Sample records for minimum efficiency required

  1. MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

  2. Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set minimum distance requirements between certain types of facilities that generate, process, store, and dispose of hazardous waste and other land uses. The regulations require an...

  3. Category Measure Minimum Efficiency / Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    -$6200 Xcel rebate: $120 for AFUE >= 84% Fed tax credit: 30%, up to $1500** Ground source heat pump Closed and cooling (floor, wall, and ceiling) Radiant systems must be powered by a heat pump (electric or gas Space Heating and Cooling ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES Residential Eligible Measures List #12;Category

  4. An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doug Altner

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 20, 2008 ... In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing minimum capacity s-t cuts under a polyhedral model of robustness. Our algorithm ...

  5. Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    1 Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks of a class of simple and local algorithms called Nearest Neighbor Tree (NNT) algorithms for energy-efficient

  6. Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints Yoni in a fast circuit by the same factor does not yield an energy-efficient design, and we characterize efficient. A design implementation is considered to be energy efficient when it has the highest performance

  7. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Requirements for Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In October 2008 Pennsylvania adopted Act 129, creating energy efficiency and conservation requirements for the state’s investor owned utilities with at least 100,000 customers. With this limitation...

  9. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

  10. Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements-integrated multi-effect and three non-integrated distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus of the paper is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration

  11. eVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , such as hybrid and electric vehicles, to pedestrians has become an important issue for public policy [1], car a localization paradigm to test the detectability of hybrid and internal combustion cars by measuring listenereVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars. Ryan

  12. Bachelor of Science with Major in Geology (Minimum of 120 credits required)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Bachelor of Science with Major in Geology (Minimum of 120 credits required) The Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree is designed for students planning professional careers in geology, hydrogeology work in geology, geosciences and environmental science. Prerequisite Coursework for Transfer Students

  13. Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required) The Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Geology (Earth Science) is designed for students planning professional 2053 & 2048L 5 College Algebra MAC 1105 3 Introductory Statistics STA 2023 3 Total 19 Geology (Earth

  14. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  15. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  16. MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BA DEGREE IN Total credit hours required: 120.0 minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ ENGL 231 ENGL 238H ENGL 235 World Literature I or Western Lit. Tradition or Early American Lit. 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ Intro Literary ____ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ 3.0 ____ MAJOR OPTION (not required; 12.0 - 18.0 credits) Students may

  17. Minimum 186 Basin levels required for operation of ECS and CWS pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, K.K.; Barbour, K.L.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of K Reactor with a cooling tower requires that 186 Basin loss of inventory transients be considered during Design Basis Accident analyses requiring ECS injection, such as the LOCA and LOPA. Since the cooling tower systems are not considered safety systems, credit is not taken for their continued operation during a LOPA or LOCA even though they would likely continue to operate as designed. Without the continued circulation of cooling water to the 186 Basin by the cooling tower pumps, the 186 Basin will lose inventory until additional make-up can be obtained from the river water supply system. Increasing the make-up to the 186 Basin from the river water system may require the opening of manually operated valves, the starting of additional river water pumps, and adjustments of the flow to L Area. In the time required for these actions a loss of basin inventory could occur. The ECS and CWS pumps are supplied by the 186 Basin. A reduction in the basin level will result in decreased pump suction head. This reduction in suction head will result in decreased output from the pumps and, if severe enough, could lead to pump cavitation for some configurations. The subject of this report is the minimum 186 Basin level required to prevent ECS and CWS pump cavitation. The reduction in ECS flow due to a reduced 186 Basin level without cavitation is part of a separate study.

  18. Documents Required by the Office of Academic Affairs for Clinician Educator Actions, October 2014 Rank Action Duration Required documents (Number of letters shown are minimums)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puglisi, Joseph

    Documents Required by the Office of Academic Affairs for Clinician Educator Actions, October 2014 Rank Action Duration Required documents (Number of letters shown are minimums) Clinical Instructor% FTE or greater and who have outside clinical activity, http://med.stanford.edu/academicaffairs/documents

  19. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    achievable energy-efficient designs, based on emergingachievable energy- efficient designs, based on efficientdesign that achieves high energy efficiency by combining the most efficient

  20. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency Australia best available technology business as usual Brazil Bottom-Up EnergyAustralia South Africa Reference U.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER – energy-efficiency

  1. Required Courses for the PhD degree (10 credits minimum) 1) LAAS 5xxx, Integrated Topics in Land & Atmospheric Science (3 cr, Fall)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Required Courses for the PhD degree (10 credits minimum) 1) LAAS 5xxx, Integrated Topics in Land with (3) below) 3) LAAS 5xxx, Research in Land & Atmospheric Science (2 cr, Spring) 4) LAAS 8123

  2. "Information-Friction" and its implications on minimum energy required for communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulkit Grover

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Just as there are frictional losses associated with moving masses on a surface, what if there were frictional losses associated with moving information on a substrate? Indeed, many modes of communication suffer from such frictional losses. We propose to model these losses as proportional to "bit-meters," i.e., the product of mass of information (i.e., the number of bits) and the distance of information transport. We use this "information- friction" model to understand fundamental energy requirements on encoding and decoding in communication circuitry. First, for communication across a binary input AWGN channel, we arrive at fundamental limits on bit-meters (and thus energy consumption) for decoding implementations that have a predetermined input-independent length of messages. For encoding, we relax the fixed-length assumption and derive bounds for flexible-message- length implementations. Using these lower bounds we show that the total (transmit + encoding + decoding) energy-per-bit must diverge to infinity as the target error probability is lowered to zero. Further, the closer the communication rate is maintained to the channel capacity (as the target error-probability is lowered to zero), the faster the required decoding energy diverges to infinity.

  3. Efficient Quantum Polar Codes Requiring No Preshared Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph M. Renes; David Sutter; Frédéric Dupuis; Renato Renner

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct an explicit quantum coding scheme which achieves a communication rate not less than the coherent information when used to transmit quantum information over a noisy quantum channel. For Pauli and erasure channels we also present efficient encoding and decoding algorithms for this communication scheme based on polar codes (essentially linear in the blocklength), but which do not require the sender and receiver to share any entanglement before the protocol begins. Due to the existence of degeneracies in the involved error-correcting codes it is indeed possible that the rate of the scheme exceeds the coherent information. We provide a simple criterion which indicates such performance. Finally we discuss how the scheme can be used for secret key distillation as well as private channel coding.

  4. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

  5. Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, O.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...

  6. Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, O.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...

  7. AN EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF1 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrios, Thilikos

    memory which allows a very efficient data retrieval. Keywords: Production Planning and Control, Bill Automation ASI 1994. #12;1 Introduction The Production Planning and Control (PPC) function has been a major in the development of a Production Planning and Control System (PPCS). Such an effort has been made in [8], where

  8. M.D./PH.D. ROTATION INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS: M.D./Ph.D. students are required to complete a minimum of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M.D./PH.D. ROTATION INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS: M.D./Ph.D. students are required to complete select their lab by October 1 of the second year. PROCEDURE: M.D./Ph.D. students will contact and meet University (Liz Gavis). The signed form must be submitted by the student to the M.D./Ph.D. Program Office

  9. All Economics minor requirements must be taken for a letter grade with a minimum grade of C-. The Economics major consists of (1) the Core, (2) History/Theory/Thought, and (3) Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All Economics minor requirements must be taken for a letter grade with a minimum grade of C-. The Economics major consists of (1) the Core, (2) History/Theory/Thought, and (3) Economics Electives. Minimum Minor Hours: 18 1. ECONOMICS CORE: All Economics minors must complete these courses. HISTORY

  10. The Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length. Admission to the Faculty may occur at the end of Year One. Students are required to have completed the following courses, with a minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    *Management 4640 - Cross-Cultural Work Study Four courses at the 3000/4000 level from any faculty A minimumThe Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length) and Statistics 1770. Admission to Management programs is competitive and is based on academic achievement prior

  11. An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

  12. The Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length. Admission to the Faculty may occur at the end of Year One. Students are required to have completed the following courses, with a minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    - Canadian and International Environmental Management Management 4640 - Cross-Cultural Work Study FourThe Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length in Year One. Admission to Management programs is competitive and is based on academic achievement prior

  13. Studying the energy efficiency of large-scale computer systems requires models of the relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivoire, Suzanne

    Abstract Studying the energy efficiency of large-scale computer systems requires models-node clusters using embedded, laptop, desktop, and server processors. These results demonstrate the need usage and power consumption. Therefore, a substantial body of literature models system-level power

  14. Graduation Requirements and Procedures Graduation Requirements and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Degree Audit (DARS) or contact the department offering the major. Graduation Average Requirement The minimum

  15. Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

  16. Minimum resource requirements and adjustments needed for specified levels of farm income on the Blackland soils of the Blackland area of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Jayanti Lal

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 10 10 17 The Linear Programming Technique . Source of' Data General Plan of' the Study Basic Assumptions Equity in Land Labor . Capital . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ Level of Technology Unallocated Overhead Costs Machinery... Resource Programming Models RESULTS OF MINIMUM RESOURCE PROGRAMMING e 4 17 18 18 21 21 24 25 27 28 28 30 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 38 Comparison of Results of Minimizing Land, Labor and Total Cost $3, 000 Return to Operator's Labor...

  17. Minimum Risk Estimation and Decoding in Large Vocabulary Continuous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, William

    refinements EP(W,A)L(W,(A)) W W ^W = argmin W W W W L(W,W )P(W |A) E(W) = W W L(W,W )P(W |A) #12;Minimum, specifically Word Error Rate ? Efficient Lattice MBR Computation E(W) = W W L(W,W )P(W |A) W W #12;Minimum path to a reference path W ? Word Error Rate Requires String-to-String Alignment W1,...,WN W1,...,WN L(W,W

  18. National Grid (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Upstate New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Custom incentives are available for projects that demonstrate the use of natural gas more efficiently than industry practices and/or more efficiently than the minimum building code requirements....

  19. National Grid (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Metro New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Custom Incentives are available for projects that demonstrate the use of natural gas more efficiently than industry practices and/or more efficiently than the minimum building code requirements....

  20. 24 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 1998 Efficient Algorithms for the Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    of the MSPSA problem is called the minimum rectilinear Steiner arborescence (MRSA) problem. Given a set be shown that an MSPSA of is an MRSA of . The MSPSA and MRSA problems have applications to performance for the MRSA problem can be cl

  1. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retail Data Brazil – International Energy Initiative Life-business as usual Brazil Bottom-Up Energy Analysis Systemfor setting energy efficiency standards in Brazil:The case

  2. Spanish Major Requirements (for students declared Fall 2013 and after) Prerequisites (These courses do not count toward the 27-credit minimum for the major)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Spanish Major Requirements (for students declared Fall 2013 and after) Prerequisites (These courses (Spanish 320, 321, or 331) Culture / Civilization (3 credits) _____ one three-credit course at or above literature course (322*, 324, or 326) *Spanish 322 is recommended for those interested in historical

  3. Application of Risk Analysis to Evaluating M&V Requirement for Energy Efficiency Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, G.; Gregoire, C.; Gogte, S.; Gowans, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %. The lessons from this experiment may be used to conduct large-scale risk analysis to optimize evaluation cost allocations for more complex energy efficiency program portfolio....

