National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for miscellaneous plastic products

  1. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  2. Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  3. Miscellaneous - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous

  4. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 21 2 1 2 2 3 3 1990's 2 3 6 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 2000's 7 6 8 8 8 9 11 14 14 0 2010's 9 10 12 32 350 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  5. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2010's 0 0 0 1 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  6. 2015-03-26: Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Establish an ASRAC Working Group | Department of Energy : Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent to Establish an ASRAC Working Group 2015-03-26: Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent to Establish an ASRAC Working Group This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding establishment of an ASRAC Working Group for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26,

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-02-03: Energy Efficiency Program for Residential Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products, Reopening of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Residential Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products, Reopening of Public Comment Period

  8. ISSUANCE 2016-05-19: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Final Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Final Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

  9. ISSUANCE 2016-02-26: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Supplemental Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Supplemental Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products as Covered Products

  10. ,"Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  11. Miscellaneous Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 121 75 52 25 123 2007-2014 Adjustments 23 0 49 5 0 119 2009-2014 Revision Increases 4 17 19 76 3 2 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 22 77 27 9 29 17 2009-2014 Sales 0 11 89 14 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 67 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 75 63 5 347 1 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 5 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 4 5 3 3 2 6

  12. ISSUANCE 2015-12-04: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedure for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Notice of Data Availability; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedure for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Notice of Data Availability; Request for Information

  13. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  14. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; ...

  15. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Open Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of open meeting and availability of the preliminary technical support document regarding energy conservation standards for miscellaneous refrigeration products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. Ultrapyrolytic upgrading of plastic wastes and plastics/heavy oil mixtures to valuable light gas products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovett, S.; Berruti, F.; Behie, L.A.

    1997-11-01

    Viable operating conditions were identified experimentally for maximizing the production of high-value products such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, and benzene, from the ultrapyrolysis of waste plastics. Using both a batch microreactor and a pilot-plant-sized reactor, the key operating variables considered were pyrolysis temperature, product reaction time, and quench time. In the microreactor experiments, polystyrene (PS), a significant component of waste plastics, was pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 965 C, with total reaction times ranging from 500 to 1,000 ms. At a temperature of 965 C and 500 ms, the yields of styrene plus benzene were greater than 95 wt %. In the pilot-plant experiments, the recently patented internally circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor (Milne et al., US Patent Number 5,370,789, 1994b) was used to ultrapyrolyze low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in addition to LDPE (5% by weight)/heavy oil mixtures at a residence time of 600 ms. Both experiments produced light olefin yields greater than 55 wt % at temperatures above 830 C.

  17. ,"Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... 1","Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  18. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for miscellaneous refrigeration products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on

  19. Miscellaneous EPA Submittals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Individual Permit: Miscellaneous EPA Submittals An abundance of Individual Permit documents, from implementation to reporting, is available to the public. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Force Majeure SMA Site Submittal Date Document ACID-SMA-2 01-002(b)-00 June 6, 2016 NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 - Update on Certificate of Completion for Site 01-002(b)-00 Monitored within ACID-SMA-2 and ACID-SMA-2.1

  20. Methods for the continuous production of plastic scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Mellott, Kerry

    1999-10-19

    Methods for producing plastic scintillating material employing either two major steps (tumble-mix) or a single major step (inline-coloring or inline-doping). Using the two step method, the polymer pellets are mixed with silicone oil, and the mixture is then tumble mixed with the dopants necessary to yield the proper response from the scintillator material. The mixture is then placed in a compounder and compounded in an inert gas atmosphere. The resultant scintillator material is then extruded and pelletized or formed. When only a single step is employed, the polymer pellets and dopants are metered into an inline-coloring extruding system. The mixture is then processed under a inert gas atmosphere, usually argon or nitrogen, to form plastic scintillator material in the form of either scintillator pellets, for subsequent processing, or as material in the direct formation of the final scintillator shape or form.

  1. Scale-up and Technology Transfer of Protein-based Plastic Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grewell, David

    2008-12-08

    Over the last number of years researchers at ISU have been developing protein based plastics from soybeans, funded by Soy Works Corporation. These materials have been characterized and the processing of these materials into prototype products has been demonstrated. A wide range of net-shape forming processes, including but not limited to extrusion, injection molding and compression molding have been studied. Issues, including technology transfer, re-formulation and product consistency, have been addressed partially during this contract. Also, commercial-scale processing parameters for protein based plastic products were designed, but not yet applicable in the industry. Support in the trouble shooting processing and the manufacturing of protein based plastic products was provided by Iowa State University during the one year contract.

  2. 2011-2012 SECTION IV: Miscellaneous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous Ernest Rutherford and the origins of nuclear physics J.C. Hardy

  3. Miscellaneous electricity use in U.S. homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla C.; Koomey, Jonathan G.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Meier, Alan; Huber, Wolfgang

    1999-09-30

    Historically, residential energy and carbon saving efforts have targeted conventional end uses such as water heating, lighting and refrigeration. The emergence of new household appliances has transformed energy use from a few large and easily identifiable end uses into a broad array of ''miscellaneous'' energy services. This group of so called miscellaneous appliances has been a major contributor to growth in electricity demand in the past two decades. We use industry shipment data, lifetimes, and wattage and usage estimates of over 90 individual products to construct a bottom-up end use model (1976-2010). The model is then used to analyze historical and forecasted growth trends, and to identify the largest individual products within the miscellaneous end use. We also use the end use model to identify and analyze policy priorities. Our forecast projects that over the period 1996 to 2010, miscellaneous consumption will increase 115 TWh, accounting for over 90 percent of future residential electricity growth. A large portion of this growth will be due to halogen torchiere lamps and consumer electronics, making these two components of miscellaneous electricity a particularly fertile area for efficiency programs. Approximately 20 percent (40 TWh) of residential miscellaneous electricity is ''leaking electricity'' or energy consumed by appliances when they are not performing their principal function. If the standby power of all appliances with a standby mode is reduced to one watt, the potential energy savings equal 21 TWh/yr, saving roughly $1-2 billion annually.

  4. Miscellaneous

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THE PEAK OIL DEBATE As The EIA Turns 30 EIA 2008 Energy Conference Washington, DC April 7, 2008 By: Matthew R. Simmons, Chairman Simmons & Company International EIA 2008 Energy Conference Washington, DC April 7, 2008 By: Matthew R. Simmons, Chairman Simmons & Company International SIMMONS & COMPANY INTERNATIONAL Should We Debate "Peak Oil" Should We Debate "Peak Oil" n Oil seems non-renewable. n High percentage comes from "mature fields." n High

  5. DOE2016 Miscellaneous | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Miscellaneous DOE2016 Miscellaneous Addthis 1 of 11 2 of 11 3 of 11 4 of 11 5 of 11 6 of 11 7 of 11 8 of 11 9 of 11 10 of 11 11 of 11

  6. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type | Department of Energy Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are generally defined as all electric loads except those related to main systems for heating,

  7. Miscellaneous Forms | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous Forms Miscellaneous Forms The following miscellaneous forms are provided in PDF fillable and/or Word format. Click the link in the "Format" column to open a copy of the form or right-click to download. Number* Title/Description Format** SF-85 Questionnaire for Non-Sensitive Positions PDF-fil UCN-13A Relocation Expense Report PDF-fil, PDF print UCN-15436 Gifts and Grants Request PDF-fil, Word UCN-16708 Request for Authorization to Ship SNM or Non-SNM Material (U) Word

  8. Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  9. ,"Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ... Contents","Data 1: Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ...

  10. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 21 2 1 2 2 3 3 1990's 2 3 6 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 2000's 7 6 8 8 8 9 11 14 14 0 2010's 9 10 12 32 350 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  11. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.

  12. Miscellaneous | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Miscellaneous Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific ...

  13. Miscellaneous streams best management practices (BMP) report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lueck, K.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and U.S. Department of Energy Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order) lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (`State Waste Discharge Permit Program`) or WAC 173-218 (`Washington Underground Injection Control Program`) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized as Phase I and Phase II Streams, and Miscellaneous Streams. There were originally 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams, however some of these streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams, and are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The three criteria for identifying streams that are potentially affecting groundwater are: (1) streams discharging to surface contaminated areas (referred to as category `b` streams); (2) potentially contaminated streams (referred to as category `c` streams); and (3) streams discharging within 91 meters (300 feet) of a contaminated crib, ditch, or trench (referred to as category `d` streams). Miscellaneous Streams that meet any of these criteria must be evaluated for application of best management practices (BMP). The purpose of this report is to provide the best management practice preferred alternative. The list of BMP streams has been revised since the original submittal. Several streams from the original list of BMP streams have already been eliminated through facility upgrades, reduction of steam usage, and facility shutdowns. This document contains a description of the changes to the list of BMP streams, applicable definitions and regulatory requirements and possible alternatives, and a schedule for implementing the preferred alternatives.

  14. CONCRETE SUPPORT DESIGN FOR MISCELLANEOUS ESF UTILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Misiak

    1999-06-21

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to design concrete supports for the miscellaneous utility equipment used at the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Two utility systems are analyzed: (1) the surface collection tanks of the Waste Water System, and (2) the chemical tracer mixing and storage tanks of the Non-Potable Water System. This analysis satisfies design recommended in the Title III Evaluation Reports for the Subsurface Fire Water System and Subsurface Portion of the Non-Potable Water System (CRWMS M&O 1998a) and Waste Water Systems (CRWMS M&O 1998b).

