National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for miscellaneous na na

  1. 20Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1951SH38: 20Na; measured T1/2. 1953HO01: 20Na; measured T1/2. 1964MA44, 1969MAZT: 20Na; measured T1/2, α-spectrum; deduced β-branching. 20Ne deduced levels α-width. 1967SU05: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced nuclear properties. 1970OA01: 20Na; measured T1/2, βα-coin, βα(θ). 1971GO18: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced mass excess. 1971MA09: 20Na; measured β-delayed α-spectra; deduced βν anisotropy coefficients. 1971WI07: 20Na; measured T1/2; deduced ft

  2. 18Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 18Na Adopted value: < 200 keV (2012MU05) Measured Mass Excess for 18Na Adopted value: 25040 ± 110 keV (2012WA38) Measurements 2004ZE05: 9Be(20Mg, 18NaX), E = 43 MeV/nucleon; measured particle spectra, angular correlations, invariant mass following fragment proton decay. 18Na; deduced excited states proton decay features. 2011AS07: 1H(17Ne, 17Ne), 1H(17Ne, X)18Na, E = 4 MeV/nucleon; measured reaction products, proton

  3. 19Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 19Na Adopted value: < 40 ns (2003AU02) Measured Mass Excess for 19Na Adopted value: 12927 ± 12 keV (2003AU02) Measurements 1969CE01: 24Mg(p, 6He), E = 54.7 MeV; measured σ(E(6He)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced nuclear mass. 1975BE38: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.8 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced mass excess. 19Na deduced level. 1975BEZD: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.3 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)). 19Na deduced mass

  4. Miscellaneous - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous

  5. Na onal Security Site?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mul ple Choice (circle the correct answer) 1. How many diff erent animal species can be found at the Nevada Na onal Security Site? a. Less than 500 b. Exactly 1,325 c. More than 1,500 d. Exactly 2,303 2. Nuclear research, development and tes ng caused radioac ve contamina on of: a. Buildings b. Clothes and tools c. Soil and water d. All of the above 3. One method used to check soil for the presence of radioac ve contamina on is: a. Use a black light to see if the soil glows b. Send soil samples

  6. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  7. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  8. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  9. NaWoTec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NaWoTec Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaWoTec Place: Rossdorf, Germany Zip: 64380 Product: Germany-based company developing 3-dimensional additive lithography using...

  10. A=14Na (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1983ANZQ

  11. A=14Na (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1986AN07

  12. Threshold electron excitation of Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, B.; Wang, P.; Gallagher, A. )

    1992-09-01

    Electron collisional excitation of the 4{ital D}, 5{ital D}, 4{ital P}, and 6{ital S} states of Na has been measured with about 30-meV energy resolution. Very rapid, unresolved threshold onsets are seen for all but the 4{ital P} state, and a near-threshold resonance is suggested by the 5{ital D} data. However, only weak undulations in the cross sections are observed above threshold.

  13. A=19Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of the reaction 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na at Ep = 54.7 MeV reveals a group of 6He particles corresponding to a state in 19Na with M - A = 12.974 ± 0.070 MeV. It is presumed to be the ground state of 19Na, although the close proximity of the second T = 3/2 state in 19O from the first (96 keV), does not permit a definite assignment. If it is assumed that 19Na(0) has M - A = 12.974 ± 0.070 MeV, then 19Na is unbound with respect to decay into 18Ne + p by

  14. A=20Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table 20.35 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 20Na: From the threshold energy of the 20Ne(p, n)20Na reaction, Ethresh. = 15.419 ± 0.006 MeV, the atomic mass excess of 20Na is 6.850 ± 0.006 MeV (1971GO18, 1971WI07). See also (1964GA1C, 1966GA25, 1966KE16, 1969HA38). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.892 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of excited states which decay by α-emission to the ground state of

  15. Nevada Na onal Security Site U.S. Department of Energy, Na ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wells Sampled On and Near the Nevada Na onal Security Site U.S. Department of Energy, Na onal Nuclear Security Administra on Nevada Field Office Stages of an Underground Nuclear ...

  16. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers By Outlier Detection And Rejection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  17. A=18Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (Not illustrated) A calculation using an isobaric mass formula predicts that the mass excess of 18Na is 25.4 ± 0.4 MeV (1966KE16): 18Na is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV. See also (1965JA1C

  18. A=19Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) This nucleus has been observed in the 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na reaction (1969CE01; Ep = 54.7 MeV) and in the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction (1975BE38; E(3He) = 76.3 MeV). The latter experiment leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.928 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na in its ground state. In addition, an excited state is observed at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV (1975BE38). Assuming the atomic mass excess listed above, 19Na(0) is unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 ± 13

  19. A=19Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of this nucleus via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.928 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38). See also (1978AJ03, 1978GU10, 1979BE1H

  20. A=19Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of this nucleus via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.929 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38, 1985WA02). See also (1985AN28, 1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ, 1983AU1B; theor.

  1. NNSA reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Frank Klotz and Madelyn Creedon "Mission First, People Always" Related Topics NA-40 NA-80 OEO Office of Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation. OCC Office of Emergency ...

  2. NA 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism andCounterprolif...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism ... NA 80 - Associate...

  3. NA 70 - Associate Administrator for Defense Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 70 - Associate Administrator for Defense ... NA 70 - Associate Administrator...

  4. NA 50 - Associate Administrator for Safety, Infrastructure and...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 50 - Associate Administrator for Safety, ... NA 50 - Associate Administrator...

  5. NA 1 - Immediate Office of the Administrator | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 1 - Immediate Office of the Administrator NA 1 - Immediate Office of the...

  6. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for...

  7. NA EA - Associate Administrator for External Affairs | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA EA - Associate Administrator for External Affairs NA EA - Associate...

  8. NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for Defense ... NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for...

  9. NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for ... NA 15 - Assistant Deputy...

  10. NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for...

  11. NA GC - Office of General Counsel | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home About Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA GC - Office of General Counsel NA GC - Office of General Counsel...

  12. FEiNA SCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Sant Marta de Torruella, Spain Product: Manufacturer of tracking systems for PV plants, and looking for STEG partners. References: FEiNA SCP1 This article is a stub. You...

  13. na-00 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    na-00 Infrastructure and Operations NNSA's missions require a secure production and laboratory infrastructure meeting immediate and long term needs. The Associate Administrator for Infrastructure and Operations develops and executes NNSA's infrastructure investment, maintenance, and operations programs and policies

  14. A=19Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) This nucleus was observed in the 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na reaction at Ep = 54.7 MeV (1969CE01). A study via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.929 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38, 1993AU05). See also (1987AJ02) and (1987PO01, 1987SA24, 1988CO15, 1990PO04, 1992AV03

  15. A=20Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.39 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1973HA77, 1973SU1B, 1974HA17, 1976CH1T, 1977SH13). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.37 (in PDF or PS). The half-life of 20Na is 442 ± 5 msec (1971GO18, 1971WI07), 446 ± 8 msec (1972MO08), 448 ± 4 msec

  16. A=20Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 20.36 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1979BE1H, 1980OK01, 1981AY01). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.33 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 63 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 446 ± 3 msec; Jπ = 2+: see (1978AJ03). 2. 16O(12C,

  17. A=20Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1981WA1Q, 1983ANZQ, 1983BR29, 1985AN28, 1985HA1N, 1985RO1N, 1986AN07, 1986GA1I). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.26 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 53 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9 ± 2.3 msec [weighted mean of values quoted in (1978AJ03) and in (1983CL01)];

  18. A=20Na (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.32 preview 20.32 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.33 preview 20.33 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20, 1989RA17) 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table Prev. Table 20.31 preview 20.31 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 59 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9

  19. NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation

  20. A=18Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1976JA23, 1976WA1E

  1. A=18Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1978GU10

  2. A=18Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV; it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  3. A=18Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV (1993AU05); it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  4. OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

  5. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20).

  6. Document: NA (FOIA) Actionee: Dorothy Riehie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vT op Document: NA (FOIA) Actionee: Dorothy Riehie ~ * Document Date: 09/07/2011 Due Date: NO ACTION Ii~rilAuthor: CARPENTER T Addressee: RIEHLE DC Title: FOIA Request DIR DIV NAME DIR DIV NAME MGR AMMS DEP AMMS ISI AMA AMMS PIC AMA FMD AMMS SES AMA HRM AMMS SSD AMA PRO AMRC AMCP AMSE AMSE EMD AMSE GOD AMSE SED 0CC OCE Riehle, Dorothy (Actionee) ORP PNSO RLCI Comments: Records Schedule information: ADM-1.28.1 Scan?: Yes Sensitive?: Yes Sensitive Attachments?: Yes - IDMS Folder: RL General Corr

  7. Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA NA 1 1 2000's 1 1 16 17 4 4 2 5 4 7 2010's 5 7 12 9 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved

  8. NNSA reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office of

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation (NA-80) | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office of Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation (NA-80) Wednesday, December 9, 2015 - 11:00am Colleagues: The Department of Energy has adopted an enterprise-wide approach to strengthening its preparedness for and its capability to respond to a broad spectrum of potential emergencies, including those resulting from natural phenomena

  9. Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73 Over 420 Government & Commercial ... Required U.S. Reporting to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under ...

  10. EA-372 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. EA-372 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. Order authorizing GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. to export electric energy to Canada EA-372 GDF ...

  11. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  12. NNSA Corporate CPEP Process NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... and ship all NA-242 International Non-proliferation Export Control Program (INECP) ... and ship all NA-242 International Non-proliferation Export Control Program (INECP) ...

  13. NNSA Supplemental Guidance: NA-1 SD G 1027 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplemental Guidance: NA-1 SD G 1027 NNSA Supplemental Guidance: NA-1 SD G 1027 Guidance on using Release Fraction and Modern Dosimetric information consistently with DOE STD ...

  14. Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 66 58 134 2010's 121 75 52 25 123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Miscellaneous Shale Gas

  15. Analysis of NaOH releases for Hanford tank farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-12

    The information contained in the canceled document is now located in the document: Consequence Analysis of a NaOH Solution Spray Release During Addition to Waste Tank, WHC-SD-WM-CN-065.

  16. NaIrO3A Pentavalent Post-perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Bremholm; S Dutton; P Stephens; R Cava

    2011-12-31

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3}, was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO{sub 3}, the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO{sub 3}. Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO{sub 3} is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO{sub 6} octahedra separated by layers of NaO{sub 8} bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO{sub 3} shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides.

  17. Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73 Over 420 Government & Commercial Nuclear Entities currently report to NMMSS Mission U.S. Government's Official Database to Track Transactions, Movements and Inventories of Nuclear Materials throughout the U.S. as well as Imports and Exports Jointly funded by the NRC & NNSA - Managed by NA-73 Fuel Cycle Facilities  Conversion  Enrichment  Fuel Fabrication  Power Reactors, etc. DOE/NNSA  Defense Programs  Naval

  18. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material nearmore » an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  19. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  20. A new low-voltage plateau of Na3V2(PO4)(3) as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian, ZL; Sun, Y; Ji, XL

    2015-01-01

    A low-voltage plateau at similar to 0.3 V is discovered for the deep sodiation of Na3V2(PO4)(3) by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na3V2(PO4)(3), thus turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  1. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    She, C.Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J.R.; Alvarez, R.J. II ); Bills, R.E.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors describe a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles that uses a stabilized cw single-mode dye laser oscillator (rms frequency jitter < 1 MHz) followed by a pulsed-dye power amplifier (140 MHz FWHM linewidth) which is pumped by an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D{sub 2} fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cells. The lidar technique and the initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6{degree}N,105{degree}W) are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than {plus minus}3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  2. DOE-NA-STD-3016-2006 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NA-STD-3016-2006 DOE-NA-STD-3016-2006 May 19, 2006 Hazard Analysis Reports for Nuclear Explosive Operations The purpose of this technical standard is to clarify DOE/NNSA expectations and to provide guidance for preparing HARs for NEOs. The general requirements for operation-specific HARs are those contained in Chapters 2-5 of DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, "Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analysis", or superseding

  3. Results from NA60 experiment at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usai, G.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.

    2006-07-11

    The NA60 experiment studies open charm and prompt dimuon production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS. During 2003 the experiment collected data in Indium-Indium collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon. In this paper the first results on low mass dimuons, intermediate mass dimuons and J/{psi} suppression are presented.

  4. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Naval Reactors FY15 Year End Report Semi Annual Report FY14 Year End Report Semi Annual Report NX 3 - Naval Reactors Laboratory Field Office FY15 Year End

  5. Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Title Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat...

  6. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 Title: Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 Authors: Du, Yongping ; Wan, Xiangang ; Sheng, Li ; Dong, ...

  7. Conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene over Na doped ZnxZryOz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene over Na doped ZnxZryOz mixed metal oxides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene over Na doped ...

  8. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 ...

  9. Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the ...

  10. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 You ...

  11. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Balagopal, S.; Bhavaraju, S.

    2009-03-31

    This report presents the results of a 5-day test of an electrochemical bench-scale apparatus using a proprietary (NAS-GY) material formulation of a (Na) Super Ion Conductor (NaSICON) membrane in a Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS) configuration. The primary objectives of this work were to assess system performance, membrane seal integrity, and material degradation while removing Na from Group 5 and 6 tank waste from the Hanford Site.

