Maximum output at minimum cost
Firestone, Jeremy
Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has
"Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"
Columbia University
lack of Waste-to-Energy capacity. #12;9 Austria As Germany, but Ban in force already in 2002. Landfill1 "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling" "A Sustainable Solution" Håkan in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse
2000-01-01
GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR during solar minimum (1995-1996) and solar maximum (2000) periods are obtained. It is observed that solar significant correlations during both solar maximum and solar minimum. The dynamic pressure variation, however
LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS
California at Berkeley, University of
). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes
Tree-ring reconstruction of maximum and minimum temperatures
-width (RW) and maximum density (MXD) series from treeline sites across Interior British Columbia. Multi- ple at these temperature-limited sites may be more closely related to Tmax than Tmean or Tmin; (3) recently reported in the relationships between ring-width (RW), maxi- mum latewood density (MXD) and May-August Tmean were observed
Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS
Thomas, L.C.
1994-10-01
This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.
Zhou, Liming
Asymmetric response of maximum and minimum temperatures to soil emissivity change over the Northern in the Sahel could lead to reduced land surface emissivity and thus might have an asymmetric impact on daytime balance to changes in soil emissivity over the Sahel using the recently developed Community Land Model
Study of Cosmic-Ray Modulation during the Recent Unusual Minimum and Mini Maximum of Solar Cycle 24
Aslam, O P M
2015-01-01
After a prolonged and deep solar minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the current Solar Cycle 24 is one of the lowest cycles. These two periods of deep minimum and mini maximum are separated by a period of increasing solar activity. We study the cosmic-ray intensity variation in relation with the solar activity, heliospheric plasma and field parameters, including the heliospheric current sheet, during these three periods (phases) of different activity level and nature: (a) a deep minimum, (b) an increasing activity period and (c) a mini maximum. We use neutron monitor data from stations located around the globe to study the rigidity dependence on modulation during the two extremes, i.e., minimum and maximum. We also study the time lag between the cosmic-ray intensity and various solar and interplanetary parameters separately during the three activity phases. We also analyze the role of various parameters, including the current sheet tilt, in modulating the cosmic-ray intensity during the three different phases. Th...
Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present
Dahl, Kristina Ariel
2005-01-01
This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...
String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces
Van Den Eijnden, Eric
York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca
Ulrike Herzog
2009-02-28
We study an optimized measurement that discriminates two mixed quantum states with maximum confidence for each conclusive result, thereby keeping the overall probability of inconclusive results as small as possible. When the rank of the detection operators associated with the two different conclusive outcomes does not exceed unity we obtain a general solution. As an application, we consider the discrimination of two mixed qubit states. Moreover, for the case of higher-rank detection operators we give a solution for particular states. The relation of the optimized measurement to other discrimination schemes is also discussed.
Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina
2010-05-03
The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.
Variable Selection for Modeling the Absolute Magnitude at Maximum of Type Ia Supernovae
Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, S; Ikeda, Shiro; Maeda, Keiichi
2015-01-01
We discuss what is an appropriate set of explanatory variables in order to predict the absolute magnitude at the maximum of Type Ia supernovae. In order to have a good prediction, the error for future data, which is called the "generalization error," should be small. We use cross-validation in order to control the generalization error and LASSO-type estimator in order to choose the set of variables. This approach can be used even in the case that the number of samples is smaller than the number of candidate variables. We studied the Berkeley supernova database with our approach. Candidates of the explanatory variables include normalized spectral data, variables about lines, and previously proposed flux-ratios, as well as the color and light-curve widths. As a result, we confirmed the past understanding about Type Ia supernova: i) The absolute magnitude at maximum depends on the color and light-curve width. ii) The light-curve width depends on the strength of Si II. Recent studies have suggested to add more va...
Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables
Pierpaolo Vivo
2015-07-20
A pedagogical account of some aspects of Extreme Value Statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of Large Deviation Theory. We address the following problem: given a set of $N$ i.i.d. random variables $\\{X_1,\\ldots,X_N\\}$ drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) $p(x)$, what is the probability that the maximum value of the set $X_{\\mathrm{max}}=\\max_i X_i$ is "atypically larger" than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.
Fig. 2: a) Spectra of PW And in a maximum and a minimum of emission; b) Variation in
Complutense de Madrid, Universidad
activity variability of several of these active stars. We analyse the possible rotational modulation, long the clue for understanding the magnetic activity in solar-like stars. In this section we show some results obtained wi- th stars selected from our spectroscopic survey of late- type stars members of young stellar
Maximum output at minimum cost
Firestone, Jeremy
working life of the turbine. Gamesa WindNet® The new generation SCADA System (a wind farm control system
Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum
Vörös,; Leitner, M; Narita, Y; Consolini, G; Kovács, P; Tóth, A; Lichtenberger, J
2015-01-01
Unconditional and conditional statistics is used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multi-scale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series splitted into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both large-scale (B) and small-scale ({\\delta}B) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, log-normal, kappa and logkappa functions. In a statistical sense the...
Littlefield, C.; Garnavich, P.; Magno, K.; Applegate, A.; Pogge, R.; Irwin, J.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R.; Vinko, J.
2013-06-15
We present time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of CSS 120422:111127+571239 (=SBS 1108+574), a recently discovered SU UMa-type dwarf nova whose 55 minute orbital period is well below the cataclysmic variable (CV) period minimum of {approx}78 minutes. In contrast with most other known CVs, its spectrum features He I emission of comparable strength to the Balmer lines, implying a hydrogen abundance less than 0.1 of long-period CVs-but still at least 10 times higher than that in AM CVn stars. Together, the short orbital period and remarkable helium-to-hydrogen ratio suggest that mass transfer in CSS 120422 began near the end of the donor star's main-sequence lifetime, meaning that this CV is a strong candidate progenitor of an AM CVn system as described by Podsiadlowski et al. Moreover, a Doppler tomogram of the H{alpha} line reveals two distinct regions of enhanced emission. While one is the result of the stream-disk impact, the other is probably attributable to spiral disk structure generated when material in the outer disk achieves a 2:1 orbital resonance with respect to the donor.
Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer
Chancellor, Nicholas; Vinci, Walter; Aeppli, Gabriel; Warburton, Paul A
2015-01-01
Optimisation problems in science and engineering typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this approach maximises the likelihood that the solution found is correct. An alternative approach is to make use of prior statistical information about the noise in conjunction with Bayes's theorem. The maximum entropy solution to the problem then takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function. Here we use a programmable Josephson junction array for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that maximum entropy decoding at finite temperature can in certain cases give competitive and even slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach at zero temperature, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealing...
Timing and significance of maximum and minimum equatorial insolation
Gildor, Hezi
are very small. Thus a common belief is that the pronounced $100 ka glacial cycles are not directly linked] The most pronounced climate phenomena over the last 800 ka or so are glacial-interglacial oscillations was that summer insolation dictated whether snow falling during winter would survive melting during summer
Table 10.1 Nonswitchable Minimum and Maximum Consumption, 2002
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,137 4,9743Number of 19932.5
Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer
Nicholas Chancellor; Szilard Szoke; Walter Vinci; Gabriel Aeppli; Paul A. Warburton
2015-06-26
Optimisation problems in science and engineering typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this approach maximises the likelihood that the solution found is correct. An alternative approach is to make use of prior statistical information about the noise in conjunction with Bayes's theorem. The maximum entropy solution to the problem then takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function. Here we use a programmable Josephson junction array for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that maximum entropy decoding at finite temperature can in certain cases give competitive and even slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach at zero temperature, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealing device. Furthermore we introduce a microscopic bit-by-bit analytical method which is agnostic to the specific application and use it to show that the annealing device samples from a highly Boltzmann-like distribution. Machines of this kind are therefore candidates for use in a wide variety of machine learning applications which exploit maximum entropy inference, including natural language processing and image recognition. We further show that the limiting factor for performance in our experiments is likely to be control errors rather than failure to reach equilibrium. Our work also provides a method for determining if a system is in equilibrium which can be easily generalized. We discuss possible applications of this method to spin glasses and probing the performance of the quantum annealing algorithm.
THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS
Deseri, Luca
THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS L. DESERI AND J.M. GOLDEN Abstract. A general closed expression is given for the isothermal minimum free energy of a linear viscoelastic states [6] are uniquely related to histories and the work function is the maximum free energy
Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.
2008-10-17
A minimum price contract is one of many tools a marketer may use to better manage price and production risk while trying to achieve financial goals and objectives. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages involved...
Total Solar Irradiance Variability and the Solar Activity Cycle
Probhas Raychaudhuri
2006-05-06
It is suggested that the solar variability is due to the perturbed nature of the solar core and this variability is provided by the variability of the solar neutrino flux from the solar neutrino detectors i.e., Homestake, Superkamiokande, SAGE and GALLEX-GNO. The solar neutrino flux in the standard solar model (SSM) was calculated on the assumption of L_nu (neutrino luminosity) = L_gamma (optical luminosity) which implies that if there is a change in optical luminosity then solar neutrino flux data will also be changed. An internal dynamo due to the cyclic variation of nuclear energy generation inside the core of the sun is responsible for the solar activity cycle was suggested and thus the internal magnetic field is also variable. Again the changes in the nuclear energy generation induce structural changes that result in variations of the global solar parameters i.e., luminosity, radius and temperatures etc. From the analysis of total solar irradiance (TSI) data during the year from 1970 to 2003 we have found five phases within the solar activity cycle. The first phase (I) starts before two years from the sunspot minimum. The second phase (II) starts at the time of sunspot minimum and phase (III) starts before 2/3 years from sunspot maximum whereas phase (IV) starts at sunspot maximum and fifth phase (V) starts at after 2-3 years from sunspot maximum.
Van Den Eijnden, Eric
On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden and simplified version of the string method in collective variables for computing minimum free energy paths) the minimum free energy path (MFEP) plays an important role. Given a set of collective variables to describe
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By Sarah Schlieder *8MatthewMaximum-likelihood fitting
Ion composition of the topside equatorial ionosphere during solar minimum
Gonzalez, S.A.; Fejer, B.G. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Heelis, R.A.; Hanson, W.B. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States))
1992-04-01
The authors have used observations from both the Bennett ion mass spectrometer and the retarding potential analyzer on board the Atmosphere Explorer E satellite to study the longitudinally averaged O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and He{sup +} concentrations from 150 to 1,100 km in the equatorial ionosphere during the 1975-1976 solar minimum. The results suggest that the ion mass spectrometer measurements need to be increased by a factor of 2.15 to agree with the densities from the retarding potential analyzer and with ground-based measurements. The peak H{sup +} concentrations are about 2.5 {times} 10{sup 4} cm{sup {minus}3} during the day and 10{sup 4} cm{sup {minus}3} at night and vary little with season. The O{sup +}/H{sup +} transition altitude lies between 750 and 825 km during the day and between 550 and 600 km at night. He{sup +} is a minor species at all altitudes; its concentration is highly variable with a maximum value of about 10{sup 3} cm{sup {minus}3} during equinox daytime.
Wilkes, Donald F. (Albuquerque, NM); Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-01
An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.
Minimum Spanning Tree What is a Minimum Spanning Tree.
Razak, Saquib
Algorithm(Graph g, Vertex start){ int n = g.getNumberOfVertices(); Entry table[] = new Entry[n]; for(int v = 0; v new Entry(); table[g.getIndex(start)].distance = 0; PriorityQueue queue = new. Â· What is a Minimum-Cost Spanning Tree. Â· Applications of Minimum Cost Spanning Trees. Â· Prim's Algorithm
Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1
.1061/ ASCE 0733-9437 2003 129:4 256 CE Database subject headings: Radiation; Solar radiationPredicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving
Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations
Ghaderi, Majid
Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations Mostafa Dehghan as well. Index Terms Cooperative communication, minimum energy routing, variable wireless channels@ucalgary.ca #12;1 I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficient communication is a fundamental problem in wireless networks
Title 43 CFR 3206.12 What are the Minimum and Maximum Lease Sizes? | Open
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open EnergyTinoxOpen Energy InformationLease Lease
Achieving Minimum-Routing-Cost Maximum-Flows in Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks
Szymanski, Ted
of a collection of interconnected wireless mesh routers, represent a promising technology to deliver communication a wireless router and the end-users within a wireless cell is called end-user traffic. The delivery of traffic between the wireless routers in a multihop manner is called backhauling, and this traffic
Maximum Coverage at Minimum Cost for Multi-Domain IP/MPLS Networks
Masip Bruin, Xavier
Vilanova i la Geltr´u, Catalonia, Spain A. Sprintson Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, Texas, USA A. Orda Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion to choose the cheapest alternative for their coverage strategy. This could be either because some
"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1. Selected Energy2.
R Coronae Borealis Stars at Minimum Light -- UW Cen
N. Kameswara Rao; B. E. Reddy; D. L. Lambert
2004-09-09
Two high-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star UW Cen in decline are discussed. A spectrum from mid-1992 when the star had faded by three magnitudes shows just a few differences with the spectrum at maximum light. The ubiquitous sharp emission lines seen in R CrB at a similar drop below maximum light are absent. In contrast, a spectrum from mid-2002 when the star was five magnitudes below maximum light shows an array of sharp emission lines and a collection of broad emission lines. Comparisons are made with spectra of R CrB obtained during the deep 1995-1996 minimum. The many common features are discussed in terms of a torus-jet geometry.
Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems
Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo
2009-05-15
The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...
Maximum power tracking control scheme for wind generator systems
Mena Lopez, Hugo Eduardo
2008-10-10
The purpose of this work is to develop a maximum power tracking control strategy for variable speed wind turbine systems. Modern wind turbine control systems are slow, and they depend on the design parameters of the turbine and use wind and/or rotor...
Minimum Time/Minimum Fuel Control of an Axisymmetric Rigid Body
Torres, Jonathan Farina
2014-05-19
Many times it is necessary to reorient an aerial vehicle during flight in a minimum time or minimum fuel fashion. This thesis will present a minimum time/fuel control solution to reorienting an axisymmetric rigid body using ...
Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Energy Consumption of Minimum Energy Coding in CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks Benigno Zurita Ares://www.ee.kth.se/control Abstract. A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate perfor- mance analysis of minimum energy coding energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding
Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...
Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose
Tamhane, Ajit C.
Power and Sample Size Determination for a Stepwise Test Procedure for Finding the Maximum Safe Dose This paper addresses the problem of power and sample size calculation for a stepwise multiple test procedure of a compound. A general expression for the power of this procedure is derived. It is used to find the minimum
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Approximating Minimum-Power Edge-Covers and 2, 3-Connectivity Guy Kortsarz
Kortsarz, Guy
than edge-connectivity, as it models stations failures. Such power minimization problems were vastlyApproximating Minimum-Power Edge-Covers and 2, 3-Connectivity Guy Kortsarz Rutgers University a graph with edge costs, the power of a node is the maximum cost of an edge leaving it, and the power
Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC
2009-11-01
Biorefineries or other biomass-dependent facilities require a predictable, dependable feedstock supplied over many years to justify capital investments. Determining inter-year variability in biomass availability is essential to quantifying the feedstock supply risk. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and historic crop yield data, average production was estimated for 10 sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Four high-yielding potential sites were investigated for variability over a 20 year time-frame (1980 2000). The range of availability was large, from double the average in maximum years to nothing in minimum years. Biomass availability is a function of grain yield, the biomass to grain ratio, the cropping frequency, and residue retention rate to ensure future crop productivity. Storage strategies must be implemented and alternate feedstock sources identified to supply biomass processing facilities in low-yield years.
Maximum entanglement in squeezed boson and fermion states
Khanna, F. C. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Malbouisson, J. M. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santana, A. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Santos, E. S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia, 40030-010, Salvador, BA (Brazil)
2007-08-15
A class of squeezed boson and fermion states is studied with particular emphasis on the nature of entanglement. We first investigate the case of bosons, considering two-mode squeezed states. Then we construct the fermion version to show that such states are maximum entangled, for both bosons and fermions. To achieve these results, we demonstrate some relations involving squeezed boson states. The generalization to the case of fermions is made by using Grassmann variables.
The maximum multiflow problems with bounded fractionality
Hirai, Hiroshi
(Karzanov 98) frac(| ) = frac(K2 + Kn) = 4 (Lomonsov 04) frac( ) =? Hiroshi Hirai The maximum multiflow
Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones
Ulloa, Osvaldo
Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...
Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals
Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.
1981-02-11
Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.
Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field
MacLean, W. James
Maximum-Likelihood Stereo Correspondence using Field Programmable Gate Arrays Siraj Sabihuddin & W. James MacLean Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario be performed using a maximum- likelihood formulation. One such formulation has been presented by Cox [1], who
MAXIMUM ENTROPY APPROACH TO OPTIMAL SENSOR PLACEMENT
Kreinovich, Vladik
MAXIMUM ENTROPY APPROACH TO OPTIMAL SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR AEROSPACE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING R discussed for space struc- tures. Key words: Non-destructive testing, maximum entropy, aerospace structures not have a sufficient number of them, so additional sensors must be placed to test the structural integrity
Modified Theoretical Minimum Emittance Lattice for an Electron...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Modified Theoretical Minimum Emittance Lattice for an Electron Storage Ring with Extreme-Low Emittance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Theoretical Minimum...
Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael
2012-07-01
As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.
CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B. Galvin 2
California at Berkeley, University of
, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA ABSTRACT The breadth and power of the set of solar1 CORRELATED STUDIES AT ACTIVITY MAXIMUM: THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND H. S. Hudson 1 and A. B at solar minimum or in the declining phase of the past maxi mum, but we anticipate that most
Letschert, Virginie
2010-01-01
80% of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper usescase and 11% in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 Theelectricity and natural gas/LPG shows that considering BAT
Letschert, Virginie
2010-01-01
Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Central Air ConditionerEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Refrigerators,
pelamis (Linnaeus), in North Carolina waters. Chesa- peake Sci. 13:237-244. BEARDSLEY, G. L., JR., AND W pelamis) from the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean. Bull. Inter-Am. Trop. Tuna Comm. 3:307- 352. PIENAAR, L
Letschert, Virginie
2010-01-01
Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projectionsis taken from the annual energy outlook (AEO) 2010 (DOE/EIA-
Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty
Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das
2014-12-29
Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.
Achieving 360 Angle Coverage with Minimum
Tam, Vincent W. L.
, and the sensors surrounding it are responsible for capturing the images of it. We aim at finding the minimum cost monitoring, target tracking, disaster management, etc [1], [2]. Each sensor is powered by battery which moving around the network and the nodes around the object are responsible to capture the images of it
Minimum-Flip Supertrees: Complexity and Algorithms
Sanderson, Michael J.
Minimum-Flip Supertrees: Complexity and Algorithms Duhong Chen, Oliver Eulenstein, David Ferna that it is fixed-parameter tractable and give approximation algorithms for special cases. Index Terms assembled from all species in the study. Because the conventional algorithms to solve these problems
Near-IR spectroscopic monitoring of CLASS I protostars: Variability of accretion and wind indicators
Connelley, Michael S.; Greene, Thomas P.
2014-06-01
We present the results of a program that monitored the near-IR spectroscopic variability of a sample of 19 embedded protostars. Spectra were taken on time intervals from 2 days to 3 yr, over a wavelength range from 0.85 ?m to 2.45 ?m, for 4-9 epochs of observations per target. We found that the spectra of all targets are variable and that every emission feature observed is also variable (although not for all targets). With one exception, there were no drastic changes in the continua of the spectra, nor did any line completely disappear, nor did any line appear that was not previously apparent. This analysis focuses on understanding the connection between accretion (traced by H Br ? and CO) and the wind (traced by He I, [Fe II], and sometimes H{sub 2}). For both accretion and wind tracers, the median variability was constant versus the time interval between observations; however, the maximum variability that we observed increased with the time interval between observations. Extinction is observed to vary within the minimum sampling time of 2 days, suggesting extinguishing material within a few stellar radii at high disk latitudes. The variability of [Fe II] and H{sub 2} were correlated for most (but not all) of the 7 young stellar objects showing both features, and the amplitude of the variability depends on the veiling. Although the occurrence of CO and Br ? emission are connected, their variability is uncorrelated, suggesting that these emissions originate in separate regions near the protostar (e.g., disk and wind). The variability of Br ? and wind tracers were found to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated, depending on the target. The variability of Br ?, [Fe II], and H{sub 2} always lies on a plane, although the orientation of the plane in three dimensions depends on the target. While we do not understand all interactions behind the variability that we observed, we have shown that spectroscopic variability is a powerful tool toward understanding the star formation process.
Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information
B. R. Frieden; R. A. Gatenby
2014-04-29
Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10 micron and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6 micron. The NM contains about 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order delta I = 0 and approximate 2nd-order delta I = 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1-4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the approximate flux value F =10^16 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL approaches IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information approaches non-equilibrium, one condition for life.
Robert Connon Smith
2007-01-23
Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.
Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks
Nielsen, Finn Årup
Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Neural Networks Finn A ffi rup Nielsen Section for Digital Signal, linear output, Gaussian distribution ] \\Gamma 1;+1[ ffl Binary (binary classification), tanh on output, bino mial distribution. ] \\Gamma 1; +1[ ffl Classification, softmax function on outputs [Bridle, 1990
Partitioned algorithms for maximum likelihood and
Smyth, Gordon K.
Partitioned algorithms for maximum likelihood and other nonlinear estimation Gordon K. Smyth There are a variety of methods in the literature which seek to make iterative estimation algorithms more manageable by breaking the iterations into a greater number of simpler or faster steps. Those algorithms which deal
On maximum matching width Jisu Jeong (KAIST)
Kim, Yong Jung
;Graph width parameters Â· tree-width (Halin 1976, Robertson and Seymour 1984) Â· branch-width (Robertson and Seymour 1991) Â· carving-width (Seymour and Thomas 1994) Â· clique-width (Courcelle and Olariu 2000) Â· rank-width (Oum and Seymour 2006) Â· maximum matching-width (Vatshelle 2012) #12;a b c d e fg hi j A tree
, AND MAXIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD IN THE SHRIMP FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO BY JAMES NANCE, WALTER KEITHLY, JR YIELD, AND MAXIMUM ECONOMIC YIELD IN THE SHRIMP FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO BY JAMES NANCE, WALTER in the shrimp fishery of the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-570, 71P. Copies may
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Distributed Minimum Energy Data Gathering and Aggregation in Sensor Networks
Liang, Ben
Distributed Minimum Energy Data Gathering and Aggregation in Sensor Networks Kevin Yuen, Baochun Li-- In this paper, we propose an effective distributed algorithm to solve the minimum energy data gathering (MEDG input packets into a single output packet. To achieve minimum energy data gathering, the optimal trans
Welfare Effects of Minimum Wage and Other Government Policies
Perloff, Jeffrey M.
measures. #12;Do government programs such as minimum wage laws, Aid to the Families with De- pendent effects of the minimum wage. Most of the enormous 1 Dalton (1920) suggested that all common welfare government policies and market conditions when evaluating the effects of the minimum wage laws. As Freeman
THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM
Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu
2012-08-01
The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.
Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study
Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2014-04-28
We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávní?ek, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
Winter, L. M.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.
2014-10-01
We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 Å band from 1986 to the present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and the date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in solar cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in spring 2013.
Winter, L M
2014-01-01
We present an alternate method of determining the progression of the solar cycle through an analysis of the solar X-ray background. Our results are based on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray data in the 1-8 \\AA$\\,$band from 1986 - present, covering solar cycles 22, 23, and 24. The X-ray background level tracks the progression of the solar cycle through its maximum and minimum. Using the X-ray data, we can therefore make estimates of the solar cycle progression and date of solar maximum. Based upon our analysis, we conclude that the Sun reached its hemisphere-averaged maximum in Solar Cycle 24 in late 2013. This is within six months of the NOAA prediction of a maximum in Spring 2013.
Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...
The Maximum Mass of a Neutron Star
Vassiliki Kalogera; Gordon Baym
1996-08-11
Observational identification of black holes as members of binary systems requires the knowledge of the upper limit on the gravitational mass of a neutron star. We use modern equations of state for neutron star matter, fitted to experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and the properties of light nuclei, to calculate, within the framework of Rhoades & Ruffini (1974), the minimum upper limit on a neutron star mass. Regarding the equation of state as valid up to twice nuclear matter saturation density, rho_{nm}, we obtain a secure upper bound on the neutron star mass equal to 2.9 solar masses. We also find that in order to reach the lowest possible upper bound of 2.2 solar masses, we need understand the physical properties of neutron matter up to a density of about 4 times rho_{nm}.
Maximum Performance Group MPG | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland JumpPlantation Elec Co JumpIAEAOpenMaximum
Minimum wear tube support hole design
Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)
1986-01-01
A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.
Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley
2008-08-31
Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.
Variable pressure power cycle and control system
Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)
1984-11-27
A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.
Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine
Charles Mendler
2011-03-15
Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz
An algebraic approach to the minimum-cost multi-impulse orbit transfer problem
Martin Avendano; Verónica Martín-Molina; Jorge Martín-Morales; Jorge Ortigas-Galindo
2015-08-10
We present a purely algebraic formulation (i.e. polynomial equations only) of the minimum-cost multi-impulse orbit transfer problem without time constraints, while keeping all the variables with a precise physical meaning. We apply general algebraic techniques to solve these equations (resultants, Gr\\"obner bases, etc.) in several situations of practical interest of different degrees of generality. For instance, we provide a proof of the optimality of the Hohmann transfer for the minimum fuel 2-impulse circular to circular orbit transfer problem, and we provide a general formula for the optimal 2-impulse in-plane transfer between two rotated elliptical orbits under a mild symmetry assumption on the two points where the impulses are applied (which we conjecture that can be removed).
IMPLICATIONS OF THE RECENT LOW SOLAR MINIMUM FOR THE SOLAR WIND DURING THE MAUNDER MINIMUM
Lockwood, M.; Owens, M. J., E-mail: m.lockwood@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)
2014-01-20
The behavior of the Sun and near-Earth space during grand solar minima is not understood; however, the recent long and low minimum of the decadal-scale solar cycle gives some important clues, with implications for understanding the solar dynamo and predicting space weather conditions. The speed of the near-Earth solar wind and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded within it can be reliably reconstructed for before the advent of spacecraft monitoring using observations of geomagnetic activity that extend back to the mid-19th century. We show that during the solar cycle minima around 1879 and 1901 the average solar wind speed was exceptionally low, implying the Earth remained within the streamer belt of slow solar wind flow for extended periods. This is consistent with a broader streamer belt, which was also a feature of the recent low minimum (2009), and yields a prediction that the low near-Earth IMF during the Maunder minimum (1640-1700), as derived from models and deduced from cosmogenic isotopes, was accompanied by a persistent and relatively constant solar wind of speed roughly half the average for the modern era.
Arnold, Jonathan
for Senior Signature (minimum gift to Senior Signature required to be included on Class of 2015 is required to be included on the Class of 2015 plaque) I am proud to support the Georgia Fund SENIOR myID Email Name as it should appear on Senior Signature Class Plaque (maximum 25 spaces) VISA
Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
(FEMP) created tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2013 tables, which include minimum efficiency...
ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 theoreticalminimumenergies.pdf More Documents & Publications Ironmaking Process Alternatives Screening Study...
Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energyspin-flip density functional theory approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...
Long-term spectroscopic monitoring of the Luminous Blue Variable HD160529
Otmar Stahl; Thomas Gaeng; Chris Sterken; Andreas Kaufer; Thomas Rivinius; Thomas Szeifert; Bernhard Wolf
2002-12-20
We have spectroscopically monitored the galactic Luminous Blue Variable HD 160529 and obtained an extensive high-resolution data set that covers the years 1991 to 2002. During this period, the star evolved from an extended photometric minimum phase towards a new visual maximum. In several observing seasons, we covered up to four months with almost daily spectra. Our spectra typically cover most of the visual spectral range with a high spectral resolution (about 20,000 or more). This allows us to investigate the variability in many lines and on many time scales from days to years. We find a correlation between the photospheric HeI lines and the brightness of the star, both on a time scale of months and on a time scale of years. The short-term variations are smaller and do not follow the long-term trend, strongly suggesting different physical mechanisms. Metal lines also show both short-term and long-term variations in strength and also a long-term trend in radial velocity. Most of the line-profile variations can be attributed to changing strengths of lines. Propagating features in the line profiles are rarely observed. We find that the mass-loss rate of HD 160529 is almost independent of temperature, i.e. visual brightness.
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS.
Skogestad, Sigurd
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS. K. Havre1 and S. Skogestad 2 of a stabilizing control structure, using the in- formation given in the pole directions. It is shown how the input/output pole directions are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given unstable mode. 1
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS
Skogestad, Sigurd
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS Kjetil Havre 1 Sigurd Skogestad 2: This paper consider control structure design using the information given in the pole vectors. It is shown how the input and output pole vectors are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS
Skogestad, Sigurd
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS Kjetil Havre1 Sigurd Skogestad 2: This paper consider control structure design using the information given in the pole vectors. It is shown how the input and output pole vectors are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS.
Skogestad, Sigurd
SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS. K. Havre 1 and S. Skogestad 2 of a stabilizing control structure, using the in formation given in the pole directions. It is shown how the input/output pole directions are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given unstable mode. 1
Martin Mihelich; Berengere Dubrulle; Didier Paillard; Davide Faranda
2015-05-26
We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at _rst order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP (N) tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS (N) tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N_ such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium uxes imposed to the boundaries.
Allan, Richard P.
climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many
Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.
2006-01-01
the outside air. However, it also involves major ductwork changes. 2.3 Variable speed control of supply airflow A variable speed drive (VFD) saves fan power by slowing down the fan speed and delivering less supply air to the conditioned space during... by adjusting the supply fan speed. However, if the space cooling load drops below the point where the supply airflow reaches the minimum flow required for proper ventilation, the supply air temperature has to be raised to keep the space temperature from...
Variable Frequency Pump Drives
Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.
1986-01-01
variable flow operation, Fig. 2 variable system head, the objective of the latter being to maintain pump flow within an optimum range while accommodating a wide variation in system head. VARYING OPERATING CAPACITY OPERATING CAPACITY? N, RANGE HEAD...-rotor motors and variable speed devices have slip losses that significantly reduce the savings that accrue by operating pumps at variable speed. Steam turbine drives may not always be the most practical or economic solution. The variable frequency...
Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation
Heidet, Florent
2010-01-01
heavy metal density of carbide fuel is 6% smaller than thatthe minimum required burnup is larger for carbide fuel. Thefluence are larger in carbide fuel because of the longer
, The Netherlands Abstract Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is well-known to give information about and allows a reliable HRV analy- sis. 1. Introduction Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is well minimum and allows a reliable HRV analysis. 2. Methods 2.1. Data acquisition The data for this study
Uncovering the intrinsic variability of gamma-ray bursts
Golkhou, Vahid Z.; Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: vgolkhou@asu.edu, E-mail: natbutler@asu.edu [Cosmology Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. (United States)
2014-05-20
We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?t {sub min} = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3 × 10{sup 3} km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.
Minimum Distance between Bent and 1-resilient Boolean Functions
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
, INDIA. soumen@iitg.ernet.in 2 Applied Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B T Road, Kolkata 700 108, INDIA subho@isical.ac.in Abstract. In this paper we study the minimum distance between
Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980
Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.
1980-01-01
Technology is now available to increase heater efficiencies to 92 percent and more. By 1980, this technology will be field proven and corrosion and reliability problems identified and resolved. Recent studies have shown that a minimum efficiency...
Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators – that is those capable of producing more than 100...
TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE
Zsom, Andras
We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...
Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times
Paiz, Mary Rose
2015-04-01
The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.
The minimum information for a qualified BioBrick
Zhou, Mubing
2012-10-11
Since the information of many existing BioBricks is incomplete, thus the usage of the BioBricks will be affected. It is necessary to standardize the minimum information required for a qualified BioBrick. Furthermore this ...
Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes
Kumar, Santosh
2005-11-01
The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...
Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System
Tanskyi, O.
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...
Minimum Chaperone to Student Ratio and Costs Reserved Tours
California at Santa Cruz, University of
SH 7/08 Minimum Chaperone to Student Ratio and Costs Reserved Tours Use the table below Costs Preschool 1 adult/4 students Ages 3 and under: free, Students ages 4 and up: $4 each, Adults: $6
Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2005-01-01
As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.
Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum
McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.
2013-12-10
The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.
The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum
Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.
2013-06-13
Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.
Maximum entropy generation in open systems: the Fourth Law?
Umberto Lucia
2010-11-17
This paper develops an analytical and rigorous formulation of the maximum entropy generation principle. The result is suggested as the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics.
Maximum-principle-satisfying second order discontinuous Galerkin ...
2014-05-05
Notice that the CFL conditions in Table 2.1 are sufficient but not necessary to achieve maximum principle. A more efficient implementation would be enforcing
EERE Takes Important Steps to Ensure Maximum Impact of Technology...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
in wind, solar and other programs is essential to achieve maximum return for taxpayer investment. | Photos courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tracking...
Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts
Raffaele Romano; Domenico D'Alessandro
2015-04-27
In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and non-singular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator.
Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.
1995-07-01
This document represents Phase I of a two-phase project. The entire project consists of determining a series of minimum accidents of concern and their associated neutron and photon leakage spectra that may be used to determine Criticality Accident Alarm compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3. The inadvertent assembly of a critical mass of material presents a multitude of unknown quantities. Depending on the particular process, one can make an educated guess as to fissile material. In a gaseous diffusion cascade, this material is assumed to be uranyl fluoride. However, educated assumptions cannot be readily made for the other variables. Phase I of this project is determining a bounding minimum accident of concern and its associated neutron and photon leakage spectra. To determine the composition of the bounding minimum accident of concern, work was done to determine the effects of geometry, moderation level, and enrichment on the leakage spectra of a critical assembly. The minimum accident of concern is defined as the accident that may be assumed to deliver the equivalent of an absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material within 60 seconds. To determine this dose, an analyst makes an assumption and choose an appropriate flux to dose response function. The power level required of a critical assembly to constitute a minimum accident of concern depends heavily on the response function chosen. The first step in determining the leakage spectra was to attempt to isolate the effects of geometry, after which all calculations were conducted on critical spheres. The moderation level and enrichment of the spheres were varied and their leakage spectra calculated. These spectra were then multiplied by three different response functions: the Henderson Flux to Dose conversion factors, the ICRU 44 Kerma in Air, and the MCNP Heating Detector. The power level required to produce a minimum accident of concern was then calculated for each combination.
Predicting Customer Behavior using Naive Bayes and Maximum Entropy
Keysers, Daniel
of returned goods, we additionally generated two binary features for zero and missing values. The remaining Naive Bayes, Maximum Entropy, Neural Networks and Logistic Regression for classification of cus- tomer classifiers won the Data-Mining-Cup in 2004. Combining Logistic Regression, Neural Networks, and Maximum
Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart
Mootha, Vamsi K.
Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart VAMSI K. MOOTHA, ANDREW E. ARAI, AND ROBERT S. BALABAN Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National. Maximum oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the mammalian heart. Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ
Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.
1998-12-31
Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.
Ultraviolet and Multiwavelength Variability of the Blazar 3C 279 Evidence for Thermal Emission
Pian, E; Maraschi, L; Madejski, G M; McHardy, I M; Koratkar, A P; Treves, A; Chiappetti, L; Grandi, P; Hartman, R C; Kubo, H; Leach, C M; Pesce, J E; Imhoff, C; Thompson, R; Wehrle, A E
1999-01-01
The gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 was monitored on a nearly daily basis with IUE, ROSAT and EGRET for three weeks between December 1992 and January 1993. During this period, the blazar was at a historical minimum at all wavelengths. Here we present the UV data obtained during the above multiwavelength campaign. A maximum UV variation of ~50% is detected, while during the same period the X-ray flux varied by no more than 13%. At the lowest UV flux level the average spectrum in the 1230-2700 A interval is unusually flat for this object (~1). The flattening could represent the lowest energy tail of the inverse Compton component responsible for the X-ray emission, or could be due to the presence of a thermal component at ~20000 K possibly associated with an accretion disk. The presence of an accretion disk in this blazar object, likely observable only in very low states and otherwise hidden by the beamed, variable synchrotron component, would be consistent with the scenario in which the seed photons for the inverse Com...
THEMED BUFFETS All themed buffets include tea and water. Buffets are priced per person Green beans, fire-roasted seasonal vegetables or broccoli. THEMEDBUFFETS Oklahoma Grill Buffet #12, smoked sausage, grilled portobello (vegetarian). VEGETABLES green beans, seasonal fire-roasted vegetables
Wagner, Stephan
, and each man ranks all women from best to worst. Now each woman should marry one of the men (and vice versa such that increasing subsequences are chains and decreasing subsequences are antichains (or vice versa).] 5. A graph town, there is an equal number of men and women. Each woman ranks all (C) men from best to worst
Ashtekar's variables without spin
Thomas Schucker
2009-06-26
Ashtekar's variables are shown to arise naturally from a 3+1 split of general relativity in the Einstein-Cartan formulation. Thereby spinors are exorcised.
Maximum Instantaneous Power Estimation by Subgraph Coloring UCSD CSE Dept.
Liu, Bao
cycle helps in building a maximum envelope currents waveform for each net and providing a MIP upper process technology advancement integrates millions of gates on a single chip and introduces increasing
Multi-Class Classification with Maximum Margin Multiple Kernel
Mohri, Mehryar
(named OBSCURE and UFO-MKL, respectively) are used to optimize primal versions of equivalent problems), the OBSCURE and UFO-MKL algorithms are compared against MCMKL #12;Multi-Class Classification with Maximum
A magmatic trigger for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum?
Dubin, Andrea Rose
2015-01-01
Fifty-six million years ago Earth experienced rapid global warming (~6°C) that was caused by the release of large amounts of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. This Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is often ...
Maximum likelihood analysis of low energy CDMS II germanium data
Agnese, R.
We report on the results of a search for a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) signal in low-energy data of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment using a maximum likelihood analysis. A background model is ...
Maximum containment : the most controversial labs in the world
Bruzek, Alison K. (Allison Kim)
2013-01-01
In 2002, following the September 11th attacks and the anthrax letters, the United States allocated money to build two maximum containment biology labs. Called Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) facilities, these labs were built to ...
Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint
Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.
2012-07-01
This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
Optimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption
Cosman, Pamela C.
properties of the battery under bursty discharge conditions are exploited. In this paper, we exploitOptimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption Qinghua Zhao, Pamela C. Cosman, a power amplifier utilizes battery energy more efficiently with a higher transmission power. For a given
Optimizing rotational acceleration curves for minimum energy use in electric
Ruina, Andy L.
the four different methods for calculating the minimum energy value and its corresponding accelerations instance we will calculate the energy using a summation of very small acceleration piecewise "steps to simulate the energy cost of spinning a hypothetical wheel on a motor. We chose the specific motor related
Storage Begins with Purchasing purchase minimum needed for experiment
Cohen, Robert E.