  15. BTO Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads BTO Investigates Miscellaneous Electric Loads The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office (BTO) is interested in identifying pathways that will reduce energy consumption from Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs). After hosting a panel discussion at the 2016 BTO Peer Review, the Emerging Technologies Program hosted a workshop on June 3, 2016 in San Francisco, California, to discuss applied research and development (R&D) solutions that

  16. Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade ... Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus ...

  17. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  18. Property:Building/FloorAreaMiscellaneous | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the property "BuildingFloorAreaMiscellaneous" Showing 25 pages using this property. S Sweden Building 05K0002 + 360 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 110 + Sweden Building 05K0013 +...

  19. Texas General Land Office - Rights of Way and Miscellaneous Easements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Land Office - Rights of Way and Miscellaneous Easements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Texas General Land Office - Rights of...

  20. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Historical Miscellaneous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Miscellaneous NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Historical Miscellaneous Photos related to the Nevada National Security Site History which do not fall under the other photo categories Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information The photographs are displayed in groups of ten (10). Click the Next and Previous link at the bottom to

  1. Smisc - A collection of miscellaneous functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landon Sego, PNNL

    2015-08-31

    A collection of functions for statistical computing and data manipulation. These include routines for rapidly aggregating heterogeneous matrices, manipulating file names, loading R objects, sourcing multiple R files, formatting datetimes, multi-core parallel computing, stream editing, specialized plotting, etc. • Smisc-package A collection of miscellaneous functions allMissing Identifies missing rows or columns in a data frame or matrix as.numericSilent Silent wrapper for coercing a vector to numeric comboList Produces all possible combinations of a set of linear model predictors cumMax Computes the maximum of the vector up to the current index cumsumNA Computes the cummulative sum of a vector without propogating NAs d2binom Probability functions for the sum of two independent binomials dataIn A flexible way to import data into R. dbb The Beta-Binomial Distribution df2list Row-wise conversion of a data frame to a list dfplapply Parallelized single row processing of a data frame dframeEquiv Examines the equivalence of two dataframes or matrices dkbinom Probability functions for the sum of k independent binomials factor2character Converts all factor variables in a dataframe to character variables findDepMat Identify linearly dependent rows or columns in a matrix formatDT Converts date or datetime strings into alternate formats getExtension Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path getPath Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path grabLast Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path ifelse1 Non-vectorized version of ifelse integ Simple numerical integration routine interactionPlot Two-way Interaction Plot with Error Bar linearMap Linear mapping of a numerical vector or scalar list2df Convert a list to a data frame loadObject Loads and returns the object(s) in an ".Rdata" file more Display the contents of a file to the R terminal movAvg2

  2. Smisc - A collection of miscellaneous functions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-08-31

    A collection of functions for statistical computing and data manipulation. These include routines for rapidly aggregating heterogeneous matrices, manipulating file names, loading R objects, sourcing multiple R files, formatting datetimes, multi-core parallel computing, stream editing, specialized plotting, etc. • Smisc-package A collection of miscellaneous functions allMissing Identifies missing rows or columns in a data frame or matrix as.numericSilent Silent wrapper for coercing a vector to numeric comboList Produces all possible combinations of a set ofmore » linear model predictors cumMax Computes the maximum of the vector up to the current index cumsumNA Computes the cummulative sum of a vector without propogating NAs d2binom Probability functions for the sum of two independent binomials dataIn A flexible way to import data into R. dbb The Beta-Binomial Distribution df2list Row-wise conversion of a data frame to a list dfplapply Parallelized single row processing of a data frame dframeEquiv Examines the equivalence of two dataframes or matrices dkbinom Probability functions for the sum of k independent binomials factor2character Converts all factor variables in a dataframe to character variables findDepMat Identify linearly dependent rows or columns in a matrix formatDT Converts date or datetime strings into alternate formats getExtension Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path getPath Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path grabLast Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path ifelse1 Non-vectorized version of ifelse integ Simple numerical integration routine interactionPlot Two-way Interaction Plot with Error Bar linearMap Linear mapping of a numerical vector or scalar list2df Convert a list to a data frame loadObject Loads and returns the object(s) in an ".Rdata" file more Display the contents of a file to the R terminal movAvg2

  3. ,"Miscellaneous Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. Recycle plastics into feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastner, H.; Kaminsky, W.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation and remelting of polymers for film and molding applications. A European consortium of academia and refiners have investigated if it is possible and profitable to thermally crack plastics into feedstocks for refining and petrochemical applications. Development and demonstration of pyrolysis methods show promising possibilities of converting landfill garbage into valuable feedstocks such as ethylene, propylene, BTX, etc. Fluidized-bed reactor technologies offer HPI operators a possible avenue to meet recycling laws, conserve raw materials and yield a profit. The paper describes thermal cracking for feedstocks and pyrolysis of polyolefins.

  5. 2015-03-26: Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. ASRACMREFWorkingGroupNOI.pdf (134.29 KB) More ...

  6. Miscellaneous Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions 94 125 15 5 5 0 1977-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 16 1977-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 2 0 0 1977-2014 Estimated Production 30 16 24 14 12 ...

  7. Miscellaneous Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation 78 10 104 7 19 18 1979-2014 Adjustments 42 -70 66 -97 -5 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 53 1 46 1 19 1 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 13 0 9 0 0 2 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 2 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 13 1 8 1 2 2 Production

    17 16 17 13 23 11 2005-2014 Adjustments 1 2 3 -2 13 -12 2009-2014

  8. Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 66 58 134 2010's 121 75 52 25 123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Shale Gas

  9. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pol, Vilas G; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan

    2013-11-12

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of about 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically carbon nanotubes having a partially filled core (encapsulated) adjacent to one end of the nanotube. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  10. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  11. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying; Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  12. H2A Delivery: Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miscellaneous Costs and H2 Losses Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2006 Matt Ringer National Renewable Energy Laboratory H2A Delivery Presentation Outline * Direct and Indirect Costs * Operating and Maintenance Costs * Labor Costs and Scaling Factor * Component Hydrogen Losses H2A Delivery Direct and Indirect Costs * Currently posted model includes site preparation, engineering and design, project contingency, one-time licensing fees and permitting - Factor of 1.225 above installed

  13. Formosa Plastics Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: A Taiwan-based conglomerate with divisions producing plastics, chemicals, refinery equipment, specifically the making of resins, VCM, caustic soda, hydrochloric acid,...

  14. Plastic Magen Industry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    products with a lifetime guarantee, including the Heliocol and Sunstar-brand solar water heating systems. References: Plastic Magen Industry1 This article is a stub. You...

  15. Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 7 19 18 - = No

  16. Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 1 1 2000's 1 1 16 17 4 4 2 5 4 7 2010's 5 7 12 9 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  17. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1990's 1 5 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 2000's 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 8 11 20 2010's 28 34 65 89 151 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  18. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 233 188 185 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  19. Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 142 1980's 146 181 47 50 63 52 95 53 56 48 1990's 50 62 82 87 56 37 40 13 22 13 2000's 23 64 80 120 98 118 120 226 263 271 2010's 353 270 219 169 167 - = No Data

  20. Evaluation of Miscellaneous and Electronic Device Energy Use in Hospitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard E.; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about one-thirdof the primary energy used in US buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. In healthcare facilities, 30percent of the annual electricity was used by MELs in 2008. This paper presents methods and challenges for estimating medical MELs energy consumption along with estimates of energy use in a hospital by combining device-level metered data with inventories and usage information. An important finding is that common, small devices consume large amounts of energy in aggregate and should not be ignored when trying to address hospital energy use.

  1. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, Brandon M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  2. 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-12-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years.

  3. Building America System Research Plan for Reduction of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Haley, C.; Anderson, R.; Pratsch, L.

    2008-11-01

    This research plan describes the overall scope of system research that is needed to reduce miscellaneous electrical loads (MEL) in future net zero energy homes.

  4. Fight corrosion with plastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaladkar, P.

    1995-10-01

    As chemical processors run plants longer to meet goals for increased production at lower costs, and use higher temperatures and higher throughputs to boost performance, there are more rigorous requirements for durable, corrosion-resistant equipment. Plastics, elastomers and composites help meet this need by protecting carbon steel equipment, and by providing materials of construction for components and structures. They can preserve product purity and quality by preventing contamination. Of the many polymers and composites that have proven useful for managing corrosion of chemical process equipment, most fit into three categories: barrier linings and coatings; self-supporting structures, which can be made of composites or solid polymers in tanks, piping, valves, pumps and other equipment; and other products, such as seals, gaskets, adhesives and caulks. The paper describes all three types and also remarks on the need for failure analysis.

  5. After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment and Inventory of Miscellaneous Plug-load Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret J.; Busch, John F.

    2004-01-22

    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of ''miscellaneous'' plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from twelve commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: two health care buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees), four education buildings, and one ''small office'' that is actually an aggregate of five small businesses. Two buildings are in the San Francisco Bay area of California, five are in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and five are in Atlanta

  6. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  7. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  8. MECS 2006- Plastics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Plastics (NAICS 326) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  9. H2A Delivery: Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses H2A Delivery: Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses Presentation by Matt Ringer of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 deliv_analysis_ringer.pdf (327.03 KB) More Documents & Publications H2A Delivery Models and Results Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Models H2A Delivery Components Model and Analysis

  10. Miscellaneous Electricity Services in the Buildings Sector (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Residential and commercial electricity consumption for miscellaneous services has grown significantly in recent years and currently accounts for more electricity use than any single major end-use service in either sector (including space heating, space cooling, water heating, and lighting). In the residential sector, a proliferation of consumer electronics and information technology equipment has driven much of the growth. In the commercial sector, telecommunications and network equipment and new advances in medical imaging have contributed to recent growth in miscellaneous electricity use.