  12. APPENDIXN DE-NA0000622 LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    .I APPENDIXN DE-NA0000622 LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES 09/17/2014 Directive Directive Title 10 CFR 824, Current Rule Procedural Rules for the Assessment of Civil Penalties for Classified Information Security Violations 1 O CFR 830 - Current Rule Nuclear Safety Management 1 O CFR 851 - Current Rule Worker Safety and Health Program ANSI B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Hoists ANSI N323A Radiation Protection Instrumentation Test and Calibration Portable Survey Instrumentation, 1997 ANSI N43.2

  13. NA-SD 243.1B NNSA Records Management Suplemental Directive

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    243.1 Admin Change 1 1 3-21-16 ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO NA SD 243.1, Records Management Program Locations of Changes: Page Paragraph From To Throughout Document * NNSA Records Management (Update name and hyperlink to new SharePoint site.) * NNSA Records Program Office (Update name and hyperlink to new SharePoint site.) 2 5.a.(1) * Office of the Administrator (NA-1) * Office of Defense Programs (NA- 10) * Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20) * Office of Naval Reactors (NA-30) *

  14. Characterization of H, Na-Y using amine desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biaglow, A.I.; Parrillo, D.J.; Gorte, R.J. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have examined series of partially ion-exchanged H, Na-Y zeolites using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of isopropylamine and n-propylamine in order to examine the acid sites in H-Y zeolites as a function of Na poisoning. Both amines desorbed from Na-Y, unreacted, below 500 K; however, samples containing protonic sites exhibited two additional desorption features. First, unreacted amine molecules were observed leaving the samples between [approximately] 500 and 600 K. Second, reaction features appeared which were observed as the simultaneous desorption of propene and ammonia between 575 and 650 K for isopropylamine and between 625 and 700 K for n-propylamine. For a given sample, the number of both isopropylene and n-propylamine molecules which desorbed in both features was identical. Furthermore, the number of molecules desorbing from the two high-temperature features was found to be equal to the number of protonic sites for the entire series, which indicates that both desorption features are associated with protonic sites. This finding was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which also demonstrated that the unreacting desorption feature was associated with the low-frequency, hydroxyl stretch at 3540 cm[sup [minus]1] and that the reacting amine molecules was adsorbed at the high-frequency, hydroxyl stretch near 3640 cm[sup [minus]1]. The implications of these results for understanding the use of TPD-TGA of amines for the characterization of acidity is discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. NA-ASC-100R-04-Vol.1-Rev.0

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    100R-04-Vol.1-Rev.0 August 2004 SAND 2004-3740P Issued by Sandia National Laboratories for NNSA's Office of Advanced Simulation & Computing, NA-114. For more information, contact Dr. Dimitri Kusnezov at dimitri.kusnezov@nnsa.doe.gov ON THE COVER: These experimental images show the evolution of three gaseous cylinders (seeded with a tracer gas) that have been accelerated by a planar shock wave. The flow fields are dominated by vortices created by the shock acceleration, so the swirling red

  16. Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC Contract NO. DE-NA0001942

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC Contract NO. DE-NA0001942 Modification No. 0015 Page 2 of 31 1. PURPOSE: The purpose of this modification is to: a. PART I - The Schedule i. TABLE OF CONTENTS for Section B-H, is updated; b. PART I - The Schedule, Section B, Supplies or Services and Prices/Costs i. CLIN 0001A CONTRACT TRANSITION: COST REIMBURSEMENT, NO FEE, is replaced in its entirety; ii. CLIN 0001B BASE TERM (YEARS 1-5), is replaced in its entirety; iii. CLIN 0001C OPTION I TERM (YEARS 6-7),

  17. Standard Model Tests at the NA62 CERN Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bifani, Simone

    2010-02-10

    The physics program of the NA62 experiment aims to search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model by measuring the ratio R{sub K} (GammaK->ev{sub e}(gamma))/GAMMA(K->muv{sub mu}{sub (gamma)}) and studying the ultra rare decay K{sup +}->pi{sup +}vv-bar. The status of the R{sub K} analysis based on approx40% of the data collected during 2007 and 2008 is summarized and the proposed detector layout to measure the branching ratio of the K{sup +}->pi{sup +}vv-bar decay is described.

  18. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Jiquan; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Tong Hao

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater. -- Graphical abstract: The morphologies of the titanates depend deeply on the concentration of NaOH. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. The application of these titanate nanostructures in the wastewater treatment was studied. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Effect of NaOH concentration on the structures of various titanates was reported. {yields} Three different formation mechanisms were presented with increasing NaOH concentration. {yields} Various titanates were used as adsorbents/photocatalysts in wastewater treatment.

  19. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1990's 1 5 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 2000's 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 8 11 20 2010's 28 34 65 89 151 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  20. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 21 2 1 2 2 3 3 1990's 2 3 6 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 2000's 7 6 8 8 8 9 11 14 14 0 2010's 9 10 12 32 350 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  1. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 233 188 185 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  2. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 3 21 2 1 2 2 3 3 1990's 2 3 6 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 2000's 7 6 8 8 8 9 11 14 14 0 2010's 9 10 12 32 350 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  3. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Barrels) Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2010's 0 0 0 1 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  4. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  5. NaRec New and Renewable Energy Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New and Renewable Energy Centre Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaRec New and Renewable Energy Centre Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This...

  6. Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 A presentation showing that point defects play an important role in the kinetics of NaAlH4 including vacancies and interstitials consistent with observed effects of Ti. effects_of_point_defects.pdf (503.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE

  7. Phase transitions and compressibility of NaMgF[subscript 3] ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Phase transitions and compressibility of NaMgFsubscript 3 (Neighborite) in perovskite- and post perovskite-related structures Authors: Martin, C. David ; Crichton, Wilson ...

  8. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  9. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for NNSA, Infrastructure and Environment (NA-50)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within NNSA, Infrastructure and Environment (NA-50).

  10. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

  11. Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4 A presentation about how hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed from NaAlH4 under moderate conditions by the addition of catalysts. catalytic_effect_of_ti.pdf (877.97 KB) More Documents & Publications Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4 Prediction of New Hydrogen Storage Compounds

  12. pH-regulative synthesis of Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers and their improved Na cycling stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qi, Yuruo; Mu, Linqin; Zhao, Junmei; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Liu, Huizhou; Dai, Sheng

    2016-04-08

    Na-ion batteries are becoming increasingly attractive as a low cost energy storage device. Sodium vanadium fluorophosphates have been studied extensively recently due to their high storage capacity and high discharge voltage. Shape and size often have a crucial influence over the properties. The controlling synthesis of nanoparticles with special microstructures is significant, which becomes a challenging issue and has drawn considerable attention. In this study, Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers have been synthesized via a pH-regulative low-temperature (120 °C) hydro-thermal route. In particular, it is a green route without any organic compounds involved. The hydro-thermal reaction time for the formation of Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowersmore » has also been investigated. A weak acid environment (pH = 2.60) with the possible presence of hydrogen fluoride molecules is necessary for the formation of the desired nanoflower microstructures. Moreover, compared to the nanoparticles obtained by Na2HPO4·12H2O, the as-synthesized Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers showed an excellent Na-storage performance in terms of superior cycle stability, even without any further carbon coating or high-temperature treatment.« less

  13. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  14. The (111) Surface of NaAu2. Structure, Composition, and Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwolek, Emma J.; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver; Deniz, Okan; Walen, Holly; Yuen, Chad D.; Huang, Wenyu; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Wallingford, Mark; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2014-12-17

    The (111) surface of single-crystal NaAu2 is a model for catalytically active, powdered NaAu2. We prepare and characterize this surface with a broad suite of techniques. Preparation in ultrahigh vacuum consists of the traditional approach of ion bombardment (to remove impurities) and thermal annealing (to restore surface order). Both of these steps cause loss of sodium (Na), and repeated treatments eventually trigger conversion of the surface and near-surface regions to crystalline gold. The bulk has a limited ability to repopulate the surface Na. Under conditions where Na depletion is minimized, electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the bulk-terminated structure, and scanning tunneling microscopy reveals mesa-like features with lateral dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. The tops of the mesas do not possess fine structure characteristic of a periodic lattice, suggesting that the surface layer is disordered under the conditions of these experiments.

  15. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Shukla, Gaurav; Silveira, Pedro da; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  16. NaIrO{sub 3}-A pentavalent post-perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremholm, M.; Dutton, S.E.; Stephens, P.W.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-03-15

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3,} was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO{sub 3}, the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO{sub 3}. Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO{sub 3} is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO{sub 6} octahedra separated by layers of NaO{sub 8} bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO{sub 3} shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Sodium iridium(V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3}, synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions is found to crystallize as the post-perovskite structure and is the first example of a pentavalent ABO{sub 3} post-perovskite. Research highlights: {yields} NaIrO{sub 3} post-perovskite stabilized by pressure. {yields} First example of a pentavalent oxide post-perovskite. {yields} Non-metallic and non-magnetic behavior of NaIrO{sub 3}.

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Bunting, Bruce G; Howe, Janet E

    2012-01-01

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  18. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Using Cu-zeolite | Department of Energy Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst deer11_toops.pdf (1.75 MB) More Documents & Publications Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control

  19. Recent results from NA44 and a review of HBT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacak, B.V.

    1995-04-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions provide the opportunity to create hadronic matter at high energy density and study its properties. In order to do this, one must characterize the collisions, ascertain the size and density of the hot system in the central region of the nucleus-nucleus system, and determine the energy density achieved. Furthermore, one needs to determine whether or not the system approaches equilibrium so thermodynamic descriptions may be used. One of the experimental tools available is the study of two-particle correlations to map the space-time extent of the system when the hadrons decouple. Other observables include the flow of energy and charged particles transverse to the beam and the rapidity distribution of protons to indicate the amount of stopping and randomization of the incoming energy. The transverse mass distributions of hadrons reflect the temperature of the system at freezeout and effects of radial expansion. The production ratios of different particles are related to the extent of chemical equilibrium reached in the collision and subsequent evolution of the hadron gas. The NA44 Experiment at CERN can address all of these observables, though here the author focus mainly on correlation measurements. Kaons and pions are emitted rather late in the evolution of a heavy ion collision, at the time of {open_quotes}freezeout{close_quotes} when the hadrons cease to interact. Their correlations reflect the space-time evolution of the later part of the collision. In addition to characterizing the collision, correlations can signal a phase transition as they measure the duration of hadronization and particle emission, which should be long in both a first- or second-order phase transition. Furthermore, correlation measurements offer an important tool to help disentangle effects of expansion from the freezeout temperature reflected in the single particle spectra.

  20. Simulation of energy absorption spectrum in NaI crystal detector...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of energy absorption spectrum in NaI crystal detector for multiple gamma energy using Monte Carlo method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of energy ...

  1. MHK Projects/University of Manchester Phase 1 and 2 NaREC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    University of Manchester Phase 1 and 2 NaREC < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goo...

  2. NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for Coulomb Sum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Simulation for Coulomb Sum Rule Experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for ...

  3. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst deer11toops.pdf ...

  4. New and Renewable Energy Centre NaREC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NE24 3AG Product: NaREC is a Centre of Excellence, fast-tracking concept evaluation, feasibility studies and prototype evaluation and testing through to early commercialisation....

  5. NA-243 ANNUAL REPORT 24.3.1.5.4 Cooperation with UK (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NA-243 ANNUAL REPORT 24.3.1.5.4 Cooperation with UK Authors: Smith, Morag Kristin 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National ...

  6. Thermochemistry of phosphorus oxynitrides: PON and LiNaPON glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, F.; Navrotsky, A.; Le Sauze, A.; Marchand, R.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature solution calorimetry has been very useful in elucidating the energetics of many oxide materials. Recently, a sodium molybdate melt, 3Na{sub 2}O{center{underscore}dot}4MoO{sub 3}, has been shown to be very effective for nitride calorimetry. This methodology has now been used to determine the energetics of formation of phosphorus oxynitride PON samples and of a series of LiNaPON oxynitride glasses. The magnitude of the energetics of nitrogen/oxygen substitution within PON and LiNaPON glasses has been correctly evaluated by using N-N, O-O, P-N, and P-O bond strengths. The in-situ precipitation of metallic particles from corresponding oxides in LiNaPON glasses has been predicted from high-temperature solution calorimetry results and appropriate thermodynamic cycles. The results constitute the first set of energetic data on nitridophosphates.

  7. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dislocation confinement in the growth ...

  8. Europium (Z=63) n=3-3 lines in the extreme ultraviolet: Na- through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Europium (Z63) n3-3 lines in the extreme ultraviolet: Na- through Si-like ions Authors: Trabert, E ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Hell, N ; Brown, G V Publication Date: 2014-08-22 ...

  9. " East North Central",9.3,"NA",10.1,10.7,11.6,11.85822

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Thousands) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",9.4,9.9,10.2,10.6,11.4,12 "Household Characteristics" "Census Region and Division" " Northeast",9.5,"NA",10.3...