  4. Oxygen and Opacity Stack Emission Monitoring Systems To Optimize Combustion Efficiency and Meet EPA Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monitoring systems. REFERENCES 1. KVB, Inc. Report to FEA, Contract No. C-04-50085-00. Assessment of the Potential for Energy Conservation through Improved Industrial Boiler Efficiency, Final Report, Volume I. 2. Everything you Need to Know About...

  5. On the Energy Efficiency of Orthogonal Signaling Mustafa Cenk Gursoy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gursoy, Mustafa Cenk

    On the Energy Efficiency of Orthogonal Signaling Mustafa Cenk Gursoy Department of Electrical. The impact of fading on the energy efficiency is identified. Requirements to approach the minimum bit energy of -1.59 dB are determined. I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficient transmission is of paramount importance

  6. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is likely to be required as a result of future federal energy legislation that includes end-use energy efficiency, either as a stand-alone energy-efficiency resource standard (EERS) or as part of a clean energy or renewable energy standard. This study is focused primarily on this third reason and thus explores issues associated with a national EM&V standard if energy efficiency is a qualifying resource in federal clean energy legislation. Developing a national EM&V standard is likely to be a lengthy process; this study focuses on the critical first step of identifying the issues that must be addressed in a future standard. Perhaps the most fundamental of these issues is 'how good is good enough?' This has always been the fundamental issue of EM&V for energy efficiency and is a result of the counter-factual nature of efficiency. Counter-factual in that savings are not measured, but estimated to varying degrees of accuracy by comparing energy consumption after a project (program) is implemented with what is assumed to have been the consumption of energy in the absence of the project (program). Therefore, the how good is good enough question is a short version of asking how certain does one have to be of the energy savings estimate that results from EM&V activities and is that level of certainty properly balanced against the amount of effort (resources, time, money) that is utilized to obtain that level of certainty. The implication is that not only should energy efficiency investments be cost-effective, but EM&V investments should consider risk management principles and thus also balance the costs and value of information derived from EM&V (EM&V should also be cost-effective).

  7. Oxygen and Opacity Stack Emission Monitoring Systems To Optimize Combustion Efficiency and Meet EPA Requirements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer surfaces for a longer period of time for improved heat tr~nsfer efficiency. A typical boiler control system consists of a steam pressure transducer which senses load demand and a fuel flow controller which increases or decreases fuel flow as a...

  8. Operation of Energy Efficient Residential Buildings Under Indoor Environmental Quality Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medhat, A. A.; Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the influence of Indoor Environmental Quality, [IEQ] requirements associated with occupation regimes on the criterion of energy demand s for HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) central systems that were...

  9. HEAT Loan Minimum Standards and Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopmentHEADQUARTERS MEDIATION PROGRAM MEDIATION

  10. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Actuarial Pricing Of Energy Efficiency Projects: Lessonsand Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs,” LBNL-ACEEE 2010. “State Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (

  11. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Actuarial Pricing Of Energy Efficiency Projects: Lessonsand Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs,” LBNL-of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S." The

  12. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization &Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) 2006. "GuideEnergy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) 2007. "Impact

  13. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to consider the benefits and risks of energy efficiency andUnfortunately, for energy efficiency, risk management isis perhaps the principal risk of energy efficiency. 25 We

  14. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricityand heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energyquality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first major paradigm shift in electricity generation,delivery, and control is emerging in the developed world, notably Europe,North America, and Japan. This shift will move electricity supply awayfrom the highly centralised universal service quality model with which weare familiar today towards a more dispersed system with heterogeneousqualities of service. One element of dispersed control is the clusteringof sources and sinks into semi-autonomous mu grids (microgrids).Research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) of mu gridsare advancing rapidly on at least three continents, and significantdemonstrations are currently in progress. This paradigm shift will resultin more electricity generation close to end-uses, often involvingcombined heat and power application for building heating and cooling,increased local integration of renewables, and the possible provision ofheterogeneous qualities of electrical service to match the requirementsof various end-uses. In Europe, mu grid RD3 is entering its third majorround under the 7th European Commission Framework Programme; in the U.S.,one specific mu grid concept is undergoing rigorous laboratory testing,and in Japan, where the most activity exists, four major publiclysponsored and two privately sponsored demonstrations are in progress.This evolution poses new challenges to the way buildings are designed,built, and operated. Traditional building energy supply systems willbecome much more complex in at least three ways: 1. one cannot simplyassume gas arrives at the gas meter, electricity at its meter, and thetwo systems are virtually independent of one another; rather, energyconversion, heat recovery and use, and renewable energy harvesting mayall be taking place simultaneously within the building energy system; 2.the structure of energy flows in the building must accommodate multipleenergy processes in a manner that permits high overall efficiency; and 3.multiple qualities of electricity may be supplied to various buildingfunctions.

  15. Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing Considering Residual Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing Considering Residual Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Javad minimum energy routing (RMER). RMECR addresses three important requirements of ad hoc networks: energy-efficiency energy of nodes as well as quality of links to find energy-efficient and reliable routes that increase

  16. Minimum Energy Accumulative Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Ravi

    Minimum Energy Accumulative Routing in Wireless Networks Jiangzhuo Chen, Lujun Jia, Xin Liu to address the energy efficient routing problem in multi-hop wireless networks with accumulative relay. In the accumulative relay model, partially overheard signals of previous transmis- sions for the same packet are used

  17. The Minimum Price Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , he can Mark Waller, Steve Amosson, Mark Welch, and Kevin Dhuyvetter* 2 lock in a floor price and still have upside poten- tial if the market rallies. Options-based marketing strategies, such as the minimum price contract, work well in times...

  18. The Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length. Admission to the Faculty may occur at the end of Year One. Students are required to have completed the following courses, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    - Canadian and International Environmental Management Management 4640 - Cross-Cultural Work Study FourThe Bachelor of Management degree in International Management is a minimum of 40 courses in length) and Statistics 1770. Admission to Management programs is competitive and is based on academic achievement prior

  19. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rebatesincentives/ief/ PJM Forward Market Operations 2010. "PJM Manual 18B: Energy Efficiency Measurement &Independent System Operator 13 and PJM Regional Transmission

  20. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency measures. These guidelines generally derive fromguidelines for verifying the persistence energy savings from conservation measures.and- guidelines Northwest Regional Technical Forum Website. "Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF) - Pacific Northwest Deemed Measure

  1. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Developing "MOU/CO-OP ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAMS REPORTING FORM" to Satisfy Senate Bill 924 (82nd R) Reporting Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, P.; Baltazar, J.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    owned utilities must report each year to the State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) on a standardized form developed by SECO, information regarding the combined effects of their energy efficiency activities for the previous calendar year. This report...

  3. Asymptotically minimum BER linear block precoders for MMSE equalisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Tim

    ) [3]. For a general block transmission scheme, optimal detection requires a joint decisionAsymptotically minimum BER linear block precoders for MMSE equalisation S.S. Chan, T.N. Davidson and K.M. Wong Abstract: An asymptotically minimum bit error rate (BER) linear block precoder

  4. The minimum information for a qualified BioBrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Mubing

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the information of many existing BioBricks is incomplete, thus the usage of the BioBricks will be affected. It is necessary to standardize the minimum information required for a qualified BioBrick. Furthermore this ...

  5. Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The regulations set standards for minimum flow (listed in the...

  6. Multiple Glycogen-binding Sites in Eukaryotic Glycogen Synthase Are Required for High Catalytic Efficiency toward Glycogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Chikwana, Vimbai M.; Contreras, Christopher J.; Davis, Keri D.; Wilson, Wayne A.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Des Moines U)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Glycogen synthase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycogen and has an essential role in glucose homeostasis. The three-dimensional structures of yeast glycogen synthase (Gsy2p) complexed with maltooctaose identified four conserved maltodextrin-binding sites distributed across the surface of the enzyme. Site-1 is positioned on the N-terminal domain, site-2 and site-3 are present on the C-terminal domain, and site-4 is located in an interdomain cleft adjacent to the active site. Mutation of these surface sites decreased glycogen binding and catalytic efficiency toward glycogen. Mutations within site-1 and site-2 reduced the V{sub max}/S{sub 0.5} for glycogen by 40- and 70-fold, respectively. Combined mutation of site-1 and site-2 decreased the V{sub max}/S{sub 0.5} for glycogen by >3000-fold. Consistent with the in vitro data, glycogen accumulation in glycogen synthase-deficient yeast cells ({Delta}gsy1-gsy2) transformed with the site-1, site-2, combined site-1/site-2, or site-4 mutant form of Gsy2p was decreased by up to 40-fold. In contrast to the glycogen results, the ability to utilize maltooctaose as an in vitro substrate was unaffected in the site-2 mutant, moderately affected in the site-1 mutant, and almost completely abolished in the site-4 mutant. These data show that the ability to utilize maltooctaose as a substrate can be independent of the ability to utilize glycogen. Our data support the hypothesis that site-1 and site-2 provide a 'toehold mechanism,' keeping glycogen synthase tightly associated with the glycogen particle, whereas site-4 is more closely associated with positioning of the nonreducing end during catalysis.

  7. Minimum patch size thresholds of reproductive success of songbirds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butcher, Jerrod Anthony

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1 MINIMUM PATCH SIZE THRESHOLDS OF REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF SONGBIRDS A Dissertation by JERROD ANTHONY BUTCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 2 MINIMUM PATCH SIZE THRESHOLDS OF REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF SONGBIRDS A Dissertation by JERROD ANTHONY BUTCHER Submitted to the Office...

  8. Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite architecture studio course is required for architecture majors enrolled in the interior architecture minor (1 is required for Architecture majors): IARC 484 Interior Design Studio (6), IARC 486 Furniture

  9. Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite Notes: Required courses in one's major will not count for the minor with one exception: 1 architecture studio course is required for interior architecture majors enrolled in the architecture minor, and this studio

  10. Optimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosman, Pamela C.

    properties of the battery under bursty discharge conditions are exploited. In this paper, we exploitOptimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption Qinghua Zhao, Pamela C. Cosman, a power amplifier utilizes battery energy more efficiently with a higher transmission power. For a given

  11. Requirements for Dean's List: 3.80 minimum GPA term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    point credits Student Class Primary Major Alley, Sabrina M. 11 ENHR Bentz, Erika M. 11 AGBU Blake, Kacey P. 11 ANIM Johnson, Erika G. 11 ANIM Kerres, Abigail K. 11 ANIM Keyes, Kristen A. 11 ANIM Lambert

  12. DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    incident characterization (i.e., Type 1 or Type 2) and categorization (i.e., low, medium, high, or very high). * Respond to and report incidents within mandated timeframes...

