demand is reduced. The building mass can be cooled most effectively during unoccupied hours because it is possible to relax the comfort constraints. While the benefits of demand shift are certain, different thermal mass discharge strategies result in different cooling load reduction and savings. The goal of an optimized discharge strategy is to maximize the thermal mass discharge and minimize the possibility of rebounds before the shed period ends. A series of filed tests were carefully planned and conducted in two commercial buildings in Northern California to investigate the effects of various precooling and demand shed strategies. Field tests demonstrated the potential of cooling load reduction in peak hours and importance of discharge strategies to avoid rebounds. EnergyPlus simulation models were constructed and calibrated to investigate different kind of recovery strategies. The results indicate the value of pre-cooling in maximizing the electrical shed in the on-peak period. The results also indicate that the dynamics of the shed need to be managed in order to avoid discharging the thermal capacity of the building too quickly, resulting in high cooling load and electric demand before the end of the shed period. An exponential trajectory for the zone set-point during the discharge period yielded good results and is recommended for practical implementation.

Xu, Peng

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

337

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

340

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Advanced Mitigating Measures for the Cell Internal Short Risk (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes mitigation measures for internal short circuits in lithium-ion battery cells.

Darcy, E.; Smith, K.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

EA-1096: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), 6: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), Washington EA-1096: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for the U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 30, 1996 EA-1096: Finding of No Significant Impact Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic) July 30, 1996 EA-1096: Final Environmental Assessment Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic)

343

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone Title Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings in a California Hot Climate Zone Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3898e Year of Publication 2009 Authors Xu, Peng, Rongxin Yin, Carrie Brown, and DongEun Kim Date Published June 2009 Publisher CEC/LBNL Keywords demand response, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT, hot climates, market sectors, office buildings, pre-cooling, technologies, testbed tools and guides, thermal mass Abstract The potential for using building thermal mass for load shifting and peak energy demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. Previous Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research has demonstrated that the approach is very effective in cool and moderately warm climate conditions (California Climate Zones 2-4). However, this method had not been tested in hotter climate zones.This project studied the potential of pre-cooling the building early in the morning and increasing temperature setpoints during peak hours to reduce cooling-related demand in two typical office buildings in hotter California climates - one in Visalia (CEC Climate Zone 13) and the other in San Bernardino (CEC Climate Zone 10). The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling in hotter climates has similar potential to that seen previously in cool and moderate climates. All other factors being equal, results to date indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the possible demand shed of a given building. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling in typical office building under hot weather conditions is very limited. However, night pre-cooling is helpful for office buildings with an undersized HVAC system. Further work is required to duplicate the tests in other typical buildings and in other hot climate zones and prove that pre-cooling is truly effective.

344

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), environmental (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse warming. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse warming for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.

Krakowski, R.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

National Action Plan on Demand Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Action Plan on Demand National Action Plan on Demand Action Plan on Demand National Action Plan on Demand Response Response Federal Utilities Partnership Working Group Federal Utilities Partnership Working Group November 18, 2008 November 18, 2008 Daniel Gore Daniel Gore Office of Energy Market Regulation Office of Energy Market Regulation Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The author's views do not necessarily represent the views of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Presentation Contents Presentation Contents Statutory Requirements Statutory Requirements National Assessment [Study] of Demand Response National Assessment [Study] of Demand Response National Action Plan on Demand Response National Action Plan on Demand Response General Discussion on Demand Response and Energy Outlook

347

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

349

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

351

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

352

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

356

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

357

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals. Presented atand Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedActions for Industrial Demand Response in California. LBNL-

Mares, K.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Barat, D. Watson. 2006 Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby 2008. Demand Response Spinning ReserveReport 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communications

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Applying risk informed methodologies to improve the economics of sodium-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to support the increasing demand for clean sustainable electricity production and for nuclear waste management, the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is being developed. The main drawback has been its high capital ...

Nitta, Christopher C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Successful demand-side management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is a brief summary of a series of case studies of five publicly-owned utilities that are noted for their success with demand-side management. These utilities are: (1) city of Austin, Texas, (2) Burlington Electric Department in Vermont, (3) Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, (4) Seattle City Light, and (5) Waverly Light and Power in Iowa. From these case studies, the authors identified a number of traits associated with a successful demand-side management program. These traits are: (1) high rates, (2) economic factors, (3) environmental awareness, (4) state emphasis on integrated resource planning/demand side management, (5) local political support, (6) large-sized utilities, and (7) presence of a champion.