  10. Complexation of Am(III) by oxalate in NaClO{sub 4} media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choppin, G.R.; Chen, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The complexation of Am(III) by oxalate has been investigated in solutions of NaClO{sub 4} up to 9.0 M ionic strength at 25{degrees}C. The dissociation constants of oxalic acid were determined by potentiometric titration, while the stability constants of the Am(III)-oxalate complexation were measured by the solvent extraction technique. A thermodynamic model was constructed to predict the apparent equilibrium constants at different ionic strengths by applying the Pitzer equation using parameters for the Na{sup +}-HOx{sup -}, Na{sup +}-Ox{sup -}, AmOx{sup +}-ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, and Na{sup +}-Am(Ox){sub 2}{sup -} interactions obtained by fitting the data.

  11. Thermoelectric Enhancement in PbTe with K or Na codoping from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoelectric Enhancement in PbTe with K or Na codoping from tuning the interaction of the light- and heavy-hole valence bands Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  12. FT-IR study of CO2 interaction with Na-rich montmorillonite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G.; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene S.; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2015-05-27

    Here, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriatemore » for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 °C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.« less

  13. Technical Qualification Program Self-Assessment Report - NA-SH - 2013 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NA-SH - 2013 Technical Qualification Program Self-Assessment Report - NA-SH - 2013 DOE Federal Technical Capability Panel provides the requirements for the recruitment, deployment, development, and retention of federal personnel with demonstrated technical capability to safely accomplish the Department's missions and responsibilities. This Program applies to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Headquarters (HQ) and Field organizations that have safety

  14. Controlled thermal decomposition of NaSi to derive silicon clathrate compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horie, Hiro-omi; Kikudome, Takashi; Teramura, Kyosuke; Yamanaka, Shoji

    2009-01-15

    Formation conditions of two types of sodium containing silicon clathrate compounds were determined by the controlled thermal decomposition of sodium monosilicide NaSi under vacuum. The decomposition began at 360 deg. C. Much higher decomposition temperatures and the presence of sodium metal vapor were favorable for the formation of type I clathrate compound Na{sub 8}Si{sub 46}. Type II clathrate compound Na{sub x}Si{sub 136} was obtained as a single phase at a decomposition temperature <440 deg. C under the condition without sodium metal vapor. The type I clathrate compound was decomposed to crystalline Si above 520 deg. C. The type II clathrate compound was thermally more stable, and retained at least up to 550 deg. C in vacuum. - Graphical Abstract: The optimal condition to prepare type II silicon clathrate Na{sub x}Si{sub 136} with minimal contamination of the type I phase is proposed. The starting NaSi should be thermally decomposed below 440 deg. C, and the rapid removal of Na vapor evolved is essentially important.

  15. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, S. J.; Lee, P. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ryu, M. T.; Park, H. M.; Chung, J. W.

    2014-08-25

    Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E{sub g}) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na{sup +} ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na{sup +} ions is found to deplete the ?* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E{sub g}. The band gap increases with increasing Na{sup +} coverage with a maximum E{sub g}?0.70?eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na{sup +} ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na{sup +} ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

  16. Constrained Surface Complexation Modeling: Rutile in RbCl, NaCl, and NaCF3SO3 Media to 250 °C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Předota, Milan; Ridley, Moira K.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of molecular-level results, primarily from classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations, are used to constrain CD-MUSIC surface complexation model (SCM) parameters describing rutile powder titrations conducted in RbCl, NaCl, and NaTr (Tr = triflate, CF3SO3–) electrolyte media from 25 to 250 °C. Rb+ primarily occupies the innermost tetradentate binding site on the rutile (110) surface at all temperatures (25, 150, 250 °C) and negative charge conditions (-0.1 and -0.2 C/m2) probed via CMD simulations, reflecting the small hydration energy of this large, monovalent cation. Consequently, variable SCM parameters (Stern-layer capacitance values and intrinsic Rb+ bindingmore » constants) were adjusted relatively easily to satisfactorily match the CMD and titration data. The larger hydration energy of Na+ results in a more complex inner-sphere distribution, which shifts from bidentate to tetradentate binding with increasing negative charge and temperature, and this distribution was not matched well for both negative charge conditions, which may reflect limitations in the CMD and/or SCM approaches. Finally, in particular, the CMD axial density profiles for Rb+ and Na+ reveal that peak binding distances shift toward the surface with increasing negative charge, suggesting that the CD-MUSIC framework may be improved by incorporating CD or Stern-layer capacitance values that vary with charge.« less

  17. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na⁺/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both “disordered” and “ordered” forms, depending onmore » the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3¯m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) Å and c = 16.05192(7) Å) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) Å, b = 9.18432(1) Å, c = 5.62742(1) Å and β = 108.2797(2)°) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through ²³Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence of conventional stacking faults. The lack of long range coherence is instead attributed to disorder among the

  18. Miscellaneous EPA Submittals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Individual Permit: Miscellaneous EPA Submittals An abundance of Individual Permit documents, from implementation to reporting, is available to the public. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Force Majeure SMA Site Submittal Date Document ACID-SMA-2 01-002(b)-00 June 6, 2016 NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 - Update on Certificate of Completion for Site 01-002(b)-00 Monitored within ACID-SMA-2 and ACID-SMA-2.1

  19. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  20. Amorphous RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles: High temperature solution synthesis and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Li-Ping; Yan, Bing

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles by high-temperature solution synthesis are ultra-small monodisperse and air-stable amorphous, whose size and magnetic dependence are studied. - Highlights: • RE–Fe–B–Na nanoparticles are obtained by high-temperature solution synthesis. • These colloidal nanoparticles are monodisperse and size controlled. • The magnetism dependence and possible magnetic coupling mechanism are studied. - Abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles are prepared by high-temperature solution synthesis. These nanoparticles are ultra-small monodisperse, air-stable and amorphous, whose particle size and magnetic property are characterized by transmission electron microscope and superconducting quantum interference device. Taking Nd–Fe–B–Na nanoparticle as an example, it is found that the particle size can be controlled in less than 7 nm. Besides, the magnetic properties of RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles can be compared for different rare earth elements. Based on the bulk ferromagnetic coupling, other possible magnetic coupling mechanism is discussed.

  1. The (111) Surface of NaAu2. Structure, Composition, and Stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kwolek, Emma J.; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver; Deniz, Okan; Walen, Holly; Yuen, Chad D.; Huang, Wenyu; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Wallingford, Mark; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2014-12-17

    The (111) surface of single-crystal NaAu2 is a model for catalytically active, powdered NaAu2. We prepare and characterize this surface with a broad suite of techniques. Preparation in ultrahigh vacuum consists of the traditional approach of ion bombardment (to remove impurities) and thermal annealing (to restore surface order). Both of these steps cause loss of sodium (Na), and repeated treatments eventually trigger conversion of the surface and near-surface regions to crystalline gold. The bulk has a limited ability to repopulate the surface Na. Under conditions where Na depletion is minimized, electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the bulk-terminated structure, andmore » scanning tunneling microscopy reveals mesa-like features with lateral dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. The tops of the mesas do not possess fine structure characteristic of a periodic lattice, suggesting that the surface layer is disordered under the conditions of these experiments.« less

  2. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  5. Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH 4 Mei-Yin Chou School of Physics Georgia Institute of Technology (DE-FG02-05ER46229) Acknowledgment: Yan Wang, Roland Stumpf Why is NaAlH 4 interesting? A viable candidate for hydrogen-storage material: High theoretical weight-percent hydrogen content of 5.55% and low cost But (before 1997) Dehydrogenation occurs at high temperature; rehydrogenation is difficult. Bogdanovic and Schwickardi, 1997 Hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed

  6. FT-IR study of CO2 interaction with Na-rich montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G.; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene S.; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2015-05-27

    Here, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 °C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.

  7. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a

  8. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  9. Electron doping evolution of the magnetic excitations in NaFe1 xCoxAs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carr, Scott V.; Zhang, Chenglin; Song, Yu; Tan, Guotai; Li, Yu; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Stone, Matthew B.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Perring, T. G.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2016-06-13

    We use time-of-flight (TOF) inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy to investigate the doping dependence of magnetic excitations across the phase diagram of NaFe1-xCoxAs with x = 0, 0.0175, 0.0215, 0.05, and 0.11. The effect of electron-doping by partially substituting Fe by Co is to form resonances that couple with superconductivity, broaden and suppress low energy (E 80 meV) spin excitations compared with spin waves in undoped NaFeAs. However, high energy (E > 80 meV) spin excitations are weakly Co-doping dependent. Integration of the local spin dynamic susceptibility "(!) of NaFe1-xCoxAs reveals a total fluctuating moment of 3.6 μ2 B/Fe andmore » a small but systematic reduction with electron doping. The presence of a large spin gap in the Cooverdoped nonsuperconducting NaFe0.89Co0.11As suggests that Fermi surface nesting is responsible for low-energy spin excitations. These results parallel Ni-doping evolution of spin excitations in BaFe2-xNixAs2, confirming the notion that low-energy spin excitations coupling with itinerant electrons are important for superconductivity, while weakly doping dependent high-energy spin excitations result from localized moments.« less

  10. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  11. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-23

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  12. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  13. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A.

    1996-09-27

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of 22 Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  14. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Anthony H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  15. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Gehrig, Jeffrey C.; Züttel, Andreas

    2014-12-15

    The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH{sub 4} doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl{sub 3}-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH{sub 4} to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr…)

  16. Effect of Na-doped Mo on Selenization Pathways for CuGa/In Metallic Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Rangarajan; Tong, Gabriel; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Payzant, E Andrew; Adelhelm, Christoph; Franzke, Enrico; Winkler, Jörg; Anderson, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Reaction pathways were followed for selenization of CuGa/In precursor structures using in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD). Precursor films were deposited on Na-free and Na-doped Mo (3 and 5 at %)/Na-free glass. The precursor film was constituted with CuIn, In, Cu9Ga4, Cu3Ga, Cu16In9 and Mo. HTXRD measurements during temperature ramp selenization showed CIS formation occurs first, followed by CGS formation, and then mixing on the group III sub-lattice to form CIGS. CIGS formation was observed to be complete at ~450 C for samples deposited on 5 at % Na-doped Mo substrates. MoSe2 formation was evidenced after the CIGS synthesis reaction was complete. The Ga distribution in the annealed CIGS was determined by Rietveld refinement. Isothermal reaction studies were conducted for CIGS (112) formation in the temperature range 260-320 C to estimate the rate constants.

  17. Hydrothermal crystallization of Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa: The structural mechanism of self-assembly of titanates from suprapolyhedral clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyushin, G. D.

    2006-07-15

    An increase in the NaOH concentration in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2} (rutile)-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa leads to the crystallization R-TiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. Crystals of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} titanate (space group C2/m) have the three-dimensional framework structure Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}. The structure of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} titanate (space group P2{sub 1}/m) contains the two-dimensional layers Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The structure of the Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} titanate (space group P-1) is composed of the isolated ten-polyhedron cluster precursors Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. In all the structures, the titanium atoms have an octahedral coordination (MTiO{sub 6}). The matrix self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Na{sub 4}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14}) crystal structures from Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} invariant precursors is modeled. These precursors are clusters consisting of twelve M polyhedra linked through the edges. It is demonstrated that the structurally rigid precursors Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} control all processes of the subsequent evolution of the crystal-forming titanate clusters. The specific features of the self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} structure that result from the additional incorporation of twice the number of sodium atoms into the composition of the high-level clusters are considered.

  18. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-08-08

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for {sup 40}K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The {sup 40}K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and {sup 40}K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined.

  19. Cleaning residual NaK in the fast flux test facility fuel storage cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, T.M.; Church, W.R.; Hodgson, K.M.

    2008-01-15

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, is a liquid metal-cooled test reactor. The FFTF was constructed to support the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The bulk of the alkali metal (sodium and NaK) has been drained and will be stored onsite prior to final disposition. Residual NaK needed to be removed from the pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and vessels in the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) cooling system. The cooling system was drained in 2004 leaving residual NaK in the pipes and equipment. The estimated residual NaK volume was 76 liters in the storage tank, 1.9 liters in the expansion tank, and 19-39 liters in the heat transfer loop. The residual NaK volume in the remainder of the system was expected to be very small, consisting of films, droplets, and very small pools. The NaK in the FSF Cooling System was not radiologically contaminated. The portions of the cooling system to be cleaned were divided into four groups: 1. The storage tank, filter, pump, and associated piping; 2. The heat exchanger, expansion tank, and associated piping; 3. Argon supply piping; 4. In-vessel heat transfer loop. The cleaning was contracted to Creative Engineers, Inc. (CEI) and they used their superheated steam process to clean the cooling system. It has been concluded that during the modification activities (prior to CEI coming onsite) to prepare the NaK Cooling System for cleaning, tank T-914 was pressurized relative to the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and NaK was pushed from the tank back into the Cooler and that on November 6, 2005, when the gas purge through the In-Vessel NaK Cooler was increased from 141.6 slm to 283.2 slm, NaK was forced from the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and it contacted water in the vent line and/or scrubber. The gases from the reaction then traveled back through the vent line coating the internal surface of the vent line with NaK and NaK reaction products. The hot gases also exited the

  20. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9}: The first osmium perovskites containing alkali cations at the 'A' site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mogare, Kailash M.; Klein, Wilhelm; Jansen, Martin

    2012-07-15

    K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} were obtained from solid-state reactions of potassium superoxide, sodium peroxide and osmium metal at elevated oxygen pressures. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} crystallizes as an oxygen-deficient cubic double perovskite in space group Fm3{sup Macron }m with a=8.4184(5) A and contains isolated OsO{sub 6} octahedra. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallizes hexagonally in P6{sub 3}/mmc with a=5.9998(4) A and c=14.3053(14) A. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} consists of face sharing Os{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs of octahedra. According to magnetic measurements K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} is diamagnetic, whereas K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays strong antiferromagnetic coupling (T{sub N}=140 K), indicating enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair. - Graphical abstract: High oxidation states of Os, obtained by high oxygen pressure synthesis, are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New osmates containing highly oxidized Os were obtained by high O{sub 2} pressure synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High oxidation states of Os are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds represent the first Os perovskites with an alkali metal at the A site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair.