Storage Begins with Purchasing · purchase minimum needed for experiment do not "buy in bulk://www.ehs.washington.edu/forms/epo/peroxideguidelines.pdf #12;Chemical Storage Basics · https://web.mit.edu/environment/pdf/sop/sop_0023.pdf · http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/chsp/html/storage level · do not store chemicals in fume hoods · flammable storage refrigerator needed for flammable
What is Minimum Impact Research? John R. Spear
minimum impact Yellowstone National Park 2 GEOTHERMAL BIOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL.735.1808 Fax: 303.492.7744 Email: spearj@colorado.edu 1 #12;Key Words conservation geothermal leave no trace Yellowstone National Park, for example. Other impacts--grazing, logging, mining, drilling and loss
arXiv:condmat/0310072 Minimum dissipation principle
Gabrielli, Davide
uctuation principle which generalizes the well known Boltzmann{Einstein formula for the probability have opposite transformation properties under time reversal, the non dissipative part being in this respect akin to a magnetic term. We emphasize that the minimum dissipation principle is of general
Structure of minimum-error quantum state discrimination
Joonwoo Bae
2013-07-19
Distinguishing different quantum states is a fundamental task having practical applications for information processing. Despite the efforts devoted so far, however, strategies for optimal discrimination are known only for specific examples. We here consider the problem of minimum-error quantum state discrimination where the average error is attempted to be minimized. We show the general structure of minimum-error state discrimination as well as useful properties to derive analytic solutions. Based on the general structure, we present a geometric formulation of the problem, which can be applied to cases where quantum state geometry is clear. We also introduce equivalent classes of sets of quantum states in terms of minimum-error discrimination: sets of quantum states in an equivalence class share the same guessing probability. In particular, for qubit states where the state geometry is found with the Bloch sphere, we illustrate that for an arbitrary set of qubit states, the minimum-error state discrimination with equal prior probabilities can be analytically solved, that is, optimal measurement and the guessing probability are explicitly obtained.
A minimum problem with free boundary for a degenerate quasilinear ...
2005-03-04
Feb 8, 2005 ... By the strong minimum principle, w0 = 0 in B5/8, since w0 ? 0 and w0(0) ..... 4.7 in [2] and pp. 19–20 in [3]; see also our proof of Theorem 5.1.
Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks
Shihada, Basem
Minimum Energy Coding for Wireless NanoSensor Networks Murat Kocaoglu Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation nodes. With their extremely small size, nanosensor nodes can only provide limited energy. Hence, power for their realization. Authors in [1] provide a detailed survey on the state-of-the-art in nanosensors and emphasize
Network Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost
Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"
transmission and data storage in networks. Its power comes from the improved flexibility that codeword symbolsNetwork Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang@cs.tamu.edu. Abstract-- Network coding provides elegant solutions to many data transmission problems. The usage
Delay Constrained Minimum Energy Broadcast in Cooperative Wireless Networks
Krishnamachari, Bhaskar
Delay Constrained Minimum Energy Broadcast in Cooperative Wireless Networks Marjan Baghaie--We formulate the problem of delay constrained energy-efficient broadcast in cooperative multihop wireless net algorithm that combines dynamic programming and linear programming to yield the min- imum energy broadcast
Approximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Liang, Weifa
Approximate Minimum-Energy Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--A wireless ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes that are equipped with energy on energy conservation in wireless ad hoc networks have been conducted. For example, energy efficient
Information Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense
Wang, Wenye
Information Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense Yi Xu and Wenye Wang in large-scale multihop wireless networks because of the limited energy supplies from batteries. We and strategies that reduce energy consumption in wireless net- works to extend network lifetimes. Examples
Minimum Flow Requirements for Southern Steelhead Passage on the
Keller, Ed
that a minimum flow of 800 cfs would be required to maintain a 0.6 ft. depth from the SCR estuary to Santa Paula Creek, while 500 cfs is needed to maintain this depth from Santa Paula to Sespe Creek, and 700 cfs would was greater than 400-700 cfs. These results indicate that passage flows are likely to exist throughout
Approximating Minimum-Power Degree and Connectivity Problems
Kortsarz, Guy
. The power con- sumption of a station determines its transmission range, and thus also the stations it can. Assigning power levels to the stations (nodes) determines the resulting communi- cation network. ConverselyApproximating Minimum-Power Degree and Connectivity Problems Guy Kortsarz Vahab S. Mirrokni Zeev
Minimum Delay Communication in Energy Harvesting Systems over Fading Channels
Laneman, J. Nicholas
by the data where the average is taken over all the random processes in our system, i.e, data arrival, energyMinimum Delay Communication in Energy Harvesting Systems over Fading Channels Mostafa Khoshnevisan, Indiana 46556 Email:{mkhoshne, jnl}@nd.edu Abstract--We consider an energy harvesting wireless system
The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification
Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.
2010-10-15
We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.
Optimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption
Cosman, Pamela C.
Optimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption Qinghua Zhao, Pamela C. Cosman, a power amplifier utilizes battery energy more efficiently with a higher transmission power. For a given of the bandwidth among source coding, channel coding and mod- ulation result in different amounts of battery usage
THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH
Usoskin, Ilya G.
THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH HIROKO MIYAHARA, DMITRY SOKOLOFF and ILYA G. USOSKIN Solar-Terrestrial Environmental Laboratory, Nagoya University Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan Department minima, when the solar dynamo was in a special mode. We review available sets of direct and indirect data
BIOENGINEERING GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM ADVISING SHEET (minimum 15 credits)
Fernandez, Eduardo
BIOENGINEERING GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM ADVISING SHEET (minimum 15 credits) Name: Z Number to Bioengineering 3 BME 5742 BioSystems Modeling & Control 3 BME 6572 Nanotechnology 3 BME 6762 Bioinformatics: Bioengineering Perspectives (prev EEL 6935 Bioinformatics) 3 CET 5888 Automatic Biometrics 3 EEL 5661 Robotic
Filtering Additive Measurement Noise with Maximum Entropy in the Mean
Henryk Gzyl; Enrique ter Horst
2007-09-04
The purpose of this note is to show how the method of maximum entropy in the mean (MEM) may be used to improve parametric estimation when the measurements are corrupted by large level of noise. The method is developed in the context on a concrete example: that of estimation of the parameter in an exponential distribution. We compare the performance of our method with the bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches.
Wapstra, Erik
Resources Approved and commenced April 2015 Review by April, 2018 Relevant Legislation, Ordinance, Rule and Regulations 2012 Work Health and Safety Policy Responsible Organisational Unit Work Health and Safety Unit Minimum Standard (April 2015) Page 2 1 Executive Summary The University of Tasmania is committed
Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling
Hamrick, Todd
2011-05-25
Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.
Heat rate and maximum load capability improvements through cycle isolation
Coons, K. [Coronado Generating Station, Saint Johns, AZ (United States); Dimmick, J.G. [Leak Detection Services, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)
1995-06-01
Major improvements in maximum load capability and gross turbine heat rate were obtained at Salt River Project`s Coronado Unit 1, resulting from work done during the Spring 1993 overhaul. Corrected maximum load increased by 13.1 MW -- from 403.8 MW prior to the overhaul compared to 416.9 MW after the overhaul. Corrected gross turbine heat rate was reduced 270 BTU/kWH -- from 7,920 BTU/kWH before the overhaul to 7,650 BTU/kWH after the overhaul. Of the work done, the repair of leaking valves had the largest impact on cycle performance. The reduction of cycle leakage accounted for an increase of 9.9 MW in maximum load capability and a reduction to gross turbine heat rate of 190 BTU. Weekly maximum load tests, which started in August 1992 with the installation of an on-line monitoring system, show that maximum load had decreased approximately 4 MW during the six months prior to the overhaul. During this time there were no significant changes in HP or IP efficiencies, or any other directly-measured cycle parameters. Therefore, this degradation was attributed to cycle isolation valve leakage. Acoustic emission leak detection methods were used to identify leaking valves prior to the outage. Of the 138 valves tested for leakage, 31 valves had medium to very large leaks. Of these 31 leaking valves identified, 30 were repaired or replaced.
A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles
Dewar, Roderick C.
2014-12-05
Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential ? for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that ? is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of ? with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–? are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in ? is given in terms of the second law, although min–? itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.
Photometric Stellar Variability in the Galactic Center
M. Rafelski; A. M. Ghez; S. D. Hornstein; J. R. Lu; M. Morris
2007-01-04
We report the results of a diffraction-limited, photometric variability study of the central 5"x5" of the Galaxy conducted over the past 10 years using speckle imaging techniques on the W. M. Keck I 10 m telescope. Within our limiting magnitude of mK < 16 mag for images made from a single night of data, we find a minimum of 15 K[2.2 micron]-band variable stars out of 131 monitored stars. The only periodic source in our sample is the previously identified variable IRS 16SW, for which we measure an orbital period of 19.448 +- 0.002 days. In contrast to recent results, our data on IRS 16SW show an asymmetric phased light curve with a much steeper fall-time than rise-time, which may be due to tidal deformations caused by the proximity of the stars in their orbits. We also identify a possible wind colliding binary (IRS 29N) based on its photometric variation over a few year time-scale which is likely due to episodic dust production. None of the 4 LBV candidates in our sample show the characteristic large increase or decrease in luminosity, however, our time baseline is too short to rule them out as LBVs. Among the remaining variable stars, the majority are early-type stars and three are possibly variable due to line of sight extinction variations. For the 7 OB stars at the center of our field of view that have well-determined 3-dimensional orbits, we see no evidence of flares or dimming of their light, which limits the possibility of a cold, geometrically-thin inactive accretion disk around the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*.
Observation of the Density Minimum in Deeply Supercooled Confined Water
Dazhi Liu; Yang Zhang; Chia-Cheng Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Peter H Poole; Sow-Hsin Chen
2007-04-17
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to measure the density of heavy water contained in 1-D cylindrical pores of mesoporous silica material MCM-41-S-15, with pores of diameter of 15+-1 A. In these pores the homogenous nucleation process of bulk water at 235 K does not occur and the liquid can be supercooled down to at least 160 K. The analysis of SANS data allows us to determine the absolute value of the density of D2O as a function of temperature. We observe a density minimum at 210+-5 K with a value of 1.041+-0.003 g/cm3. We show that the results are consistent with the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled bulk water. This is the first experimental report of the existence of the density minimum in supercooled water.
Dangerous implications of a minimum length in quantum gravity
Cosimo Bambi; Katherine Freese
2008-07-17
The existence of a minimum length and a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle seem to be two fundamental ingredients required in any consistent theory of quantum gravity. In this letter we show that they would predict dangerous processes which are phenomenologically unacceptable. For example, long--lived virtual super--Planck mass black holes may lead to rapid proton decay. Possible solutions of this puzzle are briefly discussed.
Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations
Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt
2014-06-07
A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.
NGC2613, 3198, 6503, 7184: Case studies against `maximum' disks
B. Fuchs
1998-12-02
Decompositions of the rotation curves of NGC2613, 3198, 6505, and 7184 are analysed. For these galaxies the radial velocity dispersions of the stars have been measured and their morphology is clearly discernible. If the parameters of the decompositions are chosen according to the `maximum' disk hypothesis, the Toomre Q stability parameter is systematically less than one and the multiplicities of the spiral arms as expected from density wave theory are inconsitent with the observed morphologies of the galaxies. The apparent Q<1 instability, in particular, is a strong argument against the `maximum' disk hypothesis.
Efficiency of autonomous soft nano-machines at maximum power
Udo Seifert
2010-11-11
We consider nano-sized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing non-equilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall in three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient", "strong and inefficient", and "balanced". For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.
Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability
Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover
2013-01-01
If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.
Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability
Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover
2013-01-01
If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.
Variable frequency photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin
2015-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.
Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J. R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J. A.
2011-05-01
Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences - the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environmental packages' apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.
VARIABILITY OF KD VALUES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS AND SEDIMENTS
Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.; Shine, E.
2012-02-02
Measured distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium K{sub d} values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F & H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of K{sub d} values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values based on measurements of K{sub d} values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual cementitious material K{sub d} values and solubility values differ from the sandy sediments. The K{sub d} value range and distribution currently used in the PA are estimated to range between 0.25*K{sub d} and 1.75*K{sub d}, where the minimum and maximum values of the ranges reflect the 95% confidence level for the mean K{sub d} value (Kaplan 2010). The objective of the research with cementitious materials was to measure the range and distribution of a monovalent (Cs) and I{sup -} (anion), divalent (Sr), and trivalent (Eu) ions for a variety of laboratory-prepared saltstone surrogate samples to establish a K{sub d} range other than that which is presently used in the PA. It has been observed in laboratory samples that cure temperature profiles can affect properties such as heat of hydration, permeability, porosity, compressive strength, and set time (Harbour et al. 2009). The intent was to identify a range and distribution that could be used by stochastic modelers for the PA. Furthermore, the intent was to replace the arbitrarily selected distributions based on geological sandy sediments and to base it on actual cementitious materials. The scope of this study did not include understanding saltstone sorption mechanisms responsible for increasing or decreasing sorption. Similar to the work with cementitious materials, the purpose of the Pu sediment K{sub d} dataset was not to attempt to understand through statistics how to better understand Pu sorption to sediments or to lower Pu K{sub d} variance. The sediment Pu K{sub d} data is included in this study because it is a key risk driver for the PAs on the SRS, and there is presently no direct studies of Pu variability in SRS soils. Instead the distribution of Pu sediment K{sub d} values was assumed to be similar to other cations, as presented by Kaplan (2010).
Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tatsuhiro
1999-07-01
The minimum wetting rate (MWR) was investigated experimentally with an isothermal water film flowing down on the outer surface of test pipes arranged vertically. A dry patch was generated by blowing a small air jet onto the film temporally, and observation was made to discriminate whether the dry patch was rewetted or not. The contact angle of the film at the top edge of the dry patch and the amplitude, length and velocity of large waves on the film were measured. The MWR decreased rapidly as the film flowed down and reached a nearly constant value at a position around 0.6 m down from the film inlet. There were large waves on the film. The tendency of the variation of MWR with the distance coincided well with the growth of the amplitude of large waves with the distance. The contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch varied periodically in a range synchronizing with the arrival of the waves. When the contact angle exceeded the maximum advancing contact angle, the rewetting of the dry patch was initiated. The existing correlations where the smooth surface film was assumed considerably over-predicted the MWR. The MWR was properly given by supposing that the dry patch is rewetted when the maximum of the fluctuating dynamic pressure of the film exceeds the upward component of the surface tension corresponding to the maximum advancing contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch.
Distributed Computation of Maximum Lifetime Spanning Subgraphs in Sensor Networks
Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 5400, FI-02015 TKK, Finland Harri.Haanpaa@tkk.fi, Andre levels to the battery-operated nodes so that under a uniform traffic load the net- work remains connected for a maximum length of time [2]. We consider the case where the nodes are non-mobile and the power levels, once
Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach
Di Girolami, Cristina
Maximization of Recursive Utilities: A Dynamic Maximum Principle Approach Wahid FAIDI LAMSIN, ENIT for a class of robust utility function introduced in Bordigoni, Matoussi et Schweizer (2005). Our method-investment strategy which is characterized as the unique solution of a forward-backward system. Key words : Utility
The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals
Brown, James H.
The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals Felisa A. Smith,1 * Alison G. Boyer,2 the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches extracted from the Paleobiology Database (12), using the range- through option for each interval of time. We
Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
to wavelet splatting, the main differences being that (i) linear summation of voxel values is replaced by maximum computation, and (ii) linear wavelet filters are replaced by (nonlinear) morphological filters. 1 on wavelets [4, 12, 18]. Recent methods for X-ray rendering include wavelet splatting [7, 8], which extends
Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
to wavelet splatting, the main differences being that (i) linear summation of voxel values is replaced by maximum computation, and (ii) linear wavelet filters are replaced by (nonlinear) morphological filters wavelet splatting [11,12], which extends splatting [27] by using wavelets as reconstruction filters
Maximum likelihood estimation of the equity Efstathios Avdis
Kahana, Michael J.
premium is usually estimated by taking the sample mean of stock returns and subtracting a measure the expected return on the aggregate stock market less the government bill rate, is of central importance an alternative esti- mator, based on maximum likelihood, that takes into account informa- tion contained
Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint
Greenberg, Albert
Renewable Energy Scheduling for Fading Channels with Maximum Power Constraint Zhe Wang Electrical--In this paper, we develop efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal energy schedule for fading channel with energy harvesting. We assume that the side information of both the channel states and energy harvesting
The Entropy of the Universe and the Maximum Entropy Production
Lineweaver, Charles H.
Chapter 22 The Entropy of the Universe and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle Charles H. Lineweaver Abstract If the universe had been born in a high entropy, equilibrium state, there would be no stars, no planets and no life. Thus, the initial low entropy of the universe is the fundamental reason
What is a Hurricane? Tropical system with maximum sustained
Meyers, Steven D.
Hurricane 101 #12;What is a Hurricane? · Tropical system with maximum sustained surface wind of 74 mph or greater. A hurricane is the worst and the strongest of all tropical systems. · Also known as a tropical cyclone. #12;Hurricanes in Florida · 1851-2004 Florida's Hurricane Total: 110 Southwest Florida
Minimum pressure envelope cavitation analysis using two-dimensional panel method
Peterson, Christopher J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2008-01-01
An analysis tool for calculating minimum pressure envelopes was developed using XFOIL. This thesis presents MATLAB® executables that interface with a modified version of XFOIL for determining the minimum pressure of a foil ...
Solar flux variability of Mars' exosphere densities and temperatures Jeffrey M. Forbes,1
Forbes, Jeffrey
Solar flux variability of Mars' exosphere densities and temperatures Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 Frank G, the response of Mars' exosphere to long-term solar change is established and compared to that of Earth conditions) change only 3650% as much as those at Earth as solar activity increases from solar minimum
Battisti, David
variability in the strength and structure of the wintertime [DecemberFebruary (DJF)] Pacific jet stream draw-core jet stream have weaker storminess than those with a weak-core jet stream. Contrary to expectations (Nakamura 1992). The minimum occurs despite the fact that regional temperature gradients and jet stream
Simulated PV Power Plant Variability: Impact of Utility-imposed Ramp Limitations in Puerto Rico
(Watts of installed capacity per m2 ), and (3) the daily cloud speed. The WVM uses t Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87123, USA Abstract -- The variability of solar PV power plants has led to some a 10% of capacity per minute limit on ramp rates produced by PV power plants in its minimum technical
Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants
Maziashvili, Michael
2013-03-01
We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.
Fermion Masses and Mixings from a Minimum Principle
Rodrigo Alonso
2014-05-22
We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $\\left[U(3)\\right]^5\\otimes {\\mathcal O}(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one mixing angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and one maximal relative Majorana phase. The scheme presented here could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay and cosmological measurements.
Do Frictions Matter in the Labor Market? Accessions, Separations, and Minimum Wage Effects
Dube, Arindrajit; Lester, T. William; Reich, Michael
2011-01-01
churn ing. B y altering the wage distribution, the minimum wage policy can affect equilibrium separation rates.
Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert Paul; Ross, Michael P.
2013-08-01
Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inches-typically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.
Minimum entropy production closure of the photo-hydrodynamic equations for radiative heat transfer
Thomas Christen; Frank Kassubek
2008-12-17
In the framework of a two-moment photo-hydrodynamic modelling of radiation transport, we introduce a concept for the determination of effective radiation transport coefficients based on the minimization of the local entropy production rate of radiation and matter. The method provides the nonequilibrium photon distribution from which the effective absorption coefficients and the variable Eddington factor (VEF) can be calculated. The photon distribution depends on the frequency dependence of the absorption coefficient, in contrast to the distribution obtained by methods based on entropy maximization. The calculated mean absorption coefficients are not only correct in the limit of optically thick and thin media, but even provide a reasonable interpolation in the cross-over regime between these limits, notably without introducing any fit parameter. The method is illustrated and discussed for grey matter and for a simple example of non-grey matter with a two-band absorption spectrum. The method is also briefly compared with the maximum entropy concept.
Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC
Jones, S.
2013-01-01
Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...
Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass
Alves, Alexandre; da Silva, Roberto
2014-01-01
A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.
Maximum Entropy Principle and the Higgs Boson Mass
Alexandre Alves; Alex G. Dias; Roberto da Silva
2014-11-18
A successful connection between Higgs boson decays and the Maximum Entropy Principle is presented. Based on the information theory inference approach we determine the Higgs boson mass as $M_H= 125.04\\pm 0.25$ GeV, a value fully compatible to the LHC measurement. This is straightforwardly obtained by taking the Higgs boson branching ratios as the target probability distributions of the inference, without any extra assumptions beyond the Standard Model. Yet, the principle can be a powerful tool in the construction of any model affecting the Higgs sector. We give, as an example, the case where the Higgs boson has an extra invisible decay channel. Our findings suggest that a system of Higgs bosons undergoing a collective decay to Standard Model particles is among the most fundamental ones where the Maximum Entropy Principle applies.