  13. DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | DepartmentIOffshoreDepartmentBegins Demoltion

  14. HEAT Loan Minimum Standards and Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs, andCertificates,HAMMER SteeringHCHEADQUARTERS- -

  15. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  16. Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks Sabyasachi-- Energy-efficient broadcast communication is an important problem in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, minimum-energy broadcast that exploits the broadcast nature of radio transmission has been studied

  17. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Minnesota legislature passed the Next Generation Energy Act (NGEA), which requires both electric and natural gas investor-owned utilities to reduce energy sales, and spend a minimum ...

  18. On Cartesian trees and range minimum queries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik D.

    We present new results on Cartesian trees with applications in range minimum queries and bottleneck edge queries. We introduce a cache-oblivious Cartesian tree for solving the range minimum query problem, a Cartesian tree ...

  19. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchangers used to transfer heat to tqe com- I bustion air are divided into two groups. IndiIlect ! heat exchangers called "regenerative" types an~ direct heat exchangers called "recuperative" types. In a regenerative air heater, heat is transferred i...~duced I draft, air preheat system. This system can ac~omodate either a regenerative or recuperative air heater and ! Fig. 5 - Heat recovery systems. 857 ESL-IE-80-04-157 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...

  20. An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 3, 2008 ... under data uncertainty such as in open-pit mining or scheduling jobs on ..... maximum flow problem in that arcs e1,e2, ··· ,ei had their capacities ...

  1. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is essential. The system can be rearranged using a single I.D. fan for negative fire box operation. This type system can achieve very high effic~en? cies and has been ecconomically applied to units ioper ating below 10 MMBtu/hr. design capacity. Corro...

  2. Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso M´ario Jesus ´Alberto M´arquez Abstract The NP multiple criteria minimum spanning tree as several applications into the network design problems criteria minimum spanning trees. There are several geometric network design and application problems

  3. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  4. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 2. Three-Product Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway We show that the minimum energy requirement algebraic procedure, via expressions for pinch zone compositions at the connection points as functions

  5. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  6. Dangerous implications of a minimum length in quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosimo Bambi; Katherine Freese

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of a minimum length and a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle seem to be two fundamental ingredients required in any consistent theory of quantum gravity. In this letter we show that they would predict dangerous processes which are phenomenologically unacceptable. For example, long--lived virtual super--Planck mass black holes may lead to rapid proton decay. Possible solutions of this puzzle are briefly discussed.

  7. Investigation of a minimum energy Earth-Mars trajectory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard Emett

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF A MINIMUM ENERGY EARTH-MARS TRAJECTORY A Thesis by Richard Emmett grown Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of the Texas ASM University in partia1 fulfi11ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering INVESTIGATION OF A MINIMIIM ENERGy EARTH MARS TRAJECTORy A Thesis by Richard Emmett Brown Approved as to style and content by; (Co-chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) May I967 TABLE...

  8. Knots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denne, Elizabeth

    Knots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller (Dated: May 11, 2008) Professor Elizabeth Denne have least Minimum Distance Energy. I previously showed that the energy is minimized for convex polygons. We hope relating the energy to chords of polygons will be a helpful step towards showing

  9. Minimum Time/Minimum Fuel Control of an Axisymmetric Rigid Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Jonathan Farina

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Many times it is necessary to reorient an aerial vehicle during flight in a minimum time or minimum fuel fashion. This thesis will present a minimum time/fuel control solution to reorienting an axisymmetric rigid body using eigenaxis maneuvers. Any...

  10. Requirements for the MINOR in Environmental Science Five courses required. Total credits = minimum of 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    515 Microbiology of Soil NRC 528 Forest & Wetland Hydrology NRC 540 Forest Management NRC 564 Wildlife Science & Management NRC 578 Watershed Science & Mgt Environmental Policy & Land Use ECON 308 Environmental Economics ENVIRDES 553 Resource Policy and Planning ENVIRDES 574 City Planning ENVIRDES 575

  11. Energy Efficiency Investment Fund Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific efficiency requirements for rebates are available at  the Energy Efficiency Investment Fund Website in applications for Lighting and Lighting Control Rebates, Natural Gas and Water Heati...

  12. Building Energy Efficient Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many new school buildings consume only half the energy required by similar efficient structures designed without energy performance as a design criterion. These are comfortable and efficient while construction costs remain about the same as those...

  13. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2008, New Mexico enacted H.B. 305, the Efficient Use of Energy Act, which created an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) for New Mexico’s electric utilities, and a requirement that all ...

  14. aerobic efficiency measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-10 minimum 1.50sq foot Space Heating and Cooling ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES Residential Eligible Measures List 12;Category Kammen, Daniel M. 4 Microsensor measurements of...

  15. Determination of the minimum masses of heavy elements in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Mousis; Ulysse Marboeuf; Jonathan I. Lunine; Yann Alibert; Leigh N. Fletcher; Glenn S. Orton; Francoise Pauzat; Yves Ellinger

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the minimum mass of heavy elements required in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn to match the observed oversolar abundances of volatiles. Because the clathration efficiency remains unknown in the solar nebula, we have considered a set of sequences of ice formation in which the fraction of water available for clathration is varied between 0 and 100 %. In all the cases considered, we assume that the water abundance remains homogeneous whatever the heliocentric distance in the nebula and directly derives from a gas phase of solar composition. Planetesimals then form in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn from the agglomeration of clathrates and pure condensates in proportions fixed by the clathration efficiency. A fraction of Kr and Xe may have been sequestrated by the H3+ ion in the form of stable XeH3+ and KrH3+ complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, thus implying the formation of at least partly Xe- and Kr-impoverished planetesimals in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn. These planetesimals were subsequently accreted and vaporized into the hydrogen envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn, thus engendering volatiles enrichments in their atmospheres, with respect to hydrogen. Taking into account both refractory and volatile components, and assuming plausible molecular mixing ratios in the gas phase of the outer solar nebula, we show that it is possible to match the observed enrichments in Jupiter and Saturn, whatever the clathration efficiency. Our calculations predict that the O/H enrichment decreases from 6.7 to 5.6 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Jupiter and from 18.1 to 15.4 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Saturn with the growing clathration efficiency in the solar nebula.

  16. Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

  17. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  18. About 230 million general surgeries are performed worldwide every year in which efficient administering and control of anesthesia is required. Balanced Anaesthesia has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    administering and control of anesthesia is required. Balanced Anaesthesia has been defined as that state which]. It is basically General Anesthesia (GA) that balances the depressing effects of the motor, sensory, reflex their experience based knowledge of medicine to keep the patient in balanced anesthesia state throughout

  19. Double active shielded magnetic field gradient design with minimum inductance method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xu

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOUBLE ACTIVE SHIELDED MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT DESIGN WITH MINIMUM INDUCTANCE METHOD A Thesis by XU WANG Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Physics DOUBLE ACTIVE SHIELDED MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT DESIGN WITH MINIMUM INDUCTANCE METHOD A Thesis by XU WANG Approved as to style and content by: F. R. Huson (Chair of Committee) Steve Wry (Member) Edward...

  20. Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  1. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  2. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000...

  3. Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrick, Todd

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

  4. Harris County- LEED Requirement for County Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, the Harris County Commissioners Court approved a measure that requires all new county buildings to meet minimum LEED certification standards. Buildings do not have to register with the the...

  5. Questar Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To qualify for rebates, appliances and equipment must run on gas and must meet the minimum efficiency levels stated on the program web site. The website maintains a list of appliance models which...

  6. Putting the pinch on energy requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, P.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that from steelmaking to milk production, virtually all industrial processes require both heating and cooling of the process streams. One key to top efficiency is exchanging heat in the most effective way between components within the system, cutting the need for additional heating or cooling equipment to a minimum. But until recently, finding the best configuration for process equipment and heat exchangers has been a complicated business, more of an art than a science. Pinch technology, a new energy analysis tool, now allows design engineers to track the heat flow from all process streams in a system and identify modifications that can cut energy costs by 20 to 40 percent, often significantly reducing emissions and capital costs in the bargain. As the demand for greater energy efficiency increases, a growing number of industries are getting back to basics, taking a fresh look at the fundamental design of their process plants. Thanks to an innovative new tool called pinch technology, many are discovering unexpected opportunities for significant efficiency improvements at relatively low capital cost.

  7. Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1 David Eppstein 2 Leonidas J. Guibas 3 Monika R. Henzinger 4 Abstract We consider the parametric minimum spanning tree problem- pute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as varies. We also consider the kinetic minimum

  8. Energy Efficiency Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutiso,S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency Program Overview Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency CATEE Conference November 18-20, 2014 Dallas, TX ESL-KT-14-11-02 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 General Overview • State of Texas... enacted legislation requiring Transmission and Distribution utilities (TDUs) achieve annual goals for energy efficiency • Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) implemented rules and guidelines for consistency among the TDU programs • Texas TDUs...

  9. Haruvy, Katok and Pavlov: Efficiency of Coordinating Contracts Can Coordinating Contracts Improve Channel Efficiency?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Specifically, we look at three contract formats--wholesale price, two-part-tariff and minimum order quantity and extracting surplus through a lump sum payment (two part tariff) or through announcing a minimum order quantity treatment are far more efficient than two-part-tariff proposals in terms of the overall surplus

  10. Minimum Resource Characterization of Biochemical Analyses for Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akella, Srinivas

    ;2 Lingzhi Luo and Srinivas Akella 1 Introduction Low-cost, portable lab-on-a-chip systems capable of rapid versatile, yet low cost systems. Hence it is important to iden- tify the class of biochemical analyses requirements, towards the design of cost and space-efficient biochips. Mixers and storage units are two primary

  11. Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. N. Miranda; S. Nikolskaya; R. Riba

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 < Vterm. These results show that the velocity is not a monotonous function. If the initial speed is not horizontal, there is an angle range where the velocity shows the same behavior mentioned previously. Out of that range, the volocity is a monotonous function. These results come out from numerical simulations.

  12. Climate Change, Energy Efficiency, and IEQ: Challenges and Opportunities for ASHRAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    improvements in building energy efficiency are anticipatedthe required pace of building energy efficiency improvementthese aggressive building energy efficiency goals will

  13. Analysis on Achieving a Minimum Bunch Length in LCLS Bunch Compressor One

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-short bunch is required by different applications in many aspects. In this paper, the condition to achieve a minimum bunch length at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) [1] bunch compressor one (BC1) is analyzed analytically and evaluated by simulation. The space charge, wake field and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects are not discussed here.

  14. New Lighting Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for energy efficient lighting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Lighting Association, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The Lighting for Tomorrow competition was the first national lighting fixture design competition focusing on energy-efficient residential lighting. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional lighting fixtures that also happen to be energy efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' energy-efficient light source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum energy efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.