  11. After-hours power status of office equipment and energy use of miscellaneous plug-load equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Marageret J.; Busch, John F.

    2004-05-27

    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of miscellaneous plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. For most types of miscellaneous equipment, we also estimated typical unit energy consumption in order to estimate total energy consumption of the miscellaneous devices within our sample. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from sixteen commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: four education buildings, two medical buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees each), and five small

  12. Monitoring and Characterization of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in a Large Retail Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile-Polese, L.; Frank, S.; Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Rader, E.; Smith, J.; Long, N.

    2014-02-01

    Buildings account for 40% of primary energy consumption in the United States (residential 22%; commercial 18%). Most (70% residential and 79% commercial) is used as electricity. Thus, almost 30% of U.S. primary energy is used to provide electricity to buildings. Plug loads play an increasingly critical role in reducing energy use in new buildings (because of their increased efficiency requirements), and in existing buildings (as a significant energy savings opportunity). If all installed commercial building miscellaneous electrical loads (CMELs) were replaced with energy-efficient equipment, a potential annual energy saving of 175 TWh, or 35% of the 504 TWh annual energy use devoted to MELs, could be achieved. This energy saving is equivalent to the annual energy production of 14 average-sized nuclear power plants. To meet DOE's long-term goals of reducing commercial building energy use and carbon emissions, the energy efficiency community must better understand the components and drivers of CMEL energy use, and develop effective reduction strategies. These goals can be facilitated through improved data collection and monitoring methodologies, and evaluation of CMELs energy-saving techniques.

  13. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  14. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Authors Type: All BookMonograph ConferenceEvent Journal Article Miscellaneous ... SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electroweak meson production reaction in ...

  15. Miscellaneous Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production 20 28 34 65 89 151 1979-2014 Adjustments 4 4 -3 5 -11 -6 2009-2014 Revision Increases 3 6 10 10 12 41 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 2 8 2 5 7 26 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 3 2009-2014 Acquisitions 3 5 0 3 0 5 2009-2014 Extensions 3 4 7 22 35 61 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 3 5 2009-2014 Estimated Production 2 3 2 4 8 1

  16. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 556, December 1990. Part 2 (comprehensive reports). Data for June 1990 and miscellaneous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    ;Contents: Detailed index for 1990; Data for June 1990; Miscellaneous--IMP 8 solar wind Apr-May 90; International Geophysical Calendar 1991 with recommended scientific programs.

  17. Miscellaneous Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 71 353 270 219 169 167 1979-2014 Adjustments 26 -5 2 -12 5 -3 1979-2014 Revision Increases 12 110 28 18 8 4 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 107 121 42 38 58 6 1979-2014 Sales 0 14 100 14 0 4 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 46 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 94 127 16 5 6 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 16 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 2 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 17 15 14 12 11 9

  18. Cold Sterilization of Plastic Containers - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Cold Sterilization of Plastic Containers Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Contact PPPL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The sterilization of plastic containers for beverage, food and pharmaceutical products is a significant cost to the associated industries. Currently, plastic containers are sterilized using heat, which necessitates the use of polymers that can withstand the high temperature

  19. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. BTO Seeks Your Participation to Discuss Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELS) in San Francisco on June 3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) is hosting a workshop to discuss future R&D efforts in the area of miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). It’s an area with a large opportunity space for energy savings of interest to the office – and we want your perspective!

  2. Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-02-01

    The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.

  3. Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum

  4. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  5. ,"Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. ,"Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016"

  7. ,"Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  8. ,"Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  10. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  11. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Scientists are developing a miniature, tissue-engineered artificial lung that ...

  12. High Performance Plastic DSSC | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Plastic DSSC Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > High Performance Plastic DSSC...

  13. Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes using Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles

  14. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  15. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  16. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  18. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  19. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  20. Status report for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks at Hanford Site 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.B.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this status report is to summarize updated data and information from the FY 1994 strategy plan that is associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations. Sixty-three IMUSTs have been Identified and placed on the official IMUST list. All the tanks are associated with past Hanford Site operations. Of the 63 tanks., 19 are catch tanks, 20 are vault tanks, 3 are neutralization tanks, 8 are settling tanks, 2 are solvent makeup tanks used to store hexone, 2 are flush tanks, 3 are decontamination tanks, 1 is a diverter station, 1 is a receiver tank, 1 is an experimental tank, and 3 are waste handling tanks. It is important to proactively deal with the risks Imposed by these 63 tanks, and at the same time not jeopardize the existing commitments and schedules for mitigating and resolving identified safety issues related to the 177 SSTs and DSTS. Access controls and signs have been placed on all but the three official IMUSTs added most recently. An accelerated effort to identify authorization documents and perform unreviewed safety question (USQ) screening has been completed. According to a set of criteria consistent with the safety screening data quality objective (DQO) process, 6 IMUSTs are ranked high related to the hydrogen generation potential safety Issue, 1 is ranked high related to the ferrocyanide potential safety issue, 6 are ranked high related to the flammability potential safety issue, and 25 are ranked high related to the vapor emissions potential safety issue.

  1. Building Technologies Office: R&D Opportunities to Reduce Energy Consumption in Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office: R&D Opportunities to Reduce Energy Consumption in Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) Pat Phelan (patrick.phelan@ee.doe.gov) BTO Emerging Technologies June 3, 2016 2 Why Do We Care About MELs? Problem: Fraction of energy consumption due to MELs is rising as other building technologies become more efficient. DOE Quadrennial Technology Review (2015)  60% of remaining energy consumption after 2020 R&D targets are achieved, the majority of which are MELs. FY16 Activities: * Panel

  2. Field evaluation of recycled plastic lumber (RPL) pallets. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Miele, C.R.; Francini, R.B.; Yuracko, K.; Yerace, P.

    1997-10-01

    One significant component of the waste stream, discarded plastic products and packaging, continues to be a growing portion of the municipal solid waste (MSW). There has been considerable work done in characterizing the quantity and types of plastics in different waste streams, collection methods, separation, sorting as well as technologies for processing post-consumer mixed plastics. The focus in recent years has been the development of markets for recycled plastic products, which constitutes the second half of the material flow diagram cycle shown in Figure 1. One key product that holds significant promise for plastics recycling to be both technically feasible and economically viable is Recycled Plastic Lumber (RPL). The contents of this report forms the second phase of a two-phase pilot project on developing specifications and standards for a product fabricated from RPL. Such standards and specifications are needed to prepare procurement guidelines for state and federal agencies interested in purchasing products made from recycled materials. The first phase focused on establishing a procedure to evaluate RPL product,s such as pallets, in a laboratory setting while this phase focuses on field evaluation of RPL pallets in service. This effort is critical in the development of new markets for RPL products. A brief summary of the findings from Phase 1 of this effort is presented next.

  3. Harbec Plastic Wind Turbine Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Harbec Plastic Wind Turbine Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Harbec Plastic Wind Turbine Wind Farm Facility Harbec Plastic Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type...

  4. Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future | ANSER Center | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Home > News & Events > Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Evanston, Ill---Energy consumption is ...

  5. New recycling plant accepts and converts co-mingled plastic trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The plant, owned and operated by Innovative Plastic Products Inc. (IPPI), uses a new patented German process to convert co-mingled plastic trash, including impurities like wood, papers, and metal, into a plastic alloy that is immediately molded into finished product. The products currently being produced by IPPI's facility in Greensboro, Ga., are: flat sheets in various thickness called InnoPlast GP(tm); a modular drainage trough called InnoDain(tm); pallets, dollies, industrial floor tile, and cable spools. Ken Carrier, vice president of Marketing, says that by year end the plant should reach an operating capacity of about 1 million pounds per month of finished product from the recycled plastic waste.

  6. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  7. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  9. Updated Miscellaneous Electricity Loads and Appliance Energy Usage Profiles for Use in Home Energy Ratings, the Building America Benchmark Procedures and Related Calculations. Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny; Fairey, Philip; Hendron, Robert

    2011-06-10

    This report discusses how TIAX data, supplemented by the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS)public use data set was used to make significant improvements in the prediction metods for estimating energy use of miscellaneous electric loads.

  10. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  11. High Performance Plastic DSSC | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory High Performance Plastic DSSC Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > High Performance Plastic DSSC

  12. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells...

  13. Plastic Deformations in Complex Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durniak, C.; Samsonov, D.

    2011-04-29

    Complex plasmas are macroscopic model systems of real solids and liquids, used to study underdamped dynamics and wave phenomena. Plastic deformations of complex plasma crystals under slow uniaxial compression have been studied experimentally and numerically. It is shown that the lattice becomes locally sheared and that this strain is relaxed by shear slips resulting in global uniform compression and heat generation. Shear slips generate pairs of dislocations which move in opposite directions at subsonic speeds.

  14. Is combustion of plastics desirable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piasecki, B.; Rainey, D.; Fletcher, K.