  1. The first Fe-based Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kan, W. H.; Huq, A.; Manthiram, A.

    2015-05-15

    We report the synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry of the first Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19. The Fe-based cathode has a reversible capacity of ca. 70 mAh g-1; ca. 1.7 Na+ ions per formula can be inserted/extracted at an average voltage of 2.5 V versus Na+/Na.

  2. Synthesis, structure and properties of new chain cuprates, Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofin, Mikhail; Peters, Eva-Maria; Jansen, Martin . E-mail: jansen@fkf.mpg.de

    2005-12-15

    Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} were prepared via the azide/nitrate route from stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors CuO, NaN{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Single crystals have been grown by subsequent annealing of the as prepared powders at 500 deg. C for 2000h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dried Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structures (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: P2{sub 1}/n, Z=4, a=5.7046(2), b=11.0591(4), c=8.0261(3)A, {beta}=108.389(1){sup o}, 2516 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0813, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.1223; Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: Cm, Z=2, a=8.228(1), b=13.929(2), c=5.707(1)A, {beta}=111.718(2){sup o}, 2949 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0349, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.0850), the main feature of both crystal structures are CuO{sub 2} chains built up from planar, edge-sharing CuO{sub 4} squares. From the analysis of the Cu-O bond lengths, the valence states of either +2 or +3 can be unambiguously assigned to each copper atom. In Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} these ions alternate in the chains, in Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} the periodically repeated part consists of five atoms according to Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}. The magnetic susceptibilities show the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions. At high temperatures the compounds exhibit Curie-Weiss behaviour (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: {mu}=1.7{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-160K, Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: {mu}=1.8{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-58K, magnetic moments per divalent copper ion). Antiferromagmetic ordering is observed to occur in these compounds below 13K (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and 24K (Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10})

  3. The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

    2012-08-29

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

  4. Photoresponsive Release from Azobenzene-Modified Single Cubic Crystal NaCl/Silica Particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Nanguo; Assink, Roger A.; Jiang, Yingbing; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Azobenzene ligands were uniformly anchored to the pore surfaces of nanoporous silica particles with single crystal NaCl using 4-(3-triethoxysilylpropylureido)azobenzene (TSUA). The functionalization delayed the release of NaCl significantly. The modified particles demonstrated a photocontrolled release by trans/cis isomerization of azobenzene moieties. The addition of amphiphilic solvents, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), and dipropylene glycol propyl ether (DPGPE) delayed the release in water, although the wetting behavior was improved and the delay is the most for the block molecules with the longest carbon chain. The speedup by UV irradiation suggests a strong dependence of diffusion on the switchablemore » pore size. TGA, XRD, FTIR, and NMR techniques were used to characterize the structures.« less

  5. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program.

  6. APM-16-009-SC-Emergency-Management-DE-NA0002976.pdf

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6-009 National Nuclear Security Administration Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Proposed Action Title: South Carolina Emergency Management Division Support Program or Field Office: APM Grant No.: DE-NA0002976 Location(s) (City/County/State): South Carolina Proposed Action Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) proposes to provide financial and technical assistance South Carolina Emergency Management Division (SCEMD), Aiken,

  7. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-02

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of {sup 22}Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  8. {alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2012-11-20

    The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

  9. Evaluation of aqueous Na{sup +}/Cs{sup +} separation by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buehler, M.F.; Lawrence, W.E.; Norton, J.D.

    1993-12-01

    In support of the Hanford Site cleanup, electrodialysis is being investigated as a method to separate aqueous sodium (Na{sup +}) and cesium (Cs{sup +}) ions. The approach has many advantages over existing separation technologies; in particular, electrodialysis creates little secondary waste while producing usable acid and base streams. The fundamentals of electrodialysis are presented in this report to provide a foundation for interpreting experimental data. A flat-plate laboratory-scale apparatus was used to determine the feasibility of separating Na{sup +}/Cs{sup +} mixtures by electrodialysis. The results showed that Cs{sup +} is preferentially separated over Na{sup +} by a factor of 2 to 3 using a Nafion{reg_sign} 417 cationic membrane. The separation is relatively insensitive to solution ionic strength and flow-rate variations. The current efficiency of the separation ranges from 0.60 to 0.65 depending on the applied voltage. The laboratory-scale system was characterized by dimensional analysis, which demonstrated that the process could be scaled up to a size attractive for the volume of waste at the Hanford Site. Preliminary experiments on a bench-scale system were also conducted. The initial results showed that the current-voltage response of the laboratory- and the bench-scale unit is identical.

  10. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  11. Synthesis and crystal structure of NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, W.T.A.; Liang, C.S.; Stucky, G.D.; Nenoff, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The high-temperature/high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis and X-ray single crystal structure of NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8} are reported. The title compound contains a three-dimensional network of NbO{sub 6}, NbO{sub 5}, and AsO{sub 4} groups, enclosing one-dimensional channels containing seven-coordinate guest sodium cations. UV/visible measurements on NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8} indicate two distinct absorption features at {approximately}285 and {approximately} 360 nm. Crystal data for NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8}:M{sub r} = 410.79, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n(No.14), a = 4.8970(6) {angstrom}, b = 8.516(2) {angstrom}, c = 15.075(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 98.971(6){degrees}, V = 620.98 {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4, R = 5.31%, R{sub w} = 5.15%, 2121 observed reflections (I > 3{sigma}(I)).

  12. Computational observation of enhanced solvation of the hydroxyl radical with increased NaCl concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2006-05-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials were carried out to quantitatively determine the effect of NaCl salt concentration on the aqueous solvation and surface concentration of hydroxyl radicals. The potential of mean force technique was used to track the incremental free energy of the hydroxyl radical from the vapor, crossing the air-water interface into the aqueous bulk. Results showed increased NaCl salt concentration significantly enhanced hydroxyl radical solvation, which should significantly increase its accommodation on water droplets. This has been experimentally observed for ozone aqueous accommodation with increased NaI concentration, but to our knowledge, no experimental study has probed this for hydroxyl radicals. The origin for this effect was found to be very favorable hydroxyl radical-chloride ion interactions, being stronger than for water-chloride. This work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Battelle operates PNNL for the Department of Energy.

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of the palladium oxides NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panin, Rodion V. Khasanova, Nellie R.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Tendeloo, Gustaaf van; Schnelle, Walter

    2007-05-15

    NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been prepared by solid-state reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} or KO{sub 2} and PdO in sealed silica tubes. Crystal structures of the synthesized phases were refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction data. NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4} (space group Pm3-barn, a=5.64979(6) A, Z=2) is isostructural to NaPt{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It consists of NaO{sub 8} cubes and PdO{sub 4} squares, corner linked into a three-dimensional framework where the planes of neighboring PdO{sub 4} squares are perpendicular to each other. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2){sup o}, Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} exhibits a stacking disorder, detected by electron diffraction and Rietveld refinement. K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}, prepared for the first time, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (a=6.1751(6) A, b=9.1772(12) A, c=11.3402(12) A, Z=4). Its structure is composed of planar PdO{sub 4} units connected via common edges to form parallel staggered PdO{sub 2} strips, where potassium atoms are located between them. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal a Curie-Weiss behavior in the temperature range above 80 K. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2), Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations (NaPd{sub 2}O{sub 6} slabs) alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis.

  14. 20Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations of Correlated Data in Fission Events" Authors: Talou, Patrick 1 ; Vogt, Ramona ...

  16. FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  17. 2011-2012 SECTION IV: Miscellaneous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous Ernest Rutherford and the origins of nuclear physics J.C. Hardy

  18. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: A study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Górka, Joanna; Baggetto, Loïc; Keum, Jong K.; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Mayes, Richard T.; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2015-02-28

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactivity of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover,more » the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is likely due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.« less

  19. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: a study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactivity of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover, the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is likely due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.

  20. NA-42 TI Shared Software Component Library FY2011 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2011-07-21

    The NA-42 TI program initiated an effort in FY2010 to standardize its software development efforts with the long term goal of migrating toward a software management approach that will allow for the sharing and reuse of code developed within the TI program, improve integration, ensure a level of software documentation, and reduce development costs. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with two activities that support this mission. PNNL has been tasked with the identification, selection, and implementation of a Shared Software Component Library. The intent of the library is to provide a common repository that is accessible by all authorized NA-42 software development teams. The repository facilitates software reuse through a searchable and easy to use web based interface. As software is submitted to the repository, the component registration process captures meta-data and provides version control for compiled libraries, documentation, and source code. This meta-data is then available for retrieval and review as part of library search results. In FY2010, PNNL and staff from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) teamed up to develop a software application with the goal of replacing the aging Aerial Measuring System (AMS). The application under development includes an Advanced Visualization and Integration of Data (AVID) framework and associated AMS modules. Throughout development, PNNL and RSL have utilized a common AMS code repository for collaborative code development. The AMS repository is hosted by PNNL, is restricted to the project development team, is accessed via two different geographic locations and continues to be used. The knowledge gained from the collaboration and hosting of this repository in conjunction with PNNL software development and systems engineering capabilities were used in the selection of a package to be used in the implementation of the software component library on behalf of NA-42 TI. The second task managed by PNNL

  1. Magnetoelastic Coupling and Symmetry Breaking in the Frustrated Antiferromagnet {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giot, Maud; Chapon, Laurent C.; Radaelli, Paolo G.; Androulakis, John; Lappas, Alexandros; Green, Mark A.

    2007-12-14

    The magnetic and crystal structures of the {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2} have been determined by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. The system maps out a frustrated triangular spin lattice with anisotropic interactions that displays two-dimensional spin correlations below 200 K. Magnetic frustration is lifted through magneto-elastic coupling, evidenced by strong anisotropic broadening of the diffraction profiles at high temperature and ultimately by a structural phase transition at 45 K. In this low-temperature regime a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic state is observed with a propagation vector k=((1/2),(1/2),0)

  2. Dave Turner NOAA / Na.onal Severe Storms Laboratory ARM Summer Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dave Turner NOAA / Na.onal Severe Storms Laboratory ARM Summer Workshop University of Oklahoma 15-24 July 2015 My Goal I don't want passive remote sensing be this! Important for Remote Sensing Important for Earth's Energy Balance My talk O O Oxygen N N Nitrogen O C Carbon Monoxide O O C Carbon Dioxide N N O Nitrous Oxide O H H Water O O O Ozone H C H H H Methane No (magnetic dipole) Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Molecule Structure Permanent Electirc Dipole Moment? linear linear linear linear linear

  3. Honeywell FM&T, LLC Contract No. DE-NA0000622

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FM&T, LLC Contract No. DE-NA0000622 Modification No. 016 Page 2 of 10 1. Part II - Contract Clauses. The following Section I clause is revised and replaced in its entirety as follows: I-11 52.204-4 PRINTED OR COPIED DOUBLE-SIDED ON POSTCONSUMER FIBER CONTENT PAPER (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause- "Postconsumer fiber" means- (1) Paper, paperboard, and fibrous materials from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and so forth, after they have passed through their

  4. Status of Irradiation Tests of Dilute Uranium Alloys in NaK-Containing Stainless Steel Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonell, W.R.

    2001-03-26

    To extend experience with uranium metal fuels to the high exposures required for power reactor operation, the Savannah River Laboratory has conducted over several years a series of irradiation tests of small uranium specimens of various alloy compositions in NaK-containing stainless steel capsules. These tests were designed specifically to establish the limits on exposure that could be reached during irradiation of the alloys at various temperatures without swelling and to determine the metallurgical factors that promoted the stability of the alloys. This paper discusses those test results.

  5. NA-ASC-500-13 Issue 26 ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA-ASC-500-13 Issue 26 ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter December 2013 2 shutdown. But the two-year budget agreement is not an appropriation, so we must await final appropriations for both FY14 and FY15. The President also signed the National Defense Authorization Act into law, which directs NNSA to develop and carry out a plan to incorporate exascale computing in the Stockpile Stewardship Program. This is not an exascale program, but recognition that stockpile stewardship requires exascale

  6. Development of high-performance Na/NiCl{sub 2} cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-07-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed ``powerdynamic`` method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  7. Development of high-performance Na/NiCl sub 2 cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed powerdynamic'' method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  8. Electronic Reconstruction through the Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Detwinned NaFeAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, M.; Lu, D.H.; Moore, R.G.; Kihou, K; Lee, C-H; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Yoshida, T; Fujimori, A; Shen, Z-X

    2012-05-25

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study twinned and detwinned iron pnictide compound NaFeAs. Distinct signatures of electronic reconstruction are observed to occur at the structural (T{sub S}) and magnetic (T{sub SDW}) transitions. At T{sub S}, C{sub 4} rotational symmetry is broken in the form of an anisotropic shift of the orthogonal d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} bands. The magnitude of this orbital anisotropy rapidly develops to near completion upon approaching T{sub SDW}, at which temperature band folding occurs via the antiferromagnetic ordering wave vector. Interestingly, the anisotropic band shift onsetting at T{sub S} develops in such a way to enhance the nesting conditions in the C{sub 2} symmetric state, hence is intimately correlated with the long range collinear AFM order. Furthermore, the similar behaviors of the electronic reconstruction in NaFeAs and Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} suggests that this rapid development of large orbital anisotropy between T{sub S} and T{sub SDW} is likely a general feature of the electronic nematic phase in the iron pnictides, and the associated orbital fluctuations may play an important role in determining the ground state properties.