  15. Energy-Efficient Product Procurement | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Federal agencies are required to procure energy-efficient products. The Federal Energy...

  16. Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevisan, Luca

    Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time Bernard Chazelle #3; Ronitt a parameter 0 minimum spanning tree- components algorithm picks O(1=#15; 2 ) vertices in the graph and then grows \\local spanning trees" whose

  17. Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems David Fern'andez­Baca 1? , Giora with a parameter. The second is an asymptotically optimal algorithm for the minimum ratio spanning tree problem, as well as other search problems, on dense graphs. 1 Introduction In the parametric minimum spanning tree

  18. Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems David Fern´andez-Baca Giora algorithm for the minimum ratio spanning tree problem, as well as other search prob- lems, on dense graphs. 1 Introduction In the parametric minimum spanning tree problem, one is given an n-node, m

  19. Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees in Euclidean Spaces Pegah Kamousi #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Timothy M.

    Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees in Euclidean Spaces Pegah Kamousi # Computer Science University­1­4503­0682­9/11/06 ...$10.00. Keywords Algorithms, Theory General Terms Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees, Geometric Data and arbitrary but known probability p i . We want to compute the expected length of the minimum spanning tree

  20. On Two-Stage Stochastic Minimum Spanning Kedar Dhamdhere1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, R.

    On Two-Stage Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees Kedar Dhamdhere1 , R. Ravi2 , and Mohit Singh2 1}@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract. We consider the undirected minimum spanning tree problem in a stochastic optimization setting algorithm. We then consider the Stochastic minimum spanning tree problem in a more general black-box model

  1. Minimum Cost Data Aggregation with Localized Processing for Statistical Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anandkumar, Animashree

    Minimum Cost Data Aggregation with Localized Processing for Statistical Inference Animashree--The problem of minimum cost in-network fusion of measurements, collected from distributed sensors via multihop, which implies that any Steiner- tree approximation can be employed for minimum cost fusion with the same

  2. The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, William Marvin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...

  3. Public Sector Electric Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO) Bureau of Energy and Recycling administers the public sector energy efficiency programs required by the Illinois Energy...

  4. Map of Erosion Risk (C2)3 Vegetation Indices and Map of Minimum Forested Area4 5&

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are required forest areas for Vietnam Erosion Risk Map Cover types C1 Natural Forests >1.7 Plantation forest.2 (ESRI, 2008), to generate a map of required protective forest area for Vietnam. (3) (4) (5Results Map of Erosion Risk (C2)3 Vegetation Indices and Map of Minimum Forested Area4 5& · Map

  5. A study of IMRT planning parameters on planning efficiency, delivery efficiency, and plan quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittauer, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32603 and J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Lu Bo; Yan Guanghua; Kahler, Darren; Amdur, Robert; Liu Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32603 (United States); Gopal, Arun [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To improve planning and delivery efficiency of head and neck IMRT without compromising planning quality through the evaluation of inverse planning parameters.Methods: Eleven head and neck patients with pre-existing IMRT treatment plans were selected for this retrospective study. The Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) was used to compute new treatment plans for each patient by varying the individual or the combined parameters of dose/fluence grid resolution, minimum MU per segment, and minimum segment area. Forty-five plans per patient were generated with the following variations: 4 dose/fluence grid resolution plans, 12 minimum segment area plans, 9 minimum MU plans, and 20 combined minimum segment area/minimum MU plans. Each plan was evaluated and compared to others based on dose volume histograms (DVHs) (i.e., plan quality), planning time, and delivery time. To evaluate delivery efficiency, a model was developed that estimated the delivery time of a treatment plan, and validated through measurements on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Results: The uncertainty (i.e., variation) of the dose-volume index due to dose calculation grid variation was as high as 8.2% (5.5 Gy in absolute dose) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and 13.3% (2.1 Gy in absolute dose) for planning at risk volumes (PRVs). Comparison results of dose distributions indicated that smaller volumes were more susceptible to uncertainties. The grid resolution of a 4 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid was recommended, since it can reduce the final dose calculation time by 63% compared to the accepted standard (2 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid resolution) while maintaining a similar level of dose-volume index variation. Threshold values that maintained adequate plan quality (DVH results of the PTVs and PRVs remained satisfied for their dose objectives) were 5 cm{sup 2} for minimum segment area and 5 MU for minimum MU. As the minimum MU parameter was increased, the number of segments and delivery time were decreased. Increasing the minimum segment area parameter decreased the plan MU, but had less of an effect on the number of segments and delivery time. Our delivery time model predicted delivery time to within 1.8%. Conclusions: Increasing the dose grid while maintaining a small fluence grid allows for improved planning efficiency without compromising plan quality. Delivery efficiency can be improved by increasing the minimum MU, but not the minimum segment area. However, increasing the respective minimum MU and/or the minimum segment area to any value greater than 5 MU and 5 cm{sup 2} is not recommended because it degrades plan quality.

  6. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  7. PJM©2012 Minimum Generation Alert PJM Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluate Schedules (including; Prior Light; Load Period

    – To provide alert that system conditions may require the use of emergency procedures as a result of generation exceeding demand. • Trigger – When expected generation levels approach 2,500 MW of normal generation limits.

  8. Stochastic Roadmap Simulation: Efficient Representation and Algorithms for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Stochastic Roadmap Simulation: Efficient Representation and Algorithms for the Analysis Roadmap Simulation (SRS) #12;Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS) Multiple paths at once; #12;Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS) Multiple paths at once; No local minimum problem; #12;Stochastic Roadmap

  9. THE ROCHE LIMIT FOR CLOSE-ORBITING PLANETS: MINIMUM DENSITY, COMPOSITION CONSTRAINTS, AND APPLICATION TO THE 4.2 hr PLANET KOI 1843.03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Leslie A.

    The requirement that a planet must orbit outside of its Roche limit gives a lower limit on the planet's mean density. The minimum density depends almost entirely on the orbital period and is immune to systematic errors in ...

  10. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank J.

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

  11. anka karlsruhe minimum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Descrip- tion Length (MDL) principle (Rissanen, 1978, 1987, 1996), and the Minimum Length (MML) principle. Based on this analysis, we present two revised versions of MML: a...

  12. Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pathway and Migration Mechanism. Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway and Migration Mechanism. Abstract: Transition state searches have been...

  13. Optimization Online - Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Recht

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization. Benjamin Recht(brecht ***at*** caltech.edu)

  14. Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for 128-Run Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Hongquan; Mee, Robert W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Split-Plot Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of QualityAberration in Blocked Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, 39,Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum

  15. Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for 128-Run Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongquan Xu; Robert W. Mee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Split-Plot Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of QualityAberration in Blocked Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, 39,Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum

  16. Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time #3; Bernard Chazelle y Ronitt a parameter 0 minimum span- ning tree in the graph and then grows \\local spanning trees" whose sizes are speci#12;ed by a stochastic process. From

  17. THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deseri, Luca

    THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS L. DESERI AND J.M. GOLDEN Abstract. A general closed expression is given for the isothermal minimum free energy of a linear viscoelastic states [6] are uniquely related to histories and the work function is the maximum free energy

  18. A Counterexample to Additivity of Minimum Output Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Hastings

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a random construction of a pair of channels which gives, with non-zero probability for sufficiently large dimensions, a counterexample to the minimum output entropy conjecture. As shown by Shor, this implies a violation of the additivity conjecture for the classical capacity of quantum channels. The violation of the minimum output entropy conjecture is relatively small.

  19. 894 VOLUME 25 NUMBER 8 AUGUST 2007 NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY The minimum information required for reporting a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Mark

    and MPact (MIPS)10, has started to share the curation load and aims to regularly interchange data curated, genetic or predictive methods. During the process of manual curation, the raw data are extracted from

  20. "Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" " (Estimates5.6.8.1.2.

  1. Minimum Entangling Power is Close to Its Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianxin Chen; Zhengfeng Ji; David W Kribs; Bei Zeng

    2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum gate $U$ acting on a bipartite quantum system, its maximum (average, minimum) entangling power is the maximum (average, minimum) entanglement generation with respect to certain entanglement measure when the inputs are restricted to be product states. In this paper, we mainly focus on the 'weakest' one, i.e., the minimum entangling power, among all these entangling powers. We show that, by choosing von Neumann entropy of reduced density operator or Schmidt rank as entanglement measure, even the 'weakest' entangling power is generically very close to its maximal possible entanglement generation. In other words, maximum, average and minimum entangling powers are generically close. We then study minimum entangling power with respect to other Lipschitiz-continuous entanglement measures and generalize our results to multipartite quantum systems. As a straightforward application, a random quantum gate will almost surely be an intrinsically fault-tolerant entangling device that will always transform every low-entangled state to near-maximally entangled state.

  2. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  3. Mathematical Programming Approaches for Generating p-Efficient ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel Lejeune

    2010-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 25, 2010 ... The p-efficiency concept has been widely used to develop efficient methods to solve such problems. Those methods require the generation of ...

  4. Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Natural Resources Commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in...

  5. TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zsom, Andras

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...

  6. Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...

  7. affecting minimum alveolar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    close to the observed minimum mass. The Hubble mass can also be predicted. It is suggested that assumption 1 above could be tested using a cyclotron to accelerate particles...

  8. Tree-ring reconstruction of maximum and minimum temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , minimum temperatures, diurnal temperature range, changing tree-ring/climate relationships, b; Vaganov et al. 1999; Bar- ber et al. 2000; Lloyd, Fastie 2002). Similar changes during investigations of tree- ring growth/climate relationships in interior British Columbia (BC

  9. Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators – that is those capable of producing more than 100...

  10. Compressing Social Networks The Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safro, Ilya

    Compressing Social Networks The Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem Chad Waters School Orderings Heuristic Conclusion Motivation Determine the extent to which social networks can be compressed adjacency queries. Social networks are not random graphs. Exhibit distinctive local properties

  11. Minimum Cost Layout Decomposition and Legalization for Triple ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    problem as a minimum cost coloring problem, and it is relaxed to a nonlinear 0-1 ... ered as a promising technology for next-generation lithogra- phy. However ...

  12. A Repeated Game Formulation of Energy-Efficient Decentralized Power Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mael Le Treust; Samson Lasaulce

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Decentralized multiple access channels where each transmitter wants to selfishly maximize his transmission energy-efficiency are considered. Transmitters are assumed to choose freely their power control policy and interact (through multiuser interference) several times. It is shown that the corresponding conflict of interest can have a predictable outcome, namely a finitely or discounted repeated game equilibrium. Remarkably, it is shown that this equilibrium is Pareto-efficient under reasonable sufficient conditions and the corresponding decentralized power control policies can be implemented under realistic information assumptions: only individual channel state information and a public signal are required to implement the equilibrium strategies. Explicit equilibrium conditions are derived in terms of minimum number of game stages or maximum discount factor. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to compare the performance of the proposed power control policies with those already existing and exploiting the same information assumptions namely, those derived for the one-shot and Stackelberg games.