    1998-07-01

    Managing waste will always entail some tradeoffs. All of the three options--recycling, landfilling and combustion--have some disadvantages. Even landfilling, which produces no emissions, fails to take advantage of the energy value inherent in plastic. Waste combustion, on the other hand, recovers the energy in plastic materials and reduces the volume of disposed solid waste by up to 90% of its initial preburn volumes. However, this management option generates emissions and produces an ash residue that must be managed. As demonstrated by recent test burns, improvements in combustion and air-pollution-control technology have dramatically reduced the health risks from emissions and ash. Recent studies have shown that plastics--in quantities even higher than those normally found in municipal solid waste--do not adversely affect levels of emissions or the quality of ash from waste-to-energy facilities. In addition, waste-to-energy facilities may be a relatively economical source of fuel, and may be a more economic solution to waste management than the other available options. A waste-to-energy plant generally produces electricity that is sold to the electric utilities for approximately six cents per kilowatt-hour, a rate that is competitive with those offered by nuclear power plants and power plants that generate energy by burning fossil fuels.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  16. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  17. ,"Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  18. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  19. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  20. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  1. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  2. Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALEXANDER,JEFF A.; SHOPE,STEVEN L.; PATE,RONALD C.; RINEHART,LARRY F.; JOJOLA,JOHN M.; RUEBUSH,MITCHELL H.; CROWE,WAYNE; LUNDSTROM,J.; SMITH,T.; ZAGAR,D.; PRESTWICH,K.

    2000-09-01

    The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.

  3. Sacrificial plastic mold with electroplatable base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Domeier, Linda A.; Hruby, Jill M.; Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided. One embodiment consists of the infusion of a softened or molten thermoplastic through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale molding tool contacting the porous metal substrate. Upon demolding, the porous metal substrate will be embedded within the thermoplastic and will project a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. This plastic structure, in turn, provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved to leave the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  4. Sacrificial Plastic Mold With Electroplatable Base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Domeier, Linda A.; Hruby, Jill M.; Morales, Alfredo M.

    2005-08-16

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided. One embodiment consists of the infusion of a softened or molten thermoplastic through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale molding tool contacting the porous metal substrate. Upon demolding, the porous metal substrate will be embedded within the thermoplastic and will project a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. This plastic structure, in turn, provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved to leave the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  5. Castable plastic mold with electroplatable base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Domeier, Linda A.; Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela G.; Keifer, Patrick M.

    2004-01-20

    A sacrificial plastic mold having an electroplatable backing is provided as are methods of making such a mold via the infusion of a castable liquid formulation through a porous metal substrate (sheet, screen, mesh or foam) and into the features of a micro-scale master mold. Upon casting and demolding, the porous metal substrate is embedded within the cast formulation and projects a plastic structure with features determined by the mold tool. The plastic structure provides a sacrificial plastic mold mechanically bonded to the porous metal substrate, which provides a conducting support suitable for electroplating either contiguous or non-contiguous metal replicates. After electroplating and lapping, the sacrificial plastic can be dissolved, leaving the desired metal structure bonded to the porous metal substrate. Optionally, the electroplated structures may be debonded from the porous substrate by selective dissolution of the porous substrate or a coating thereon.

  6. This New Plastic Is 50% Renewable | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This New Plastic Is 50% Renewable This New Plastic Is 50% Renewable April 18, 2016 - 10:50am Addthis An artist's rendition of the tough new plastic. | Image courtesy of Mark ...

  7. Shape-Shifting Plastic (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Other: Shape-Shifting Plastic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-Shifting Plastic A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its ...

  8. Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Renewable, ...

  9. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  10. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution Share Description Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue At...

  11. New Class of Plastic Scintillators - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scintillator PSD-Capable Doped Plastic Scintillator NeutronGamma Pulse-Shape Discrimination in a Doped Plastic Scintillator NeutronGamma Pulse-Shape Discrimination in a...

  12. Replex Plastics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vernon Ave Place: Mount Vernon, Ohio Zip: 43050 Sector: Services, Solar Product: Manufacturing; Research and development Phone Number: 740-397-5535 Website: www.replex.com...

  13. Plasticity in Ultra Fine Grained Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koslowski, Marisol

    2015-04-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of deformation of nanocrystalline (nc) materials is critical to the design of micro and nano devices and to develop materials with superior fracture strength and wear resistance for applications in new energy technologies. In this project we focused on understanding the following plastic deformation processes described in detail in the following sections: 1. Plastic strain recovery (Section 1). 2. Effect of microstructural variability on the yield stress of nc metals (Section 2). 3. The role of partial and extended full dislocations in plastic deformation of nc metals (Section 3).

  14. Impact of oil shortage on plastic medical supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.B.; Kline, B.

    1981-03-01

    There is good evidence that production of plastic medical equipment may be a minuscule fraction of the overall petrochemical industry; yet, it is not immune to serious supply shortfall in an oil shortage crisis of either economic or military nature. In support of this allegation, researchers have introduced documented evidence that the US health care industry experienced plastic supply shortfall in the form of increased lead time and cost as a direct result of the 1973-1974 embargo. The industry was fortunate in that there was some cushion effect from residual inventories and that the embargo did not last longer. As a further example, it has been shown that the British industry was not so fortunate; it experienced definite signs of medical plastic shortfall and reaction by the medical profession. The US industry, from manufacturer to consumer, lacks contingency planning in spite of lessons learned from the last embargo. Contrary to the apparent consensus of popular opinion, plan is more than a four-lettered word. More planning and implementation is required if the US health care industry is to be ready to cope with the next oil shortage crisis.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

    1996-07-01

    The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites - Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 567 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. The corrective actions implemented at CAU 567 were developed based on an evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, the assumed presence of COCs at specific locations, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the CAAs. The CAAs were selected on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. The implemented corrective actions meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The CAAs meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site. Based on the implementation of these corrective actions, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are necessary for CAU 567. • The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection issue a Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for closure of CAU 567. • CAU 567 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  17. Experimental estimation of dynamic plastic bending moments by plastic hinge models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogo, T.; Ujihashi, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Adachi, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the present paper, the experimental estimation of dynamic plastic bending moments for metallic materials is investigated. The three-point bending, test under impact and static loads is applied to aluminum alloy (JIS A6063S) and mild steel (JIS SS400). It is confirmed that tile dynamic bending deformations in three-point bending test can be modeled as a plastic hinge, tile experimental results show that the consumed energies of the specimens are proportional to the bending angles. The ratio of the consumed energy to the bending angle is approximately equal to the plastic bending moment. In the case of aluminum alloy, the dynamic plastic bending moments for the different average bending angular velocities coincide with the static plastic bending moments. On the other hand, in the case of mild steel, the dynamic plastic bending moments are proportional to the average bending angular velocities. As a result, we confirm that the present method based on the plastic hinge model and the consumed energy is efficient for determining tile dynamic plastic bending moment.

  18. Miscellaneous Proved Nonproducing Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 5 7 12 9 6 1996-2014 Lease Condensate (million bbls) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998-2014 Total Gas (billion cu ft) 102 62 120 92 48 42 1996-2014 Nonassociated Gas (billion cu ft) 102 62 120 89 48 42 1996-2014 Associated Gas (billion cu ft) 0 0 0 3 0 0

  19. Plastics and Rubber Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The energy pathway-from primary sources (fuel, steam, and electricity) to facility end use-is shown ... of energy use or compare energy consumption across manufacturing subsectors. ...

  20. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  1. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  2. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  3. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 80-186-1149, TLB Plastics Corporation, Marion, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, R.W.; Schleomer, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    Laboratory analysis of the cellulose acetate propionate heated to the extrusion temperature revealed that emission products included propionic acid, acetic acid, and plasticizers (suspected but not confirmed to be di(2-ethylbutyl)azelate). Recommendations are provided in the body of the full report to further minimize solvent exposure, eliminate exposure to extrusion emissions, and increase worker comfort.

  4. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1998-07-21

    A miniature plastic gripper is described actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  5. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  6. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1997-03-11

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same are disclosed. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  7. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  8. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  9. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  10. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells

  11. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a

  12. Thermal depolymerization of plastics - PDU testing. Task 15. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The process development unit (PDU) test program is part of an ongoing effort at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to expand the base of knowledge for the thermal depolymerization of plastics process. This phase of the development effort, initiated after successful completion of a bench-scale program, has concentrated on maximizing liquid yield. The purposes of the PDU program were (1) to demonstrate the process on a commercially scalable unit, (2) to produce quantities of product that could be used to initiate discussions with potential end users, and (3) to gather engineering and yield data. Experimentation consisted of eleven test points on the PDU and seven on the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) bench-scale unit. Initial PDU tests (PO35-PO39) were carried out using a base blend, which consists of 60% high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 20% polypropylene (PP), and 20% polystyrene (PS) virgin resin pellets. Test PO39 used base blend with 5% polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The base blend decomposed to produce a flowable liquid, with liquid yields ranging from 33% to 45%. The next series of tests, PO40-PO44, used a postconsumer plastics feed. This material did not decompose as readily as the base blend and formed a very waxy, heavy liquid, with {open_quotes}liquid{close_quotes} yields ranging from 18% to 63% (low liquid yields are the result of using excess air in the natural gas burner in some tests in an attempt to increase gas residence time).

  13. Science on Saturday: Plastic Electronics | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2016 - 09:30 Science on Saturday: Plastic Electronics MBG Auditorium @ PPPL Speaker: Professor Lynn Loo...