  9. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  10. Miscellaneous

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THE PEAK OIL DEBATE As The EIA Turns 30 EIA 2008 Energy Conference Washington, DC April 7, 2008 By: Matthew R. Simmons, Chairman Simmons & Company International EIA 2008 Energy Conference Washington, DC April 7, 2008 By: Matthew R. Simmons, Chairman Simmons & Company International SIMMONS & COMPANY INTERNATIONAL Should We Debate "Peak Oil" Should We Debate "Peak Oil" n Oil seems non-renewable. n High percentage comes from "mature fields." n High

  11. DOE2016 Miscellaneous | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Miscellaneous DOE2016 Miscellaneous Addthis 1 of 11 2 of 11 3 of 11 4 of 11 5 of 11 6 of 11 7 of 11 8 of 11 9 of 11 10 of 11 11 of 11

  12. Smisc - A collection of miscellaneous functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landon Sego, PNNL

    2015-08-31

    A collection of functions for statistical computing and data manipulation. These include routines for rapidly aggregating heterogeneous matrices, manipulating file names, loading R objects, sourcing multiple R files, formatting datetimes, multi-core parallel computing, stream editing, specialized plotting, etc. • Smisc-package A collection of miscellaneous functions allMissing Identifies missing rows or columns in a data frame or matrix as.numericSilent Silent wrapper for coercing a vector to numeric comboList Produces all possible combinations of a set of linear model predictors cumMax Computes the maximum of the vector up to the current index cumsumNA Computes the cummulative sum of a vector without propogating NAs d2binom Probability functions for the sum of two independent binomials dataIn A flexible way to import data into R. dbb The Beta-Binomial Distribution df2list Row-wise conversion of a data frame to a list dfplapply Parallelized single row processing of a data frame dframeEquiv Examines the equivalence of two dataframes or matrices dkbinom Probability functions for the sum of k independent binomials factor2character Converts all factor variables in a dataframe to character variables findDepMat Identify linearly dependent rows or columns in a matrix formatDT Converts date or datetime strings into alternate formats getExtension Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path getPath Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path grabLast Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path ifelse1 Non-vectorized version of ifelse integ Simple numerical integration routine interactionPlot Two-way Interaction Plot with Error Bar linearMap Linear mapping of a numerical vector or scalar list2df Convert a list to a data frame loadObject Loads and returns the object(s) in an ".Rdata" file more Display the contents of a file to the R terminal movAvg2

  13. Smisc - A collection of miscellaneous functions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-08-31

    A collection of functions for statistical computing and data manipulation. These include routines for rapidly aggregating heterogeneous matrices, manipulating file names, loading R objects, sourcing multiple R files, formatting datetimes, multi-core parallel computing, stream editing, specialized plotting, etc. • Smisc-package A collection of miscellaneous functions allMissing Identifies missing rows or columns in a data frame or matrix as.numericSilent Silent wrapper for coercing a vector to numeric comboList Produces all possible combinations of a set ofmore » linear model predictors cumMax Computes the maximum of the vector up to the current index cumsumNA Computes the cummulative sum of a vector without propogating NAs d2binom Probability functions for the sum of two independent binomials dataIn A flexible way to import data into R. dbb The Beta-Binomial Distribution df2list Row-wise conversion of a data frame to a list dfplapply Parallelized single row processing of a data frame dframeEquiv Examines the equivalence of two dataframes or matrices dkbinom Probability functions for the sum of k independent binomials factor2character Converts all factor variables in a dataframe to character variables findDepMat Identify linearly dependent rows or columns in a matrix formatDT Converts date or datetime strings into alternate formats getExtension Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path getPath Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path grabLast Filename manipulations: remove the extension or path, extract the extension or path ifelse1 Non-vectorized version of ifelse integ Simple numerical integration routine interactionPlot Two-way Interaction Plot with Error Bar linearMap Linear mapping of a numerical vector or scalar list2df Convert a list to a data frame loadObject Loads and returns the object(s) in an ".Rdata" file more Display the contents of a file to the R terminal movAvg2

  14. Structural investigation and luminescence of nanocrystalline lanthanide doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, Sonia; Piccinelli, Fabio; Upendra Kumar, Kagola; Enzo, Stefano; Ghigna, Paolo; Cannas, Carla; Musinu, Anna; Mariotto, Gino; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo

    2012-12-15

    Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanostructured multiferroics (nanoparticles or nanorods) were prepared by a sol-gel route. X-Ray powder diffraction results evidence that the sodium and mixed sodium-potassium niobates show orthorhombic (Pmc2{sub 1} space group), and monoclinic structure (Pm space group), respectively, confirmed by the Raman spectra. The local structure around the trivalent lanthanides was investigated with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy at the Ln-K edge and luminescence spectroscopy. The Ln{sup 3+} ions enter the structure by substituting the alkali metals, with a 12-fold oxygen coordination, and inducing a large amount of static disorder. The visible emission bands of the Eu{sup 3+} ions indicate that multiple sites exist for the lanthanide ions, in agreement with the EXAFS results showing the largest amount of static disorder in these samples. A possible indication of clustering of oxygen vacancies around the Ln{sub Na} Double-Prime defect is obtained by VBS calculations. - Graphical Abstract: Ln{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles or nanorods can be prepared by a simple sol-gel procedure. The synergy of X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and luminescence spectroscopy gives important information on the Ln{sup 3+} local environment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles or nanorods are prepared by sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS indicates that the Ln{sup 3+} ions substitutes the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions, inducing a large amount of static disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The visible emission bands of the Eu{sup 3+} ions confirm that multiple sites exist for the lanthanide ions.

  15. Simulation of energy absorption spectrum in NaI crystal detector for multiple gamma energy using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirawan, Rahadi; Waris, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-16

    The spectrum of gamma energy absorption in the NaI crystal (scintillation detector) is the interaction result of gamma photon with NaI crystal, and it’s associated with the photon gamma energy incoming to the detector. Through a simulation approach, we can perform an early observation of gamma energy absorption spectrum in a scintillator crystal detector (NaI) before the experiment conducted. In this paper, we present a simulation model result of gamma energy absorption spectrum for energy 100-700 keV (i.e. 297 keV, 400 keV and 662 keV). This simulation developed based on the concept of photon beam point source distribution and photon cross section interaction with the Monte Carlo method. Our computational code has been successfully predicting the multiple energy peaks absorption spectrum, which derived from multiple photon energy sources.

  16. Coupled Nd and B' spin ordering in the double perovskites Nd2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Bugaris, Dan; Yeon, Jeongho; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Nagler, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    We present a neutron powder diffraction study of the monoclinic double perovskite systems Nd$_2$NaB$'$O$_6$ (B$'$~$=$~Ru, Os), with magnetic atoms occupying both the A and B$'$ sites. Our measurements reveal coupled spin ordering between the Nd and B$'$ atoms with magnetic transition temperatures of 14~K for Nd$_2$NaRuO$_6$ and 16~K for Nd$_2$NaOsO$_6$. There is a Type I antiferromagnetic structure associated with the Ru and Os sublattices, with the ferromagnetic planes stacked along the c-axis and [110] direction respectively, while the Nd sublattices exhibit complex, canted antiferromagnetism with different spin arrangements in each system.

  17. Persistent modification of Na{sub v}1.9 following chronic exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutter, Thomas J. Cooper, Brian Y.

    2014-06-15

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) returned from that conflict with a widespread chronic pain affecting deep tissues. Recently, we have shown that a 60 day exposure to the insecticides permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and pyridostigmine bromide (NTPB) had little influence on nociceptor action potential forming Na{sub v}1.8, but increased K{sub v}7 mediated inhibitory currents 8 weeks after treatment. Using the same exposure regimen, we used whole cell patch methods to examine whether the influences of NTPB could be observed on Na{sub v}1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. During a 60 day exposure to NTPB, rats exhibited lowered muscle pain thresholds and increased rest periods, but these measures subsequently returned to normal levels. Eight and 12 weeks after treatments ceased, DRG neurons were excised from the sensory ganglia. Whole cell patch studies revealed little change in voltage dependent activation and deactivation of Na{sub v}1.9, but significant increases in the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 were observed 8 weeks after exposure. Cellular studies, at the 8 week delay, revealed that NTPB also significantly prolonged action potential duration and afterhyperpolarization (22 °C). Acute application of permethrin (10 μM) also increased the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 in skin, muscle and vascular nociceptors. In conclusion, chronic exposure to Gulf War agents produced long term changes in the amplitude of Na{sub v}1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. The reported increases in K{sub v}7 amplitude may have been an adaptive response to increased Na{sub v}1.9, and effectively suppressed behavioral pain measures in the post treatment period. Factors that alter the balance between Na{sub v}1.9 and K{sub v}7 could release spontaneous discharge and produce chronic deep tissue pain. - Highlights: • Rats were treated 60 days with permethrin, chlorpyrifos and pyridostigmine bromide. • 8 weeks after treatments, Nav1.9 activation and deactivation were

  18. Static and dynamic polarizabilities of Na{sup -} within a variationally stable coupled-channel hyperspherical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masili, Mauro; Groote, J.J. de

    2004-11-01

    Using a model potential representation combined with a variationally stable method, we present a precise calculation of the electric dipole polarizabilities of the sodium negative ion (Na{sup -}). The effective two-electron eigensolutions for Na{sup -} are obtained from a hyperspherical coupled-channel calculation. This approach allows efficient error control and insight into the system's properties through one-dimensional potential curves. Our result of 1018.3 a.u. for the static dipole polarizability is in agreement with previous calculations and supports our results for the dynamic polarizability, which has scarcely been investigated hitherto.

  19. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  20. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of scintillation processes in NaI(Tl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Wang, Zhiguo; Williams, Richard; Grim, Joel; Gao, Fei

    2014-04-26

    Developing a comprehensive understanding of the processes that govern the scintillation behavior of inorganic scintillators provides a pathway to optimize current scintillators and allows for the science-driven search for new scintillator materials. Recent experimental data on the excitation density dependence of the light yield of inorganic scintillators presents an opportunity to incorporate parameterized interactions between excitations in scintillation models and thus enable more realistic simulations of the nonproportionality of inorganic scintillators. Therefore, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model of elementary scintillation processes in NaI(Tl) is developed in this work to simulate the kinetics of scintillation for a range of temperatures and Tl concentrations as well as the scintillation efficiency as a function of excitation density. The ability of the KMC model to reproduce available experimental data allows for elucidating the elementary processes that give rise to the kinetics and efficiency of scintillation observed experimentally for a range of conditions.

  1. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  2. Nanocheckerboard modulations in (NaNd)(MgW)O[subscript 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licurse, Mark W.; Davies, Peter K.

    2010-10-22

    Data is presented for a complex structural and compositional modulation in the perovskite (NaNd)(MgW)O{sub 6}. This modulation creates a large 14a{sub p} x 14a{sub p} x 2a{sub p} supercell (a{sub p} {approx} 3.9 {angstrom} is the lattice parameter of the cubic perovskite aristotype) containing ordered regions with doubled (110) d-spacings in the a-b plane separated by two-dimensional periodic antiphase boundaries and accompanied by a nanocheckerboard pattern. Faint periodic modulations in Z-contrast images suggest an associated periodic variation in composition. The presence of a sodium rich impurity implies the composition of the stable perovskite is nonstoichiometric.

  3. Magnetically Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in NaOsO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calder, Stuart A [ORNL; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Lang, Jonathan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; McMorrow, D. F. [University College, London; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Kim, Jong-Woo [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schlueter, J. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Shi, Y. G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yamaura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Sun, Y. S. [MANA; Tsujimoto, Y. [Kyoto University, Japan

    2012-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most dramatic manifestations of electron correlations in materials. Various mechanisms producing MITs have been extensively considered, including the Mott (electron localization via Coulomb repulsion), Anderson (localization via disorder), and Peierls (local- ization via distortion of a periodic one-dimensional lattice) mechanisms. One additional route to a MIT proposed by Slater, in which long-range magnetic order in a three dimensional system drives the MIT, has received relatively little attention. Using neutron and x-ray scattering we show that the MIT in NaOsO3 is coincident with the onset of long-range commensurate three dimensional magnetic order. While candidate materials have been suggested, our experimental methodology allows the first definitive demonstration of the long predicted Slater MIT.

  4. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  5. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  6. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O?: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na?/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both disordered and ordered forms, depending on the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) and c = 16.05192(7) ) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) , b = 9.18432(1) , c = 5.62742(1) and ? = 108.2797(2)) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence of conventional stacking

  7. A new low-voltage plateau of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jian, Zelang; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-04

    A low-voltage plateau at ~0.3 V is discovered during the deep sodiation of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃, turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  8. Post-Closure Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2004-04-02

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Consevation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Surface and underground features of the facilities have been removed and laboratory analyses showed that soil met the closure performance standards. These sites have been backfilled and revegetated.