  13. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  14. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into account the electricity generation fuel mix, and lossesaccording to typical electricity generation fuel mix. Carbon

  15. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing heat-pump and solar water heaters in countriescountries, we consider solar water heaters to be the BAT.calculation assumes that solar water heaters reduce energy

  16. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 Table 6. Electric Storage Water Heater17 Table 7. Gas Storage Water Heater17 Table 8. Instantaneous Water Heater

  17. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    countries, we consider solar water heaters to be the BAT.calculation assumes that solar water heaters reduce energyU.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER –

  18. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study. IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2010. Comparison of ‘Energy Agency (IEA). 2010. World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris:would have. IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2010. Comparison of “

  19. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy vacuum insulated panels watts South Africa BUENASSouth Africa Reference U.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER – energy-

  20. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traditional storage tank water heaters and heat-pump orwater heaters are not considered as an alternative to storage tank

  1. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is the case for gas water heaters and furnaces, the maximum-traditional storage tank water heaters and heat-pump or16 Table 6. Electric Storage Water Heater

  2. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard for Residential Lighting in Chile, 2010 USResidential General Service Lighting in Chile Virginie E.focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale

  3. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Letschert. 2011. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Letschert. 2012. Fan Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-

  4. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Pump Reference U.S. DOE, 2011b EC, 2009b IndustrialHeat Pumps .. 18 Furnaces .. 19 Boilers 19 Fans . 20 Standby Power . 20 Clothes Dryers . 21 Industrial

  5. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the market today are heat-pump water heaters for electricas electric CO 2 heat-pump water heaters (3.0 EF, using CO 2fired absorption heat pump water heaters (approximately 1.4

  6. Mechanisms of phosphorus efficiency in potato genotypes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenk, Manfred K; Balemi, Tesfaye

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daucus carota L. ), and potato (Sola- num tuberosum L. ).fertilizer input required by potato, the use of genotypes /this study was to evaluate potato genotypes for P efficiency

  7. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? William J. Fisk, Spencer M Berkeley, CA 94720 May 10, 2013 ABSTRACT Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings

  8. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbara, Mamdouh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  9. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamdouh Abbara; Jean-Pierre Tillich

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  10. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    codes that require certain construction standards, industrial standards for energy efficiency management (ISO 50001) and system assessment (ANSI-ASME)).

  11. Efficient Power Management of Campus PCs Luca Chiaraviglio, Marco Mellia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellia, Marco

    a simple desktop PC requires about 100W to be simply up, despite its much more energy efficient design

  12. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovations and Trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and...

  13. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations and trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and strategies Portland,...

  14. BLIND DECONVOLUTION WITH MINIMUM RENYI'S ENTROPY Deniz Erdogmus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    BLIND DECONVOLUTION WITH MINIMUM RENYI'S ENTROPY Deniz Erdogmus1 , Jose C. Principe1 , Luis Vielva2-mail: [deniz , principe]@cnel.ufl.edu, luis@dicom.unican.es ABSTRACT Blind techniques attract the attention, from communications to control systems. Blind deconvolution is a problem that has been investigated

  15. The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications Kris Hauser Abstract on three example applications: generating human-interpretable excuses for failure, motion planning under their failures. · In human-robot interaction, semantically meaningful explanations would help people diagnose

  16. The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications Kris Hauser September 13 strategies. It is demonstrated on three example applications: gener- ating human-interpretable excuses, then they provide no explanation for the failure. For several applications, it would be useful for planners

  17. Network Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"

    transmission and data storage in networks. Its power comes from the improved flexibility that codeword symbolsNetwork Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang@cs.tamu.edu. Abstract-- Network coding provides elegant solutions to many data transmission problems. The usage

  18. arXiv:condmat/0310072 Minimum dissipation principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrielli, Davide

    uctuation principle which generalizes the well known Boltzmann{Einstein formula for the probability have opposite transformation properties under time reversal, the non dissipative part being in this respect akin to a magnetic term. We emphasize that the minimum dissipation principle is of general

  19. Storage Begins with Purchasing purchase minimum needed for experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Storage Begins with Purchasing · purchase minimum needed for experiment ­ do not "buy in bulk://www.ehs.washington.edu/forms/epo/peroxideguidelines.pdf #12;Chemical Storage Basics · https://web.mit.edu/environment/pdf/sop/sop_0023.pdf · http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/chsp/html/storage level · do not store chemicals in fume hoods · flammable storage refrigerator needed for flammable

  20. The Clique Partition Problem with Minimum Clique Size ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    May 5, 2005 ... Page 1 ... We will explain later in section 2.1, what we mean by “x is the .... since we don't know a concrete description for R(G, S), we will start from. ¯ ..... Now consider CPPMIN: S is the minimum size for each cluster, so the ...

  1. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving for predicting daily Rn have been widely used. However, when the paucity of detailed climatological data

  2. A minimum problem with free boundary for a degenerate quasilinear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 8, 2005 ... By the strong minimum principle, w0 = 0 in B5/8, since w0 ? 0 and w0(0) ..... 4.7 in [2] and pp. 19–20 in [3]; see also our proof of Theorem 5.1.

  3. A stochastic minimum principle and an adaptive pathwise algorithm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric power systems a b s t r a c t We present a numerical method for finite-horizon stochastic optimal control models. We derive a stochastic minimum principle (SMP) and then develop a numerical method based-parametric interpolation methods. We present results from a standard linear quadratic control model, and a realistic case

  4. The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

  5. Effect of mechanical parameters on dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Effect of mechanical parameters on dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures Jun Shintake energy structures Jun Shintake*a,b , Samuel Rosseta , Dario Floreanob , Herbert R. Sheaa a Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel, Switzerland b

  6. Information Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wenye

    transmission paths [8], [9]. By spending the energy resources in a wireless network wisely, the existingInformation Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense Yi Xu and Wenye Wang in large-scale multihop wireless networks because of the limited energy supplies from batteries. We

  7. Jamming-Aware Minimum Energy Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goeckel, Dennis L.

    1 Jamming-Aware Minimum Energy Routing in Wireless Networks Azadeh Sheikholeslami, Majid Ghaderi; however, energy-aware routing in the presence of active adversary (jammers) has not been considered. We. There has been some study of energy-aware ad hoc routing protocols in the literature [13], [14], [15], [16

  8. improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing policy priority the 1973 oil embargo. Codes by state but they generally establish a minimum energy efficiency stan- dard.S. Department of Energy to establish building code energy efficiency targets by January 1, 2014. it also

  9. Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdict, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

  10. Approximating the Minimum Hub Cover Problem on Planar Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 25, 2014 ... The proposed algorithm incrementally constructs a search tree representing the ..... Subsea: an efficient heuristic algorithm for subgraph ...

  11. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirements for energy-efficient design and construction,technologies used for energy-efficient design. Being able toand engineers design energy efficient buildings. Currently

  12. Observation of the Density Minimum in Deeply Supercooled Confined Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dazhi Liu; Yang Zhang; Chia-Cheng Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Peter H Poole; Sow-Hsin Chen

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to measure the density of heavy water contained in 1-D cylindrical pores of mesoporous silica material MCM-41-S-15, with pores of diameter of 15+-1 A. In these pores the homogenous nucleation process of bulk water at 235 K does not occur and the liquid can be supercooled down to at least 160 K. The analysis of SANS data allows us to determine the absolute value of the density of D2O as a function of temperature. We observe a density minimum at 210+-5 K with a value of 1.041+-0.003 g/cm3. We show that the results are consistent with the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled bulk water. This is the first experimental report of the existence of the density minimum in supercooled water.

  13. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  14. Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manual establishes the minimum implementation standards for cyber security management processes throughout the Department. No cancellation.

  15. Environmental Science and Management Requirements for a Minor in Environmental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Science and Management Requirements for a Minor in Environmental Studies To obtain a minor in Environmental Studies a student must complete a minimum of 28 credits (at least 12. Credits ESM 222 Applied environmental studies: science and policy

  16. Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

  17. SOLAR ROTATION RATE DURING THE CYCLE 24 MINIMUM IN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.i, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.ed [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum of solar cycle 24 is significantly different from most other minima in terms of its duration as well as its abnormally low levels of activity. Using available helioseismic data that cover epochs from the minimum of cycle 23 to now, we study the differences in the nature of the solar rotation between the minima of cycles 23 and 24. We find that there are significant differences between the rotation rates during the two minima. There are differences in the zonal-flow pattern too. We find that the band of fast rotating region close to the equator bifurcated around 2005 and recombined by 2008. This behavior is different from that during the cycle 23 minimum. By autocorrelating the zonal-flow pattern with a time shift, we find that in terms of solar dynamics, solar cycle 23 lasted for a period of 11.7 years, consistent with the result of Howe et al. (2009). The autocorrelation coefficient also confirms that the zonal-flow pattern penetrates through the convection zone.

  18. Efficiency Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:research community --EducationEfficiency

  19. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-StateEnergyHeavy Duty VehicleNuclearEnergy-Efficiency Sign In

  20. Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

  1. Materials Science Minor (Draft 3/26/12) This minor is intended for students who have chosen to take a minimum of 16 credits of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    Materials Science Minor (Draft 3/26/12) This minor is intended for students who have chosen to take a minimum of 16 credits of materials science coursework in any appropriate department. Required: 1) ME 280 or MSC 202 Introduction to Materials Science Prerequisites below or with permission of instructor: MTH

  2. ECONOMICS BA DEGREE MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FLOWCHART FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ECONOMICS BA DEGREE MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FLOWCHART FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013 (see http://www.catalog.sdes.ucf.edu/) All B.A. Economics majors will be required to take a minimum of seven (7) electives by choosing from the following: PREREQUISITES REQUIRED ECO 3223 Money and Banking ECO 3410 Mathematical Economics ECO 3703

  3. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  4. Little Green Codes: Energy-Efficient Short-Range Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Little Green Codes: Energy-Efficient Short-Range Communication Pulkit Grover and Anant Sahai, the optimizing rate for our bounds on the energy consumption of green codes converges to 1 in the context of AWGN energy as green codes. Classical information theoretic approach finds the minimum transmission energy

  5. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

  6. Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense...

  7. Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers Harry Atkinson to better mixing of combustion gasses. A. An over fire air system should be installed to direct high.c. pressure minimum. Oil burner fans from 1980 on will usually be a good source for a used fan. a. ½ h.p. on 2

  8. Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors Laboratoire de Technologie Optique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    57 Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors M. Duban Laboratoire de Technologie Optique the solar energy during a day or a year, independant of their dimensions, the amount of energy collected seuils K = 0 et K = 0,5 (K étant le rapport entre 1'energie minimum nécessaire pour un fonctionnement

  9. Energy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    consumption of a device has to be minimum to increase battery life, the energy-delay- product hasEnergy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking Saraju P. Mohanty clocking in a co-ordinated manner in order to reduce energy consumption of datapath circuits. In dynamic

  10. Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

    Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense...