Hadley, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Flanigan, T. [Results Center, Aspen, CO (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Definition: Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Demand Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Demand The rate at which electric energy is delivered to or by a system or part of a system, generally expressed in kilowatts or megawatts, at a given instant or averaged over any designated interval of time., The rate at which energy is being used by the customer.[1] Related Terms energy, electricity generation References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Demand&oldid=480555"

363

Winter Demand Impacted by Weather  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Heating oil demand is strongly influenced by weather. The "normal" numbers are the expected values for winter 2000-2001 used in EIA's Short-Term Energy Outlook. The chart indicates the extent to which the last winter exhibited below-normal heating degree-days (and thus below-normal heating demand). Temperatures were consistently warmer than normal throughout the 1999-2000 heating season. This was particularly true in November 1999, February 2001 and March 2001. For the heating season as a whole (October through March), the 1999-2000 winter yielded total HDDs 10.7% below normal. Normal temperatures this coming winter would, then, be expected to bring about 11% higher heating demand than we saw last year. Relative to normal, the 1999-2000 heating season was the warmest in

364

Turkey's energy demand and supply  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residential electricity consumption, the flattening of the demand curves (except Maximum demand) reflects decreasing population growth ratesresidential electricity demand are described in Table 11. For simplicity, end use-specific UEC and saturation rates

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover,138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW by 2030, or 14

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential ofneed to reduce summer peak demand that is used to set demandcustomers and a system peak demand of over 43,000 MW. SPPs

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with total Statewide peak demand and on peak days isto examine the electric peak demand related to lighting inDaily) - TOU Savings - Peak Demand Charges - Grid Peak -Low

Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Tankless Demand Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is...

371

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand.Oglesby Executive Director #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined product to the contributing authors listed previously, Mohsen Abrishami prepared the commercial sector forecast. Mehrzad

372

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand The demand forecast is the combined product of the hard work and expertise of numerous California Energy previously, Mohsen Abrishami prepared the commercial sector forecast. Mehrzad Soltani Nia helped prepare

373

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director #12;i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined prepared the commercial sector forecast. Mehrzad Soltani Nia helped prepare the industrial forecast

374

EIA projections of coal supply and demand  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

Klein, D.E.

1989-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

375

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy Speaker(s): Steven R. Schiller Date: December 8, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Diamond Steve will discuss policy options for deploying energy efficiency resources in electricity (non-transportation) end-use markets to meet needed GHG emission reduction levels. This discussion will include listing some barriers inherent to climate policy design, as well as energy markets, that inhibit efficiency investment as an emissions reduction strategy. However, the focus of the talk is on recommendations for effective mechanisms that incorporate end-use electricity energy efficiency into climate change mitigation efforts. In a recent ACEEE paper, Steve and his co-authors,

376

Behavioral Aspects in Simulating the Future US Building Energy Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

performance (heating & cooling) Thermal equip. selectionperformance (heating & cooling) Thermal equip. selectionuse Thermal equip. cost & performance (heating & cooling)

Stadler, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies Title Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5763E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ghatikar, Girish, Venkata Ganti, Nance Matson, and Mary Ann Piette Publisher PG&E/SDG&E/CEC/LBNL Keywords communication and standards, control systems, data centers, demand response, enabling technologies, end-use technologies, load migration, market sectors, technologies Abstract The energy use in data centers is increasing and, in particular, impacting the data center energy cost and electric grid reliability during peak and high price periods. As per the 2007 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the Pacific Gas and Electric Company territory, data centers are estimated to consume 500 megawatts of annual peak electricity. The 2011 data confirm the increase in data center energy use, although it is slightly lower than the EPA forecast. Previous studies have suggested that data centers have significant potential to integrate with supply-side programs to reduce peak loads. In collaboration with California data centers, utilities, and technology vendors, this study conducted field tests to improve the understanding of the demand response opportunities in data centers. The study evaluated an initial set of control and load migration strategies and economic feasibility for four data centers. The findings show that with minimal or no impact to data center operations a demand savings of 25% at the data center level or 10% to 12% at the whole building level can be achieved with strategies for cooling and IT equipment, and load migration. These findings should accelerate the grid-responsiveness of data centers through technology development, integration with the demand response programs, and provide operational cost savings.

378

EA-1508: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

508: Mitigation Action Plan 508: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1508: Mitigation Action Plan Beaver Creek-Hoyt-Erie Transmission Line Upgrade Project Morgan and Weld Counties, Colorado This is the mitigation action plan (MAP) for use during construction of the Beaver Creek-Hoyt-Erie transmission line upgrades, including right-of ways (ROWS), hydrology, vegetation, construction debris and dewatering, landscape engineering, borrow pits and recommended procedures for Raptors and powerline construction. Mitigation Action Plan to Implement Mitigation Requirements for Beaver Creek-Hoyt-Erie Transmission Line Upgrade Project Morgan and Weld Counties, Colorado November 2005 More Documents & Publications EA-1617: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1456: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1611: Mitigation Action Plan

379

Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

382

Electric Utility Demand-Side Management 1997  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Electric Utility Demand-Side Management 1997 Executive Summary Background Demand-side management (DSM) programs consist of the planning, implementing, and monitoring ...