  9. Quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitada, A.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Narumi, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kindo, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Aczel, A.A.; Luke, G.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Uemura, Y.J. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kiuchi, Y.; Ueda, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Yoshimura, K. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ajiro, Y. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kageyama, H., E-mail: kage@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    We will present the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13}. Through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction with CuCl{sub 2}, the precursor RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} presumably having an incoherent octahederal tliting changes into (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with a 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2c{sub p} superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73232(5) A, c=39.2156(4) A). The well-defined superstructure for the ion-exchanged product should be stabilized by the inserted CuCl{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedral layers that firmly connect with neighboring perovskite layers. Magnetic studies show the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K despite strong in-plane interactions. Aleksandrov Prime s group theory and Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggest the structure to be of I4/mmm space group with in-phase tilting along the a and b axes, a two-tilt system (++0). - Graphical Abstract: We present a quadruple-layered copper oxyhalide (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} synthesized through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction of RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with CuCl{sub 2}. The compound has a well-defined superstructure. Magnetic studies suggest the absence of magnetic order even at 2 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} was prepared by ion-exchange reaction of RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with CuCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound has a 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2c{sub p} superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73 A, c=39.21 A). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such a well-defined superstructure was not observed in the precursor compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aleksandrov Prime s theory and Rietveld study suggest a (++0) octahedral tilting (I4/mmm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic studies revealed the absence of magnetic order down to 2 K.

  10. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na⁺/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both “disordered” and “ordered” forms, depending on the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3¯m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) Å and c = 16.05192(7) Å) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) Å, b = 9.18432(1) Å, c = 5.62742(1) Å and β = 108.2797(2)°) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through ²³Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence

  11. Influence of NaCl Concentrations on Coagulation, Temperature, and Electrical Conductivity Using a Perfusion Radiofrequency Ablation System: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aube, Christophe Schmidt, Diethard; Brieger, Jens; Schenk, Martin; Kroeber, Stefan; Vielle, Bruno; Claussen, Claus D.; Goldberg, S. Nahum; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To determine, by means of an ex vivo study, the effect of different NaCl concentrations on the extent of coagulation obtained during radiofrequency (RF) ablation performed using a digitally controlled perfusion device. Method. Twenty-eight RF ablations were performed with 40 W for 10 min using continuous NaCl infusion in fresh excised bovine liver. For perfusion, NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 (demineralized water) to 25% were used. Temperature, the amount of energy, and the dimensions of thermal-induced white coagulation were assessed for each ablation. These parameters were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlations were calculated according to the Spearman test. Results. RF ablation performed with 0.9% to 25% concentrations of NaCl produced a mean volume of coagulation of 30.7 {+-} 3.8 cm{sup 3}, with a mean short-axis diameter of 3.6 {+-} 0.2 cm. The mean amount of energy was 21,895 {+-} 1,674 W and the mean temperature was 85.4 {+-} 12.8 deg. C. Volume of coagulation, short-axis diameter, and amount of energy did not differ significantly among NaCl concentrations (p > 0.5). A correlation was found between the NaCl concentration and the short-axis diameter of coagulation (r = 0.64) and between the NaCl concentration and the mean temperature (r = 0.67), but not between the NaCl concentration and volume of coagulation. Conclusion. In an ex vivo model, continuous perfusion with high NaCl concentrations does not significantly improve the volume of thermal-induced coagulation. This may be because the use of a low-power generator cannot sufficiently exploit the potential advantage of better tissue conductivity provided by NaCl perfusion.

  12. Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type | Department of Energy Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial Miscellaneous Electric Loads Report: Energy Consumption Characterization and Savings Potential in 2008 by Building Type Commercial miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are generally defined as all electric loads except those related to main systems for heating,

  13. Preparation and photocatalytic activity for water splitting of Pt-Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Jiawen; Li, Zhonghua

    2013-02-15

    Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays were prepared by hydrothermal method from Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotube arrays, obtained by anodization of Ta foils, in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 150 Degree-Sign C. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis results show that pyrochlore structure Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays have been successfully fabricated. The diameters and lengths of Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are 50 nm and 4 {mu}m, respectively. The photocatalytic hydrogen production activities of the as-synthesized Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are highly dependent on the hydrothermal reaction time and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} concentration, optimized reaction parameters are obtained. To further improve the photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution, Pt loaded Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are prepared by photochemical reduction method. The Pt loaded samples exhibit much higher activity for hydrogen evolution than pure Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays. Moreover, the photocatalytic hydrogen properties are rather stable. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotube arrays as a precursor. The loaded Pt enhances the photocatalytic activity for water splitting of Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube array films with pyrochlore structure were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are active for H{sub 2} evolution from aqueous CH{sub 3}OH solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of hydrothermal conditions on photocatalytic activity was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt loading can improve the

  14. Spin-lozenge thermodynamics and magnetic excitations in Na3RuO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haraldsen, Jason T; Stone, Matthew B; Lumsden, Mark D; Barnes, Ted {F E }; Jin, Rongying; Taylor, J. W.; Fernandez-Alonso, F

    2009-01-01

    We report inelastic and elastic neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements of polycrystalline sodium ruthenate (Na3RuO4). Previous work suggests this material consists of isolated tetramers of S = 3/2 Ru5+ ions in a so-called lozenge configuration. Using a Heisenberg antiferromagnet Hamiltonian, we analytically determine the energy eigenstates for general spin S. From this model, the neutron scattering cross-sections for excitations associated with spin-3/2 tetramer configurations is determined. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility and inelastic neutron scattering results shows that the proposed lozenge model is not distinctly supported, but provides evidence that the system may be better described as a pair of non-interacting inequivalent dimers, i.e double dimers. However, the existence of long-range magnetic order below Tc ≈ 28 K immediately questions such a description. Although no evidence of the lozenge model is observed, future studies on single crystals may further clarify the appropriate magnetic Hamiltonian.

  15. Na9K16TI~25: A New Phase Containing Naked Icosahedral Cluster Fragments Ti99-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Corbett, John D.

    2007-12-05

    The phase Na{sub 9}K{sub 16}Tl{sub 25.25(2)} was synthesized by fusion of the elements in sealed Ta containers followed by quenching and annealing at 250 C. The structure established by single crystal X-ray diffraction means (P6{sub 3}/m, Z = 2, a = 19.376(3) {angstrom}, c = 11.480(2) {angstrom}) features Tl{sub 9}{sup 9-} clusters. These are well separated by cations that bridge between, faces, edges, and vertices of the clusters; sodium appears to be essential in this role. This is the third compound known to contain Tl{sub 9} clusters, but here two of nine sites are partially occupied, which can be interpreted as a 70:30 mixture of Tl{sub 9} and Tl{sub 7} units in the same cavity. This Tl{sub 9} example also displays lower symmetry (C{sub s}) but requires the same 2n skeletal electrons. EHTB electronic structure calculations indicate that the Fermi level intersects a finite densities-of-states (DOS), and only some bonds are optimized at E{sub F}, giving some insight regarding the site of Tl deficiency. Direct geometric relationships are found among Tl{sub 13}, Tl{sub 9}, Tl{sub 7} and Tl{sub 5} clusters through systematic removal of vertices.

  16. Constrained Surface Complexation Modeling: Rutile in RbCl, NaCl, and NaCF3SO3 Media to 250 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Předota, Milan; Ridley, Moira K.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of molecular-level results, primarily from classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations, are used to constrain CD-MUSIC surface complexation model (SCM) parameters describing rutile powder titrations conducted in RbCl, NaCl, and NaTr (Tr = triflate, CF3SO3) electrolyte media from 25 to 250 °C. Rb+ primarily occupies the innermost tetradentate binding site on the rutile (110) surface at all temperatures (25, 150, 250 °C) and negative charge conditions (-0.1 and -0.2 C/m2) probed via CMD simulations, reflecting the small hydration energy of this large, monovalent cation. Consequently, variable SCM parameters (Stern-layer capacitance values and intrinsic Rb+ binding constants) were adjusted relatively easily to satisfactorily match the CMD and titration data. The larger hydration energy of Na+ results in a more complex inner-sphere distribution, which shifts from bidentate to tetradentate binding with increasing negative charge and temperature, and this distribution was not matched well for both negative charge conditions, which may reflect limitations in the CMD and/or SCM approaches. Finally, in particular, the CMD axial density profiles for Rb+ and Na+ reveal that peak binding distances shift toward the surface with increasing negative charge, suggesting that the CD-MUSIC framework may be improved by incorporating CD or Stern-layer capacitance values that vary with charge.

  17. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  18. Measurement of the tradeoff between intrinsic emittance and quantum efficiency from a NaKSb photocathode near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-06-08

    We measure the tradeoff between the quantum efficiency and intrinsic emittance from a NaKSb photocathode at three increasing wavelengths (635, 650, and 690 nm) at or below the energy of the bandgap plus the electron affinity, hν≤E{sub g}+E{sub a}. These measurements were performed using a high voltage dc gun for varied photocathode surface fields of 1.4−4.4 MV/m. Measurements of intrinsic emittance are performed using two different methods and were found to agree. At the longest wavelength available, 690 nm, the intrinsic emittance was 0.26 μm/mm-rms with a quantum efficiency of ∼10{sup −4}. The suitability of NaKSb emitting at threshold for various low emittance applications is discussed.

  19. The influence of field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ze-Yu; Han, Yong-Chang, E-mail: ychan@dlut.edu.cn; Yu, Jie; Cong, Shu-Lin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The orientation and predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule are studied by using a time-dependent wavepacket method. The NaI molecule is first pre-oriented by a single-cycle pulse (SCP) in terahertz (THz) region and then predissociated by a femtosecond pump pulse. The influence of the molecular field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics is studied in detail. We calculate the radial and angular distributions, the molecular orientation degrees, and the time-dependent populations for both the ground and excited electronic states. It is found that the pre-orientation affects the angular distributions significantly, and that it has weak influence on the radial distributions. By varying the delay time between the THz SCP and the pump pulse, the angular distribution of the fragments from the predissociation can be manipulated.

  20. NaREC Offshore and Drivetrain Test Facility Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Renewable Energy Centre (NaREC) in the United Kingdom (UK) have a mutual interest in collaborating in the development of full-scale offshore wind energy and drivetrain testing facilities. NREL and NaREC will work together to share resources and experiences in the development of future wind energy test facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) includes sharing of test protocols, infrastructure cost data, test plans, pro forma contracting instruments, and safe operating strategies. Furthermore, NREL and NaREC will exchange staff for training and development purposes.

  1. Low-activation-energy conduction in polycrystalline. cap alpha. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ doped with Si and Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1985-02-01

    Polycrystalline Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing a glassy aluminosilicate second phase displays a low-activation-energy conductivity when Na is present. The conductivity is ionic in nature at high oxygen pressure and electronic at low oxygen pressure and is attributed to the migration of Na/sup +/ ions and electrons through the second phase present at triple junctions. A smaller lowactivation-energy conductivity is found in the absence of sodium, but in that case the low-activation-energy branch has different properties. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Na without silicon has no lowtemperature low-activation-energy branch.

  2. NNSA Corporate CPEP Process NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00.2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Corporate CPEP Process NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00.2 National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2013 PEP Honeywell FM&T Performance Evaluation Report Kansas City Field Office Kansas City Plant Performance Period: October 2012 - September 2013 December 20, 2013 Executive Summary Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) exceeded almost all FY13 performance targets during a year of significant organizational challenges including; transitioning to a new facility

  3. Development of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK/sub 1/)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, E.R.; Amsler, K.; Dawson, W.D.; Cook, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors were explored to analyze how they interact to yield the increasing transport capacity in differentiating cell populations. These factors include the number of functional transporters in the population, the distribution of these transporters among the individual cells, the Na/sup +/ chemical gradient, the transmembrane potential, the pathways and activities of these pathways for efflux of glucoside, and cell-cell coupling between accumulating and non-accumulating cells. 35 references, 9 figures, 2 tables. (ACR)

  4. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  5. An Air-Stable Na3SbS4 Superionic Conductor Prepared by a Rapid and Economic Synthetic Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Hood, Zachary; Peng, Rui; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; Keum, Jong Kahk; Wu, Zili; An, Ke; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium batteries, using abundant sodium resources and solid electrolyte, hold much promise for safe, low cost, large-scale energy storage. To realize the practical applications of all solid Na-ion batteries at ambient temperature, the solid electrolytes are required to have high ionic conductivity, chemical stability, and ideally, easy preparation. Ceramic electrolytes show higher ionic conductivity than polymers, but they often require extremely stringent synthesis conditions, either high sintering temperature above 1000 C or long-time, low-energy ball milling. Herein, we report a new synthesis route for Na3SbS4, a novel Na superionic conductor that needs much lower processing temperature below 200 C and easy operation. This new solid electrolyte exhibits a remarkable ionic conductivity of 1.05 mS cm-1 at 25 C and is chemically stable under ambient atmosphere. This synthesis process provides unique insight into the current state-of-the-art solid electrolyte preparation and opens new possibilities for the design of similar materials.