  11. Fermion Masses and Mixings from a Minimum Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo Alonso

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $\\left[U(3)\\right]^5\\otimes {\\mathcal O}(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one mixing angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and one maximal relative Majorana phase. The scheme presented here could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay and cosmological measurements.

  12. Efficiency United (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United program is intended to provide assistance and incentives to customers who employ energy efficient measures. Programs offer rebates on natural gas water heaters, clothes...

  13. Minimum pressure envelope cavitation analysis using two-dimensional panel method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Christopher J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis tool for calculating minimum pressure envelopes was developed using XFOIL. This thesis presents MATLAB® executables that interface with a modified version of XFOIL for determining the minimum pressure of a foil ...

  14. The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmonds, Eric V

    Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data ...

  15. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    References Australia Equipment Energy Efficiency Committee.Energy Efficiency Marking Level 5 requirements. Lastly, ENERGY STAR, California MEPS, Australia

  16. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report on Energy Efficient Data Centers - A Rocky MountainReport on Energy Efficient Data Centers - A Rocky MountainEnergy Efficient Data Centers Prepared by William Tschudi,

  17. Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone HELP Energy Efficiency Loan Program is designed to help homeowners improve energy efficiency with special financing for high-efficiency heating, air conditioning, insulation, windows,...

  18. Justification for Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschart, R. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of Energy Efficient (or EE) motors in NEMA frame sizes, (1-200 HP). It examines the economics of using EE motors for new motor requirements, as replacements for motors - instead of rewinding...

  19. Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayeed, Akbar M.

    Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels Tzu-Han Chou the secret key capacity. We analyze the low-SNR regime to quantify the minimum energy per secret key bit of conventional channel capacity, there is a non-zero SNR that achieves the minimum energy per key bit. A time

  20. LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes

  1. Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings C. R. Sullivan J. D. Mc the IEEE. #12;Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings Charles R. Sullivan://engineering.dartmouth.edu/inductor Abstract--Litz-wire windings for gapped inductors are optimized for minimum cost within a loss constraint

  2. An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi the necessary features of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms the performance of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on

  3. An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms for their imple- mentation. We of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on-demand ad

  4. Does the current minimum validate (or invalidate) cycle prediction methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathaway, David H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This deep, extended solar minimum and the slow start to Cycle 24 strongly suggest that Cycle 24 will be a small cycle. A wide array of solar cycle prediction techniques have been applied to predicting the amplitude of Cycle 24 with widely different results. Current conditions and new observations indicate that some highly regarded techniques now appear to have doubtful utility. Geomagnetic precursors have been reliable in the past and can be tested with 12 cycles of data. Of the three primary geomagnetic precursors only one (the minimum level of geomagnetic activity) suggests a small cycle. The Sun's polar field strength has also been used to successfully predict the last three cycles. The current weak polar fields are indicative of a small cycle. For the first time, dynamo models have been used to predict the size of a solar cycle but with opposite predictions depending on the model and the data assimilation. However, new measurements of the surface meridional flow indicate that the flow was substantially fa...

  5. A 93% efficiency reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter using on-chip ferroelectric capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Damak, Dina Reda

    Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) has become one of the standard techniques for energy efficient operation of systems by powering circuit blocks at the minimum voltage that meets the desired performance [1]. Switched Capacitor ...

  6. PDSF Job Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime ...

  7. PHEVs Component Requirements and Efficiencies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49,PHEV1 DOERequirements and

  8. FEMP Updates Product Energy-Efficiency Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in Representative Geologic MediaTreatmentPROJECT-SPECIFICPracticesFEMP UESCUpdates

  9. Optimization of VAV AHU Terminal Box Minimum Airflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the optimal terminal box airflow is a complex process which is influenced by various factors, such as weather condition, supply air temperature, primary air fraction and internal load. A guideline for determination of a cost efficient...

  10. Energy Efficiency and Green Building Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March, 2006, Wisconsin enacted SB 459, the Energy Efficiency and Renewables Act. With respect to energy efficiency, this bill requires the Department of Administration (DOA) to prescribe and...

  11. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  12. Energy Efficiency Analysis of MISO-OFDM Communication Systems Considering Power and Capacity Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Cheng-Xiang

    Energy Efficiency Analysis of MISO-OFDM Communication Systems Considering Power and Capacity efficiency of multi-input single-output and orthogonal frequency division multiplex- ing (MISO problem of MISO-OFDM communication systems, the minimum subchannel transmission power is analyzed

  13. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  14. MASTER'S of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Plan Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    of PUBPOL courses LN 0015 Minimum 30 units in the program LN 0020 Minimum 5.0 GPA in the program RQ 5182

  15. EIA Behavioral Economics & Energy Efficiency Workshop - Meeting...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    this point was a potential law that could be passed, say, in 2015 requiring all Federal Agencies to make purchases in the top 2% of energy efficiency (EE) state of the art,...

  16. An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan Hemant

    Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically ...

  17. Reflections on a record minimum The numbers are in 2012 broke the record for minimum sea ice extent and is still heading down (see

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in climate models. The approach was to freeze an icebreaker into the pack ice and drift for a year makingReflections on a record minimum The numbers are in ­ 2012 broke the record for minimum sea ice extent and is still heading down (see Figure 1). The sea ice extent data tell an unequivocal story of ice

  18. BER Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Attendees 2015 ASCR Requirements Review 2015 Previous Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet...

  19. ASCR Requirements Review 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review 2015 ASCR Attendees 2015 Previous Reviews Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet...

  20. Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manual establishes the minimum implementation standards for cyber security management processes throughout the Department. No cancellation. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09.

  1. Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp, E-mail: rahe@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (?f) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the ?f(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the ?f signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of ?f with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the ?f with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the ?f(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the ?f minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup ¯}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

  2. Neutrino Mixing and Masses from a Minimum Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, R; Isidori, G; Maiani, L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $[SU(3)]^5\\otimes {\\mathcal O}(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and precise values for the two Majorana phases. Adding small perturbations the predicted structure for the neutrino mass matrix is in excellent agreement with present observations and could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay. The generalization of these results to arbitrary sew-saw models is also discussed.

  3. R Coronae Borealis Stars at Minimum Light -- UW Cen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; B. E. Reddy; D. L. Lambert

    2004-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Two high-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star UW Cen in decline are discussed. A spectrum from mid-1992 when the star had faded by three magnitudes shows just a few differences with the spectrum at maximum light. The ubiquitous sharp emission lines seen in R CrB at a similar drop below maximum light are absent. In contrast, a spectrum from mid-2002 when the star was five magnitudes below maximum light shows an array of sharp emission lines and a collection of broad emission lines. Comparisons are made with spectra of R CrB obtained during the deep 1995-1996 minimum. The many common features are discussed in terms of a torus-jet geometry.

  4. On Hastings' counterexamples to the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki

    2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hastings recently reported a randomized construction of channels violating the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture. Here we revisit his argument, presenting a simplified proof. In particular, we do not resort to the exact probability distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of a random bipartite pure state, as in the original proof, but rather derive the necessary large deviation bounds by a concentration of measure argument. Furthermore, we prove non-additivity for the overwhelming majority of channels consisting of a Haar random isometry followed by partial trace over the environment, for an environment dimension much bigger than the output dimension. This makes Hastings' original reasoning clearer and extends the class of channels for which additivity can be shown to be violated.

  5. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case study findings, and participation in data center industry meetings and workshops. Industry partners enthusiastically provided valuable insight into current practice, and helped to identify areas where additional public interest research could lead to significant efficiency improvement. This helped to define and prioritize the research agenda. The interaction involved industry representatives with expertise in all aspects of data center facilities, including specialized facility infrastructure systems and computing equipment. In addition to the input obtained through industry workshops, LBNL's participation in a three-day, comprehensive design ''charrette'' hosted by the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) yielded a number of innovative ideas for future research.

  6. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  7. Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement: Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates Chronological History of Federal...

  8. Energy-Efficient Building Standards for State Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Via Executive Order 27, Maine requires that construction or renovation of state buildings must incorporate "green building" standards that would achieve "significant" energy efficiency and...

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Energy Efficiency Expert Evaluations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts. Upcoming Webinars June 5: Live Webinar on Energy Efficiency...

  10. Utility Energy Efficiency Schemes: Savings Obligations and Trading...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schemes: Savings Obligations and Trading **Subscription Required** Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Utility Energy Efficiency Schemes: Savings Obligations...

  11. 3. MATERIAL CERTIFICATIONS REQUIRED NO RADIOGRAPHY REQUIRED.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    SHALL BE DYE PENETRANT INSPECTED. ASME SECTION IX. NO CODE STAMP REQUIRED. 1. WELDING TO BE PERFORMED is property of 1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES 2. INTERPRET DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PER ASME Y14.5M 3

  12. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. More information on SEAD is available from its website at http://www.superefficient.org/.

  13. Efficiency United (Gas)- Commercial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United Program, administered by CLEAResult Consulting, provides commercial gas incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

  14. Melting efficiency in fusion welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic to our knowledge of the science of welding is an understanding of the melting efficiency, which indicates how much of the heat deposited by the welding process is used to produce melting. Recent calorimetric studies of GTAW, PAW, and LBW processes have measured the net heat input to the part thereby quantifying the energy transfer efficiency and in turn permitting an accurate determination of the melting efficiency. It is indicated that the weld process variables can dramatically affect the melting efficiency. This limiting value is shown to depend on the weld heat flow geometry as predicted by analytical solutions to the heat flow equation and as demonstrated by the recent empirical data. A new dimensionless parameter is used to predict the melting efficiency and is shown to correlate extremely well with recent empirical data. This simple prediction methodology is notable because it requires only a knowledge of the weld schedule and the material properties in order to estimate melting efficiency. 22 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Building Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality - You Can Have Both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 does not require large increases in utility costs. Building efficiency does not have to be sacrificed for a healthy building. The ASHRAE 62- 1989 requirement...