The Prediction of the Maximum Modes of Decay of Mesons
Ramanna, R
1999-01-01
In an earlier work, several properties of fundamental particles were brought together by a simple equation based on continuity and discreteness. It is shown here, that the maximum modes of decay of all fundamental particles can also be predicted without any arbitrary parameters. The method used is to break up the mean lifetimes of particles to obtain the maximum modes of decay. This is done by using a binary expansion of $\\hbar/MT$ where M is the mass of the particle and T is the mean lifetime. The agreements between that obtained from theory and experiment are remarkable. The ordering of the flavours plays an important part in understanding the reasons for this agreement. It is shown that the Zeno effect in Quantum mechanics is connected with use of the binary series.
The Prediction of the Maximum Modes of Decay of Mesons
Raja Ramanna
1999-04-27
In an earlier work, several properties of fundamental particles were brought together by a simple equation based on continuity and discreteness. It is shown here, that the maximum modes of decay of all fundamental particles can also be predicted without any arbitrary parameters. The method used is to break up the mean lifetimes of particles to obtain the maximum modes of decay. This is done by using a binary expansion of $\\hbar/MT$ where M is the mass of the particle and T is the mean lifetime. The agreements between that obtained from theory and experiment are remarkable. The ordering of the flavours plays an important part in understanding the reasons for this agreement. It is shown that the Zeno effect in Quantum mechanics is connected with use of the binary series.
Laminar-Turbulent Transition: Calculation of Minimum Critical Reynolds Number in Channel Flow
Laminar-Turbulent Transition: Calculation of Minimum Critical Reynolds Number in Channel Flow) for laminar-turbulent transition in pipe and channel flows. For pipe flow, the minimum critical Reynolds laminar to turbulent flow Rc2 Rc from turbulent to laminar flow Rc(min) minimum Rc Re Reynolds number = UH
Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels
Sayeed, Akbar M.
Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels Tzu-Han Chou the secret key capacity. We analyze the low-SNR regime to quantify the minimum energy per secret key bit of conventional channel capacity, there is a non-zero SNR that achieves the minimum energy per key bit. A time
Guidelines for Minimum Standards for Learning Management System (LMS) Unit Design
Tobar, Michael
Guidelines for Minimum Standards for Learning Management System (LMS) Unit Design Overview Ensuring a minimum standard for design of an LMS unit for teaching, learning and assessment purposes at UWA supports for their units. A demonstration minimum standards LMS unit is viewable at: http
Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings
Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings C. R. Sullivan J. D. Mc the IEEE. #12;Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings Charles R. Sullivan://engineering.dartmouth.edu/inductor Abstract--Litz-wire windings for gapped inductors are optimized for minimum cost within a loss constraint
Capacity Region, Minimum Energy and Delay for a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Chen, Yuanzhu Peter
Capacity Region, Minimum Energy and Delay for a Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Rahul Urgaonkar, Michael J in a mobile ad-hoc network: the capacity region and the minimum energy function of the network. The capacity limits of a mobile ad-hoc network are the capacity region and the minimum energy function of the network
Johansson, Karl Henrik
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2009 985 Minimum Energy for accurate comparison of minimum energy coding in Coded Division Mul- tiple Access (CDMA) Wireless Sensor efficient than ME only for short codewords. Index Terms--Wireless sensor network (WSNs), minimum energy
Sampling-Based Direct Trajectory Generation Using the Minimum Time Cost Function
Collins, Emmanuel
Sampling-Based Direct Trajectory Generation Using the Minimum Time Cost Function Oscar Chuy for computationally efficient, direct trajectory generation using sampling with the minimum time cost function, where" (i.e, a rigorous lower bound on the chosen cost) based on the solution of a minimum time control
Maximum entropy method for reconstruction of the CMB images
A. T. Bajkova
2002-05-21
We propose a new approach for the accurate reconstruction of cosmic microwave background distributions from observations containing in addition to the primary fluctuations the radiation from unresolved extragalactic point sources and pixel noise. The approach uses some effective realizations of the well-known maximum entropy method and principally takes into account {\\it a priori} information about finiteness and spherical symmetry of the power spectrum of the CMB satisfying the Gaussian statistics.
Max '91: flare research at the next solar maximum
Dennis, B.; Canfield, R.; Bruner, M.; Emslie, G.; Hildner, E.; Hudson, H.; Hurford, G.; Lin, R.; Novick, R.; Tarbell, T.
1988-01-01
To address the central scientific questions surrounding solar flares, coordinated observations of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles must be made from spacecraft, balloons, rockets, and ground-based observatories. A program to enhance capabilities in these areas in preparation for the next solar maximum in 1991 is recommended. The major scientific issues are described, and required observations and coordination of observations and analyses are detailed. A program plan and conceptual budgets are provided.
Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed
Choi, A.S.
1995-03-13
DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.
Maximum Entry and Mandatory Separation Ages for Certain Security Employees
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2001-10-11
The policy establishes the DOE policy on maximum entry and mandatory separation ages for primary or secondary positions covered under special statutory retirement provisions and for those employees whose primary duties are the protection of officials of the United States against threats to personal safety or the investigation, apprehension, and detention of individuals suspected or convicted of offenses against the criminal laws of the United States. Admin Chg 1, dated 12-1-11, supersedes DOE P 310.1.
Maximum patch method for directional dark matter detection
Henderson, Shawn; Monroe, Jocelyn; Fisher, Peter [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Nuclear Science, MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2008-07-01
Present and planned dark matter detection experiments search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoils in poorly known background conditions. In this environment, the maximum gap statistical method provides a way of setting more sensitive cross section upper limits by incorporating known signal information. We give a recipe for the numerical calculation of upper limits for planned directional dark matter detection experiments, that will measure both recoil energy and angle, based on the gaps between events in two-dimensional phase space.
PNNL: A Supervised Maximum Entropy Approach to Word Sense Disambiguation
Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Posse, Christian; Whitney, Paul D.
2007-06-23
In this paper, we described the PNNL Word Sense Disambiguation system as applied to the English All-Word task in Se-mEval 2007. We use a supervised learning approach, employing a large number of features and using Information Gain for dimension reduction. Our Maximum Entropy approach combined with a rich set of features produced results that are significantly better than baseline and are the highest F-score for the fined-grained English All-Words subtask.
Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)
2000-11-07
The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.
Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System
Pedram, Massoud
Maximum Power Transfer Tracking for a Photovoltaic-Supercapacitor Energy System Younghyun KimPconverter Ppv Pcharge Varying Pleak PV array Supercapacitor Figure 1: Photovoltaic-supercapacitor energy system Keywords Maximum power transfer tracking, Photovoltaic, Supercapacitor 1. INTRODUCTION Maximum energy
Anderson, Michael J.; Oliveros, Carl Hirang; Filardi, Christopher E.; Moyle, Robert G.
2013-01-01
We reconstructed the phylogeographic relationships of the Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Ceyx lepidus) using DNA sequence data. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis methods were used to reconstruct trees from a multilocus ...
The unusual photometric variability of the PMS star GM Cep
Semkov, E; Peneva, S; Milanov, T; Stoyanov, K; Stateva, I; Kjurkchieva, D; Dimitrov, D; Radeva, V
2015-01-01
Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period April 2011 - August 2014 are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (Delta V ~ 2.3 mag.) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolor photometric data shows the typical of UX Ori variables a color reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for th...
Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.
2012-07-01
This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?
Neutrino Mixing and Masses from a Minimum Principle
R. Alonso; M. B. Gavela; G. Isidori; L. Maiani
2013-10-24
We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $\\left[SU(3)\\right]^5\\otimes \\mathcal O(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one mixing angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and one maximal relative Majorana phase. Adding small perturbations the predicted structure for the neutrino mass matrix is in excellent agreement with present observations and could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay and cosmological measurements. The generalization of these results to arbitrary sew-saw models is also discussed.
Robust Branch-Cut-and-Price for the Capacitated Minimum ...
2006-05-20
independently noted that cuts expressed in terms of variables from a suitable original ... The In-Degree constraints (1b) state that exactly one arc must enter each ...... of promising sets S, and (ii) the search for violated cuts by considering the ...
Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.
1996-02-20
A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.
Foltyn, S.R.
1987-05-29
The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.
Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)
1996-01-01
A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.
Maximum likelihood method for cross-correlations with astrophysical sources
Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R, E-mail: rj486@nyu.edu, E-mail: gf25@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2008-06-15
We generalize the maximum likelihood-type method used to study cross-correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. The new method is applicable to any sparse dataset such as UHE gamma rays or astrophysical neutrinos. Performance of the original and generalized techniques is evaluated in simulations of various scenarios. Applying the new technique to data, we find an excess correlation of about nine events between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} probability of such a correlation arising by chance.
Generalized Maximum Likelihood Method for Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays
Glennys R. Farrar
2008-10-01
The Maximum Likelihood Method is generalized to include effects important for UHECR applications. The new approach can incorporate source distance constraints implied by the observed CR energy and can allow for energy uncertainties, possible deflection in magnetic fields, multiple source types, and a spectrum of CR composition. It can be efficiently implemented and does not require the unphysical "isotropic" assumption for unidentified sources. The approach optimizes the utility of UHECR data to discriminate between source classes and can help constrain galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. Aspects of the method are directly applicable in other contexts, such as TeV gamma ray astrophysics.
Maximum Likelihood Method for Cross Correlations with Astrophysical Sources
Ronnie Jansson; Glennys R. Farrar
2008-06-18
We generalize the Maximum Likelihood-type method used to study cross correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. The new method is applicable to any sparse data set such as UHE gamma rays or astrophysical neutrinos. Performance of the original and generalized techniques is evaluated in simulations of various scenarios. Applying the new technique to data, we find an excess correlation of about 9 events between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6*10^-5 probability of such a correlation arising by chance.
Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report
Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy
2009-01-01
stream_source_info TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6.4.07.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 344770 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6....4.07.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TR-341 2009 Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report By C. Allan Jones and Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources...
Maximum Tension: with and without a cosmological constant
Barrow, John D.; Gibbons, G. W.
2014-12-04
and the absence of any speed limit for information transmission. This unusual Newtonian behaviour has no general relativistic counterpart: two particles of mass M whose centres approach closer than d = 4GM=c2 will ?nd themselves inside a black hole horizon... , Ann. d Physik 11, 69 (1900); English translation in M. Planck, 1959, The Theory of Heat Radiation, transl. M. Masius, Dover, New York (1959). 11 Schiller C., 1997-2004, Maximum force a simple principle encompassing general relativity in C. Schiller...
Better Nonlinear Models from Noisy Data: Attractors with Maximum Likelihood
Patrick E. McSharry; Leonard A. Smith
1999-11-30
A new approach to nonlinear modelling is presented which, by incorporating the global behaviour of the model, lifts shortcomings of both least squares and total least squares parameter estimates. Although ubiquitous in practice, a least squares approach is fundamentally flawed in that it assumes independent, normally distributed (IND) forecast errors: nonlinear models will not yield IND errors even if the noise is IND. A new cost function is obtained via the maximum likelihood principle; superior results are illustrated both for small data sets and infinitely long data streams.
The Maximum Value Method. (Conference) | SciTech Connect
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe Maximum Value Method. Citation Details
Thermodynamics of Maximum Transition Entropy for Quantum Assemblies
David M. Rogers
2015-03-27
This work presents a general unifying theoretical framework for quantum non-equilibrium systems. It is based on a re-statement of the dynamical problem as one of inferring the distribution of collision events that move a system toward thermal equilibrium from an arbitrary starting distribution. Using a form based on maximum entropy for this transition distribution leads to a statistical description of open quantum systems with strong parallels to the conventional, maximum-entropy, equilibrium thermostatics. A precise form of the second law of thermodynamics can be stated for this dynamics at every time-point in a trajectory. Numerical results are presented for low-dimensional systems interacting with cavity fields. The dynamics and stationary state are compared to a reference model of a weakly coupled oscillator plus cavity supersystem thermostatted by periodic partial measurements. Despite the absence of an explicit cavity in the present model of open quantum dynamics, both the relaxation rates and stationary state properties closely match the reference. Additionally, the time-course of energy exchange and entropy increase is given throughout an entire measurement process for a single spin system. The results show the process to be capable of initially absorbing heat when starting from a superposition state, but not from an isotropic distribution. Based on these results, it is argued that logical inference in the presence of environmental noise is sufficient to resolve the paradox of wavefunction collapse.
Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2006-01-01
This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.
Improved Maximum Entropy Analysis with an Extended Search Space
Alexander Rothkopf
2013-01-07
The standard implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) follows Bryan and deploys a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to limit the dimensionality of the underlying solution space apriori. Here we present arguments based on the shape of the SVD basis functions and numerical evidence from a mock data analysis, which show that the correct Bayesian solution is not in general recovered with this approach. As a remedy we propose to extend the search basis systematically, which will eventually recover the full solution space and the correct solution. In order to adequately approach problems where an exponentially damped kernel is used, we provide an open-source implementation, using the C/C++ language that utilizes high precision arithmetic adjustable at run-time. The LBFGS algorithm is included in the code in order to attack problems without the need to resort to a particular search space restriction.
Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine
Hooyberghs, Hans; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Broeck, Christian Van den
2013-01-01
A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power $\\eta$ takes the form 1/2+c\\Delta \\mu + O(\\Delta \\mu^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and $\\Delta \\mu$ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in $\\eta$ is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model we obtain \\eta = 1/(\\theta +1), with \\theta >0 the power of $\\Delta \\mu$ in the transport equation
Fracture Toughness and Maximum Stress in a Disordered Lattice System
Chiyori Urabe; Shinji Takesue
2008-12-29
Fracture in a disordered lattice system is studied. In our system, particles are initially arranged on the triangular lattice and each nearest-neighbor pair is connected with a randomly chosen soft or hard Hookean spring. Every spring has the common threshold of stress at which it is cut. We make an initial crack and expand the system perpendicularly to the crack. We find that the maximum stress in the stress-strain curve is larger than those in the systems with soft or hard springs only (uniform systems). Energy required to advance fracture is also larger in some disordered systems, which indicates that the fracture toughness improves. The increase of the energy is caused by the following two factors. One is that the soft spring is able to hold larger energy than the hard one. The other is that the number of cut springs increases as the fracture surface becomes tortuous in disordered systems.
Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping
Hogden, John; Nix, David
2004-01-13
A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence of speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.
Vaquero, J M; Usoskin, I G; Carrasco, V M S; Gallego, M C
2015-01-01
The Maunder minimum (MM) of greatly reduced solar activity took place in 1645-1715, but the exact level of sunspot activity is uncertain as based, to a large extent, on historical generic statements of the absence of spots on the Sun. Here we aim, using a conservative approach, to assess the level and length of solar cycle during the Maunder minimum, on the basis of direct historical records by astronomers of that time. A database of the active and inactive days (days with and without recorded sunspots on the solar disc respectively) is constructed for three models of different levels of conservatism (loose ML, optimum MO and strict MS models) regarding generic no-spot records. We have used the active day fraction to estimate the group sunspot number during the MM. A clear cyclic variability is found throughout the MM with peaks at around 1655--1657, 1675, 1684 and 1705, and possibly 1666, with the active day fraction not exceeding 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 during the core MM, for the three models. Estimated sunspot nu...
Hernandez, E R; Soler, J M
2015-01-01
We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths~(MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable $t \\in [0,1]$ that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the Nudged Elastic Band or String methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to $t$, {\\em i.e.\\/} the state {\\em accelerations\\/}. We show this to result in a very transparent and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method in a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in $\\mbox{C}_{60}$.
The Process of Fixing the British National Minimum Wage, 1997-2007
Brown, William
Minimum Wage, 1997-2007 William Brown Abstract The British National Minimum Wage was introduced in 1999 under the guidance of a Low Pay Commission constructed on a basis of ‘social partnership’. The paper analyses its conduct over its first... in The British Journal of Industrial Relations during 2009 All enquiries to William Brown, (william.brown@econ.cam.ac.uk), Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University 2 The Process of Fixing the British National Minimum Wage, 1997...
Transmission resonance spectroscopy in the third minimum of 232Pa
L. Csige; M. Csatlos; T. Faestermann; J. Gulyas; D. Habs; R. Hertenberger; M. Hunyadi; A. Krasznahorkay; H. J. Maier; P. G. Thirolf; H. -F. Wirth
2012-04-04
The fission probability of 232Pa was measured as a function of the excitation energy in order to search for hyperdeformed (HD) transmission resonances using the (d,pf) transfer reaction on a radioactive 231Pa target. The experiment was performed at the Tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory (MLL) at Garching using the 231Pa(d,pf) reaction at a bombarding energy of E=12 MeV and with an energy resolution of dE=5.5 keV. Two groups of transmission resonances have been observed at excitation energies of E=5.7 and 5.9 MeV. The fine structure of the resonance group at E=5.7 MeV could be interpreted as overlapping rotational bands with a rotational parameter characteristic to a HD nuclear shape. The fission barrier parameters of 232Pa have been determined by fitting TALYS 1.2 nuclear reaction code calculations to the overall structure of the fission probability. From the average level spacing of the J=4 states, the excitation energy of the ground state of the 3rd minimum has been deduced to be E(III)=5.05 MeV.
Michalek, Jeremy J.
for Minimum Greenhouse Gas Emissions Submitted for Presentation at the 2011 Annual Meeting to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from personal transportation by shifting energy demand from
IDAPA 37.03.03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction...
03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction and Use of Injection Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...
Minimum Energy per Bit for Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Common Message and Cooperating
Verdú, Sergio
by the Office of Naval Research under contract numbers W911NF-07-1-0185 and N00014-07-1-0555. The minimum energy
Determination of the minimum reflux for conventional columns
Anthony, Rayford G
1962-01-01
in functional nota- tion to give c P (y) = T Bi i=1 I - 'l(K -I) si (27) where, X = (b )co/B. y=V /B. s The graph of this function is similar to that shown for P (y). r The maximum value of 'f is given by 1 max. K (28) It is necessary...- I r (30a) (3 Ob) Vf = Lf + D Vf ~ Lf I -B (30c) (30d) V ~L -B f+I & I & s+I (note: L ~L ) s-1 s (30e) Intercoolers (or heaters) were placed on a plate j if the value of L calculated on the basis of adiabatic operation of plate j differed...
) and Yves duPenhoat (1) (1) LEGOS/IRD - Toulouse, (2) CEAZA, Coquimbo, Chile, (3) LOCEAN/IRD-Paris (4) DGEO the energy is transmitted both from the open boundaries along the coast and to the inner basin and from variability display peaks in the inner basin between 33°S and 15°S and a minimum in a `shadow zone' just off
Maximum Entropy Analysis of the Spectral Functions in Lattice QCD
M. Asakawa; T. Hatsuda; Y. Nakahara
2001-02-26
First principle calculation of the QCD spectral functions (SPFs) based on the lattice QCD simulations is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the Bayesian inference theory and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM), which is a useful tool to extract SPFs from the imaginary-time correlation functions numerically obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Three important aspects of MEM are (i) it does not require a priori assumptions or parametrizations of SPFs, (ii) for given data, a unique solution is obtained if it exists, and (iii) the statistical significance of the solution can be quantitatively analyzed. The ability of MEM is explicitly demonstrated by using mock data as well as lattice QCD data. When applied to lattice data, MEM correctly reproduces the low-energy resonances and shows the existence of high-energy continuum in hadronic correlation functions. This opens up various possibilities for studying hadronic properties in QCD beyond the conventional way of analyzing the lattice data. Future problems to be studied by MEM in lattice QCD are also summarized.