  6. An Air-Stable Na3SbS4 Superionic Conductor Prepared by a Rapid and Economic Synthetic Procedure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yan; Hood, Zachary; Peng, Rui; Samuthira Pandian, Amaresh; Keum, Jong Kahk; Wu, Zili; An, Ke; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state sodium batteries, using abundant sodium resources and solid electrolyte, hold much promise for safe, low cost, large-scale energy storage. To realize the practical applications of all solid Na-ion batteries at ambient temperature, the solid electrolytes are required to have high ionic conductivity, chemical stability, and ideally, easy preparation. Ceramic electrolytes show higher ionic conductivity than polymers, but they often require extremely stringent synthesis conditions, either high sintering temperature above 1000 C or long-time, low-energy ball milling. Herein, we report a new synthesis route for Na3SbS4, a novel Na superionic conductor that needs much lower processing temperature below 200 Cmore » and easy operation. This new solid electrolyte exhibits a remarkable ionic conductivity of 1.05 mS cm-1 at 25 C and is chemically stable under ambient atmosphere. This synthesis process provides unique insight into the current state-of-the-art solid electrolyte preparation and opens new possibilities for the design of similar materials.« less

  7. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-21

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m{sup 3}/hr.

  8. The abnormal electrical and optical properties in Na and Ni codoped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xunling; Liu, Weifang E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Minchen; Wu, Ping; Wang, Shouyu E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com; Gao, Ju; Rao, Guanghui

    2015-05-07

    Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015) nanoparticles are prepared via a sol-gel method. Weak ferromagnetism and exchange bias phenomenon without field cooling are observed in the samples. The oxygen vacancy concentration and leakage current density are increased with increasing the Ni content. However, with the increase of Ni content, the band gap of Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles first decreases and then increases. To explain the abnormal phenomenon, the interplay of oxygen vacancy donor and hole acceptor is analyzed and a phenomenological qualitative model based on the electronic energy band is proposed. Additionally, the threshold switching behavior appears in Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} samples with x = 0.01, 0.015 and the effect is qualitatively explained by introducing a conducting channel model based on the high-density mobile charges.

  9. Modeling the Interaction between Integrin-Binding Peptide (RGD) and Rutile Surface: The Effect of Na+ on Peptide Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chunya; Skelton, Adam; Chen, Mingjun; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of a single tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adsorbing onto negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution was studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the adsorbed Na{sup +} ions play an important role in determining the binding geometry of RGD. With an initial 'horseshoe' configuration, the charged side groups (COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}) of the peptide are able to interact with the surface through direct hydrogen bonds (H bonds) in the very early stage of adsorption. The Na{sup +} ions approach the positively charged Arg side chain, competing with the Arg side chain for adsorption to the negatively charged hydroxyl oxygen. In coordination with the structural adjustment of the peptide, the Arg residue is driven to detach from the rutile surface. In contrast, the Na+ ions in close proximity to the negatively charged Asp side chain contribute to the binding of the COO{sup -} group on the surface, helping the carboxyl oxygen not involved in COO{sup -}-surface H bonds to orientate toward the hydroxyl hydrogens. Once both carboxyl oxygens form enough H bonds with the hydroxyl hydrogens, the redundant ions move toward a more favorable adsorption site.

  10. Materials corrosion in molten LiF-NaF-KF eutectic salt under different reduction-oxidation conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, R. S.; Cheng, W. J.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Wang, C. J.; Allen, T. R.

    2012-07-01

    Molten fluoride salts such as FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) have been proposed for use as secondary reactor coolants, media for transfer of high temperature process heat from nuclear reactors to chemical plants, and for concentrated solar power thermal energy storage. In molten fluoride salts, passive oxide films are chemically unstable, and corrosion is driven largely by the thermodynamically driven dissolution of alloying elements into the molten salt environment. Two alloys, Hastelloy{sup R} N and 316L stainless steel were exposed to molten FLiNaK salt in a 316L stainless steel crucible under argon cover gas for 1000 hours at 850 deg. C. Graphite was present in some of the crucibles with the goal of studying corrosion behavior of relevant reactor material combinations. In addition, a technique to reduce alloy corrosion through modification of the reduction-oxidation state was tested by the inclusion of zirconium to the system. Corrosion of 316L stainless steel was noted to occur primarily through surface depletion of chromium, an effect that was enhanced by the presence of graphite. Hastelloy{sup R} N experienced weight gain through electrochemical plating of corrosion products derived from the 316L stainless steel crucible. In the presence of zirconium, both alloys gained weight through plating of zirconium and as a result formed intermetallic layers. (authors)

  11. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces at 10-50 degrees C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 degrees C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alpha-TiO2 (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH(-0.40)) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing

  12. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) Surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) surfaces at 10-50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH{sub 2} group is more acidic than the bridging Sn{sub 2}OH group, with protonation constants (log K{sub H}) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural {alpha}-TiO{sub 2} (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +}, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na{sup +} between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb{sup +} is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na{sup +}/Rb{sup +} was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH{sup -0.40}) and the protonated bridging group (Sn{sub 2}OH{sup +0.36}) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The

  13. Miscellaneous Forms | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miscellaneous Forms Miscellaneous Forms The following miscellaneous forms are provided in PDF fillable and/or Word format. Click the link in the "Format" column to open a copy of the form or right-click to download. Number* Title/Description Format** SF-85 Questionnaire for Non-Sensitive Positions PDF-fil UCN-13A Relocation Expense Report PDF-fil, PDF print UCN-15436 Gifts and Grants Request PDF-fil, Word UCN-16708 Request for Authorization to Ship SNM or Non-SNM Material (U) Word

  14. Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  15. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirako, Y.; Shi, Y.G.; Aimi, A.; Mori, D.; Kojitani, H.; Yamaura, K.; Inaguma, Y.; Akaogi, M.

    2012-07-15

    NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16-18 GPa and 1273-1473 K. The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 Multiplication-Sign T (K). Structure refinements indicated that NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite have almost regular NiF{sub 6} octahedra consistent with absence of the first-order Jahn-Teller active ions. Both NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite are insulators. The perovskite underwent a canted antiferromagnetic transition at 156 K, and the post-perovskite antiferromagnetic transition at 22 K. Magnetic exchange interaction of NaNiF{sub 3} post-perovskite is smaller than that of perovskite, reflecting larger distortion of Ni-F-Ni network and lower dimension of octahedral arrangement in post-perovskite than those in perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Perovskite-post-perovskite transition in NaNiF{sub 3} at high pressure Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite (Pv) transforms to post-perovskite (pPv) at 16 GPa and 1300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 T (K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic transition occurs at 156 K in Pv and 22 K in pPv.

  16. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; ...

  17. ,"Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ... Contents","Data 1: Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ...

  18. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  19. Crystal structure of α- and β-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}: From Rietveld refinement using powder neutron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IJdo, D.J.W. Akerboom, S.; Bontenbal, A.

    2015-01-15

    The crystal structures of α- and β-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been determined from neutron powder diffraction. At 293 K, the compound α-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} has a monoclinic unit cell, space group P2{sub 1}/a, with a=12.7617(14) Å, b=7.8384(10) Å, c=6.8962(9) Å, β=111.285(9)°, and Z=4. At 773 K, β-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} is also monoclinic, space group C2/m, with a=12.933(1) Å, b=7.887(1) Å, c=6.9086(8) Å, β=110.816(10)°, and Z=4. The structures can be described by layers U{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} built from corner linked deformed UO{sub 6} octahedra with pentagonal UO{sub 7} bipyramids in between linked with common edges to each other and to the octahedra. The Na atoms occupy the interlayer space. The Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} layers are similar as in K{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}, but with a different stacking sequence of the layers. The layers in β-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} are more symmetric. The relationship with the compounds A{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=K, Rb, and Cs) is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The U{sub 2}O{sub 7} layer of α-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} (left) at 293 K and of β-Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} (right) at 773 K determined by neutron diffraction. Some Na atoms between the layers are visible. - Highlights: • Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been prepared by means of a solid state reaction. • The structure has been determined using neutron diffraction. • At 293 K, the compound adopts a monoclinic structure with space group P2{sub 1}/a. • The structure at 773 K is closely related, and is described in the space group C2/m.

  20. Effect of carbon on stress corrosion cracking and anodic oxidation of iron in NaOH solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flis, J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Anodic behaviour of decarburised iron and of quenched Fe–C materials with up to 0.875 wt% C was examined in 8.5 M NaOH at 100 °C to explain the role of carbon in caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of plain steels. Removal of carbon from Armco iron strongly reduced its intergranular SCC. Slip steps on grains did not initiate cracks. It has been shown that carbon at low contents deteriorates the passivation of iron, whereas at high contents it promotes the formation of magnetite. High resistance to SCC of high carbon steels can be explained by an intense formation of magnetite on these steels.

  1. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973

  2. The mobility of Nb in rutile-saturated NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids from 1–6.5 GPa and 300–800 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Tschauner, Oliver; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Burnley, Pamela; Cline II, Christopher J.; Hanchar, John M.; Pettke, Thomas; Shen, Guoyin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-08-26

    Rutile (TiO₂) is an important host phase for high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb in metamorphic and subduction zone environments. The observed depletion of Nb in arc rocks is often explained by the hypothesis that rutile sequesters HFSE in the subducted slab and overlying sediment, and is chemically inert with respect to aqueous fluids evolved during prograde metamorphism in the forearc to subarc environment. However, field observations of exhumed terranes, and experimental studies, indicate that HFSE may be soluble in complex aqueous fluids at high pressure (i.e., >0.5 GPa) and moderate to high temperature (i.e., >300 °C). In this study, we investigated experimentally the mobility of Nb in NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids in equilibrium with Nb-bearing rutile at pressure-temperature conditions applicable to fluid evolution in arc environments. Niobium concentrations in aqueous fluid at rutile saturation were measured directly by using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) at 2.1 to 6.5 GPa and 300–500 °C, and indirectly by performing mass loss experiments in a piston-cylinder (PC) apparatus at ~1 GPa and 700–800 °C. The concentration of Nb in a 10 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid increases from 6 to 11 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 2.1 to 2.8 GPa, consistent with a positive temperature dependence. The concentration of Nb in a 20 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid varies from 55 to 150 μg/g at 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 1.8 to 6.4 GPa; however, there is no discernible temperature or pressure dependence. The Nb concentration in a 4 wt% NaF-bearing aqueous fluid increases from 180 to 910 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C over the pressure range 2.1 to 6.5 GPa. The data for the F-bearing fluid indicate that the Nb content of the fluid exhibits a dependence on temperature between 300 and 500 °C at ≥2 GPa, but there is no observed

  3. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  4. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  5. Compositional inhomogeneityand segregation in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Kepi; Tang, Jing; Chen, Yan

    2016-03-11

    The effects of the calcination temperature of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) powder on the sintering and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics have been investigated in this report. KNN powders are synthesized via the solid-state approach. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations indicate that the incomplete reaction at 700 °C and 750 °C calcination results in the compositional inhomogeneity of the K-rich and Na-rich phases while the orthorhombic single phase is obtained after calcination at 900 °C. During the sintering, the presence of the liquid K-rich phase due to the lower melting point has a significant impact on the densification, the abnormalmore » grain growth and the deteriorated piezoelectric properties. From the standpoint of piezoelectric properties, the optimal calcination temperature obtained for KNN ceramics calcined at this temperature is determined to be 800 °C, with piezoelectric constant d33=128.3 pC/N, planar electromechanical coupling coefficient kp=32.2%, mechanical quality factor Qm=88, and dielectric loss tan δ=2.1%.« less

  6. Electron doping evolution of the neutron spin resonance in NaFe1-xCoxAs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chenglin; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott Victor; Chi, Songxue; Christianson, Andrew D.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A.; Dai, Pengcheng; Lv, Weicheng; Tan, Guotai; et al

    2016-05-31

    Neutron spin resonance, a collective magnetic excitation coupled to superconductivity, is one of the most prominent features shared by a broad family of unconventional superconductors including copper oxides, iron pnictides, and heavy fermions. In this paper, we study the doping evolution of the resonances in NaFe1–xCoxAs covering the entire superconducting dome. For the underdoped compositions, two resonance modes coexist. As doping increases, the low-energy resonance gradually loses its spectral weight to the high-energy one but remains at the same energy. By contrast, in the overdoped regime we only find one single resonance, which acquires a broader width in both energymore » and momentum but retains approximately the same peak position even when Tc drops by nearly a half compared to optimal doping. Furthermore, these results suggest that the energy of the resonance in electron overdoped NaFe1–xCoxAs is neither simply proportional to Tc nor the superconducting gap but is controlled by the multiorbital character of the system and doped impurity scattering effect.« less

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphor for white LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Jingshan; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Yin, Xin; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Huang, Fuqiang; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Jiang, Weizhong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. ► Compared with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} performed better luminescence properties. ► The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6} as a suitable host for RE{sup 3+}-doping. -- Abstract: Single phase of NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} (0 < x ≤1) (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the morphology energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to characterize the samples. Under the light excitation, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Sm{sup 3+} and NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Tb{sup 3+}, phosphors showed the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4,3,2,1}), Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2,7/2,9/2}), and Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6,5,4,3}), respectively. The intensity of the red emission for Na(La{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4})MgWO{sub 6} is 2.5 times higher than that of (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} under blue light irradiation. The quantum efficiencies of the entitled phosphors excited under 394 nm and 464 nm are also investigated and compared with commercial phosphors Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} and Y{sub 3}A{sub 5}G{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}. The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} phosphors as potential candidates for white light emitting diode pumped by UV or blue chip.