  14. Biodegradable plastics from potato waste double savings to environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, R. )

    1990-11-01

    Plastics can be made from starchy food waste. This article describes a method by which these plastics break down into harmless chemicals when exposed to sunlight, water or bacteria. Degradable trash bags and agricultural mulch films can replace some of the millions of pounds of nondegradable plastics used each year. Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory developed that involves enzymatically converting potato waste into glucose, fermenting the glucose to lactic acid using bacteria, and then using the lactic acid to construct fully degradable plastics.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  16. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  17. Crystal Plasticity Model of Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement in GRIZZLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Biner, Suleyman Bulent; Zhang, Yongfeng; Spencer, Benjamin Whiting

    2015-07-01

    The integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is of utmost importance to ensure safe operation of nuclear reactors under extended lifetime. Microstructure-scale models at various length and time scales, coupled concurrently or through homogenization methods, can play a crucial role in understanding and quantifying irradiation-induced defect production, growth and their influence on mechanical behavior of RPV steels. A multi-scale approach, involving atomistic, meso- and engineering-scale models, is currently being pursued within the GRIZZLY project to understand and quantify irradiation-induced embrittlement of RPV steels. Within this framework, a dislocation-density based crystal plasticity model has been developed in GRIZZLY that captures the effect of irradiation-induced defects on the flow stress behavior and is presented in this report. The present formulation accounts for the interaction between self-interstitial loops and matrix dislocations. The model predictions have been validated with experiments and dislocation dynamics simulation.

  18. Method of coextruding plastics to form a composite sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsien, Hsue C.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a method of producing a composite sheet of plastic materials by means of coextrusion. Two plastic materials are matched with respect to their melt indices. These matched plastic materials are then coextruded in a side-by-side orientation while hot and soft to form a composite sheet having a substantially uniform demarkation therebetween. The plastic materials are fed at a substantially equal extrusion velocity and generally have substantially equal viscosities. The coextruded plastics can be worked after coextrusion while they are still hot and soft.

  19. Method of cleaning plastics using super and subcritical media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, S.P.; Spall, W.D.; Talhi, A.

    1998-05-26

    A method for treating a plastic, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, to remove at least a portion of at least one contaminant includes combining the plastic with a supercritical medium, such as carbon dioxide or sulfur hexafluoride, whereby at least a portion of the contaminant dissolves in the supercritical medium. Alternatively, the plastic can be combined with a suitable liquid medium, such as carbon dioxide or liquid sulfur hexafluoride. At least a portion of the medium, containing the dissolved contaminant, is separated from the plastic, thereby removing at least a portion of the contaminant from the plastic. 10 figs.

  20. Method of cleaning plastics using super and subcritical media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P.; Spall, W. Dale; Talhi, Abdelhafid

    1998-05-26

    A method for treating a plastic, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, to remove at least a portion of at least one contaminant includes combining the plastic with a supercritical medium, such as carbon dioxide or sulfur hexafluoride, whereby at least a portion of the contaminant dissolves in the supercritical medium. Alternatively, the plastic can be combined with a suitable liquid medium, such as carbon dioxide or liquid sulfur hexafluoride. At least a portion of the medium, containing the dissolved contaminant, is separated from the plastic, thereby removing at least a portion of the contaminant from the plastic.

  1. Unified creep-plasticity model for halite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieg, R. D.

    1980-11-01

    There are two national energy programs which are considering caverns in geological salt (NaCl) as a storage repository. One is the disposal of nuclear wastes and the other is the storage of oil. Both short-time and long-time structural deformations and stresses must be predictable for these applications. At 300K, the nominal initial temperature for both applications, the salt is at 0.28 of the melting temperature and exhibits a significant time dependent behavior. A constitutive model has been developed which describes the behavior observed in an extensive set of triaxial creep tests. Analysis of these tests showed that a single deformation mechanism seems to be operative over the stress and temperature range of interest so that the secondary creep data can be represented by a power of the stress over the entire test range. This simple behavior allowed a new unified creep-plasticity model to be applied with some confidence. The resulting model recognizes no inherent difference between plastic and creep strains yet models the total inelastic strain reasonably well including primary and secondary creep and reverse loadings. A multiaxial formulation is applied with a back stress. A Bauschinger effect is exhibited as a consequence and is present regardless of the time scale over which the loading is applied. The model would be interpreted as kinematic hardening in the sense of classical plasticity. Comparisons are made between test data and model behavior.

  2. Heavy oil/plastic co-processing - subtask 4.1. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a low-temperature thermal decomposition process to alleviate the problems associated with disposal of waste plastics and at the same time generate a product stream in the gasoline boiling range for use in the refining and petrochemical industries. The technology being developed by WRI is significantly different from conventional thermal decomposition processes used to recover distillates from waste plastics. The key to this difference is the application of a decomposition initiator concept that allows operation of the process at temperatures below those used in other thermal decomposition processes. The WRI technology utilizes the decomposition initiator to enhance thermal decomposition of waste plastics in the presence of a low-value heavy oil at temperatures below those normally used for thermal decomposition. Operation of the process at lower temperatures produces higher yields of distillate product and lower yields of gaseous and char products than conventional processes. The activity of the initiator was identified in earlier research studying the thermal decomposition of polymers. This activity was observed to result in a decrease in the temperature required to thermally decompose plastics in the presence of a heavy oil. These early experiments indicated that the initiator was native to the plastics matrix, but the identity and possible mode of action were not determined. This study was undertaken to identify the active initiator in the plastics matrix and define its activity. The experiments performed in this study were conducted in a batch-type reactor. The particular elements of the activity that were addressed included: (1) the kinetics of the reaction, (2) the effects of diluting the plastics with the heavy oil, and (3) the effects of using different types of heavy oil.

  3. Pion Production Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pion Production Data Release This page gives the updated results for three different MINERvA Publications: Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino induced pion production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA hep-ex/1606.07127 and Single neutral pion production by charged current antinu interactions on plastic scintillator at Enu ∼ 4 GeV hep-ex/1503.02107 and Charged Pion Production from CH in a Neutrino Beam hep-ex/1406.6415 Data Ancillary files for this result are available

  4. Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Len Rand, Chief Executive Officer, Chairman, xF Technologies rand_bioenergy_2015.pdf (874.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings

  5. Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Localized Plasticity in the Streamlined Genomes of Vinyl Chloride Respiring Dehalococcoides Citation ... Here we report the first, to our knowledge, complete genome ...

  6. Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel ; Robbins, Joshua ; Voth, ...

  7. An Analytical Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An Analytical Elastic Plastic Contact Model with Strain Hardening and Frictional Effects for Normal and Oblique Impacts. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  8. Economical Remediation of Plastic Waste into Advanced Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium-air batteries. An environmentally-friendly, solvent-less process to convert plastics into carbon nanotubes Process is affordable and scalable PDF icon wastetoadvanced...

  9. Harbec Plastics: 750kW CHP Application- Project Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study profiles Harbec Plastics' 750kW combined heat and power (CHP) project in Ontario, New York to improve plant-wide energy performance.

  10. Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials Remi Dingreville, Joshua Robbins and ... What about the subsurface fields (2D vs. 3D)? (S) Sonia National Laboratories 419 Where ...

  11. Stories of Discovery & Innovation: Just One Word-Plastics | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Just One Word-Plastics Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers ... part by the Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM), an EFRC led ...

  12. COLLOQUIUM: Are Mushrooms the Next Polymers?: Growing Plastic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COLLOQUIUM: Are Mushrooms the Next Polymers?: Growing Plastic Replacements with Fungi Mr. Gavin McIntyre Ecovative Design LLC Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma...

  13. Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells Resources with Additional Information Patents Videos After receiving 'his physics Ph.D. at the University of...

  14. Scaling behavior and complexity of plastic deformation for a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scaling behavior and complexity of plastic deformation for a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling behavior and ...

  15. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2005-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  16. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  17. Maximizing the life cycle of plastics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, W. L.

    1980-02-01

    The Plastics Research Institute has conducted a coordinated research program designed to extend the useful life of plastics. Since feedstock for practically all synthetic plastics is derived from fossil fuel, every effort should be made to obtain the maximum useful life from these materials. Eventually, plastic scrap may be used as a fuel supplement, but this disposal route should be followed only after the scrap is no longer reusable in its polymeric form. The extent to which plastic scrap will be recovered and reused will be affected by the economic situation as well as the available supply of fossil fuel. The Institute's program was conducted at five major universities. Dedicated faculty members were assembled into a research team and met frequently with members of the Institute's Board of Trustees to review progress of the program. The research was conducted by graduate students in partial fulfillment of degree requirements. Summaries are presented of the following research projects: Improved Stabilization; Separation of Mixed Plastic Scrap; Compatibilizing Agents for Mixed Plastic Scrap; Controlled Degradation of Plastic Scrap; and Determination of Compatibility.

  18. METHOD OF USING AND MANUFACTURING PLASTIC EQUIVALENT TO ORGANIC MATERIALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shonka, F.R.; Rose, J.E.; Failla, G.

    1961-10-24

    Compositions of matter that have the radiation response of animal muscle tissue, bone, or air were prepared. These compositions are composed of specific proportions of three or more of the following constituents: polyethylene plastic, polyamide plastic, oil furnace black, silica, and calcium fluoride. (AEC)

  19. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  20. Micrographic detection of plastic deformation in nickel base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Bibb, Albert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for detecting low levels of plastic deformation in metal articles comprising electrolytically etching a flow free surface of the metal article with nital at a current density of less than about 0.1 amp/cm.sup.2 and microscopically examining the etched surface to determine the presence of alternating striations. The presence of striations indicates plastic deformation in the article.