383

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2006. Assessment of DemandRegulatory Commission (FERC) 2007. Assessment of DemandRegulatory Commission (FERC) 2008a. Wholesale Competition

Bharvirkar, Ranjit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2009 - Electricity Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

data Rate of Electricity Demand Growth Slows, Following the Historical Trend Electricity demand fluctuates in the short term in response to business cycles, weather conditions,...

385

Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource Title Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Eto, Joseph H.,...

386

Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in...

387

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

Goldman, Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al: Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand ResponseConference on Building Commissioning: April 22 24, 2008al: Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response

Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Equity Capital Flows and Demand for REITs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the shape of the market demand curve for ... Our results do not support a downward demand curve for ... Charleston, IL 61920, USA e-mail:...

390

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oakland CA, December. PJM Demand Side Response WorkingPrice Response Program a PJM Economic Load Response ProgramLoad Response Statistics PJM Demand Response Working Group

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

29 5.6. Peak and hourly demand43 6.6. Peak and seasonal demandthe average percent of peak demand) significantly impact the

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Water demand management in Kuwait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Demand-Side Management Glossary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, demand-side management (DSM) programs have grown in significance within the U.S. electric power industry. Such rapid growth has resulted in new terms, standards, and vocabulary used by DSM professionals. This report is a first attempt to provide a consistent set of definitions for the expanding DSM terminology.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

side economizer, employs cooling towers that use ambient airair cold water warm water cooling tower AHU condensing wateris piped from the cooling towers, which cools the water

Shehabi, Arman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTENTS Chapter 1 - Introduction .......................................................................................................... 1 Power Plants Need Water .................................................................................................. 1 Meeting Water Demands in a Water-Constrained Environment ....................................... 3 Purpose and Structure of the Report .................................................................................. 3 Chapter 2 - Database of Reclaimed Water Use for Cooling ................................................... 5 Data Collection .................................................................................................................. 5 The Database...................................................................................................................... 7

396

Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures By Joe Mellott, Joshua New to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back into the atmosphere. By use of commonly available calculators, one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental

Tennessee, University of

398

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

399

Thermal performance of phase change wallboard for residential cooling application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cooling of residential California buildings contributes significantly to electrical consumption and peak power demand mainly due to very poor load factors in milder climates. Thermal mass can be utilized to reduce the peak-power demand, downsize the cooling systems, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. Large thermal storage devices have been used in the past to overcome the shortcomings of alternative cooling sources, or to avoid high demand charges. The manufacturing of phase change material (PCM) implemented in gypsum board, plaster or other wall-covering material, would permit the thermal storage to become part of the building structure. PCMs have two important advantages as storage media: they can offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. This allows the storage of high amounts of energy without significantly changing the temperature of the room envelope. As heat storage takes place inside the building, where the loads occur, rather than externally, additional transport energy is not required. RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, was used to numerically evaluate the latent storage performance of treated wallboard. Extended storage capacity obtained by using double PCM-wallboard is able to keep the room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without using mechanical cooling. Simulation results for a living room with high internal loads and weather data for Sunnyvale, California, show significant reduction of room air temperature when heat can be stored in PCM-treated wallboards.

Feustel, H.E.; Stetiu, C.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Demand Dispatch Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed therein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Demand Dispatch: Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid

Keith Dodrill

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

402

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

403

US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier Approach Massimo www.cepe.ethz.ch #12;US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier Approach Page 1 of 25 US Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier

404

The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

Rochlin, Cliff

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin and Paul Berdahl SeptemberNTIS. 3. P. Berdahl and M. Martin, "The Resource for Radia-1978) p. 684. 4. M. Martin and P. Berdahl, "Description of a

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

408

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

409

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

410

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

411

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Mller

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

414

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Mitigation Methods for Tubular Structures -- Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report describes the first year of a two-year testing program for methods to prevent or mitigate corrosion in the interior surfaces of steel tubular poles. Two methods are under study: cathodic protection that uses zinc or magnesium sacrificial anodes and rust inhibitors that protect interior surfaces.BackgroundUtilities have become increasingly aware of the potential problems associated with underground ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

419

Dust Mitigation Methods for Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate coal combustion products (CCPs) requiring management for storage and disposal. These products are often stored in facilities such as landfills or placed in temporary storage pads for short or long durations. At these facilities, there is a need to address dust mitigation concerns in order to comply with environmental permits, ...

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Autonomic fault mitigation in embedded systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autonomy, particularly from a maintenance and fault-management perspective, is an increasingly desirable feature in embedded (and non-embedded) computer systems. The driving factors are several-including increasing pervasiveness of computer systems, ... Keywords: Autonomic computing, Embedded systems, Fault mitigation, Fault tolerance, Hierarchical concurrent finite-state machines, Model-based design

Sandeep Neema; Ted Bapty; Shweta Shetty; Steven Nordstrom

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 06/30/2004. The major accomplishment was the modification of the header and harvesting work, with a system designed to distribute algae at startup, sustain operations and harvest in one unit.

Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Wildlife Mitigation Program Record of Decision.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a set of Descriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded wildlife mitigation projects. Various. sources-including Indian tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, or other Federal agencies-propose wildlife mitigation projects to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) for BPA funding. Following independent scientific and public reviews, Council then selects projects to recommend for BPA funding. BPA adopts this set of prescriptions to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects. This decision is based on consideration of potential environmental impacts evaluated in BPA`s Wildlife Mitigation Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0246) published March, 20, 1997, and filed with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the week of March 24, 1997 (EPA Notice of Availability Published April 4, 1997, 62 FR 65, 16154). BPA will distribute this Record of Decision to all known interested and affected persons, groups, tribes, and agencies.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

Information Center

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

National Expenditures for IAQ Problem Prevention or Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Legionella sp. from cooling tower water dominates thefatal effects. When cooling tower water spray drifts into

Levin, Hal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Q:\asufinal_0107_demand.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

00 00 (AEO2000) Assumptions to the January 2000 With Projections to 2020 DOE/EIA-0554(2000) Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Macroeconomic Activity Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 International Energy Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Household Expenditures Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Residential Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Commercial Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Industrial Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Transportation Demand Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Electricity Market Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Oil and Gas Supply Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution

427

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Demand-Side Management (DSM) Opportunities as Real-Options Speaker(s): Osman Sezgen Date: August 1, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare As some end-users of energy and aggregators are choosing to be exposed to real-time prices and energy price volatility, they are coming across new DSM opportunities that would not be feasible under typical utility rate structures. Effective evaluation of such opportunities requires a good understanding of the wholesale energy markets and the use of models based on recent financial techniques for option pricing. The speaker will give examples of such modeling approaches based on his experience in the retail-energy industry. Specific examples will include evaluation of distributed generation, load curtailment, dual-fuel cooling, and energy

428

Energy Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Demand Energy Demand Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data Figure 55 From AEO2011 report . Market Trends Growth in energy use is linked to population growth through increases in housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, and goods and services. These changes affect not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels used. Energy consumption per capita declined from 337 million Btu in 2007 to 308 million Btu in 2009, the lowest level since 1967. In the AEO2011 Reference case, energy use per capita increases slightly through 2013, as the economy recovers from the 2008-2009 economic downturn. After 2013, energy use per capita declines by 0.3 percent per year on average, to 293 million Btu in 2035, as higher efficiency standards for vehicles and

429

Demand Response and Risk Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For several decades, power companies have deployed various types of demand response (DR), such as interruptible contracts, and there is substantial ongoing research and development on sophisticated mechanisms for triggering DR. In this white paper, EPRI discusses the increasing use of electricity DR in the power industry and how this will affect the practice of energy risk management. This paper outlines 1) characteristics of a common approach to energy risk management, 2) the variety of types of DR impl...

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

430

Combination pipe-rupture mitigator and in-vessel core catcher. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described which mitigates against the effects of a failed coolant loop in a nuclear reactor by restricting the outflow of coolant from the reactor through the failed loop and by retaining any particulated debris from a molten core which may result from coolant loss or other cause. The device reduces the reverse pressure drop through the failed loop by limiting the access of coolant in the reactor to the inlet of the failed loop. The device also spreads any particulated core debris over a large area to promote cooling.

Tilbrook, R.W.; Markowski, F.J.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

National micro-data based model of residential electricity demand: new evidence on seasonal variation  

SciTech Connect

Building on earlier estimates of electricity demand, the author estimates elasticities by month to determine differences between heating and cooling seasons. He develops a three equation model of residential electricity demand that includes all the main components of economic theory. The model generates seasonal elasticity estimates that generally support economic theory. Based on the model using a national current household data set (monthly division), the evidence indicates there is a seasonal pattern for price elasticity of demand. While less pronounced, there also appears to be seasonal patterns for cross-price elasticity of alternative fuels, for the elasticity of appliance stock index, and for an intensity of use variable.

Garbacz, C.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Predictive Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Integrated Predictive Demand Response Controller Research Project on AddThis.com...

433

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and...

434

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Agency/Company /Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.fao.org/climatechange/67148/en/ RelatedTo: Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Screenshot References: AFOLU Mitigation Database[1] Global Survey of Agricultural Mitigation Projects Paper[2] "The AFOLU MP database endeavors to gather information on all mitigation activities currently ongoing within the agricultural and forestry sectors

435

The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG) Uwe A. Schneider Bruce A. Mc Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG Taxes and Sequestration Subsidies...............................66 3.8.2.4 Special Greenhouse Gas

McCarl, Bruce A.