  8. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  9. Thermal stability, acidity, catalytic properties, and deactivation behaviour of SAPO-5 catalysts: Effect of silicon content, acid treatment, and Na exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akolekar, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Crystalline microporous SAPO-5 molecular sieves with different silicon content, acid-treated SAPO-5 and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 were investigated for their thermal stability, and acidic and catalytic properties. SAPO-5 materials with increasing SI framework content exhibited lower thermal stability. The effects of the thermal treatment and Na exchange on the N{sub 2}-sorption capacity (at 78 K) of these materials were studied. In situ IR spectroscopic investigations of pyridine chemisorbed on the aluminophosphate catalysts revealed that the concentration of Broensted and Lewis acid sites are strongly affected by the Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework, acid treatment, and Na exchange. The results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and stepwise thermal desorption of pyridine suggest that there exists a broad site energy distribution over the aluminophosphate catalysts increases with the increasing Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework. The acid treatment and Na exchange showed a decrease in the number of strong acid sites on SAPO-5. The TPD of pyridine over SAPO-5, acid-treated SAPO-5, and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 indicated the presence of two types of acid sites. Correlation between the number of strong acid sites (measured in terms of the chemisorption of pyridine at 673 K) and framework charge on the aluminophosphate catalysts has also been obtained. The catalytic activities of SAPO-5 catalysts in the ethanol, n-hexane, isooctane, toluene, and o-xylene conversion reactions were studied. 22 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. β-NaVOPO4 obtained by a low-temperature synthesis process: A new 3.3 V cathode for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Guang; Huq, Ashfia; Manthiram, Arumugam; Kan, Wang Hay

    2016-02-02

    Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO4) represent a class of attractive cathodes in lithium-ion batteries. However, the exploration of this type of materials in sodium-ion batteries is rare. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of orthorhombic β-NaVOPO4 by first chemically extracting lithium from beta-LiVOPO4 and then inserting sodium into the obtained β-VOPO4 by a microwave-assisted solvothermal process with NaI, which serves both as a reducing agent and sodium source. Intermediate NaxVOPO4 compositions with x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 have also been obtained by controlling the amount of NaI in the reaction mixture. Joint Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffractionmore » (XRD) and neutron diffraction confirms that the fully sodiated β-NaVOPO4 is isostructural with the lithium counterpart β-LiVOPO4. Bond valence sum maps suggest that sodium ions possibly diffuse along the [010] direction in the lattice, similar to the ionic conduction pathway in β-LiVOPO4. Although the initial discharge capacity is low due to the protons in the structure, it steadily increases with cycling with a long plateau at 3.3 V. As a result, ex situ XRD data of cycled β-VOPO4 and β-NaVOPO4 electrodes confirm the reversible reaction in sodium cells involving the V4+/V5+ redox couple.« less

  11. Exotic magnetism on the quasi-FCC lattices of the d3 double perovskites La2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Baker, Peter J.; Bugaris, Dan; Yeon, Jeongho; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Guidi, T.; Adroja, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We find evidence for long-range and short-range ($\\zeta$~$=$~70~\\AA~at 4~K) incommensurate magnetic order on the quasi-face-centered-cubic (FCC) lattices of the monoclinic double perovskites La$_2$NaRuO$_6$ and La$_2$NaOsO$_6$ respectively. Incommensurate magnetic order on the FCC lattice has not been predicted by mean field theory, but may arise via a delicate balance of inequivalent nearest neighbour and next nearest neighbour exchange interactions. In the Ru system with long-range order, inelastic neutron scattering also reveals a spin gap $\\Delta$~$\\sim$~2.75~meV. Magnetic anisotropy is generally minimized in the more familiar octahedrally-coordinated $3d^3$ systems, so the large gap observed for La$_2$NaRuO$_6$ may result from the significantly enhanced value of spin-orbit coupling in this $4d^3$ material.

  12. Structure and ferroelectricity of nonstoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Jared; Aksel, Elena; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-17

    Stoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) adopts the ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure with the A-site equally occupied by Na{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} ions. However, non-stoichiometric compositions can be synthesized intentionally or unintentionally. To determine the effect of A-site nonstoichiometry on the crystal structure and ferroelectricity of NBT, the composition of (Na{sub 0.5?x}Bi{sub 0.5+x})TiO{sub 3+x} was varied using x?=??0.01, ?0.005, 0, 0.005, and 0.01. High resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that a shift in either direction from x = 0 results in a decrease in the spontaneous ferroelastic strain. Ferroelectric hysteresis and piezoelectric coefficients were found to be optimum in the stoichiometric composition.

  13. Frustration by competing interactions in the highly-distorted double perovskites La2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Bugaris, Dan; Li, Ling; Yan, Jiaqiang; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Nagler, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The usual classical behaviour of S = 3/2, B-site ordered double perovskites generally results in simple, commensurate magnetic ground states. In contrast, heat capacity and neutron powder diffraction measurements for the S = 3/2 systems La2NaB'O6 (B = Ru, Os) reveal an incommensurate magnetic ground state for La2NaRuO6 and a drastically suppressed ordered moment for La2NaOsO6. This behaviour is attributed to the large monoclinic structural distortions of these double perovskites. The distortions have the effect of weakening the nearest neighbour superexchange interactions, presumably to an energy scale that is comparable to the next nearest neighbour superexchange. The exotic ground states in these materials can then arise from a competition between these two types of antiferromagnetic interactions, providing a novel mechanism for achieving frustration in the double perovskite family.

  14. The first Fe-based Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, W. H.; Huq, A.; Manthiram, A.

    2015-05-15

    We report the synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry of the first Na+-ion cathode with two distinct types of polyanions: Fe3P5SiO19. The Fe-based cathode has a reversible capacity of ca. 70 mAh g-1; ca. 1.7 Na+ ions per formula can be inserted/extracted at an average voltage of 2.5 V versus Na+/Na.

  15. The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baggetto, Loïc; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Johnson, Charles E.; Johnson, Jacqueline A.; Keum, Jong K.; Bridges, Craig A.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reaction takesmore » place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95°C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) Mössbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.« less

  16. The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baggetto, Loic; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude; Johnson, Prof. Dr. Charles E.; Johnson, Jackie A.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Bridges, Craig A; Veith, Gabriel M

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reactionmore » takes place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95 C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) M ssbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.« less

  17. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect, critical behavior, and magnetoresistance in Na-deficient manganite La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khlifi, M. Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2014-05-21

    The La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide was prepared by the solid-state reaction and annealed in air. The X-ray diffraction data reveal that the sample is crystallized in a rhombohedral structure with R3{sup ¯}c space group. Magnetic study shows a second-order magnetic phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 295 K. In addition, the magnetizations as a function of temperature and the magnetic field is used to evaluate the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}. Then, we have deduced that the La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide has a large magnetocaloric effect at room temperature. Such effect is given by the maximum of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub Mmax} = 5.56, and by the Relative cooling power (RCP) factor which is equal to 235 under a magnetic field of 5 T. Moreover, the magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change is used to determine the critical exponents β, γ, and δ which are found to be β = 0.495, γ = 1.083, and δ = 3.18. These values are consistent with the prediction of the mean field theory (β = 0.5, γ = 1, and δ = 3). Above all, the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity shows a metal–insulator transition at T{sub ρ}. The electrical resistivity decrease when we apply a magnetic field giving a magnetoresistance effect in the order of 60% at room temperature.

  18. Functional roles of Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/ in SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ transport by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahearn, G.A.; Murer, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sulfate uptake by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles was stimulated by a transmembrane sodium gradient, but not by a similar potassium gradient. /sup 35/SO/sub 4/(/sup +2/) influx (JSO4 oi) from outside (o) to inside (i) these vesicles was a hyperbolic function of (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o and the affinity constant for anion transport was strongly influenced by (Na/sup +/)o. JSO/sub 4/ oi was a sigmoidal function of (Na/sup +/)o at pH 7.4 for both low (0.2 M) and high (4.0 mM) (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o. The Na/sup +/-dependency of JSO/sub 4/ oi was examined at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0 (same pH inside and outside). When a H/sup +/ gradient was imposed across the vesicle wall (pHi . 8.0, pHo . 6.0), Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi was hyperbolic and significantly increased at each (Na/sup +/)o over values observed using bilateral pH 8.0. In contrast, a H/sup +/ gradient oriented in the opposite direction (pHi . 6.0, pHo . 8.0) led to Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi that was sigmoidal and significantly lower at each (Na/sup +/)o than values found using bilateral pH 6.0. Electrogenicity of JSO4 oi at pH 8.0 for both high and low (Na+)o was demonstrated by using a valinomycin-induced transmembrane electrical potential difference. A model is proposed for proton regulation of sodium sulphate cotransport where flux stoichiometry is controlled by (H/sup +/)i and sodium binding affinity is modified by (H/sup +/)o. Preliminary experiments with rabbit proximal tubular brush border membrane vesicles disclosed similar JSO/sub 4/ oi kinetic properties and a common transport mechanism may occur in both tissues.

  19. Evidence for the onset of deconfinement and quest for the critical point by NA49 at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melkumov, G. L.; Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Eckardt, V.; and others

    2012-05-15

    The NA49 results on hadron production obtained in PbPb collisions at SPS energies from 20 to 158 A GeV are shown and discussed as evidence for the onset of deconfinement. The primary measures are the pion yield, the kaon-to-pion ratio and the slope parameter of transverse mass distributions. The possible indication of the QCD critical point signatures was investigated in the event-by-event fluctuations of various observables such as the mean transverse momentum, particle multiplicity and azimuthal angle distributions as well as in the particle ratio fluctuations. The energy dependence of these observables was measured in central PbPb collisions in the full SPS energy range while for analysis of the system size dependence data from pp, CC, SiSi, and PbPb collisions at the top SPS energy were used.

  20. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-off of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  1. Corrosion behavior of Ni and Ni-based alloys in concentrated NaOH solutions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasuda, M.; Fukumoto, K.; Ogata, Y.; Hine, F.

    1988-12-01

    Corrosion behavior of SUS 310S austenitic stainless steel, Alloy 600, Monel 400, and Ni 200 and NaOH solutions in the concentration range 30-60% at high temperatures up to 166/sup 0/C was studied. In solutions containing dissolved oxygen or under oxidizing conditions, all the specimens examined were corroded seriously due to oxygen diffusion through the porous oxide layer consisting of ..beta..-Ni(OH)/sub 2/. In hydrogen-saturated solutions, on the other hand, these Ni alloys were corrosion resistant because nickel in the alloys was active to oxidation of hydrogen. The specimens were corroded by deaerated solution at high temperatures in which hydrogen evolution took place as the counterreaction. The corrosion rate controlled by the hydrogen formation reaction increased exponentially with the decrease of the Ni content in the alloy.

  2. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2014-07-28

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48−x})(Nb{sub 0.95−x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x = 0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  3. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I. Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-08-04

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  4. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-offmore » of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.« less

  5. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-off of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  6. ..&rrbt, Chief, Industrial Hy&na Branch, HerlthbrSas8byLaboratoly

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    tf..@ ..&rrbt, Chief, Industrial Hy&na Branch, HerlthbrSas8byLaboratoly ;,.; , ' 1 ' @@w-w 3, 1954 P. B. Klevin, Indurtrial Hygiexn J5rantah, Barrlei &'afelky Lab0raM~ : . .A , 3 t :;p,: . NATIONAL LEiD OF OHIO ROLLINO OFERATIONS AT SIHONr>s SAW 6 STEEL- Amm', +I& y9, <: '.. SmBoLt HSHtPBK ' -: - St. Louis Area Office at the Simnds Saw and Steel Co., k&port, NJ., on tha &boVe clrtm, I oblruloed tb Mat;Lonal Uad umu&m and thorium roll- ing operations which were

  7. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. )

    1994-10-01

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Luminescent properties of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and its potential application in white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingxuan; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor can be effectively excited by an ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light, and produce a bright blue emission centered at 436 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinations (x, y) of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(NSCE)/Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(LSSE) vary with the molar ratio of the two constituents. When NSCE/LSSE is 1:3, the CIE chromaticity coordination is (0.332, 0.346), which is close to that of the natural sunlight (0.33, 0.33). The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a promising blue phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes. Highlights: ? Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} shows the blue emission with a peak at 436 nm and broad excitation band in the UV/n-UV range. ? White light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor with the Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} yellow phosphor. ? Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} would be a promising blue phosphor candidate for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction, and its luminescent properties are systematically studied. Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} can be effectively excited by the 354 nm radiation, and create blue emission (436 nm). The emission intensity of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is influenced by the Eu{sup 2+} doping content, and the optimal doping content is 1.5%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} in Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4} can be attributed to the multipolar interaction. The white light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} with the yellow phosphor Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a potential blue emitting phosphor for UV chip-based multi

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1982 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.97

  10. Authorization basis status report (miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1998-04-29

    This report presents the results of a systematic evaluation conducted to identify miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components with potential needed authorization basis upgrades. It provides the Authorization Basis upgrade plan for those miscellaneous TWRS facilities, tanks and components identified.