  1. Micrographic detection of plastic deformation in nickel-base alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, A.F.; Bibb, A.E.

    1980-09-20

    A method for detecting low levels of plastic deformation in metal articles comprising electrolytically etching a flow free surface of the metal article with nital at a current density of less than about 0.1 amp/cm/sup 2/ and microscopically examining the etched surface to determine the presence of alternating striations. The presence of striations indicates plastic deformation in the article.

  2. Measurement of large strains in ropes using plastic optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Jerry Gene; Smith, David Barton; Muhs, Jeffrey David

    2006-02-14

    A method for the direct measurement of large strains in ropes in situ using a plastic optical fiber, for example, perfluorocarbon or polymethyl methacrylate and Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer or other light time-of-flight measurement instrumentation. Protective sheaths and guides are incorporated to protect the plastic optical fiber. In one embodiment, a small rope is braided around the plastic optical fiber to impose lateral compressive forces to restrain the plastic optical fiber from slipping and thus experience the same strain as the rope. Methods are described for making reflective interfaces along the length of the plastic optical fiber and to provide the capability to measure strain within discrete segments of the rope. Interpretation of the data allows one to calculate the accumulated strain at any point in time and to determine if the rope has experienced local damage.

  3. Residual stresses and plastic deformation in GTA-welded steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, P.C. ); Keijser, T.H. de; Ouden, G. den )

    1993-03-01

    Residual stresses and plastic deformation in single pass GTA welded low-carbon steel were studied by means of x-ray diffraction in combination with optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The residual stresses and the amount of plastic deformation (microstrain) were obtained from x-ray diffraction line positions and line broading. Since the plates were polished before welding, it was possible to observe in the optical microscope two types of Lueders bands. During heating curved Lueders bands and during cooling straight Lueders bands perpendicular to the weld are formed. The curved Lueders bands extend over a larger distance from the weld than the straight Lueders bands. The amount of plastic deformation as obtained from the x-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with these observations. An explanation is offered for the stresses measured in combination with plastic deformations observed. It is concluded that in the present experiments plastic deformation is the main cause of the residual stresses.

  4. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  5. Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    15.2010: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and Wireless Water Heaters Geek-Up10.15.2010: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and ...

  6. Process for the recovery and separation of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Pomykala Jr., Joseph A.

    2003-07-29

    A method of separating a portion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) from a mixture containing ABS and for separating a portion of ABS and polycarbonate (PC) from a mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC is disclosed. The method includes shredding and/or granulating the mixture of plastics containing ABS and PC to provide a selected particle size; sequentially dispersing the shredded mixture of plastics in a series aqueous solutions having different specific gravities and separating the floating fraction until the desired separation is obtained. Surface tension and pH are also variable to be controlled.

  7. Criterion for thermo-plastic shear instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, T.J.; Grady, D.E.; Costin, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic torsional Kolsky (split-Hopkinson) bar experiments on thin-walled tubes of 1018 cold-rolled and 1020 hot-rolled steel are modeled using a deformation plasticity theory which incorporates a specific constitutive model for the shear stress in terms of strain, strain-rate, and temperature into a system of differential equations. The exact time-dependent homogeneous flow solution of the equations is found and used to derive a special case of a generally accepted instability criterion. For given material parameters, this criterion predicts a critical strain at which a homogeneous deformation can bifuricate into a localized deformation, i.e., a shear band, at constant strain-rate. Stability diagrams of strain-rate vs. strain can be constructed for the two types of steel using the criterion. The Kolsky bar data is shown to be consistent with this analysis, and an explanation for the instability criterion is given which assumes that small perturbations on the non-steady homogeneous flow are isentropic to first order.

  8. High reliability plastic packaging for microelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.; Tuck, M.

    1997-07-01

    Goal was Assembly Test Chips (ATCs) which could be used for evaluating plastic encapsulation technologies. Circuits were demonstrated for measuring Au-Al wirebond and Al metal corrosion failure rates during accelerated temperature and humidity testing. The test circuits on the ATC02.5 chip were very sensitive to extrinsic or processing induced failure rates. Accelerated aging experiments were conducted with unpassivated triple track Al structures on the ATC02.6 chip; the unpassivated tracks were found to be very sensitive to particulate contamination. Some modifications to existing circuitry were suggested. The piezoresistive stress sensing circuitry designed for the ATC04 test chip was found suitable for determining the change in the state of mechanical stress at the die when both initial and final measurements were made near room temperature (RT). Attempt to measure thermal stress between RT and a typical polymer glass transition temperature failed because of excessive die resistor- substrate leakage currents at the high temperature end; suitable circuitry changes were developed to overcome this problem. One temperature and humidity experiment was conducted with Sandia developed static radom access memory parts to examine non-corrosion CMOS failures; this objective was not achieved, but corrosion failure at the metal to Si contacts on the die surface could be detected. This 2-year effort resulted in new designs for test circuits which could be used on an advanced ATC for reliability assessment in Defense Programs electronics development projects.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: • 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit • 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites • 15-64-01, Decontamination Area • 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  10. Shape-Shifting Plastic (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE SHAPE-SHIFTING; PLASTIC; TEMPERATURE. Word Cloud More Like This Multimedia File size NAView Multimedia View Multimedia DOI: Run time 00:00:34 Select ...

  11. A nonlocal, ordinary, state-based plasticity model for peridynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An implicit time integration algorithm for a non-local, state-based, peridynamics plasticity model is developed. The flow rule was proposed in 3 without an integration strategy ...

  12. A nonlocal, ordinary, state-based plasticity model for peridynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Just as in local theories of plasticity (LTP), state variables are required. It is shown that the resulting constitutive model does not violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The ...

  13. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Burghardt, Jeffrey A.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  14. Economical Remediation of Plastic Waste into Advanced Materials with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coatings | Argonne National Laboratory Economical Remediation of Plastic Waste into Advanced Materials with Coatings Technology available for licensing: An autogenic pyrolysis process to convert plastic waste into high-value carbon nanotubes (50- to 100-nm outside diameter) and perfectly round carbon spheres (2- to 12-μm outside diameter). The tubes can be used as anode material in advanced batteries such as lithium-ion and eventually, lithium-air batteries. An environmentally-friendly,

  15. Elastic-plastic response charts for nuclear overpressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guice, L.K.; Kiger, S.A.

    1984-06-01

    The single-degree-of-freedom equation of motion for an elastic-plastic system with forcing functions that are representative of nuclear weapon simulations is nondimensionalized and solved. Numerical solutions are calculated by the Newmark Beta method, and response charts incorporating nondimensionalized structural and loading parameters for the Speicher-Brode nuclear pressure history description are provided. A computer code is presented for solving the elastic-plastic problem for Speicher-Brode overpressure as well as triangular-shaped overpressures.

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  17. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.

  18. Treatment studies of paint stripping waste from plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Blasting with plastic media is used to strip paint and decontaminate surfaces. For disposal the plastic media is pulverized into a plastic dust. About 10 wt % of the waste from plastic media blasting is pulverized paint, which makes the waste a characteristically hazardous waste because of the presence of barium, cadmium, chromium and lead in the paint pigments. Four separate treatments of this hazardous waste were studied: (1) density separation to remove the paint, (2) self-encapsulation of the mix of plastic and paint dust into plastic pellets, (3) solidification/stabilization (S/S) into cementitious waste forms, and (4) low-temperature ashing to destroy the large mass of nonhazardous polymer. Two types of plast blasting wastes were studied: a urea formaldehyde thermoset polymer and an acrylic thermoplastic polymer (polymethylmethacrylate). Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) extraction concentrations for the treated and untreated wastes are listed. Density separation failed to adequately separate the paint with an aqueous carbonate solution. Self-encapsulation reduced the waste volume by about 50%, but did not meet TCLP criteria. Cementitious solidification gave the lowest TCLP concentrations, but increased the waste volume by about 50%. Low-temperature ashing at 600 C resulted in a mass decrease of 93 to 98% for the wastes; the metals remaining in the ash could be stabilized with cementitious solidification and still result in a volume decrease of 75 to 95 volume percent.

  19. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  20. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  1. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Schenker

    2000-12-08

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs.

  2. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Cabble , Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  3. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  4. Method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials using spherical indenters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.