436

The U.S. Country Studies Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 The U.S. Country Studies Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Assessment Workshop: A Report Participants in the first GHG Mitigation Assessment Workshop. On June 13-24, the Center's Energy...

437

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Congestion Mitigation Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program on AddThis.com...

438

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concerns about rising energy demand and cost, diminishing oil reserves, and climate change, Central to prioritize enhancing national legislation, developing risk prevention plans, creating supply and demand side Polytechnic, Florida, USA H. B. Dulal (*) :G. Brodnig World Bank, 1818 H Street, Washington, DC 20433, NW, USA

439

Management of Power Demand through Operations of Building Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hot summers, the demand for electrical power is dominated by the requirements of the air-conditioning and lighting systems. Such systems account for more than 80% of the peak electrical demand in Kuwait. A study was conducted to explore the potential for managing the peak electrical demand through improved operation strategies for building systems. Two buildings with partial occupancy patterns and typical peak loads of 1 and 2.2 MW were investigated. Changes to the operation of building systems included utilizing the thermal mass to reduce cooling production and distribution during the last hour of occupancy, time-of-day control of chillers and auxiliaries, and de-lamping. The implemented operational changes led to significant reductions in building loads during the hours of national peak demand. The achieved savings reached 31% during the critical hour, and up to 47% afterwards. Daily energy savings of 13% represented an added benefit. Additional operational changes could lead to further savings in peak power when implemented.

ElSherbini, A. I.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Naqib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Demand Trading: Measurement, Verification, and Settlement (MVS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With this report, EPRI's trilogy of publications on demand trading is complete. The first report (1006015), the "Demand Trading Toolkit," documented how to conduct demand trading based on price. The second report (1001635), "Demand Trading: Building Liquidity," focused on the problem of liquidity in the energy industry and developed the Demand Response Resource Bank concept for governing electricity markets based on reliability. The present report focuses on the emerging price/risk partnerships in electr...

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

442

2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40 percent of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

Information Center

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units are large structures, Illustration 1. Big budget money and engineering time goes into gleaming stainless steel equipment and exotic process apparatus, the poor cooling tower is the ignored orphan of the system. Knowledgeable Engineers, however, are now looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more cells in a row. With cells up to 42 feet long so immense in aspect, with fans rotating, operators assume, just by appearances, that all is well, and usually pay no attention to the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower. The boxes look sturdy, but the function of the cooling tower is repeated ignored production of water as cold as possible.

Burger, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

448

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

449

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

450

Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEMAND . . . .Demand for Electricity and Power PeakDemand . . . . ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTUREResults . . Coriclusions ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in

Thompson, Lisa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Techniques for Demand Response, report for theand Reliability Demand Response Programs: Final Report.Demand Response

McKane, Aimee T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Techniques for Demand Response. California Energyand S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

14 Peak Demand Baselinewinter morning electric peak demand in commercial buildings.California to reduce peak demand during summer afternoons,

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,to provide cooling. Solar technologies: Photovoltaics provide renewable electricity. Solar thermal collectors type in each location. City-specific weather,energy costs,and electric grid carbon-intensity values

456

Building Energy Software Tools Directory : Demand Response Quick...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool Back to Tool Demand response quick assessment tool screenshot Demand response quick assessment tool screenshot Demand response quick...

457

Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the amount of electricity demand that is settled forward.unresponsive demand side, electricity demand has to be metxed percentage of overall electricity demand. The ISO, thus,

Siddiqui, Afzal S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Braun (Purdue). 2004. Peak demand reduction from pre-coolingthe average and maximum peak demand savings. The electricityuse charges, demand ratchets, peak demand charges, and other

Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material. Although the material development is critical issue of SCWR development, previous studies were limited for the screening tests on commercial alloys

460

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

DOE Cool Roof Calculator for Low-Slope or Flat Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Estimates Cooling and Heating Savings for Flat Roofs with Non-Black Surfaces - Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Version 1.2) - This version of the calculator is for small and medium-sized facilities that purchase electricity without a demand charge based on peak monthly load. If you have a large facility that purchases electricity with a demand charge, run the CoolCalcPeak version in order to include the savings in peak demand charges from using solar radiation control. - What you get out of this calculator is only as good as what you put in. If you CLICK HERE , you'll find help in figuring out the best input values. Some things, such as the weathering of the solar radiation control properties and the effects of a plenum, are especially important. You'll

463

EPR Severe Accident Threats and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Despite the extremely low EPR core melt frequency, an improved defence-in-depth approach is applied in order to comply with the EPR safety target: no stringent countermeasures should be necessary outside the immediate plant vicinity like evacuation, relocation or food control other than the first harvest in case of a severe accident. Design provisions eliminate energetic events and maintain the containment integrity and leak-tightness during the entire course of the accident. Based on scenarios that cover a broad range of physical phenomena and which provide a sound envelope of boundary conditions associated with each containment challenge, a selection of representative loads has been done, for which mitigation measures have to cope with. This paper presents the main critical threats and the approach used to mitigate those threats. (authors)