Improved Maximum Entropy Method with an Extended Search Space
Alexander Rothkopf
2012-08-25
We report on an improvement to the implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). It amounts to departing from the search space obtained through a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Kernel. Based on the shape of the SVD basis functions we argue that the MEM spectrum for given $N_\\tau$ data-points $D(\\tau)$ and prior information $m(\\omega)$ does not in general lie in this $N_\\tau$ dimensional singular subspace. Systematically extending the search basis will eventually recover the full search space and the correct extremum. We illustrate this idea through a mock data analysis inspired by actual lattice spectra, to show where our improvement becomes essential for the success of the MEM. To remedy the shortcomings of Bryan's SVD prescription we propose to use the real Fourier basis, which consists of trigonometric functions. Not only does our approach lead to more stable numerical behavior, as the SVD is not required for the determination of the basis functions, but also the resolution of the MEM becomes independent from the position of the reconstructed peaks.
The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML)
Vianello, Giacomo; Younk, Patrick; Tibaldo, Luigi; Burgess, James M; Ayala, Hugo; Harding, Patrick; Hui, Michelle; Omodei, Nicola; Zhou, Hao
2015-01-01
Astrophysical sources are now observed by many different instruments at different wavelengths, from radio to high-energy gamma-rays, with an unprecedented quality. Putting all these data together to form a coherent view, however, is a very difficult task. Each instrument has its own data format, software and analysis procedure, which are difficult to combine. It is for example very challenging to perform a broadband fit of the energy spectrum of the source. The Multi-Mission Maximum Likelihood framework (3ML) aims to solve this issue, providing a common framework which allows for a coherent modeling of sources using all the available data, independent of their origin. At the same time, thanks to its architecture based on plug-ins, 3ML uses the existing official software of each instrument for the corresponding data in a way which is transparent to the user. 3ML is based on the likelihood formalism, in which a model summarizing our knowledge about a particular region of the sky is convolved with the instrument...
Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares
Alessandra Corsi; Benjamin J. Owen
2011-02-16
Recent searches of gravitational-wave (GW) data raise the question of what maximum GW energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (\\sim 10^{49} erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001)] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10^{48}-10^{49} erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.
Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage
Li, Baochun
Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage Jun Li, Baochun--Distributed storage systems store redundant data to tolerate failures of storage nodes and lost data should be repaired when storage nodes fail. A class of MDS codes, called minimum- storage regenerating (MSR) codes
Minimum Duration Outages in Rayleigh Fading Channels Jie Lai and Narayan B. Mandayam
Mandayam, Narayan
Minimum Duration Outages in Rayleigh Fading Channels Jie Lai and Narayan B. Mandayam WINLAB@winlab.rutgers.edu Abstract Minimum duration outages have been introduced in [1, 2] for lognormal shadow fading where the durations of signal fades were considered in evaluating outages. In this pa per we develop and analyze
A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy
Unger, Ron
in a simple model of protein folding. Results: Three possible evolutionary processes are explored. First can be achieved. The assumption that proteins fold to a conformation which is in the global minimum sequences that can find the global minimum [5]. In computer science terms this means that `protein folding
Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution , T. Turunen1
Ulich, Thomas
Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution Th.Ulich1 , T. Turunen1 , E modes of typically one sounding per 15 minutes. Due to the ever-decreasing costs of digital storage deep solar activity minimum provided us with the very rare opportunity to observe the ionosphere in its
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing
Li, Zongpeng
. Index Terms-- Communication/Networking, Multicast, Graph Algorithms. I. INTRODUCTION THE classic min-costIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing point incurring minimum total edge cost, through appropriate cost allocation and other economic measures
Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games on Rooted
RIMS-1674 Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games Allocation Games on Rooted Trees Kazutoshi Ando and Shinji Kato June 2009 Abstract A minimum cost spanning tree game is called ultrametric if the cost function on the edges of the underlying network
Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games on Rooted
RIMS1674 Reduction of Ultrametric Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games to Cost Allocation Games Allocation Games on Rooted Trees Kazutoshi Ando # and Shinji Kato + June 2009 Abstract A minimum cost spanning tree game is called ultrametric if the cost function on the edges of the underlying network
Dynamic On-the-Fly Minimum Cost Benchmarking for Storing Generated Scientific
Yang, Yun
IEEEProof Dynamic On-the-Fly Minimum Cost Benchmarking for Storing Generated Scientific Datasets some generated datasets to save the storage cost but more computation cost is incurred for regeneration with efficient algorithms for dynamic yet practical on-the-fly minimum cost benchmarking of storing generated
ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The absolute theoretical minimum energies to produce liquid steel from idealized scrap (100% Fe) and ore (100% Fe2O3) are much lower than consumed in practice, as are the theoretical minimum energies to roll the steel into its final shape.
Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths
Skeel, Robert
Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths corrected.S.A. Abstract The calculation of a minimum free energy path can be considered as a two-point boundary value box solvers. The second paragraph of Section 1 is corrected. Because free energy is defined in terms
MATH MINOR REQUIREMENTS Minimum units required: 18 (2012-2014 catalogs)
Fatkullin, Ibrahim
MATH MINOR REQUIREMENTS Minimum units required: 18 (2012-2014 catalogs) (at least 3 units must be completed at UA) Minimum minor GPA: 2.00 Course Work Requirements: · Complete both: o MATH 122A/B or 125: Calculus I o MATH 129: Calculus II · Choose two courses from: o MATH 313: Introduction to Linear Algebra
2011-07 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
7 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU Shipments" 2011-07 "Maximum Utilization of WIPP by Increasing MDA G TRU Shipments" The intent of this recommendation is to...
Laboratory-Based Maximum Slip Rates in Earthquake Rupture Zones and Radiated Energy
New Hampshire, University of
Laboratory-Based Maximum Slip Rates in Earthquake Rupture Zones and Radiated Energy by A. McGarr, J. B. Fletcher, M. Boettcher, N. Beeler, and J. Boatwright Abstract Laboratory stick-slip friction and the maximum slip rate. From laboratory results, the maximum slip rate for any crustal earthquake, as well
IRC-10443: a multi-periodic SRa variable and the nature of long secondary periods in AGB stars
U. Munari; A. Siviero; P. Ochner; S. Dallaporta; C. Simoncelli
2008-10-08
We obtained BVIc photometry of IRC-10443 on 85 different nights distributed over two years, and in addition low resolution absolute spectro- photometry and high resolution Echelle spectroscopy. Our data show that IRC-10443, which was never studied before in any detail, is a SRa variable, characterized by Delta(B)=1.27, Delta(V)=1.14 and Delta(I)=0.70 mag amplitudes and mean values =13.75, =11.33 and =6.18 mag. Two strong periodicities are simultaneously present: a principal one of 85.5 (+/-0.2) days, and a secondary one of 620 (+/-15) days, both sinusoidal in shape, and with semi-amplitudes Delta(V)=0.41 and 0.20 mag, respectively. IRC-10443 turns out to be a M7III star, with a mean heliocentric radial velocity -28 km/s and reddened by E(B-V)=0.87, a third of which of circumstellar origin. The same 0.5 kpc distance is derived from application of the appropriate period-luminosity relations to both the principal and the secondary periods. The long secondary period causes a sinusoidal variation in color of 0.13 mag semi-amplitude in V-Ic, with IRC-10443 being bluest at maximum and reddest at minimum, and with associated changes in effective temperature and radius of 85 K and 6%, respectively. This behavior of colors argues in favor of a pulsation nature for the still mysterious long secondary periods in AGB stars.
A simple hidden variable experiment
Arnold Neumaier
2007-06-22
An experiment is described which proves, using single photons only, that the standard hidden variables assumptions (commonly used to derive Bell inequalities) are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. The analysis is very simple and transparent. In particular, it demonstrates that a classical wave model for quantum mechanics is not ruled out by experiments demonstrating the violation of the traditional hidden variable assumptions.
Control-Oriented Model of a Dual Equal Variable Cam Timing Spark Ignition Engine
Grizzle, Jessy W.
Control-Oriented Model of a Dual Equal Variable Cam Timing Spark Ignition Engine A. G of min- imizing exhaust emissions, providing increased fuel economy and satisfying driver perfor- mance that provides a tradeo among idle stability, fuel economy, and maximum torque performance. There are also
Design of a variable reluctance asymmetric stepping millimotor
GARCIA,ERNEST J.; GREENWOOD,WILLIAM H.; OLIVER,ANDREW D.
2000-06-01
This paper reports on the design, simulation, and preliminary testing of a three phase variable reluctance stepping motor. This motor is pancake-shaped with an overall outside diameter of 8 mm and a height of 3 mm. The outside diameter of the rotor is 4.7 mm. The rotor and stators occupy 2 mm of the height with the remaining 1 mm reserved for a 6:1 planetary gear reductor. The rotor and stators were constructed of Hyperco 50 using conventional miniature machining. The reductor was assembled using copper and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) components that were constructed using the LIGA (Lithographic Galvanoformung Abformung) microfabrication process. The maximum measured stall torque of the motor without the reductor is 0.47mNm at 4W and the maximum speed is 2,400 rpm.
Global Optimization via Slack Variables [rev. 3].
Isaac Siwale
2015-03-05
?, the following relations are true at all points where there is an inflection or minimum point of f (?): ...... NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates
Moodie, Myron L.
1995-01-01
Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...
A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen
Stanford University
A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer Graphics Lab, Stanford University {jedavis, xcchen}@graphics.stanford.edu Abstract Laser range scanners reduce the costs associated with calibration. 1 Introduction Laser triangulation scanners
Distinguishing mixed quantum states: Minimum-error discrimination versus optimum unambiguous discrimination Ulrike Herzog1, * and János A. Bergou2 1 Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2004) We consider two different optimized measurement strategies for the discrimination
Hallam, Steven
2011-04-26
Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting
Fast Algorithms for Regularized Minimum Norm Solutions to Inverse Problems Irina F. Gorodnitsky
Gorodnitsky, Irina
Fast Algorithms for Regularized Minimum Norm Solutions to Inverse Problems Irina F. Gorodnitsky- tional algorithms for solving regularized inverse problems. The computationaladvantages are obtained. The algorithms imple- ment two common regularizationprocedures, Tikhonov reg- ularization and Truncated Singular
Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Feb 4, 2014 ... Minimum Cost Path Problem for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Okan Arslan ( okan.arslan ***at*** bilkent.edu.tr) Baris Yildiz (baris.yildiz ...
Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 2. Three-Product Petlyuk Arrangements
Skogestad, Sigurd
of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway We show that the minimum energy requirement algebraic procedure, via expressions for pinch zone compositions at the connection points as functions
Shape-Memory Transformations of NiTi: Minimum-Energy Pathways...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 24, 2015 Title: Shape-Memory Transformations of NiTi: Minimum-Energy Pathways between Austenite,...
r-shrink: A Heuristic for Improving Minimum Power Broadcast Trees in Wireless Networks
Arabshahi, Payman
network with an identified source node, the minimum power broad- cast (MPB) problem in wireless networks to better accommodate the nodes, which have been disconnected from the tree as a result of the shrinkage
Energy Conservation and the Environment - Designing for Cost Savings and Minimum Emissions
Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.; Nagy, J. F.
1984-01-01
AND THE ENVIRONMENT DESIGNING FOR COST SAVINGS AND MINIMUM EMISSIONS Daniel H. Johnnie, Jr. H. J. Klooster John F. Nagy Fluor Engineers, Inc. Advanced Tec'hnology Division Irvine, California ABSTRACT Upgrading existing facilities for is offering technical...
Modifed Minimum Classification Error Learning and Its Application to Neural Networks
Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Rokui, Jun; Nakai, Mitsuru
A novel method to improve the generalization performance of the Minimum Classification Error (MCE) / Generalized Probabilistic Descent (GPD) learning is proposed. The MCE/GPD learning proposed by Juang and Katagiri in 1992 ...
Chahar, B. R.
OF MINIMUM COST IRRIGATION CANAL SECTIONS By Prabhata K. Swamee,1 Govinda C. Mishra,2 and Bhagu R. Chahar3
Introducing Minimum Fisher Regularisation Tomography to Bolometric and Soft X-ray Diagnostic Systems of the COMPASS Tokamak
Maximum Likelihood Signal Extraction Method Applied to 3.4 years of CoGeNT Data
C. E. Aalseth; P. S. Barbeau; J. Diaz Leon; J. E. Fast; T. W. Hossbach; A. Knecht; M. S. Kos; M. G. Marino; H. S. Miley; M. L. Miller; J. L. Orrell
2015-02-05
CoGeNT has taken data for over 3 years, with 1136 live days of data accumulated as of April 23, 2013. We report on the results of a maximum likelihood analysis to extract any possible dark matter signal present in the collected data. The maximum likelihood signal extraction uses 2-dimensional probability density functions (PDFs) to characterize the anticipated variations in dark matter interaction rates for given observable nuclear recoil energies during differing periods of the Earth's annual orbit around the Sun. Cosmogenic and primordial radioactivity backgrounds are characterized by their energy signatures and in some cases decay half-lives. A third parameterizing variable -- pulse rise-time -- is added to the likelihood analysis to characterize slow rising pulses described in prior analyses. The contribution to each event category is analyzed for various dark matter signal hypotheses including a dark matter standard halo model and a case with free oscillation parameters (i.e., amplitude, period, and phase). The best-fit dark matter signal is in close proximity to previously reported results. We find that the significance of the extracted dark matter signal remains well below evidentiary at 1.7 $\\sigma$.
A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes
Sonnier, Ronald James
1973-01-01
A STUDY OF THE MINIMUM MENISCUS RADIUS AS A FUNCTION OF VAPOR TEMPERATURE USING HEAT PIPES A Thesis by RONALD JAMES SONNIER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A STUDY OF THE MINIMUM MENISCUS RADIUS AS A FUNCTION OF VAPOR TEMPERATURE USING HEAT PIPES A Thesis by RONALD JAMES SONNIER Approved as to style and content by: Chairman C ittee...
Anyonic statistics with continuous variables
Jing Zhang; Changde Xie; Kunchi Peng; Peter van Loock
2008-10-30
We describe a continuous-variable scheme for simulating the Kitaev lattice model and for detecting statistics of abelian anyons. The corresponding quantum optical implementation is solely based upon Gaussian resource states and Gaussian operations, hence allowing for a highly efficient creation, manipulation, and detection of anyons. This approach extends our understanding of the control and application of anyons and it leads to the possibility for experimental proof-of-principle demonstrations of anyonic statistics using continuous-variable systems.
Maximum allowable hydraulic ram force for heel jet removal Tank 241-C-106
PAULSEN, S.S.
2003-01-10
This document contains an evaluation of the maximum force that can be used to actuate the hydraulic ram assembly without causing permanent damage to the riser or pit.
Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with `tail' constraint
Bercher, Jean-François
Tsallis distribution as a standard maximum entropy solution with `tail' constraint J.-F. Bercher 1 that Tsallis' distributions can be derived from the standard (Shannon) maximum entropy setting, by incorporating a con- straint on the divergence between the distribution and another distribution imagined as its
MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS
Stefanopoulou, Anna
MAXIMUM POWER ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES ACCOUNTING FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSTRAINTS on the maximum deliverable power is essential to protect lithium-ion batteries from over- charge Terminal voltage Voc Open circuit voltage of a battery 1 INTRODUCTION Lithium-ion batteries have been used
Maximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones
Pedram, Massoud
Maximum Power Transfer Tracking in a Solar USB Charger for Smartphones Abstract--Battery life of commercial chargers using solar power have been developed. They focus on correct functionality, but system chargers do not perform the maximum power point tracking [2], [3] of the solar panel. We exclude
Maximum Weight Matching Dispatching Scheme in Buffered Clos-Network Packet Switches
Chao, Jonathan
Maximum Weight Matching Dispatching Scheme in Buffered Clos-Network Packet Switches Roberto Rojas of Clos-network switches make them an alternative to single-stages switches for implementing large- size packet switches. This paper introduces a cell dispatching scheme, called maximum weight matching
Analysis and Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of
Odam, Kofi
characteristic. This perturbation reduces the power obtained from the solar panel because the panel is no longerAnalysis and Optimization of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic systems. Noise is an essential
Jones, Dylan
Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting
Variable focal length deformable mirror
Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-06-12
A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.
Tadi?, Vladislav B
2009-01-01
This paper considers the asymptotic properties of the recursive maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models. The paper is focused on the asymptotic behavior of the log-likelihood function and on the point-convergence and convergence rate of the recursive maximum likelihood estimator. Using the principle of analytical continuation, the analyticity of the asymptotic log-likelihood function is shown for analytically parameterized hidden Markov models. Relying on this fact and some results from differential geometry (Lojasiewicz inequality), the almost sure point-convergence of the recursive maximum likelihood algorithm is demonstrated, and relatively tight bounds on the convergence rate are derived. As opposed to the existing result on the asymptotic behavior of maximum likelihood estimation in hidden Markov models, the results of this paper are obtained without assuming that the log-likelihood function has an isolated maximum at which the Hessian is strictly negative definite.
A review of Hurricane Variability
Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"
A review of Hurricane Variability Balu Nadiga, COSIM, LANL, Jun 2006 #12;#12;Key Sources · Kerry Emanuel · Webster 2005 · Elsner 1996 · NASA, NOAA, NCAR · Others #12;Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical (because rotation important) #12;Hurricanes: A few Comments · Acts as a heat engine, but with crucial fluid
Phenotypic variability: underlying mechanisms and
Mencuccini, Maurizio
constraints on growth allocation between tree parts, which affects both primary production (through allocation to transpiring foliage) and net ecosystem production (through allocation to short- lived, easily decomposed fine is reflected in the huge variability in tree form and function across scales. It has been suggested
Operating Reserves and Variable Generation
Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.
2011-08-01
This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.
The maximum efficiency of nano heat engines depends on more than temperature
Mischa P. Woods; Nelly Ng; Stephanie Wehner
2015-06-07
Sadi Carnot's theorem regarding the maximum efficiency of heat engines is considered to be of fundamental importance in the theory of heat engines and thermodynamics. Here, we show that at the nano and quantum scale, this law needs to be revised in the sense that more information about the bath other than its temperature is required to decide whether maximum efficiency can be achieved. In particular, we derive new fundamental limitations of the efficiency of heat engines at the nano and quantum scale that show that the Carnot efficiency can only be achieved under special circumstances, and we derive a new maximum efficiency for others.
Bahrami, Majid
7-61 7-135 A Carnot refrigeration cycle is executed in a closed system with a fixed mass of R-134aJ/kg (Table A-12). Analysis The coefficient of performance of the cycle is T v 20q 4 3 1 2 QH QL -8qC and #12
Optimal Control Theory for Continuous Variable Quantum Gates
Rebing Wu; Raj Chakrabarti; Herschel Rabitz
2007-08-16
We apply the methodology of optimal control theory to the problem of implementing quantum gates in continuous variable systems with quadratic Hamiltonians. We demonstrate that it is possible to define a fidelity measure for continuous variable (CV) gate optimization that is devoid of traps, such that the search for optimal control fields using local algorithms will not be hindered. The optimal control of several quantum computing gates, as well as that of algorithms composed of these primitives, is investigated using several typical physical models and compared for discrete and continuous quantum systems. Numerical simulations indicate that the optimization of generic CV quantum gates is inherently more expensive than that of generic discrete variable quantum gates, and that the exact-time controllability of CV systems plays an important role in determining the maximum achievable gate fidelity. The resulting optimal control fields typically display more complicated Fourier spectra that suggest a richer variety of possible control mechanisms. Moreover, the ability to control interactions between qunits is important for delimiting the total control fluence. The comparative ability of current experimental protocols to implement such time-dependent controls may help determine which physical incarnations of CV quantum information processing will be the easiest to implement with optimal fidelity.
CLIMATICALLY-ACTIVE GASES IN THE EASTERN BOUNDARY UPWELLING AND OXYGEN MINIMUM ZONE (OMZ) SYSTEMS
Garbe, Christoph S.