  5. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, Thomas A; Rodriguez, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  6. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tostar, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.tostar@chalmers.se [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal [Department of Material and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R. St. J. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 C and heated to ca. 105 C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  7. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  8. Continuous Severe Plastic Deformation Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan Srinivasan; Prabir K. Chaudhury; Balakrishna Cherukuri; Qingyou Han; David Swenson; Percy Gros

    2006-06-30

    Metals with grain sizes smaller than 1-micrometer have received much attention in the past decade. These materials have been classified as ultra fine grain (UFG) materials (grain sizes in the range of 100 to 1000-nm) and nano-materials (grain size <100-nm) depending on the grain size. This report addresses the production of bulk UFG metals through the use of severe plastic deformation processing, and their subsequent use as stock material for further thermomechanical processing, such as forging. A number of severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods for producing bulk UFG metals have been developed since the early 1990s. The most promising of these processes for producing large size stock that is suitable for forging is the equal channel angular extrusion or pressing (ECAE/P) process. This process involves introducing large shear strain in the work-piece by pushing it through a die that consists of two channels with the same cross-sectional shape that meet at an angle to each other. Since the cross-sections of the two channels are the same, the extruded product can be re-inserted into the entrance channel and pushed again through the die. Repeated extrusion through the ECAE/P die accumulates sufficient strain to breakdown the microstructure and produce ultra fine grain size. It is well known that metals with very fine grain sizes (< 10-micrometer) have higher strain rate sensitivity and greater elongation to failure at elevated temperature, exhibiting superplastic behavior. However, this superplastic behavior is usually manifest at high temperature (> half the melting temperature on the absolute scale) and very low strain rates (< 0.0001/s). UFG metals have been shown to exhibit superplastic characteristics at lower temperature and higher strain rates, making this phenomenon more practical for manufacturing. This enables part unitization and forging more complex and net shape parts. Laboratory studies have shown that this is particularly true for UFG metals produced

  9. Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

  10. Plastic deformation and sintering of alumina under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fangming; Liu, Pingping; Wang, Haikuo; Xu, Chao; Yin, Shuai; Yin, Wenwen; Li, Yong; He, Duanwei

    2013-12-21

    Plastic deformation of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under high pressure was investigated by observing the shape changes of spherical particles, and the near fully dense transparent bulks were prepared at around 5.5 GPa and 900 °C. Through analyzing the deformation features, densities, and residual micro-strain of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compacts prepared under high pressures and temperatures (2.0–5.5 GPa and 600–1200 °C), the effects of plastic deformation on the sintering behavior of alumina have been demonstrated. Under compression, the microscopic deviatoric stress caused by grain-to-grain contact could initiate the plastic deformation of individual particles, eliminate pores of the polycrystalline samples, and enhance the local atomic diffusion at the grain boundaries, thus produced transparent alumina bulks.

  11. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  12. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  13. Gradient Plasticity Model and its Implementation into MARMOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Erin I.; Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

    2013-08-01

    The influence of strain gradient on deformation behavior of nuclear structural materials, such as boby centered cubic (bcc) iron alloys has been investigated. We have developed and implemented a dislocation based strain gradient crystal plasticity material model. A mesoscale crystal plasticity model for inelastic deformation of metallic material, bcc steel, has been developed and implemented numerically. Continuum Dislocation Dynamics (CDD) with a novel constitutive law based on dislocation density evolution mechanisms was developed to investigate the deformation behaviors of single crystals, as well as polycrystalline materials by coupling CDD and crystal plasticity (CP). The dislocation density evolution law in this model is mechanism-based, with parameters measured from experiments or simulated with lower-length scale models, not an empirical law with parameters back-fitted from the flow curves.

  14. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT MISCELLANEOUS PROCESS INVENTORY WASTE ITEMS OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Phyllis C

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  15. Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry May 6, 2016 - 5:46pm Addthis This GIF shows how CO2 emissions vary across the United States. Each bar represents a 50x50 kilometer grid. Bar height is proportional to total CO2 emissions and bar color represents the type of CO2 emissions. Red bars represent proportionately more CO2 emissions from electricity generation (coal, gas and oil). Green bars represent CO2

  16. Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Edward J.; Rich, John T.

    2001-01-01

    A high accuracy rapid system for sorting a plurality of waste products by polymer type. The invention involves the application of Raman spectroscopy and complex identification techniques to identify and sort post-consumer plastics for recycling. The invention reads information unique to the molecular structure of the materials to be sorted to identify their chemical compositions and uses rapid high volume sorting techniques to sort them into product streams at commercially viable throughput rates. The system employs a laser diode (20) for irradiating the material sample (10), a spectrograph (50) is used to determine the Raman spectrum of the material sample (10) and a microprocessor based controller (70) is employed to identify the polymer type of the material sample (10).

  17. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Truher, J.B.; Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1994-09-13

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate is disclosed. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900 C), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180 C for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180 C) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide. 5 figs.

  18. Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Truher, Joel B.; Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900.degree. C.), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180.degree. C. for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180.degree. C.) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide.

  19. Plasticity of the Quinone-binding Site of the Complex II Homolog...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasticity of the Quinone-binding Site of the Complex II Homolog Quinol:Fumarate Reductase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasticity of the Quinone-binding Site of the...

  20. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 79-034-1440, Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salisbury, S.

    1984-03-01

    In response to a request from the president of the United Rubber Workers, Local 759, an investigation was begun into possible hazardous working conditions at the Hatco Plastics Division, Currently known as Intex Plastics, Corinth, Mississippi. The request indicated that several production and maintenance employees at that site had been disabled due to chemical poisoining and related illnesses. A medical survey was begun at the facility in March of 1979. Fifty employees participated by completing a questionnaire. A high prevalence of eye, nose, and throat irritation was found along with shortness of breath, cough, and skin rash among workers assigned to the Calender, Color, and Laminating Departments. Air sampling was performed in several departments. Except for methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK), the levels of substances detected were quite low. The department with the highest exposure to airborne contaminants included the Print Service with 36 to 299 parts per million (ppm) MEK, laminating at 74 to 105ppm MEK, printing at 15 to 113ppm MEK, color at 15 to 24ppm MEK, premix at 0.3 to 6.8mg/cu m total dust, and calender at 0.1 to 0.6mg/cu m total dust.

  1. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 2, Project report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    This second volume contains detailed information on a number of specific topics relevant to the recovery/recycling of plastics.

  2. Plastic solar panel structure and method for making the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcalister, R.E.

    1981-06-02

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extruding a radiant energy heat exchanging panel structure having a multiplicity of parallel passages extending longitudinally therethrough defined by a multiplicity of longitudinally extending integrally interconnected exterior and interior thin wall sections, in which the temperature of the plastic material moving longitudinally away from the extrusion outlet is reduced by flowing fluid into said passages and on the exterior sides thereof, by contacting the exterior sides with pairs of cooled rollers, by rolling a liquid medium upon the operative exterior side, and by flowing a liquid spray thereon to provide a radiation absorbing coating on the exterior side of the panel structure opposite from the operative side thereof. Certain of the flowing fluids are reactant fluids which chemically react with the hot plastic material or condense thereupon to form molecular coatings thereon enhancing the properties thereof as a panel structure.

  3. Sandia/Stanford Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Model for ANSYS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-03

    A unified creep plasticity (UCP) model was developed, based upon the time-dependent and time-independent deformation properties of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (wt.%) soldier that were measured at Sandia. Then, a damage parameter, D, was added to the equation to develop the unified creep plasticity damage (UCPD) model. The parameter, D, was parameterized, using data obtained at Sandia from isothermal fatigue experiments on a double-lap shear test. The softwae was validated against a BGA solder joint exposed tomore » thermal cycling. The UCPD model was put into the ANSYS finite element as a subroutine. So, the softwae is the subroutine for ANSYS 8.1.« less

  4. Final LDRD report : advanced plastic scintillators for neutron detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; O'Bryan, Greg; Mrowka, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a one-year, feasibility-scale LDRD project that was conducted with the goal of developing new plastic scintillators capable of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for neutron detection. Copolymers composed of matrix materials such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and blocks containing trans-stilbene (tSB) as the scintillator component were prepared and tested for gamma/neutron response. Block copolymer synthesis utilizing tSBMA proved unsuccessful so random copolymers containing up to 30% tSB were prepared. These copolymers were found to function as scintillators upon exposure to gamma radiation; however, they did not exhibit PSD when exposed to a neutron source. This project, while falling short of its ultimate goal, demonstrated the possible utility of single-component, undoped plastics as scintillators for applications that do not require PSD.

  5. Task 3 - pyrolysis of plastic waste. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    This report briefly describes progress in the development of a thermal decomposition process for volume reduction of spent ion-exchange resin. During the reporting period, two series of tests were performed. The mixed waste plastics test investigated the effectiveness of the process in concentrating radionuclide surrogates in a solids residual while yielding a surrogate-free condensate product. Preliminary results indicated the occurrence of solids carryover. The ion-exchange resin tests resulted in a cesium concentration in the unfiltered condensate of about 4 to 20 micrograms/gram, indicating that fine particulate material was passing through the reactor cyclone. Future work includes the evaluation of an auger reactor in place of the fluidized bed reactor to address the problem of reactor carryover. 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  7. Multi-scale Modeling of Plasticity in Tantalum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett Chandler.; Carroll, Jay; Buchheit, Thomas E.; Boyce, Brad; Weinberger, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we present a multi-scale computational model to simulate plastic deformation of tantalum and validating experiments. In atomistic/ dislocation level, dislocation kink- pair theory is used to formulate temperature and strain rate dependent constitutive equations. The kink-pair theory is calibrated to available data from single crystal experiments to produce accurate and convenient constitutive laws. The model is then implemented into a BCC crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) model to predict temperature and strain rate dependent yield stresses of single and polycrystalline tantalum and compared with existing experimental data from the literature. Furthermore, classical continuum constitutive models describing temperature and strain rate dependent flow behaviors are fit to the yield stresses obtained from the CP-FEM polycrystal predictions. The model is then used to conduct hydro- dynamic simulations of Taylor cylinder impact test and compared with experiments. In order to validate the proposed tantalum CP-FEM model with experiments, we introduce a method for quantitative comparison of CP-FEM models with various experimental techniques. To mitigate the effects of unknown subsurface microstructure, tantalum tensile specimens with a pseudo-two-dimensional grain structure and grain sizes on the order of millimeters are used. A technique combining an electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and high resolution digital image correlation (HR-DIC) is used to measure the texture and sub-grain strain fields upon uniaxial tensile loading at various applied strains. Deformed specimens are also analyzed with optical profilometry measurements to obtain out-of- plane strain fields. These high resolution measurements are directly compared with large-scale CP-FEM predictions. This computational method directly links fundamental dislocation physics to plastic deformations in the grain-scale and to the engineering-scale applications. Furthermore, direct