  16. FINANCE MAJOR UPPER DIVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 & 2010 CATALOG YEARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    FINANCE MAJOR UPPER DIVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 & 2010 CATALOG YEARS Course of Finance Minimum grade of C required for Finance majors IDS 302: Intro to Operations Management MGT 350 Financial Accounting FIN 321: Managerial Economics FIN 325: Intermediate Finance FIN 323 with a C FIN 327

  17. FINANCE MAJOR UPPER DIVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR 2011/12 CATALOG YEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    FINANCE MAJOR UPPER DIVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR 2011/12 CATALOG YEAR Course Grade Prerequisites/Notes BA 300 Ethical Decision Making in Business (1 unit) FIN 323: Fundamentals of Finance Minimum grade of C required for Finance majors MIS 302: Intro to Operations Management MGT 350: Management

  18. LGS AO photon return simulations and laser requirements for the Gemini LGS AO program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    additional Watt of laser power increases the laser purchase and operational costs, it is highly desirable like Gemini North and Gemini South require minimum laser output power in the 10 W range. Since each to understand how laser parameters can be optimized in order to decrease the total laser power requirement

  19. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007. Enabling an Energy-Efficient Future Internet ThroughIEEE 802.3az: The Road to Energy Efficient Ethernet. IEEEPHY Compliant With New Energy Efficient Ethernet Guidelines;

  20. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  1. Energy Efficient Radio Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Energy Efficient Radio Resource Management in a Coordinated Multi-Cell Distributed Antenna System Omer HALILOGLU Introduction System Model Performance Evaluation Conclusion References Energy Efficient Hacettepe University 5 September 2014 Omer HALILOGLU (Hacettepe University) Energy Efficient Radio Resource

  2. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Varone. 2002a. Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres. ANew Buildings S Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres:FC Source: Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres: A

  3. Minimum-Bias and Early QCD Physics in ALICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus; for the ALICE collaboration

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In addition to its heavy-ion physics program, it also has a rich proton-proton physics program benefiting from a detector with a low momentum cut-off (pT about 50 MeV/c) and a small material budget (about 11% of a radiation length until the outer wall of the main tracking detector, the Time-Projection Chamber). ALICE has excellent means of particle identification (PID) with methods ranging from specific energy loss and time of flight to transition and Cherenkov radiation. The good primary and secondary vertex resolution allows for measurements of strangeness and heavy flavor with low backgrounds. ALICE has taken proton-proton collision data at 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV. In this article results of the first minimum-bias and soft-QCD measurements are presented. Inclusive pseudorapidity, multiplicity, and transverse momentum distributions are discussed as well as distributions of identified particles including strange particles. Further, results on two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in collisions at the LHC are shown.

  4. FES Requirements Review 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Review 2014 FES Attendees 2014 BES Requirements Review 2014 Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638...

  5. BES Requirements Review 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Review 2014 BES Requirements Review 2014 BES Attendees 2014 Requirements Review Reports Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638...

  6. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  7. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  8. Energy Efficiency -- Home Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues...

  9. Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports data center efficiency initiatives by encouraging Federal agencies to adopt best practices and construct energy-efficient data centers.

  10. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and how to interpret efficiency data. A perspective is given from which to evaluate available energy efficient motor offerings for a given application....

  11. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from energy-intensive industries. See "Energy-Efficiency Measurement: Discussion". bluenext.gif (2052 bytes) Energy-Efficiency Measurement line divider For specific questions...

  12. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  13. Energy-Efficient Mortgages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homeowners can take advantage of energy efficient mortgages (EEM) to either finance energy efficiency improvements to existing homes, including renewable energy technologies, or to increase their...

  14. Allocating Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of present and possible future ways to allocate and assign benefits for reserve requirements.

  15. BER Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management and analysis of geospatial data involvingmanipulation, analysis, and display of geospatial data,Analysis and interpretation require mapping geospatial

  16. FES Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    FES Science Network Requirements Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008 #12;FES Science Network Requirements Workshop Fusion Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Gaithersburg, MD ­ March 13 and 14, 2008 ESnet

  17. Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting standards for outdoor area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting with a minimum of 3 foot candles. This lighting level is for daytime and at night. Public Streets Streets must have a minimum of one foot candles average with a minimum of .6 foot candles. Augmented lighting should

  18. Job Postings The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain posted before it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Job Postings 121610 The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain: EXTERNAL JOB POSTINGS1, 2 · Staff ­ one week minimum · Administrative ­ two weeks minimum · Faculty ­ two weeks minimum 1 The recruitment process for EXTERNAL job postings may be opened to: all

  19. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  20. Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App Graphic of the inside of a house, with table and chairs,...

  1. Maryland Efficiency Program Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  2. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projectionsis taken from the annual energy outlook (AEO) 2010 (DOE/EIA-

  3. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    central air conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) areair conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) UnregulatedM i l l o 10 i n s 2. Water Heaters DOE has issued a final

  4. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) are modeledair conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) UnregulatedBAT option for electric water heater and condensing water

  5. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) 2005 (EIA, 2009), whichEIA-0383(2010)) Energy Information Administration, Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

  6. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)] [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  7. Energy-Efficient Scheduling of HPC Applications in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    Energy-Efficient Scheduling of HPC Applications in Cloud Computing Environments Saurabh Kumar Garg sustainable. Hence, energy-efficient solutions are required that can address the high increase in the energy centers for a Cloud provider. We consider a number of energy efficiency fac- tors such as energy cost

  8. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  9. Constructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    algorithm, power awareness, ad hoc networks, energy consumption optimization, broad- cast and multicastConstructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department related to power consump- tion in this kind of network. One is the minimum-energy broadcast tree problem

  10. Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialatte, François

    1 Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information Backpropagation L;210 Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information Backpropagation L.-Q. Zhang, A- composition approach, for multichannel blind de- convolution of non-minimumphase systems. In 20] we has

  11. On the random 2-stage minimum spanning tree Abraham D. Flaxman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivelevich, Michael

    On the random 2-stage minimum spanning tree Abraham D. Flaxman Department of Mathematical Sciences random variables, uniformly distributed between 0 and 1, then the expected cost of the minimum spanning tree is asymptotically equal to #16;(3) = P 1 i=1 i 3 . Here we consider the following stochastic two

  12. A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unger, Ron

    in a simple model of protein folding. Results: Three possible evolutionary processes are explored. First can be achieved. The assumption that proteins fold to a conformation which is in the global minimum sequences that can find the global minimum [5]. In computer science terms this means that `protein folding

  13. Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic PETER BRANDT) ABSTRACT Changes in the ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North Atlantic centimeters per second in the depth range of the OMZ contribute to the ventilation of the OMZ. A conceptual

  14. Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage Jun Li, Baochun--Distributed storage systems store redundant data to tolerate failures of storage nodes and lost data should be repaired when storage nodes fail. A class of MDS codes, called minimum- storage regenerating (MSR) codes

  15. Guidelines for Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    this process we present the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR ExperimentsGuidelines for Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments Jim F Vandesompele,6 Carl T. Wittwer,12 and Stephen A. Bustin13 There is growing interest in digital PCR (dPCR) be

  16. Towards a deployable satellite gripper based on multisegment dielectric elastomer minimum energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Towards a deployable satellite gripper based on multisegment dielectric elastomer minimum energy dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures O. A. Araromi*a , I. Gavrilovichb , J. Shintakea , S. Rosseta , H. R. Sheaa a Microsystems For Space Technologies Laboratory, �cole Polytechnique Fédérale de

  17. Non-Additivity of Minimum Output p-$\\mathbf{R\\acute{e}nyi}$ Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nengkun Yu; Mingsheng Ying

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hastings disproved additivity conjecture for minimum output entropy by using random unitary channels. In this note, we employ his approach to show that minimum output $p-$R\\'{e}nyi entropy is non-additive for $p\\in(0,p_0)\\cup(1-p_0,1)$ where $p_0\\approx 0.2855$.

  18. Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Y. Charlie

    Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks Sabyasachi ad hoc networks. Previously, minimum-energy broadcast that exploits the broadcast nature of radio not be within direct transmis- sion range of each other. Such decentralized networks can enable flexible

  19. Minimum-Energy Topology Control Algorithms in Ad Hoc Joseph Y. Halpern Li (Erran) Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    for an extended period of time. In order to accomplish this without a renewable energy source, energy conservationMinimum-Energy Topology Control Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks1 Joseph Y. Halpern Li (Erran) Li Dept Holmdel, NJ 07733 halpern@cs.cornell.edu erranlli@dnrc.bell-labs.com August 7, 2004 1 Based on "Minimum-Energy

  20. The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spielman, Daniel A.

    1 The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman Abstract--Worst-case upper bounds are derived on the minimum distance of parallel concatenated Turbo codes that parallel-concatenated Turbo codes and repeat-convolute codes with sub-linear memory are asymptotically bad

  1. Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manual establishes minimum implementation standards for cyber security management processes throughout the Department. Admin Chg 1 dated 9-1-09; Admin Chg 2 dated 12-22-09. Canceled by DOE O 205.1B. No cancellations.

  2. Nutritional requirements of sesame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eller, Joe C

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L)&RARYi ~st t~6~ 0F TEXACO NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis By JOE C. ELLER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in. partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M... AS TER 0 F SCIENC E January 1958 Major Subject: Agronomy NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis JOE C. ELLER Approved. as to style and content by. ' Chairman of Committee Head qg Department January 1958 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes...

  3. Tax advantages of a deferred minimum annual royalty provision in oil and gas leases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.B. Jr.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how a deferred minimum annual royalty provision can serve to meet conflicting economic demands without adverse tax consequences. A deferred minimum annual royalty provision is an economic hybrid of a production royalty and a lease bonus. To a lessor, it has the advantage of guaranteeing a minimum return without regard to production. It should also encourage prompt development of the lease since a lessee will desire to void incurring subsequent minimum annual royalties on unproductive acreage. To an accrual-basis lessee, it has greater tax advantages than a lease bonus because it is deductible in the year paid or incurred. Although it exposes the lessee to more economic risk, this risk can be reduced through proper planning. In appropriate circumstances, a deferred minimum annual-royalty provision may therefore be worthy of consideration by either or both parties in an oil- and gas-leasing transaction. 44 references.

  4. RPAM & Energy Order Requirements

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    430.1C, Real Property Asset Management and DOE O 430.2B, Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy and Transportation Management Requirements, Overlap & Differences Office of...

  5. Required Annual Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Required Annual Notices The Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 (WHCRA) The medical programs sponsored by LANS will not restrict benefits if you or your dependent...

  6. Transuranic Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The guide provides criteria for determining if a waste is to be managed in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter III, Transuranic Waste Requirements.

  7. Financing of Industrial Energy Efficiency Through State Energy Offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.; Weidenbaum, A.

    almost 80 percent of the total energy (11). Over the last twenty years, many loan programs have been offered to residential and commercial energy consumers by state energy offices and electric utilities. Notable among the recent programs are those... and veterans' organizations. The interest subsidies work as follows: ? The borrower applies to one of 105 participating commercial lending institutions for a loan to undertake an energy-efficiency improvement project. Some lenders have minimum loan...

  8. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  9. New York City- Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005 New York City passed a law (Local Law No. 86) making a variety of green building and energy efficiency requirements for municipal buildings and other projects funded with money from the...

  10. General Responsibilities and Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The material presented in this guide provides suggestions and acceptable ways of implementing DOE M 435.1-1 and should not be viewed as additional or mandatory requirements. The objective of the guide is to ensure that responsible individuals understand what is necessary and acceptable for implementing the requirements of DOE M 435.1-1.