. In this contribution we introduce Index Terms-- Air-Sea Interactions, Fluxes, Green House Gases, Satellite Retrieval) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, notably with respect (Oxygen Minimum Zone) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean
Minimum Movement Matters: Impact of Robot-Mounted Cameras on Social Telepresence
Nakanishi, Hideyuki
Minimum Movement Matters: Impact of Robot-Mounted Cameras on Social Telepresence Hideyuki Nakanishi-backward movement of the camera significantly contributed to social telepresence, while rotation did not. We also commercially available. This paper shows that movement of these robots enhances distant people's presence
Buffer Sizing for Minimum Energy-Delay Product by Using an Approximating Polynomial
Pedram, Massoud
Buffer Sizing for Minimum Energy-Delay Product by Using an Approximating Polynomial Chang Woo Kang to derive sizing rules for buffered chains, which optimize the overall energy-delay product. Categories result in a poor solution in terms of the energy-delay product. The focus of this work is on multi
A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale
Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)
2010-01-01
We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Urban Geography GEO-SCI 372 Urban Issues GEO-SCI 380 Political Geography GEO-SCI 420 Political Ecology Environmental Policy REGIONPL 558 Issues in Environmental Mgt RESECON 471Benefit-Cost Analysis RESECON 472Requirements for the MINOR in Environmental Science Five courses required. Total credits = minimum
Nonparametric Assessment of Contamination in Multivariate Data Using Minimum Volume Sets and FDR
Scott, Clayton
Nonparametric Assessment of Contamination in Multivariate Data Using Minimum Volume Sets and FDR `contaminated' instances. However, often the nature of even the nominal patterns in the data are unknown with false discovery rate prin- ciples, in the context of contaminated data, is new. Moreover, estimation
Lockwood, Mike
as the Maunder Minimum (MM). This raises questions about the persistence and predictability of solar activity. We study the autocorrelation functions and predictability R2 L(t) of solar indices, particularly group prediction by Svalgaard et al. [2005] from the solar polar fields but is significantly lower than NOAA's most
eVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, to pedestrians has become an important issue for public policy [1], car a localization paradigm to test the detectability of hybrid and internal combustion cars by measuring listenereVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars. Ryan
Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics
Bettencourt, João H; García, Emilio Hernández; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique
2015-01-01
Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...
Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization
Fazel, Maryam
Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization Benjamin theory and practice. A recent heuristic introduced in [9] minimizes the nuclear norm over the affine subset. For an m × n matrix X, the nuclear norm is equal to the sum of the singular values of X X := r i
Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc
Khan, Maleq
1 Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks and energy efficient for being practical. Motivated by these considerations, we study the performance of a class of simple and local algorithms called Nearest Neighbor Tree (NNT) algorithms for energy
A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICE EXPERIMENT
Morselli, Aldo
OG 5.2.1 A MEASUREMENT OF THE PROTON SPECTRUM AT 1 AU NEAR SOLAR MINIMUM WITH THE CAPRICELaboratori Nazionali INFN, Frascati, Italy 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA 6New Mexico the production and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays, as well as the solar modulation effect
MINIMUM COST STRATEGIES FOR SEQUESTERING CARBON IN FORESTS Darius M. Adams
McCarl, Bruce A.
MINIMUM COST STRATEGIES FOR SEQUESTERING CARBON IN FORESTS Darius M. Adams Ralph J. Alig Bruce A the costs of meeting explicit targets for increments of carbon sequestered in forests when both forest management decisions and the area of forests can be varied. Costs are estimated as welfare losses in markets
Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5
Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5 Kenneth W. Chase Department of Mechanical-all cost of production, while meeting target levels for quality. Using allocation tools, a designer may re and loosening tolerances on costly processes, for a net reduction in cost. Several algorithms are described
Minimum Energy Source Coding for Asymmetric Modulation with Application to RFID
Roy, Sumit
, Minimum En- ergy, Source Coding, Energy Harvesting, EPC Global. I. INTRODUCTION Energy constrained consumption and extend operation lifetime. Such energy effi- ciency may be obtained at multiple levels - from coding, but with a focus on energy consumption. For example, channel coding schemes Contact Author
A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding
Weston, Ken
A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding Huan-Xiang Zhoua; published online 20 May 2008 Master equations are widely used for modeling protein folding. Here- ceptual and quantitative models for protein folding.115 In such models, the conformational space
Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints
Kolodny, Avinoam
Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints Yoni in a fast circuit by the same factor does not yield an energy-efficient design, and we characterize efficient. A design implementation is considered to be energy efficient when it has the highest performance
Approximating the minimum clique cover and other hard problems in subtree filament graphs
Stewart, Lorna
Approximating the minimum clique cover and other hard problems in subtree filament graphs J. Mark Keil Lorna Stewart March 20, 2006 Abstract Subtree filament graphs are the intersection graphs of subtree filaments in a tree. This class of graphs contains subtree overlap graphs, interval filament
Design methodology for tracking certain and uncertain non-minimum phase systems
DeVoucalla, George David
1997-01-01
A design methodology is developed for obtaining tracking controllers for non-minimum phase systems. The discussion centers around a solution for the error equation E(s) = [1- H(s)] Yd(S)'Tracking error is eliminated by making [1-H(s)] orthogonal...
SOHO-23: Understanding a Peculiar Solar Minimum ASP Conference Series, Vol. 428, c 2010
California at Berkeley, University of
. Cranmer, J. Todd Hoeksema, and John L. Kohl, eds. The Solar Microwave Flux and the Sunspot Number L, it has been showing unusual behavior in the Cycle 23/24 minimum. The origins of the solar microwave flux), straddling the F10.7 frequency (2.8 GHz) and encompassing the gyroresonance signature in the solar microwave
Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies
Vallis, Geoff
Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies and analogs of the midlatitude eddy-driven jet and the subtropical jet is investigated in a barotropic b-plane model. In the model the subtropical jet is generated by a relaxation process and the eddy-driven jet
Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required)
Belogay, Eugene A.
Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required) The Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Geology (Earth Science) is designed for students planning professional 2053 & 2048L 5 College Algebra MAC 1105 3 Introductory Statistics STA 2023 3 Total 19 Geology (Earth
ASHRAE Minimum Efficiency Requirements Tables for Heating and Cooling Product Categories
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created tables that mirror American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2013 tables, which include minimum efficiency requirements for FEMP-designated and ENERGY STAR-qualified heating and cooling product categories. Download the tables below to incorporate FEMP and ENERGY STAR purchasing requirements into federal product acquisition documents.
MA 222 - Exam 3 Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum ...
2012-12-04
Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum): Section. 031. 061. # Entered. 30. 29. Average. 64.46 60.55. Max. 94. 91. Min. 39. 21. Standard Deviation 15.3.
MA 222 - Exam 1 Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum ...
2012-09-26
Statistics (scores are out of 100 points maximum): Section. 031. 061. # Entered. 30. 34. Average. 64.47 66.74. Max. 99. 94. Min. 18. 14. Standard Deviation 19.65
Microcontroller Servomotor for Maximum Effective Power Point for Solar Cell System
Al-Khalidy, M.; Al-Rawi, O.; Noaman, N.
2010-01-01
In this paper a Maximum Power point (MPP) tracking algorithm is developed using dual-axis servomotor feedback tracking control system. An efficient and accurate servomotor system is used to increase the system efficiency ...
Computation of the maximum loadability of a power system using nonlinear optimization
Khabirov, Abdufarrukh
2001-01-01
In recent years, power systems have undergone radical changes by becoming deregulated. Many electric companies have met new requirements and found ways to keep up with the changes in power systems. Issues of transfer capability and maximum...
Submodule Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications
Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.
This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use of submodule integrated maximum power point trackers (MPPT). We propose a system architecture that provides ...
Atlantic Ocean circulation at the last glacial maximum : inferences from data and models
Dail, Holly Janine
2012-01-01
This thesis focuses on ocean circulation and atmospheric forcing in the Atlantic Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18-21 thousand years before present). Relative to the pre-industrial climate, LGM atmospheric CO? ...
Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity
Weber, Cornelius
Maximum a Posteriori Models for Cortical Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity Modeling: Feature Detectors, Topography and Modularity PhD Thesis by Cornelius Weber, Berlin, July 31, 2000
Models for estimating saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections
Nanduri, Sreelata
1995-01-01
This thesis describes models for saturation flow and maximum demand at closely spaced intersections. The effects of queue interaction between these two intersections are taken into account in both models. The saturation flow model is based...
Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane
Gülder, Ömer L.
Author's personal copy Unified behaviour of maximum soot yields of methane, ethane and propane the current study and the previous measurements in similar flames with methane, ethane, and propane flames
Rossi, Ryan A; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Patwary, Md Mostofa Ali
2012-01-01
Exact maximum clique finders have progressed to the point where we can investigate cliques in million-node social and information networks, as well as find strongly connected components in temporal networks. We use one such finder to study a large collection of modern networks emanating from biological, social, and technological domains. We show inter-relationships between maximum cliques and several other common network properties, including network density, maximum core, and number of triangles. In temporal networks, we find that the largest temporal strong components have around 20-30% of the vertices of the entire network. These components represent groups of highly communicative individuals. In addition, we discuss and improve the performance and utility of the maximum clique finder itself.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation for the Proportional Odds Model with Random Effects
Zeng, Donglin
Maximum Likelihood Estimation for the Proportional Odds Model with Random Effects DONGLIN ZENG, D. Y. LIN, and GUOSHENG YIN In this article, we study the semiparametric proportional odds model; Frailty model; Linear transformation model; Proportional hazards; Semiparametric efficiency; Survival data
A Maximum Likelihood Method with Penalty to Estimate Link Travel Time Based on Trip Itinerary Data
Zhong, Chujun
2014-12-15
Travel time is an important network performance measure. It is a challenging subject due to the fluctuations in traffic characteristics, such as traffic flow. This study proposes a maximum likelihood method with penalty ...
Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed of the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover on the subsequent Indian summer precipitation using sev- eral statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snowmonsoon relationship is explored using
Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed the possible influence of the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover on the subsequent Indian summer precipitation using sev- eral statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snowmonsoon relationship
Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization
Joseph, Vinay
2011-01-01
Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...
Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus
Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)
1999-01-01
A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).
Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela
Cesar Briceno
2003-04-03
At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The purpose of these rules is to protect public health and the environment by establishing minimum standards for the proper location, design, construction and maintenance of onsite wastewater...
Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)
1984-01-01
A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.
Frank, A.A.
1984-07-10
A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.
Watkins, Joseph C.
Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random
Variable area light reflecting assembly
Howard, T.C.
1986-12-23
Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.
Variable area light reflecting assembly
Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)
1986-01-01
Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.
On the "viscosity maximum" during the uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene
Teodor I. Burghelea; Zdenek Stary; Helmut Muenstedt
2010-01-13
An experimental investigation of the viscosity overshoot phenomenon observed during uniaxial extension of a low density polyethylene is pre- sented. For this purpose, traditional integral viscosity measurements on a Muenstedt type extensional rheometer are combined with local mea- surements based on the in-situ visualization of the sample under exten- sion. For elongational experiments at constant strain rates within a wide range of Weissenberg numbers (Wi), three distinct deformation regimes are identified. Corresponding to low values of Wi (regime I), the tensile stress displays a broad maximum. This maximum can be explained by simple mathematical arguments as a result of low deformation rates and it should not be confused with the viscosity overshoot phenomenon. Corre- sponding to intermediate values of Wi (regime II), a local maximum of the integral extensional viscosity is systematically observed. However, within this regime, the local viscosity measurements reveal no maximum, but a plateau. Careful inspection of the images of samples within this regime shows that, corresponding to the maximum of the integral viscosity, sec- ondary necks develop along the sample. The emergence of a maximum of the integral elongational viscosity is thus related to the distinct in- homogeneity of deformation states and is not related to the rheological properties of the material. In the fast stretching limit (high Wi, regime III), the overall geometric uniformity of the sample is well preserved, no secondary necks are observed and both the integral and the local transient elongational viscosity show no maximum. A detailed comparison of the experimental findings with results from literature is presented.
Keck, Molly Elizabeth
2006-08-16
minimum (Buckley), and S. invicta colonies infected with T. solenopsae and S. invicta colonies free of parasites. This study utilized S. invicta colonies of 100, 300, 600, 800, and 1000 workers to determine the ability of 1000 M. minimum workers to invade...
Minimum-Risk Path Finding by an Adaptive Amoebal Network Toshiyuki Nakagaki,1,2,* Makoto Iima,1
Showalter, Kenneth
Minimum-Risk Path Finding by an Adaptive Amoebal Network Toshiyuki Nakagaki,1,2,* Makoto Iima,1 is formed that connects the food sources through the shortest route. When the light- avoiding organism risk as the experimentally measurable rate of light-avoiding movement, the minimum-risk path
Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network
Brown, Timothy X.
1 Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc at Boulder Boulder, CO-80309 Abstract--A minimum energy routing protocol reduces the energy con- sumption of energy to get the packets to their destination. This paper identifies the necessary features of an on
Flegr, Jaroslav
How Much Is Our Fairness Worth? The Effect of Raising Stakes on Offers by Proposers and Minimum Acceptable Offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games Julie Novakova*, Jaroslav Flegr Biology Department the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both
Maycock, Amanda
climate system. It follows that changes in solar activity have the potential to27 influence global surface century known as the Maunder min-8 imum. The impact of returning to such a `grand solar minimum' on global Solar Minimum1 on surface climate2 A. C. Maycock 1 , S. Ineson 2 , L. J. Gray 34 , A. A. Scaife 2 and M
The Cloud Computing and Other Variables
Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela
2011-01-01
12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Cloud Computing and Other Variables A
Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with a variable ...
Plamen Stefanov
2010-11-09
... a joint work with. Jianliang Qian, Gunther Uhlmann and Hongkai Zhao. Plamen Stefanov (Purdue University ). Thermoacoustic Tomography, Variable Speed.
Variable frequency microwave furnace system
Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.
1994-06-14
A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.
Variable frequency microwave furnace system
Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1994-01-01
A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).
A methodology for predicting minimum travel paths using real-time traffic network data
Liu, Chang
1991-01-01
A METHODOLOGY FOR PREDICTING MINIMUM TRAVEL PATHS USING REAL-TIME TRAFFIC NETWORK DATA A Thesis by Chang Liu Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillrnent of the requirements for the degree... operations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express special thanks to Dr. Daniel B. Fambro for his guidance, assistance, and patience from the initial stage of my graduate career at Texas A&M University through the final stage of the research documented...
LIGHT SUBGRAPHS IN PLANAR GRAPHS OF MINIMUM DEGREE 4 AND EDGE-DEGREE 9
Mohar, Bojan
LIGHT SUBGRAPHS IN PLANAR GRAPHS OF MINIMUM DEGREE 4 AND EDGE-DEGREE 9 B. MOHAR , R. SKREKOVSKI vertices of degree 4 are adjacent. A graph H is light in G if there is a constant w such that every graph is w. Then we also write w(H) w. It is proved that the cycle Cs is light if and only if 3 s 6, where
Spectral Modeling of SNe Ia Near Maximum Light: Probing the Characteristics of Hydro Models
E. Baron; S. Bongard; David Branch; Peter H. Hauschildt
2006-03-03
We have performed detailed NLTE spectral synthesis modeling of 2 types of 1-D hydro models: the very highly parameterized deflagration model W7, and two delayed detonation models. We find that overall both models do about equally well at fitting well observed SNe Ia near to maximum light. However, the Si II 6150 feature of W7 is systematically too fast, whereas for the delayed detonation models it is also somewhat too fast, but significantly better than that of W7. We find that a parameterized mixed model does the best job of reproducing the Si II 6150 line near maximum light and we study the differences in the models that lead to better fits to normal SNe Ia. We discuss what is required of a hydro model to fit the spectra of observed SNe Ia near maximum light.
Solid phase stability of a double-minimum interaction potential system
Suematsu, Ayumi; Yoshimori, Akira, E-mail: a.yoshimori@cmt.phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Saiki, Masafumi; Matsui, Jun [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Odagaki, Takashi [School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan)
2014-06-28
We study phase stability of a system with double-minimum interaction potential in a wide range of parameters by a thermodynamic perturbation theory. The present double-minimum potential is the Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential, which has a Gaussian pocket as well as a standard Lennard-Jones minimum. As a function of the depth and position of the Gaussian pocket in the potential, we determine the coexistence pressure of crystals (fcc and bcc). We show that the fcc crystallizes even at zero pressure when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the first or third nearest neighbor site of the fcc crystal. The bcc crystal is more stable than the fcc crystal when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the second nearest neighbor sites of the bcc crystal. The stable crystal structure is determined by the position of the Gaussian pocket. These results show that we can control the stability of the solid phase by tuning the potential function.
Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State
S. Regnier; E. R. Priest
2008-05-12
To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.
Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.
2012-12-01
The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.
Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processing
Ulrik L. Andersen; Gerd Leuchs; Christine Silberhorn
2010-08-20
Observables of quantum systems can posses either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system either for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum informational system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.
Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump
Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)
2001-01-01
A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.
Continuously variable focal length lens
Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C
2013-12-17
A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.
Microlensing induced absorption line variability
Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata
2002-12-02
Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.
Variable ratio regenerative braking device
Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)
1981-12-15
Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.
Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity #3. In this paper we present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our constructions, such as nonlinearity
Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Basic Theory in Construction of Boolean Functions with Maximum Possible Annihilator Immunity Deepak present a construction keeping in mind the basic theory of annihilator immunity. This construction immunity that comes from the basic theory. Most importantly, the cryptographic properties of our
Wang, Yuqing
0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy
Wang, Yuqing
Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy
Miller, William H.
Linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions with maximum entropy analytic procedure to be a very significant enhancement of the LSC-IVR for correlation functions of both linear method is used to extend the range of accuracy of the linearized semiclassical initial value
Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1
Balaji, Rajagopalan
Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1 ; Balaji Rajagopalan2 for the summer period. The model is created using a stepwise linear regression procedure to select significant-9372 2003 129:7 667 CE Database subject headings: Decision support systems; Regression models; California
Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications
Perreault, Dave
Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic applications through the use, interest in renewable energy sources has in- creased. Among these, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has seen
Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications
Perreault, Dave
Sub-Module Integrated Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Photovoltaic Applications 2012. Abstract--This paper explores the benefits of distributed power electronics in solar photovoltaic, interest in renewable energy sources has in- creased. Among these, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy has seen
Bahlali, Khaled Djehiche, Boualem Mezerdi, Brahim
2007-12-15
We establish a stochastic maximum principle in optimal control of a general class of degenerate diffusion processes with global Lipschitz coefficients, generalizing the existing results on stochastic control of diffusion processes. We use distributional derivatives of the coefficients and the Bouleau Hirsh flow property, in order to define the adjoint process on an extension of the initial probability space.
Maximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities , V.B. Yurchyshyn1
relationships with one another. Although the relationship between the solar and geomagnetic activity indices hasMaximum CME speed as an indicator of solar and geomagnetic activities A. Kilcik1 , V.B. Yurchyshyn1 , V. Abramenko1 , P.R. Goode1 , N. Gopalswamy2 , A. Ozguc3 , J.P. Rozelot4 1 Big Bear Solar
Extraction of Spectral Functions from Dyson-Schwinger Studies via the Maximum Entropy Method
Dominik Nickel
2006-07-20
It is shown how to apply the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) to numerical Dyson-Schwinger studies for the extraction of spectral functions of correlators from their corresponding Euclidean propagators. Differences to the application in lattice QCD are emphasized and, as an example, the spectral functions of massless quarks in cold and dense matter are presented.
Design of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song
Kusiak, Andrew
of reducing the cost of producing wind power: for example, the site selection, site layout design, predictiveDesign of wind farm layout for maximum wind energy capture Andrew Kusiak*, Zhe Song Intelligent Accepted 24 August 2009 Available online 22 September 2009 Keywords: Wind farm Wind turbine Layout design
Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise
Odam, Kofi
Performance of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms in the Presence of Noise tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic systems, including how noise affects both tracking speed-performance photovoltaic sys- tems. An intelligent controller adjusts the voltage, current, or impedance seen by a solar
Experimental evaluation of algorithmic solutions for the maximum generalised network ow problem
Radzik, Tomasz
; Tomasz Radzik y King's College London Shengxiang Yang z University of Leicester Department of Computer Science, King's College London Technical Report TR-01-09 December 2001 Abstract The maximum generalised problem models some optimisation problems arising in manufacturing, transportation and #12;nancial
Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage
Sanahuja, Blai
Low-energy particle response to CMEs during the Ulysses solar maximum northern polar passage D, New Mexico, USA T. R. Sanderson Research and Scientific Support Department of European Space Agency 2001), Ulysses remained immersed in polar coronal hole solar wind flow and observed five intense solar
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Recursive maximum likelihood estimation for structural health monitoring: Kalman and particle by a likelihood approach. In a first part the structural health monitoring problem is written in term of recursive al [6] in a more simple framework. Particle approximation for health monitoring was already proposed
Operations Research Letters 21 (1997) 211217 An algorithm for nding a maximum clique in a graph
Wood, David R.