  8. Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells Resources with Additional Information * Patents * Videos After receiving 'his physics Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley in 1961, [Alan J.] Heeger would spend the next 20 years teaching the subject at the University of Pennsylvania - while also designing and then launching one of the nation's premiere scientific think tanks: the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter. Alan J. Heeger Courtesy of Randy Lamb,

  9. Alan MacDiarmid, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alan MacDiarmid, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Batteries Resources with Additional Information * Patents Alan MacDiarmid ©Alan MacDiarmid/ University of Pennsylvania Photo by Felice Macera Until 1987, the billions of batteries that had been marketed in myriad sizes and shapes all had one thing in common. To make electricity, they depended exclusively upon chemical reactions involving metal components of the battery. But today a revolutionary new type of battery is available commercially. It

  10. Pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices. The method can include encapsulating the MEMS device in a transfer molded plastic package. Next, a perforation can be made in the package to provide access to the MEMS elements. The non-ablative material removal process can include wet etching, dry etching, mechanical machining, water jet cutting, and ultrasonic machining, or any combination thereof. Finally, the MEMS elements can be released by using either a wet etching or dry plasma etching process. The MEMS elements can be protected with a parylene protective coating. After releasing the MEMS elements, an anti-stiction coating can be applied. The perforating step can be applied to both sides of the device or package. A cover lid can be attached to the face of the package after releasing any MEMS elements. The cover lid can include a window for providing optical access. The method can be applied to any plastic packaged microelectronic device that requires access to the environment, including chemical, pressure, or temperature-sensitive microsensors; CCD chips, photocells, laser diodes, VCSEL's, and UV-EPROMS. The present method places the high-risk packaging steps ahead of the release of the fragile portions of the device. It also provides protection for the die in shipment between the molding house and the house that will release the MEMS elements and subsequently treat the surfaces.

  11. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    99 MATHEMATICS, COMPUTERS, INFORMATION SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, LAW, MISCELLANEOUS; OIL WELLS; DAMAGE; WELL DRILLING; WELL COMPLETION; EQUATIONS; PROGRESS REPORT This report...

  12. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  13. Co-design for Embedded ViscoPlasticity

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-06-03

    CoEVP (Co-design for Embedded ViscoPlasticity) is an implementation of a Lagrangian hydrodynamic model utilizing an embedded viscoplasticity model to provide constitutive parameters. The purpose of CoEVP is to provide a highly simplified "proxy" materials science application for use by the Exascale Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx) codesign center to improve the ability of exascale computers being developed over the next several years to address materials science applications of importance to DOE and the Laboratory.

  14. Peculiarities of plastic deformation nucleation in copper under nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Zolnikov, Konstantin P.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2015-10-27

    The computer simulation results on the atomic structure of the copper crystallite and its behavior in nanoindentation demonstrate the key role of local structural transformations in nucleation of plasticity. The generation of local structural transformations can be considered as an elementary event during the formation of higher scale defects, including partial dislocations and stacking faults. The cause for local structural transformations, both direct fcc-hcp and reverse hcp-fcc, is an abrupt local increase in atomic volume. A characteristic feature is that the values of local volume jumps in direct and reverse structural transformations are comparable with that in melting and lie in the range 5–7%.

  15. Polymer considerations in rechargeable lithium ion plastic batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozdz, A.S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Schmutz, C.N.; Warren, P.C.; Gebizlioglu, O.S.; Shokoohi, F.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/PC. Based on electrochemical stability, mechanical strength, liquid electrolyte retention, and softening temperature, random copolymers of vinylidene fluoride containing ca. 12 mole % of hexafluoropropylene have been selected for this application.

  16. Science on Saturday: Plastic Electronics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 6, 2016, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium, PPPL Science on Saturday: Plastic Electronics Professor Lynn Loo Princeton University Abstract: PDF icon 05 Loo.pdf Science_on_Saturday06Feb2016_LLoo Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms. Deedee Ortiz-Arias dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Andrew Zwicker azwicker@pppl.gov PPPL Entrance Procedures Visitor Information, Directions, Security at PPPL As a federal facility, the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is operating under heightened

  17. A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering A First Step towards Large-Scale Plants to Plastics Engineering November 9, 2010 - 1:56pm Addthis Brookhaven National Laboratory researches making plastics from plants. Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? By optimizing the accumulation of particular fatty acids, a Brookhaven team of scientists are developing a method suitable for

  18. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  19. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  20. Multiaxial plasticity and fatigue life prediction in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being used increasingly in the oil well drilling and servicing industry. Continuous steel tubing of structural dimensions (up to 89 mm or 3.5 in. in diameter) is wound onto a large-diameter reel for repeated deployment into and out of a well bore. The bending strain range associated with each wrap-unwrap cycle can exceed 3% with lives well below 100 cycles. During constant internal pressure fatigue testing, tubing has been observed to grow in diameter by as much as 30%. This paper describes an analytical model to predict the fatigue behavior of coiled tubing subjected to variable pressure service conditions. The approach utilizes standard low-cycle fatigue data but requires additional experimental results from constant pressure fatigue testing. The algorithm is based on estimates of biaxial ratcheting from an incremental plasticity model using a hybrid associated flow rule, a modified kinematic hardening rule with multiple von Mises yield surfaces, and a specialized limit surface concept. An empirical damage parameter was formulated based on constant pressure fatigue data using mean and fluctuating von Mises equivalent strain components occurring throughout the life of a section of tubing. This parameters is used with the Palmgren-Miner definition of cumulative damage to track damage that is accumulating nonlinearly under constant or variable pressure histories. Modifications to standard incremental plasticity components and implementation assumptions used to apply the model are presented and discussed. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated relative to data generated under constant and variable pressure histories.

  1. A robust return-map algorithm for general multisurface plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adhikary, Deepak P.; Jayasundara, Chandana T.; Podgorney, Robert K.; Wilkins, Andy H.

    2016-06-16

    Three new contributions to the field of multisurface plasticity are presented for general situations with an arbitrary number of nonlinear yield surfaces with hardening or softening. A method for handling linearly dependent flow directions is described. A residual that can be used in a line search is defined. An algorithm that has been implemented and comprehensively tested is discussed in detail. Examples are presented to illustrate the computational cost of various components of the algorithm. The overall result is that a single Newton-Raphson iteration of the algorithm costs between 1.5 and 2 times that of an elastic calculation. Examples alsomore » illustrate the successful convergence of the algorithm in complicated situations. For example, without using the new contributions presented here, the algorithm fails to converge for approximately 50% of the trial stresses for a common geomechanical model of sedementary rocks, while the current algorithm results in complete success. Since it involves no approximations, the algorithm is used to quantify the accuracy of an efficient, pragmatic, but approximate, algorithm used for sedimentary-rock plasticity in a commercial software package. Furthermore, the main weakness of the algorithm is identified as the difficulty of correctly choosing the set of initially active constraints in the general setting.« less

  2. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources into useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers.

  3. Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Ellingboe, Albert R.; Theiss, Steven D.; Smith, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

  4. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  5. PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, J.W.C.

    1959-09-29

    A process is described for the production of uranium by the autothermic reduction of an anhydrous uranium halide with an alkaline earth metal, preferably magnesium One feature is the initial reduction step which is brought about by locally bringing to reaction temperature a portion of a mixture of the reactants in an open reaction vessel having in contact with the mixture a lining of substantial thickness composed of calcium fluoride. The lining is prepared by coating the interior surface with a plastic mixture of calcium fluoride and water and subsequently heating the coating in situ until at last the exposed surface is substantially anhydrous.

  6. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L.; Chen, Guang Jiong

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  7. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  8. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  9. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  10. Active Well Counting Using New PSD Plastic Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2015-11-01

    This report presents results and analysis from a series of proof-of-concept measurements to assess the suitability of segmented detectors constructed from Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability for the purposes of quantifying uranium via active neutron coincidence counting. Present quantification of bulk uranium materials for international safeguards and domestic materials control and accounting relies on active neutron coincidence counting systems, such as the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL), that use moderated He-3 proportional counters along with necessarily low-intensity 241Am(Li) neutron sources. Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are a potentially superior technology to the existing AWCC and UNCL designs due to their spectroscopic capability and their inherently short neutron coincidence times that largely eliminate random coincidences and enable interrogation by stronger sources. One of the past impediments to the investigation and adoption of scintillation counters for the purpose of quantifying bulk uranium was the commercial availability of scintillators having the necessary neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination properties only as flammable liquids. Recently, Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator became commercially available. The present work is the first assessment of an array of PSD-plastic detectors for the purposes of quantifying bulk uranium. The detector panel used in the present work was originally built as the focal plane for a fast-neutron imager, but it was repurposed for the present investigation by construction of a stand to support the inner well of an AWCC immediately in front of the detector panel. The detector panel and data acquisition of this system are particularly well suited for performing active-well fast-neutron counting of LEU and HEU samples because the active detector volume is solid, the 241Am(Li) interrogating