Azarian, G. [Framatome ANP SAS, Tour Areva, Place de la Coupole 92084 Paris la Defense (France); Kursawe, H.M.; Nie, M.; Fischer, M.; Eyink, J. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Freyeslebenstrasse, 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Stoudt, R.H. [Framatome ANP Inc. - 3315 Old Forest Rd, Lynchburgh, VA 24501 (United States)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Speaker(s): Hermann Held Date: July 9, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone The Copenhagen Accord (2009) recognizes that 'the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius' (compared to pre-industrial levels, '2° target'). In recent years, energy economics have derived welfare-optimal investment streams into low-emission energy mixes and associated costs. According to our analyses, auxiliary targets that are in line with the 2° target could be achieved at relatively low costs if energy investments were triggered rather swiftly. While such analyses assume 'perfect foresight' of a benevolent 'social planner', an accompanying suite of experiments explicitly

465

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices, Case studies/examples Website: unfccc.int/home/items/5265.php Country: Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gabon, Georgia (country), Ghana, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan, Madagascar, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Peru, South Korea, Moldova, San Marino, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia

466

Decarbonization and Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR MITIGATING GLOBAL WARMING M. Steinberg (msteinbe@bnl.gov); 631-344-3036 Brookhaven National Laboratory 12 South Upton Street Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA ABSTRACT Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO 2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO 2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO 2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO

467

Demand Side Management in Rangan Banerjee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compressed Air ­ reduce pressure, air leakages FRP fans ­ Cooling towers, energy efficient fans Waste heat Cooling Tower Additional Chiller pump Under ground Chilled water Storage tank Space to be conditioned, cooling, motive power...) #12;Utility Load Shape Objectives Peak Clipping Valley Filling Load Shifting

Banerjee, Rangan

468

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation Capacity by Fuel, 1980-2007 Power Capacity (GW) Wind & Renewables Natural Gaspower generation technology does not offer a silver bullet for mitigating, much Fridley, David, Natural Gas

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/2/2003 through 4/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are progressing with long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are completing final preparations for pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 are included.

Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the ending 12/31/2004. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include review of pilot scale testing and design of a new bioreactor. Testing confirmed that algae can be grown in a sustainable fashion in the pilot bioreactor, even with intermittent availability of sunlight. The pilot-scale tests indicated that algal growth rate followed photon delivery during productivity testing.

Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

471

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

472

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods, further complicating demand response scenarios. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced is described and its participation in a demand response event during 2008 is detailed. Second, a set of demand response strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated demand response during a 2009 event, which is also evaluated. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utilitys DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs.

Granderson, J.; Dudley, J. H.; Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling (TABS) with a cooling tower providing chilled waterevaporative cooling (cooling tower) for radiant ceiling slabradiant cooling with a cooling tower providing chilled water

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Name Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner Global Environment Facility (GEF), Government of Denmark Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning Website http://www.unep.org/climatecha Program Start 2011 Program End 2013 Country Costa Rica UN Region Central America References Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)[1]

475

Ecofys-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ecofys-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example Ecofys-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example Development Agency/Company /Organization: Ecofys Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.ecofys.com/com/publications/brochures_newsletters/documents/Report National Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example Development Screenshot References: National Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from Example Development[1] "Ecofys elaborated in several projects, concrete examples of NAMAs to understand the issues arising from this concept. This report summarizes the

476

Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Name Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner Global Environment Facility (GEF), Government of Denmark Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning Website http://www.unep.org/climatecha Program Start 2011 Program End 2013 Country Ethiopia UN Region Central America References Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)[1]

477

EA-1592: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation Action Plan Mitigation Action Plan EA-1592: Mitigation Action Plan Modernization of Facilities and Infrastructure for the Non-Nuclear Production Activities Conducted at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant Based on the analysis in the Environmental Assessment prepared for the proposal by the GSA and NNSA, neither the construction nor operation of the selected alternative wouldhave significant environmental impact. This MAP contains mitigation and monitoring commitments for the project, including commitments set in permits for the new facility. Mitigation Action Plan for the Modernization of Facilities and Infrastructure for the Non-Nuclear Production Activities Conducted at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant More Documents & Publications EA-1592: Finding of No Significant Impact

478

UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Name UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner Global Environment Facility (GEF), Government of Denmark Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning Website http://www.unep.org/climatecha Program Start 2011 References Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)[1] "The Government of Denmark will provide US$6 million to the new programme

479

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Agency/Company /Organization: Future Perfect Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Training materials Website: www.gpstrategiesltd.com/divisions/future-perfect/ Country: South Korea Eastern Asia Language: English References: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling[1] Logo: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling Jointly sponsored by Greenhouse Gas Inventory & Research (GIR) Center of