1997-01-01
. We denote the set of vertices adjacent to vV by NG(v) and the subgraph of G induced by S V by G a vertex vS with maximum degree in G, and set Q := Q {v} and S := S NG(v). We now turn our attention
An Analysis of the Maximum Drawdown Risk Malik Magdon-Ismail
Magdon-Ismail, Malik
Engineering Cairo University Giza, Egypt. amir@alumni.caltech.edu Introduction. The maximum cumulative loss to the Calmar ratio is the Sterling ratio, Sterling(T) = Return over [0,T ] MDD over [0,T ]-10% , and our discussion applies equally well to the Sterling ratio. 1 #12;primarily due to a lack of an analytical
An Analysis of the Maximum Drawdown Risk Malik MagdonIsmail
Magdon-Ismail, Malik
Engineering Cairo University Giza, Egypt. amir@alumni.caltech.edu Introduction. The maximum cumulative loss is not prevalent 1 Similar to the Calmar ratio is the Sterling ratio, Sterling(T ) = Return over [0,T ] MDD over [0,T ]-10% , and our discussion applies equally well to the Sterling ratio. 1 #12; primarily due
Mathematical Geology, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1998 A Bootstrap Test Using Maximum Likelihood Ratio
Chatterjee, Snigdhansu
Mathematical Geology, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1998 A Bootstrap Test Using Maximum Likelihood Ratio 24 January 1997; revised 10 May 1997. 2Geological Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B-8121/98/0400-0275$15.00/1 © 1998 International Association for Mathematical Geology KEY WORDS: polar coordinates, joint frequency
Maximum size of drops levitated by an air cushion Jacco H. Snoeijer,1,2
Eggers, Jens
, kept aloft by a stream of water vapor. We investigate the limit of small flow rates, for which the size for the manipulation of corrosive sub- stances 10 or the frictionless displacement of drops 6 . Of particular interest is the maximum drop size that can be sus- tained, and the limit of very small flow rates. The drop con- tinues
Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safetyefficiency trade-off
Jackson, Robert B.
Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safetyefficiency trade.12126 Key words: hydraulic limitation, safety efficiency trade-off, soilplantatmosphere model, trait hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon
MAximum Multicore POwer (MAMPO) -An Automatic Multithreaded Synthetic Power Virus Generation
John, Lizy Kurian
and cooling issues along with a world-wide initiative towards green computing, power consump- tion is a firstMAximum Multicore POwer (MAMPO) - An Automatic Multithreaded Synthetic Power Virus Generation worst case power consumption for a com- puter system is a significant design parameter and it is a very
STRAY-LIGHT CORRECTION IN MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS USING THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD
STRAY-LIGHT CORRECTION IN MAGNETOGRAPH OBSERVATIONS USING THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD JONGCHUL CHAE1 June 1998; accepted 17 July 1998) Abstract. We have developed a method of stray-light correction which is applicable to filter-based magnetograph observations. Stray-light-corrected Stokes images are obtained
NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER
NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER DEERFIELD RIVER The Office of Hydrology (HYDRO) of the National Weather Service (NWS) develops procedures for making river agencies, and conducts pertinent research and development. NOAA Technical Memorandums in the NWS HYDRO
Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs
Lutchen, Kenneth
Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs Lauren in human lungs. J Appl Physiol 96: 18081814, 2004. First published February 6, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol reactivity in healthy lungs by prohibiting DI for an extended period. The present study had two goals. First
Study of Different Implementation Approaches for a Maximum Power Point Florent Boico Brad Lehman
Lehman, Brad
of solar panels has limited their use. As the efficiency is limited, harvesting the maximum amount no other source is available. However, these solar panels have lower efficiency than average solar cells in suddenly changing illumination conditions. Solar Panels have been used for decades to generate electricity
Aalborg Universitet Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator
Schaltz, Erik
Aalborg Universitet Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Tracking for a Thermoelectric Generator Systems. Poster session presented at The 31st International & 10th Generator Systems Casper Vadstrup (cvdst08@student.aau.dk), Min Chen (mch@et.aau.dk), Erik Schaltz (esc
The probable value of the Lovasz-Schrijver relaxations for maximum independent set
Krauthgamer, Robert
Introduction Let G(V, E) be a graph on n vertices. An independent set (a.k.a. stable set) in G is a subset an independent set of maximum size in an input graph G. The independence number (a.k.a. stability number) of G
The probable value of the LovaszSchrijver relaxations for maximum independent set #
Krauthgamer, Robert
Introduction Let G(V, E) be a graph on n vertices. An independent set (a.k.a. stable set) in G is a subset an independent set of maximum size in an input graph G. The independence number (a.k.a. stability number) of G
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
On Finding the Maximum Number of Disjoint Cuts in Seymour Graphs ?
Ageev, Alexandr
On Finding the Maximum Number of Disjoint Cuts in Seymour Graphs ? Alexander A. Ageev Sobolev. In this paper we prove that the problem is polynomially solvable on Seymour graphs which include both all bipar is polynomially solvable when restricted to the family of Seymour graphs. To present a rigorous definition
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 041144 (2012) Efficiency at maximum power for classical particle transport
Lindenberg, Katja
2012-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 041144 (2012) Efficiency at maximum power for classical particle transport transport. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.041144 PACS number(s): 05.70.Ln, 05.40.-a, 05.20.-y I. INTRODUCTION Over, operating between a hot and cold bath at temperatures T (1) and T (2) , respectively, possesses universal
Harrington, Jerry Y.
Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth
Towards solar activity maximum 24 as seen by GOLF and VIRGO/SPM instruments
Garcia, R A; Mathur, S; Regulo, C; Ballot, J; Davies, G R; Jimenez, A; Simoniello, R
2013-01-01
All p-mode parameters vary with time as a response to the changes induced by the cyclic behavior of solar magnetic activity. After the unusual long solar-activity minimum between cycles 23 and 24, where the p-mode parameters have shown a different behavior than the surface magnetic proxies, we analyze the temporal variation of low-degree p-mode parameters measured by GOLF (in velocity) and VIRGO (in intensity) Sun-as-a-star instruments on board SoHO. We then compared our results with other activity proxies.
Variable path length spectrophotometric probe
O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)
1992-01-01
A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.
Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism
Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)
2008-05-13
A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.
Meyen, Edward L.; Alley, Gordon R.; Scannell, Dale P.; Harnden, G. Mack; Miller, Kelly F.
1982-06-01
In this study, LD specialists, regular class teachers, and parents of LD students judged that the objectives of the Kansas Minimum Competency Specifications prescribed for nonhandicapped students were applicable to LD ...
Metrika, Volume 27, 1980, page 43-70. 9 Vienna. The Minimum Distance Method of Testing 1 )
Pollard, David
on leavefrom Yale University,at the Ruhr-UniversitiitBochum. 2) David Pollard, YaleUniversity, Department of Statistics Box 2179 YaleStation, New Haven, Conneticut 06520, U.S.A. #12;44 D. Pollard minimum distance
Sloane, Neil J. A.
, Inc., Room 2C-363, Murray Hill, NJ 07974. H. N. Ward is with the Mathematics Department, University. SLOANE, FELLOW, IEEE, AND HAROLD N. WARD Abstmct-Self-orthogonal ternary codes of minimum weight 3 may
Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation
Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)
2005-02-22
A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.
Daniel, William Marvin
1973-01-01
THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...
Sullivan, Terry
2014-12-02
ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y?¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.
Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation
Bergeron, Dominic
2015-01-01
Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. The maximum-entropy approach is the most widely used method whenever the data contains some numerical uncertainties, especially in Monte-Carlo based calculations. Here we present a highly optimized approach to maximum-entropy implemented in a freely available software that is both fast and accurate and offers quality-of-fit diagnostic tools. It can handle fermionic and bosonic input Green functions, self-energies, or correlation functions, both in Matsubara frequency or imaginary time, and with arbitrary covariance. All aspects of the implementation critical for accuracy and speed are optimized using specific numerical methods. A new way of choosing the optimal value of the entropy weight $\\alpha$ is also introduced. It is based on the identification of three different regimes in the value of $\\chi^2$ as a function of $\\alpha$: Large values of $\\alpha$...
Hydrodynamic equations for electrons in graphene obtained from the maximum entropy principle
Barletti, Luigi
2014-08-15
The maximum entropy principle is applied to the formal derivation of isothermal, Euler-like equations for semiclassical fermions (electrons and holes) in graphene. After proving general mathematical properties of the equations so obtained, their asymptotic form corresponding to significant physical regimes is investigated. In particular, the diffusive regime, the Maxwell-Boltzmann regime (high temperature), the collimation regime and the degenerate gas limit (vanishing temperature) are considered.
REMARKS ON THE MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD APPLIED TO FINITE TEMPERATURE LATTICE QCD.
UMEDA, T.; MATSUFURU, H.
2005-07-25
We make remarks on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for studies of the spectral function of hadronic correlators in finite temperature lattice QCD. We discuss the virtues and subtlety of MEM in the cases that one does not have enough number of data points such as at finite temperature. Taking these points into account, we suggest several tests which one should examine to keep the reliability for the results, and also apply them using mock and lattice QCD data.
Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M.; Kim, H.
2015-05-22
We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. In conclusion, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.
Global convergence of diluted iterations in maximum-likelihood quantum tomography
D. S. Gonçalves; M. A. Gomes-Ruggiero; C. Lavor
2013-06-13
In this paper we present an inexact stepsize selection for the Diluted R\\rho R algorithm, used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate to the density matrix in quantum state tomography. We give a new interpretation for the diluted R\\rho R iterations that allows us to prove the global convergence under weaker assumptions. Thus, we propose a new algorithm which is globally convergent and suitable for practical implementation.
MULTI-FLUID MODEL OF A STREAMER AT SOLAR MINIMUM AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS
Ofman, Leon [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Abbo, Lucia; Giordano, Silvio, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Turin (Italy)
2011-06-10
We present the results of a time-dependent 2.5-dimensional three-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model of the coronal streamer belt, which is compared with the slow solar wind plasma parameters obtained in the extended corona by the UV spectroscopic data from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board SOHO during the past minimum of solar activity (Carrington Rotation 1913). Our previous three-fluid streamer model has been improved by considering the solar magnetic field configuration relevant for solar minimum conditions, and preferential heating for O{sup 5+} ions. The model was run until a fully self-consistent streamer solution was obtained in the quasi-steady state. The plasma parameters from the multi-fluid model were used to compute the expected UV observables from H I Ly{alpha} 1216 A and O VI 1032 A spectral lines, and the results were compared in detail with the UVCS measurements. A good agreement between the model and the data was found. The results of the study provide insight into the acceleration and heating of the multi-ion slow solar wind.
Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment Minimum Efficiency Standards in the United States
Nasseri, Cyrus H.; Somasundaram, Sriram
2001-08-01
ABSTRACT In 1992, Federal legislation mandated that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) set the efficiency levels in the then-current ASHRAE Standard 90.1 as mandatory minimums for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and service water-heating (SWH) equipment sold in the U.S. market, as well as a process for revising the minimum equipment efficiency standards to comply with requirements in an updated Standard 90.1. Because Standard 90.1 was updated in October 1999 (Standard 90.1-1999), DOE is now undertaking a rulemaking process for these equipment categories. In January 2001, DOE published a final rule adopting Standard 90.1-1999 levels as uniform national standards for 18 product categories of commercial HVAC and SWH equipment. For 11 other categories of commercial products, DOE has signaled its intention to consider more stringent standards than those adopted by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE). DOE has now initiated a formal rulemaking process to further analyze these equipment categories.
Apparatus and method for closed-loop control of reactor power in minimum time
Bernard, Jr., John A. (72 Paul Revere Rd., Needham Heights, MA 02194)
1988-11-01
Closed-loop control law for altering the power level of nuclear reactors in a safe manner and without overshoot and in minimum time. Apparatus is provided for moving a fast-acting control element such as a control rod or a control drum for altering the nuclear reactor power level. A computer computes at short time intervals either the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e '.rho.-.SIGMA..beta..sub.i (.lambda..sub.i -.lambda..sub.e ')+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e '.omega.] or the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e .rho.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e)(.beta.-.rho.)+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e .omega.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e).omega.] These functions each specify the rate of change of reactivity that is necessary to achieve a specified rate of change of reactor power. The direction and speed of motion of the control element is altered so as to provide the rate of reactivity change calculated using either or both of these functions thereby resulting in the attainment of a new power level without overshoot and in minimum time. These functions are computed at intervals of approximately 0.01-1.0 seconds depending on the specific application.
Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site
Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.
1997-08-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.
Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.
2014-04-01
The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 ? Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.
Search for Variable Stars in the WTS
Pinfield, David J.
Search for Variable Stars in the WTS Database Hristo Stoev Laboratory of Stellar Astrophysics of January 2010 at LAEX in Madrid, Spain #12;WTS Survey Release 0.1 Search for variable stars in the FOV Narrow down my selection only to one of the detectors 15000 light curves #12;WTS Survey Release 0
Variable orifice using an iris shutter
Beeman, Raymond (El Cerrito, CA); Brajkovich, Steven J. (Fremont, CA)
1978-01-01
A variable orifice forming mechanism utilizing an iris shutter arrangement adapted to control gas flow, conductance in vacuum systems, as a heat shield for furnace windows, as a beam shutter in sputtering operations, and in any other application requiring periodic or continuously-variable control of material, gas, or fluid flow.
Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa
Dechter, Rina
Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform#12ElimSearchS;k, a hybrid meta- algorithm that combines search and variable elimination. The param- eter S names from the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can
Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa
Dechter, Rina
Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform of variables, reduces the search tree size. In this paper we introduce VarElimSearch(S;k), a hybrid meta the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can outperform state
Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment
Mojzsis, Stephen J.
Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from
Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design of Engine Disks N. Zabaras, B. Wen in nickel-based superalloy turbine disks. Issues: Property variability of turbine disk due to high-dimensional multiscale sources Rolls-Royce RB211- 535 turbofan Nickel-base superalloy turbine disk Superalloy
WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS
Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu
2013-02-01
Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.
Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen
2011-06-01
Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.
Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
Beverly J. Smith
2003-06-20
For a complete 12 micron flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources, we have extracted light curves in seven infrared bands between 1.25 - 60 microns using the database of the DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite. Using previous infrared surveys, we filtered these light curves to remove datapoints affected by nearby companions. In the time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation of semi-regulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giants without circumstellar dust and with little or no visual variation. The DIRBE 1.25 - 25 micron colors become progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE database increases along the oxygen-rich sequence non-dusty slightly varying red giants -> SRb/Lb -> SRa -> Mira -> OH/IR and the carbon-rich SRb/Lb -> Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that these are evolutionary sequences involving the continued production and ejection of dust. Carbon stars are redder than oxygen-rich stars for the same variability type, except in the F(12)/F(25) ratio. Of the 28 sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearly variable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 magnitudes at 4.9 microns and ~0.6 magnitudes at 12 microns, consistent with them being very dusty Mira-like variables. The light curves of the semi-regular variable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 microns occur 10 - 20 days before those at 4.9 and 12 microns, and, at 4.9 and 12 microns, another maximum is seen between the two near-infrared maxima.
Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum
C. Bouchiat
2003-04-27
After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.
Automatic track recognition for large-angle minimum ionizing particles in nuclear emulsions
T. Fukuda; S. Fukunaga; H. Ishida; T. Matsumoto; T. Matsuo; S. Mikado; S. Nishimura; S. Ogawa; H. Shibuya; J. Sudou; A. Ariga; S. Tufanli
2014-12-19
We previously developed an automatic track scanning system which enables the detection of large-angle nuclear fragments in the nuclear emulsion films of the OPERA experiment. As a next step, we have investigated this system's track recognition capability for large-angle minimum ionizing particles $(1.0 \\leq |tan \\theta| \\leq 3.5)$. This paper shows that, for such tracks, the system has a detection efficiency of 95$\\%$ or higher and reports the achieved angular accuracy of the automatically recognized tracks. This technology is of general purpose and will likely contribute not only to various analyses in the OPERA experiment, but also to future experiments, e.g. on low-energy neutrino and hadron interactions, or to future research on cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions carried by balloons.
On the minimum dark matter mass testable by neutrinos from the Sun
Busoni, Giorgio; Simone, Andrea De; Huang, Wei-Chih E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it
2013-07-01
We discuss a limitation on extracting bounds on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons, using neutrinos from the Sun. If the dark matter particle is sufficiently light (less than about 4 GeV), the effect of evaporation is not negligible and the capture process goes in equilibrium with the evaporation. In this regime, the flux of solar neutrinos of dark matter origin becomes independent of the scattering cross section and therefore no constraint can be placed on it. We find the minimum values of dark matter masses for which the scattering cross section on nucleons can be probed using neutrinos from the Sun. We also provide simple and accurate fitting functions for all the relevant processes of GeV-scale dark matter in the Sun.
Daylighting Design Tools in Atria for Minimum Cooling Loads in Atrium Buildings
Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.; Claridge, D. E.
1992-01-01
floor, so that the cooling loads could be minimized. Illumination measurements were collected in physical scale models of two and four-story atria in a sky simulator. The two key variables of the study were: a) horizontal and vertical south-facing top-glazing...
Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps
Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen
2009-03-21
Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.
NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM
Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Vasquez, Alberto M.
2012-08-20
Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.
Pražnikar, Jure [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)
2014-12-01
The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.
The "mean king's problem" with continuous variables
Alonso Botero; Yakir Aharonov
2007-10-16
We present the solution to the "mean king's problem" in the continuous variable setting. We show that in this setting, the outcome of a randomly-selected projective measurement of any linear combination of the canonical variables x and p can be ascertained with arbitrary precision. Moreover, we show that the solution is in turn a solution to an associated "conjunctive" version of the problem, unique to continuous variables, where the inference task is to ascertain all the joint outcomes of a simultaneous measurement of any number of linear combinations of x and p.
Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies
Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh
2015-01-01
Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.
Analysis of two basic variables of timeout
Zella, William Francis
1974-01-01
ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...
Dynamics of multi-modes maximum entangled coherent state over amplitude damping channel
A. El Allati; Y. Hassouni; N. Metwally
2012-02-18
The dynamics of maximum entangled coherent state travels through an amplitude damping channel is investigated. For small values of the transmissivity rate the travelling state is very fragile to this noise channel, where it suffers from the phase flip error with high probability. The entanglement decays smoothly for larger values of the transmissivity rate and speedily for smaller values of this rate. As the number of modes increases, the travelling state over this noise channel loses its entanglement hastily. The odd and even states vanish at the same value of the field intensity.
Ronnie Jansson; Glennys R. Farrar
2007-08-20
We extend the Maximum Likelihood method used by HiRes to study cross correlations between a catalog of candidate astrophysical sources and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), to allow for differing source luminosities. Our approach permits individual sources to be ranked according to their likelihood of having emitted the correlated UHECRs. We test both old and new method by simulations for various scenarios. We conclude that there are 9 true correlation between HiRes UHECRs and known BLLacs, with a 6*10^-5 probability of such a correlation arising by chance.
On the geometrical place formed by the maximum heights of projectile motion with air resistance
Hernández-Saldaña, H
2010-01-01
We present an analysis on the geometrical place formed by the set of maxima of the orbits of a projectile launched in a media with linear drag. Such a place is written in term of the Lambert W function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. In order to characterize it, a study of the curvature is presented in two parameterizations, in terms of the launching angle and in the polar one. The angles of maximum curvature are compared with other important angles in the projectile problem.
A New Maximum-Likelihood Change Estimator for Two-Pass SAR Coherent Change Detection.
Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V,
2014-09-01
In this paper, we derive a new optimal change metric to be used in synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD). Previous CCD methods tend to produce false alarm states (showing change when there is none) in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio (CNR). The new estimator does not suffer from this shortcoming. It is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and is optimal in the maximum-likelihood (ML) sense. The estimator produces very impressive results on the CCD collects that we have tested.
U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5DryMay-15Decade Year-0Elements) Maximum
Variable reality : interacting with the virtual book
Yang, Hye Soo
2015-01-01
This thesis presents Variable Reality, a wearable augmented reality-based system focused on creating a unique on-the-go reading experience that combines the readily accessible nature of digital books with the favorable ...
Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control
Vasel, M.
1982-01-01
analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...
Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes
Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.
2000-01-01
J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson
Inserting Group Variables into Fluid Mechanics
R. Jackiw
2004-10-28
A fluid, like a quark-gluon plasma, may possess degrees of freedom indexed by a group variable, which retains its identity even in the fluid/continuum description. Conventional Eulerian fluid mechanics is extended to encompass this possibility.
Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator
Mooney, Luke M.
Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator ...
PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.
Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.
2010-11-01
High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.
Investigation of Variables Associated with Vaccine Acceptance
Black, Lora L.
2011-12-31
Abstract The current study investigated the relationship between the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, social variables, personality factors, and H1N1 flu vaccine acceptance. Four hundred thirty two undergraduate students completed online...
Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks
Vijayakumar, Sethu
with variable physical compliance, our methodology is able to exploit the energy storage capabilities of existing actuators (e.g., by exploiting the energy storage capabilities of such devices) [5]. Due
Variable volume architecture : expanding the boundary
Saheba, Asheshh (Asheshh Mohit), 1972-
2001-01-01
Research into the creation of a Variable Volume Architecture is explored through a series of proposals and projects. An argument is established to develop the means and methods of achieving an architecture of transformation. ...
Bounds and phase diagram of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling molecular motors
Z. C. Tu
2013-02-08
The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) for tight-coupling molecular motors is investigated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. It is found that the EMP depends merely on the constitutive relation between the thermodynamic current and force. The motors are classified into four generic types (linear, superlinear, sublinear, and mixed types) according to the characteristics of the constitutive relation, and then the corresponding ranges of the EMP for these four types of molecular motors are obtained. The exact bounds of the EMP are derived and expressed as the explicit functions of the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step. A phase diagram is constructed which clearly shows how the region where the parameters (the load distribution factor and the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step) are located can determine whether the value of the EMP is larger or smaller than 1/2. This phase diagram reveals that motors using ATP as fuel under physiological conditions can work at maximum power with higher efficiency ($>1/2$) for a small load distribution factor ($<0.1$).
A Fast Parallel Maximum Clique Algorithm for Large Sparse Graphs and Temporal Strong Components
Rossi, Ryan A; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Patwary, Md Mostofa Ali
2013-01-01
We propose a fast, parallel, maximum clique algorithm for large, sparse graphs that is designed to exploit characteristics of social and information networks. We observe roughly linear runtime scaling over graphs between 1000 vertices and 100M vertices. In a test with a 1.8 billion-edge social network, the algorithm finds the largest clique in about 20 minutes. For social networks, in particular, we found that using the core number of a vertex in combination with a good heuristic clique finder efficiently removes the vast majority of the search space. In addition, we parallelize the exploration of the search tree. In the algorithm, processes immediately communicate changes to upper and lower bounds on the size of maximum clique, which occasionally results in a super-linear speedup because vertices with especially large search spaces can be pruned by other processes. We use this clique finder to investigate the size of the largest temporal strong components in dynamic networks, which requires finding the large...
Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables
Vallette, Bruno
protocol -Basic Unit 9 A B 1,0 1,0 B Unveil Phase 1,0 A 1,0 B 1,0 A 0 0 22' 1,0 22' 1,0 CommitBit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables Aikaterini Mandilara* 1 Paris 11 Paris 7 #12;Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables (a) with entanglement (b) or without 2 (a) A. Mandilara and N
Estimating the age of alleles by use of intraallelic variability
Slatkin, M.; Rannala, B.
1997-02-01
A method is presented for estimating the age of an allele by use of its frequency and the extent of variation among different copies. The method uses the joint distribution of the number of copies in a population sample and the coalescence times of the intraallelic gene genealogy conditioned on the number of copies. The linear birth-death process is used to approximate the dynamics of a rare allele in a finite population. A maximum-likelihood estimate of the age of the allele is obtained by Monte Carlo integration over the coalescence times. The method is applied to two alleles at the cystic fibrosis (CFTR) locus, {Delta}F508 and G542X, for which intraallelic variability at three intronic microsatellite loci has been examined. Our results indicate that G542X is somewhat older than {Delta}F508. Although absolute estimates depend on the mutation rates at the microsatellite loci, our results support the hypothesis that {Delta}F508 arose <500 generations ({approx}10,000 years) ago. 32 refs., 4 figs.
Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model
Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan
2013-01-01
index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,
Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model
Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan
2013-01-01
Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator
Reginatto, Marcel; Zimbal, Andreas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2008-02-15
In applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, it is advantageous to use methods of data analysis which can extract information from the spectrum that is directly related to the parameters of interest that describe the plasma. We present here methods of data analysis which were developed with this goal in mind, and which were applied to spectrometric measurements made with an organic liquid scintillation detector (type NE213). In our approach, we combine Bayesian parameter estimation methods and unfolding methods based on the maximum entropy principle. This two-step method allows us to optimize the analysis of the data depending on the type of information that we want to extract from the measurements. To illustrate these methods, we analyze neutron measurements made at the PTB accelerator under controlled conditions, using accelerator-produced neutron beams. Although the methods have been chosen with a specific application in mind, they are general enough to be useful for many other types of measurements.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; et al
2014-11-27
Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developedmore »using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.« less
G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker
2006-11-29
In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.
Parthapratim Biswas; H. Shimoyama; L. R. Mead
2009-10-23
We apply the maximum entropy principle to construct the natural invariant density and Lyapunov exponent of one-dimensional chaotic maps. Using a novel function reconstruction technique that is based on the solution of Hausdorff moment problem via maximizing Shannon entropy, we estimate the invariant density and the Lyapunov exponent of nonlinear maps in one-dimension from a knowledge of finite number of moments. The accuracy and the stability of the algorithm are illustrated by comparing our results to a number of nonlinear maps for which the exact analytical results are available. Furthermore, we also consider a very complex example for which no exact analytical result for invariant density is available. A comparison of our results to those available in the literature is also discussed.
A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises
2010-08-30
Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.
Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R
2009-01-01
Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.
Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; USA, Richland Washington; Carlson, Thomas J.; USA, Richland Washington
2014-11-27
Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.
Kempes, Christopher P; Dooris, William; West, Geoffrey B
2015-01-01
In the face of uncertain biological response to climate change and the many critiques concerning model complexity it is increasingly important to develop predictive mechanistic frameworks that capture the dominant features of ecological communities and their dependencies on environmental factors. This is particularly important for critical global processes such as biomass changes, carbon export, and biogenic climate feedback. Past efforts have successfully understood a broad spectrum of plant and community traits across a range of biological diversity and body size, including tree size distributions and maximum tree height, from mechanical, hydrodynamic, and resource constraints. Recently it was shown that global scaling relationships for net primary productivity are correlated with local meteorology and the overall biomass density within a forest. Along with previous efforts, this highlights the connection between widely observed allometric relationships and predictive ecology. An emerging goal of ecological...
Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps -Theoretical and Experimental Studies
Li, Perry Y.
Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps - Theoretical and Experimental Studies the functional equivalent of a variable displacement pump. This approach combines a fixed displacement pump valve control, without many of the shortcomings of commercially available variable displacement pumps
Arc Reversals in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables
Cinicioglu, Esma N.; Shenoy, Prakash P.
2009-05-01
This article discusses arc reversals in hybrid Bayesian networks with deterministic variables. Hybrid Bayesian networks contain a mix of discrete and continuous chance variables. In a Bayesian network representation, a continuous chance variable...
The use of 'race' as a variable in biomedical research
Efstathiou, Sophia
2009-01-01
be used as a variable in biomedical research but mainly toRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research A dissertationRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research…………. Manifest,
Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...
Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory
Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.
1998-08-01
Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.
Loboda, I P
2015-01-01
We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304 A line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and focus mainly on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25x25 to 150x500 Mm in size and obtain distributions of many their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to be rarely exceeding 3 km/s. Besides, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to evaluate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (10e12-10e14 kg and 10e29-10e31 erg, respectively). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive...
Minimum 186 Basin levels required for operation of ECS and CWS pumps
Reeves, K.K.; Barbour, K.L.
1992-10-01
Operation of K Reactor with a cooling tower requires that 186 Basin loss of inventory transients be considered during Design Basis Accident analyses requiring ECS injection, such as the LOCA and LOPA. Since the cooling tower systems are not considered safety systems, credit is not taken for their continued operation during a LOPA or LOCA even though they would likely continue to operate as designed. Without the continued circulation of cooling water to the 186 Basin by the cooling tower pumps, the 186 Basin will lose inventory until additional make-up can be obtained from the river water supply system. Increasing the make-up to the 186 Basin from the river water system may require the opening of manually operated valves, the starting of additional river water pumps, and adjustments of the flow to L Area. In the time required for these actions a loss of basin inventory could occur. The ECS and CWS pumps are supplied by the 186 Basin. A reduction in the basin level will result in decreased pump suction head. This reduction in suction head will result in decreased output from the pumps and, if severe enough, could lead to pump cavitation for some configurations. The subject of this report is the minimum 186 Basin level required to prevent ECS and CWS pump cavitation. The reduction in ECS flow due to a reduced 186 Basin level without cavitation is part of a separate study.
Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow
Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.
2014-12-09
In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ? 1.
Solar wind turbulence at 0.72 AU and solar minimum
Teodorescu, Eliza; Munteanu, Costel; Zhang, Tielong; Bruno, Roberto; Kovacs, Peter
2015-01-01
We investigate Venus Express (VEX) observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24. The Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the magnetic field components have been computed for the time intervals that satisfy data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow defined for speeds larger and respectively smaller than 450 km/s. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast than for the slow wind. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005-0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is -1.60 for fast solar wind and -1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is ...
Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides
Chen, Xi [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Girard, S. N. [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Meng, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL; Jin, S [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goodenough, J. B. [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Zhou, J. S. [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin; Shi, L [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin
2014-01-01
Higher manganese silicides (HMS) made of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are regarded as promising p-type thermoelectric materials because their complex crystal structure results in low lattice thermal conductivity. It is shown here that the already low thermal conductivity of HMS can be reduced further to approach the minimum thermal conductivity via partial substitu- tion of Mn with heavier rhenium (Re) to increase point defect scattering. The solubility limit of Re in the obtained RexMn1 xSi1.8 is determined to be about x = 0.18. Elemental inhomogeneity and the formation of ReSi1.75 inclusions with 50 200 nm size are found within the HMS matrix. It is found that the power factor does not change markedly at low Re content of x 0.04 before it drops considerably at higher Re contents. Compared to pure HMS, the reduced lattice thermal conductivity in RexMn1 xSi1.8 results in a 25% increase of the peak figure of merit ZT to reach 0.57 0.08 at 800 K for x = 0.04. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the pure RexMn1 xSi1.8 can enable further investigations of the ZT limit of this system by exploring different impurity doping strategies to optimize the carrier concentration and power factor.
Hawley, Alyse K.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hallam, Steven J.
2014-08-05
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are intrinsic water column features arising from respiratory oxygen demand during organic matter degradation in stratified marine waters. Currently OMZs are expanding due to global climate change. This expansion alters marine ecosystem function and the productivity of fisheries due to habitat compression and changes in biogeochemical cycling leading to fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Here we use metaproteomics to chart spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression along defined redox gradients in a seasonally anoxic fjord, Saanich Inlet to better understand microbial community responses to OMZ expansion. The expression of metabolic pathway components for nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), denitrification and inorganic carbon fixation predominantly co-varied with abundance and distribution patterns of Thaumarchaeota, Nitrospira, Planctomycetes and SUP05/ARCTIC96BD-19 Gammaproteobacteria. Within these groups, pathways mediating inorganic carbon fixation and nitrogen and sulfur transformations were differentially expressed across the redoxcline. Nitrification and inorganic carbon fixation pathways affiliated with Thaumarchaeota dominated dysoxic waters and denitrification, sulfur-oxidation and inorganic carbon fixation pathways affiliated with SUP05 dominated suboxic and anoxic waters. Nitrite-oxidation and anammox pathways affiliated with Nitrospina and Planctomycetes respectively, also exhibited redox partitioning between dysoxic and suboxic waters. The differential expression of these pathways under changing water column redox conditions has quantitative implications for coupled biogeochemical cycling linking different modes of inorganic carbon fixation with distributed nitrogen and sulfur-based energy metabolism extensible to coastal and open ocean OMZs.
The Minimum of Solar Cycle 23: As Deep as It Could Be?
Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Longcope, Dana W; Tlatov, Andrey G; Pevtsov, Alexei A; Balmaceda, Laura A; DeLuca, Edward E; Martens, Petrus C H
2015-01-01
In this work we introduce a new way of binning sunspot group data with the purpose of better understanding the impact of the solar cycle on sunspot properties and how this defined the characteristics of the extended minimum of cycle 23. Our approach assumes that the statistical properties of sunspots are completely determined by the strength of the underlying large-scale field and have no additional time dependencies. We use the amplitude of the cycle at any given moment (something we refer to as activity level) as a proxy for the strength of this deep-seated magnetic field. We find that the sunspot size distribution is composed of two populations: one population of groups and active regions and a second population of pores and ephemeral regions. When fits are performed at periods of different activity level, only the statistical properties of the former population, the active regions, is found to vary. Finally, we study the relative contribution of each component (small-scale versus large-scale) to solar mag...
The Minimum Bandwidth of Narrowband Spikes in Solar Flare Decimetric Radio Waves
Peter Messmer; Arnold O. Benz
1999-12-23
The minimum and the mean bandwidth of individual narrowband spikes in two events in decimetric radio waves is determined by means of multi-resolution analysis. Spikes of a few tens of millisecond duration occur at decimetric/microwave wavelength in the particle acceleration phase of solar flares. A first method determines the dominant spike bandwidth scale based on their scalegram, the mean squared wavelet coefficient at each frequency scale. This allows to measure the scale bandwidth independently of heuristic spike selection criteria, e.g. manual selection. The major drawback is a low resolution in the bandwidth. To overcome this uncertainty, a feature detection algorithm and a criterion for spike shape in the time-frequency plane is applied to locate the spikes. In that case, the bandwidth is measured by fitting an assumed spike profile into the denoised data. The smallest FWHM bandwidth of spikes was found at 0.17 % and 0.41 % of the center frequency in the two events. Knowing the shortest relevant bandwidth of spikes, the slope of the Fourier power spectrum of this two events was determined and no resemblance to a Kolmogorov spectrum detected. Additionally the correlation between spike peak flux and bandwidth was examined.
Kepler and the long-period variables
Hartig, Erich; Lebzelter, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cash, Jennifer [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7024, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walter, Donald K., E-mail: erich.hartig@univie.ac.at, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: jcash@physics.scsu.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: mighell@noao.edu, E-mail: dkw@physics.scsu.edu [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7296, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States)
2014-12-01
High-precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical timescale on the order of a year, we discuss at length the removal of long-term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine semi-regular (SR) AGB stars is examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long-period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on a sub-day timescale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone, typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period (LSP). The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable, with irregular variations present at low levels. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the LSP variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.
Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta E-mail: kweis@astro.rub.de
2014-07-20
An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.
Johansson, Karl Henrik
) and ma directed arcs (i.e., transmission lines) on which power flows. The flow can The authorsElectric Power Network Security Analysis via Minimum Cut Relaxation Kin Cheong Sou, Henrik Sandberg the security of power transmission networks is presented. In order to strategically allocate protection devices
Sidiropoulos, Nikolaos D.
Beamforming for Minimum Outage Vassilis Ntranos, Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos, and Leandros Tassiulas Abstract--The multicast beamforming problem is considered from the viewpoint of minimizing outage probability subject (locations) and variances (spreads). It is shown that minimizing outage probability subject to a transmit
Chen, Xin
thus formulated in the framework of genome rearrangement. As an important one among them, the minimum breakpoint linearization (MBL) problem is to find the total order of a partially-ordered genome that minimizes its breakpoint distance to a reference genome whose genes are already totally ordered
Task Allocation for Minimum System Power in a Homogenous Multi-core Processor Yang Ge, Qinru Qiu
Qiu, Qinru
. At micro- architecture level, increased power density has set up a "Power Wall" which blocks the microTask Allocation for Minimum System Power in a Homogenous Multi-core Processor Yang Ge, Qinru Qiu power consumption of a homogenous multi-core processor with a main focus on its impact on the leakage
Aalberts, Daniel P.
An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum, as part of the Massachusetts Health Care Reform Law. HMO Blue New EnglandSM Summary of Benefits Williams College #12;Your Care Your Primary Care Provider. When you enroll in HMO Blue New England, you must choose
Su, Yingna
Survey of Quiescent Filament Channels at the Current Solar Minimum Yingna Su, Adriaan van Ballegooijen, Leon Golub Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Abstract Type I Filament Channels Type II Filament Channels Summary We present preliminary results of an investigation on filament channels
Eldar, Yonina
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 2155 A Minimum Squared processing entails representing a signal by a set of coefficients and relies on the existence of methods kernel. In practice, however, the input signal is never perfectly bandlimited, and the sampling process
Berdichevsky, Victor
Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering Admission to this program is contingent upon admission to the Graduate School. The minimum requirements for admission into the Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering in Biomedical Engineering, or other closely related field from an accredited institution. · A GPA of at least 3
A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion
Nielsen, Steven O.
A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion, such as the mechanism and the free-energy profile, remains an important challenge not only for enzyme catalysis1 of the reaction free-energy profile is very cumbersome with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) and umbrella
Papp, Joseph C
2009-01-01
Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shape or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al [1] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the ...
Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert
This paper presents an integrated maximum power point tracking system for use with a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power generator. The design, implemented in 0.35 ?m CMOS technology, consists of a low-power control ...
Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...
Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...
Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...
Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature...
Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability
Matrai, Patricia A; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S
1993-01-01
periods of' time, covering mesoscale Campbell, J. W. and W.Dimethyl Sulfide' On Their Mesoscale Variability PATRICIA A.Miami, Miami, Florida The mesoscale variability of dimethyl
Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact,...
Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years...
Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...
Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...
Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern Pacific ITCZ in climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of the intraseasonal variability...
AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION
Turiel, Isaac
2011-01-01
U"'"'''"'" - e "'~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation1979) LBL~8893 EEB Vent 79-3 Automatic variable ventilationmeasurement capabilities o Automatic operation o Low
Variable energy constant current accelerator structure
Anderson, O.A.
1988-07-13
A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Pearle's Hidden-Variable Model Revisited
Richard D. Gill
2015-05-19
Pearle (1970) gave an example of a local hidden variables model which exactly reproduced the singlet correlations of quantum theory, through the device of data-rejection: particles can fail to be detected in a way which depends on the hidden variables carried by the particles and on the measurement settings. If the experimenter computes correlations between measurement outcomes of particle pairs for which both particles are detected, he is actually looking at a subsample of particle pairs, determined by interaction involving both measurement settings and the hidden variables carried in the particles. We correct a mistake in Pearle's formulas (a normalization error) and more importantly show that the model is more simple than first appears. We illustrate with visualisations of the model and with a small simulation experiment, with code in the statistical programming language R included in the paper. Open problems are discussed.
Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics
Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)
2002-01-01
The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.
Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions
Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.
2013-09-01
In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.
Group Work: Global warming & natural variability
Allan, Richard P.
Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you
Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity
I. T. Drummond
1999-08-20
We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.