480

Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Name UNEP-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner Global Environment Facility (GEF), Government of Denmark Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning Website http://www.unep.org/climatecha Program Start 2011 Program End 2013 Country Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Senegal, South Africa, Vietnam UN Region Central America References Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)[1]

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mitigating cooling demand" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Agency/Company /Organization: Global Environment Facility, United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Transportation Topics: Low emission development planning Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: tech-action.org/Guidebooks/TNAhandbook_Transport.pdf Cost: Free Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Screenshot References: Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector[1] "The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries

482

Wildlife Mitigation Program Record of Decision; 06April1997  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wildlife Mitigation Program Record of Decision Wildlife Mitigation Program Record of Decision SUMMARY Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a set of prescriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded wildlife mitigation projects. Various sourcesincluding Indian tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, or other Federal agenciespropose wildlife mitigation projects to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) for BPA funding. Following independent scientific and public reviews, Council then selects projects to recommend for BPA funding. BPA adopts this set of prescriptions to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects. This decision is based on consideration of potential environmental

483

South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Name South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Partner Global Environment Facility (GEF), Government of Denmark Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning Website http://www.unep.org/climatecha Program Start 2011 Program End 2013 Country South Africa UN Region Central America References Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM)[1]

484

Progress on muon parametric-resonance ionization cooling channel development  

SciTech Connect

Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is intended as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. To implement PIC, a continuous-field twin-helix magnetic channel was developed. A 6D cooling with stochastic effects off is demonstrated in a GEANT4/G4beamline model of a system where wedge-shaped Be absorbers are placed at the appropriate dispersion points in the twin-helix channel and are followed by short rf cavities. To proceed to cooling simulations with stochastics on, compensation of the beam aberrations from one absorber to another is required. Initial results on aberration compensation using a set of various-order continuous multipole fields are presented. As another avenue to mitigate the aberration effect, we optimize the cooling channel's period length. We observe a parasitic parametric resonance naturally occurring in the channel's horizontal plane due to the periodic beam energy modulation caused by the absorbers and rf. We discuss options for compensating this resonance and/or properly combining it with the induced half-integer parametric resonance needed for PIC.

V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, B. Erdelyi, J.A. Maloney

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Title Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3348e Year of Publication 2008 Authors Yin, Rongxin, Peng Xu, and Sila Kiliccote Keywords auto-dr, building energy simulation tool, demand response, demand shifting (pre-cooling), DRQAT, market sectors, pre-cooling, technologies, testbed tools and guides, thermal mass Abstract Over the several past years, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted field tests for different pre-cooling strategies in different commercial buildings within California. The test results indicated that pre-cooling strategies were effective in reducing electric demand in these buildings during peak periods. This project studied how to optimize pre-cooling strategies for eleven buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center, San Bernardino, California with the assistance of a building energy simulation tool - the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT) developed by LBNL's Demand Response Research Center funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. From the simulation results of these eleven buildings, optimal pre-cooling and temperature reset strategies were developed. The study shows that after refining and calibrating initial models with measured data, the accuracy of the models can be greatly improved and the models can be used to predict load reductions for automated demand response (Auto-DR) events. This study summarizes the optimization experience of the procedure to develop and calibrate building models in DRQAT. In order to confirm the actual effect of demand response strategies, the simulation results were compared to the field test data. The results indicated that the optimal demand response strategies worked well for all buildings in the Tri-City Corporate Center. This study also compares DRQAT with other building energy simulation tools (eQUEST and BEST). The comparison indicate that eQUEST and BEST underestimate the actual demand shed of the pre-cooling strategies due to a flaw in DOE2's simulation engine for treating wall thermal mass. DRQAT is a more accurate tool in predicting thermal mass effects of DR events.

486

Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

Heffner, Grayson

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

MITIGATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MITIGATION MITIGATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, NOTICE OF WETLAND INVOLVEMENT, AND FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A LIGNOCELLULOSIC U.S. Department of Energy Golden Field Office 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 1.0 Introd uction 1 1.1 Purpose of the Mitigation Action Plan 1 1.2 Structure of the Mitigation Action Plan 2 2.0 Ambient Ai r Quality 3 2.1 Potential Impacts 3 2.2 Mitigation Measures 3 2.3 Metrics for Determining Success or Failure of the Mitigation Measures 4 2.4 Monitoring Techniques for Mitigation Measures 4 3.0 Truck Traffic 4 3.1 Potential Impacts 4 3.2 Mitigation Measures 4 3.3 Metrics for Determining Success or Failure of the Mitigation Measures 5 3.4 Monitoring Techniques for Mitigation Measures 5 4.0 Genetically Modified Yeasts 6 4.1 Potential Impacts 6 4.2 Mitigation Measures 6 4.3 Metrics for Determining

488

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

489

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models Agency/Company /Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Topics: GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools, Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.iea.org/papers/2009/Mitigation_potentials.pdf References: National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models[1] Summary "This paper focuses on mitigation potential to provide a comparative assessment across key economies. GHG mitigation potential is defined here to be the level of GHG emission reductions that could be realised, relative

491

EIS-0409: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mitigation Action Plan Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0409: Mitigation Action Plan Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kemper County, Mississippi The Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combine Cycle Project (Project) (DOE/EIS-0409) in May 2010 and a Record of Decision (ROD) in August 2010 (75 FR 51248). The ROD identified commitments to mitigate potential adverse impacts associated with the project. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) describes the monitoring and mitigation actions the recipient must implement during the design, construction, and demonstration of the Project. Mitigation Action Plan Kemper County Iintegrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Kemper County, Mississippi, DOE/EIS-0409 (September 2010)

492

Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact The Council on Environmental Quality is issuing this guidance for Federal departments and agencies on establishing, implementing, and monitoring mitigation commitments identified and analyzed in Environmental Assessments, Environmental Impact Statements, and adopted in the final decision documents. This guidance also clarifies the appropriate use of mitigated "Findings of No Significant Impact" under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The guidance explains the requirements of NEPA and the CEQ Regulations, describes CEQ policies, and recommends

493

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning Data and Tools | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning Data and Tools Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning Data and Tools Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning Data and Tools October 7, 2013 - 10:27am Addthis These data and tools from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other organizations can help Federal agencies with greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning for: Buildings Vehicles and mobile equipment Business travel Employee commuting. Buildings Table 1 features data and tools to help with GHG mitigation planning for buildings. Table 1. GHG Mitigation Planning Data and Tools for Buildings Data or Tool Source Description Planning Use Buildings GHG Mitigation Worksheet Estimator Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Estimates savings and costs from GHG reduction strategies Evaluate GHG Reduction Strategies Estimate Costs to Implement GHG Reduction Strategies

494

Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The Analysis of Dynamic Thermal Performance of Insulated Wall and Building Cooling Energy Consumption in Guangzhou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The summer in Guangzhou, China, is hot and long. Heat proofing is very important for the energy efficiency of buildings and improvement of the indoor thermal environment. The residential buildings in the southern region are cooled by air conditioning mainly with the increase of the live level. This study investigates the influence of the thermal dynamic performance on the yearly cooling load and yearly maximum cooling demand in typical residential flats by employing KVALUE and DeST. The simulation predictions indicate that reductions in the cooling load and maximum cooling demand are obtained when the insulation is added in the wall, but the potential of energy saving is quite limited when the wall only is insulated.

Zhao, L.; Li, X.; Li, L.; Gao, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Five solar cooling projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The jointly funded $100 million five-year international agreement (SOLERAS) between Saudi Arabia and the United States was undertaken to promote the development of solar energy technologies of interest to both nations. Five engineering field tests of active solar cooling systems funded under the SOLERAS agreement for installation and operation in the U.S. southwest are described.

Davis, R.E.; Williamson, J.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration Machine or the Absorption Chiller provided with heat from Combined Heat and Power Plants - has the lowest primary energy consumption at what load level. For low levels this is direct cooling. If demand exceeds the capacity of direct cooling, the absorption chiller is the option to choose. However, in future the compression refrigeration machine is more efficient at providing high load levels than the Absorption Chiller. The operation analysis shows that flow rates are often held constant and the re-cooling temperatures are often above the ambient temperature. By the integration of automatic flow rate control and lowering the re-cooling temperature of the chillers, electricity consumption of pumps can be reduced and energy efficiency enhanced.

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more efficiently than with the air-cooled (AC) condensers. This fact was behind the idea of a field study conducted in one of the major hospital in Kuwait during a summer season to investigate the performance of WC and AC systems in terms of peak power and energy consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less than that of the AC system, respectively. The maximum reduction in the power demand coincided with the peak power demand period of the utilities i.e. between 14:00 and 17:00 hr, thereby offering a maximum advantage of peak power saving.

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Definition: Peak Demand | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Peak Demand Peak Demand Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Peak Demand The highest hourly integrated Net Energy For Load within a Balancing Authority Area occurring within a given period (e.g., day, month, season, or year)., The highest instantaneous demand within the Balancing Authority Area.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Peak demand is used to refer to a historically high point in the sales record of a particular product. In terms of energy use, peak demand describes a period of strong consumer demand. Related Terms Balancing Authority Area, energy, demand, balancing authority, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inli LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ne Glossary Definition Retrieved from

500

Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5% higher than in the prior year, due mainly to diesel demand growth, since warm weather kept heating oil demand from growing much. Last December, when stocks dropped below...