  11. Determination of minimum reflux in the distillation of multicomponent mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Charles Donald

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as the smallest possible value of reflux ratio at which the specified separation can be carried out. This requires in- finite plates in both sections. a3 Murdoch has shown that when there are infinite plates in both sec- tions~ the top product contains... of con- stant composition attained by the use of infinite plates in the rectifying section is called the rectifying pinch. In the same manner a zone of con- stant composition~ or strip;ing section pinch, is reached by calculating up the column from...

  12. Energy Efficiency Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillingham, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their energy consumption to stay competitive. An alternative to reduced energy consumption is to put in place an energy efficiency strategy. However, while most plastic manufactures are aware of the energy efficiency opportunities in their facilities...

  13. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The 2013 Three Year Efficiency Plans have not yet been approved. The process is underway. For the latest draft plan, review the Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council [http://www.ma...

  14. Energy Efficiency Goals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, Missouri enacted the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act, creating energy efficiency sales and peak reduction goals to be met through investment in demand side management. The goals...

  15. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

  16. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information and examples of state financing for energy efficiency programs, with descriptions on implementation methods and concerns.

  17. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500...

  18. OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF.B. Blevins Executive Director Valerie Hall Deputy Director Efficiency, Renewables and Demand Analysis Elaine Hussey Contract Manager #12;Acknowledgments The Efficiency Committee expresses its gratitude

  19. ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Skylights provide natural day-lighting.· High-efficiency lighting reduces energy· costs and heat gain

  20. Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative)______ (Fraction of DNA spread on plate) = ______ µg plasmid DNA spread on plate #12;2 5. Transformation efficiency

  1. Buildings Energy Efficiency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Efficiency Wind Biomass Natural Gas Combined Cycle Nuclear Coal IGCC Photovoltaics RangeofBuildings Energy Efficiency Policy ­ A Brief History Steven Nadel Executive Director American Council for an Energy- Efficient Economy #12;U.S. Energy Use in Relation to GDP 1970-2008 0.0 50.0 100

  2. Promulgating Nuclear Safety Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Applies to all Nuclear Safety Requirements Adopted by the Department to Govern the Conduct of its Nuclear Activities. Cancels DOE P 410.1. Canceled by DOE N 251.85.

  3. BES Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Directors of the Office of Science, Office of AdvancedOffice of Basic Energy Sciences. This is LBNL report LBNL-BES Science Network Requirements Report of the Basic Energy

  4. Timeline for Net Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x By July 31 of each Forecast Year, BPA publishes all Load Following customers' Net Requirements data for the two years of the upcoming Rate Period. 17.6.1 7312010 Yes...

  5. Conditions Required by Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed I.

    No No Sto H 2 NoIs it required by law "Violence on children"?164.512 (c) (1) H CE may disclose to government to LEO HCE may not disclose to LEO H No Yes No Required by law: "reporting certain type of injuries"? H disclose to LEO H 164.512 (f) (1) (ii) (C)(2) It provides that the request is specific and limited in scope

  6. Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,Award RecipientsActMission to ChinaRequirements Requirements

  7. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. Standards and Requirements Identification Document (SRID) Requirements Management System and Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP), River Protection Project (RPP), CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), will use a computer based requirements management system. The system will serve as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) requirements and links to implementing procedures and other documents. By managing requirements as one integrated set, CHG will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. CHG has chosen the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS{trademark}) as the preferred computer based requirements management system. Accordingly, the S/RID program will use DOORS{trademark}. DOORS{trademark} will replace the Environmental Requirements Management Interface (ERMI) system as the tool for S/RID data management. The DOORS{trademark} S/RID test project currently resides on the DOORSTM test server. The S/RID project will be migrated to the DOORS{trademark} production server. After the migration the S/RID project will be considered a production project and will no longer reside on the test server.

  8. IDAPA 37.03.03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3.03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction and Use of Injection Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  9. Online Supplement to "Bounding Distributions for the Weight of a Minimum Spanning Tree in Stochastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shier, Douglas R.

    Online Supplement to "Bounding Distributions for the Weight of a Minimum Spanning Tree in Stochastic Networks" Kevin R. Hutson · Douglas R. Shier Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Denison

  10. MINIMUM REJECTION SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS Nahid Saberi and Mark J. Coates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MINIMUM REJECTION SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS Nahid Saberi and Mark J. Coates Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering McGill University Montreal, QC, Canada E-mail: nahid.saberi

  11. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  12. Statistical Analysis and Time Series Models for Minimum/Maximum Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    temperatures, thereby reducing the adverse effect of global warming in the Antarctic Peninsula. Keywords that the observed increase in the minimum temperatures is a consequence of human activity rather than natural causes

  13. General Properties on Applying the Principle of Minimum Sensitivity to High-order Perturbative QCD Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang Ma; Xing-Gang Wu; Hong-Hao Ma; Hua-Yong Han

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the key components of perturbative QCD theory, it is helpful to find a systematic and reliable way to set the renormalization scale for a high-energy process. The conventional treatment is to take a typical momentum as the renormalization scale, which assigns an arbitrary range and an arbitrary systematic error to pQCD predictions, leading to the well-known renormalization scheme and scale ambiguities. As a practical solution for such scale setting problem, the "Principle of Minimum Sensitivity" (PMS), has been proposed in the literature. The PMS suggests to determine an optimal scale for the pQCD approximant of an observable by requiring its slope over the scheme and scale changes to vanish. In the paper, we present a detailed discussion on general properties of PMS by utilizing three quantities $R_{e^+e^-}$, $R_\\tau$ and $\\Gamma(H\\rightarrow b\\bar{b})$ up to four-loop QCD corrections. After applying the PMS, the accuracy of pQCD prediction, the pQCD convergence, the pQCD predictive power and etc., have been discussed. Furthermore, we compare PMS with another fundamental scale setting approach, i.e. the Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC)... Our results show that PMS does provide a practical way to set the effective scale for high-energy process, and the PMS prediction agrees with the PMC one by including enough high-order QCD corrections, both of which shall be more accurate than the prediction under the conventional scale setting. However, the PMS pQCD convergence is an accidental, which usually fails to achieve a correct prediction of unknown high-order contributions with next-to-leading order QCD correction only, i.e. it is always far from the "true" values predicted by including more high-order contributions.

  14. Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

  15. Introducing Minimum Fisher Regularisation Tomography to Bolometric and Soft X-ray Diagnostic Systems of the COMPASS Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introducing Minimum Fisher Regularisation Tomography to Bolometric and Soft X-ray Diagnostic Systems of the COMPASS Tokamak

  16. 322 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN OF MINIMUM COST IRRIGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    OF MINIMUM COST IRRIGATION CANAL SECTIONS By Prabhata K. Swamee,1 Govinda C. Mishra,2 and Bhagu R. Chahar3

  17. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    efficiency, purchase price, energy costs, hours of operation, load factor, and utility rebates are taken into account. -Utility rebate program data, which includes minimum qualifying efficiency and rebate dollar values. -Menus and extensive Help screens... in accordance with these two assumptions, the private sector will supply the delivery mechanisms for Motor Challenge tools because they will represent a value added to their existing commercial products. Industry and DOE Drivers Industry and DOE, in general...

  18. On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden-Eijnden 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden and simplified version of the string method in collective variables for computing minimum free energy paths) the minimum free energy path (MFEP) plays an important role. Given a set of collective variables to describe

  19. Recently, a new Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) scheme has been proposed that increases energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin, Todd M.

    energy efficiency significantly by allowing the processor to operate at or slightly below the minimum the point of timing failure can yield significant energy sav- ings. Razor [1] is one such example padding in the operating voltage, which in turn increases the energy consumption of designs. Since

  20. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking Industrial Eneergy Efficiency and Co2 Emissions”.2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toCanada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa. NRCAN, 2009.

  1. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  2. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  3. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  4. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  5. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals' absorptivity, the surface finish, and the laser wavelength, all play an important role in affecting the energy transfer efficiency, but the extent of their influence and our understanding of the influence of other process variables is not well understood. In addition, it is widely thought that only the LBW or EBW processes can be selected for applications where thermal damage and distortion from the welding process must be kept to a minimum. For these reasons, we have looked forward to performing these calorimetric experiments since they potentially can answer such important questions as: whether or not the melting efficiency of the LBW process is superior to that obtainable with conventional GTAW and PAW welding processes This study was prompted by poor production yields on switching device due to cracking of the ceramic header after final closure welding with the CO{sub 2} LBW process. This calorimetric study was begun in hopes of determining if allowed variations in production process control variables were responsible for increases in heat input and the resulting thermal stresses. By measuring the net heat input to the workpiece with the calorimeter and by measuring the laser output energy and the weld fusion zone size it was possible to determine the magnitudes of both the energy transfer efficiency and the melting efficiency as well as observe their dependence on the process variables. 3 refs.

  6. Requirements Definition Stage

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses development of a Software Configuration Management Plan to track and control work products, analysis of the system owner/users' business processes and needs, translation of those processes and needs into formal requirements, and planning the testing activities to validate the performance of the software product.

  7. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  8. Energy Efficiency: A Priority 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency: A Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a... priority Energenia?s profile Consulting firm specializing exclusively in energy efficency Founded by Robert Patenaude in 2003 National Bank?s main partner for the development, implementation and supervision of the energy efficiciency program since...

  9. Energy Efficiency: A Priority

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency: A Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a... priority Energenia?s profile Consulting firm specializing exclusively in energy efficency Founded by Robert Patenaude in 2003 National Bank?s main partner for the development, implementation and supervision of the energy efficiciency program since...

  10. Bearwall Energy Efficient Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovero,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CATEE Conference November 20, 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Brief History of Bearwall… Who We Are: ? Manuel Sovero ? Luis Osorio Energy Conservation... Experience: ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Programs… ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Bearwall Methodology… Introduction...

  11. Appliance Efficiency Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  12. Energy Efficiency Links

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to research, develop, and use advanced energy efficiency, renewable energy, pollution prevention technologies for industrial customers. The site includes information on...

  13. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  14. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  15. Efficiency Maine Trust

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maine's public benefits fund for energy efficiency was authorized originally in 1997 by the state's electric-industry restructuring legislation. Under the initial arrangement, the administration of...

  16. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Connecticut's original electric-industry restructuring legislation (Public Act 98-28), enacted in April 1998, created separate funds to support energy efficiency and renewable energy.* The...

  17. Turning requirements into opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.M. [Tenneco Gas, Houston, TX (United States); Brenner, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current emphasis on regulatory reinvention at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides opportunities for companies to work with government to devise innovative and cost-effective solutions to meet environmental challenges. A good example of this is the current, cooperative working relationship between Tenneco Gas, EPA and certain state environmental agencies. Through this program, Tenneco has the flexibility necessary to implement an efficient and cost-effective strategy to enhance air quality and achieve greater environmental protection. This is illustrated by Tenneco`s attempts to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 by reducing its emission of NO{sub x}.

  18. PLEASE NOTE: This document is only intended to be a quick reference sheet. Students must check each concentration's web page for additional and important notes that are not on this document. Students must complete a MINIMUM of 15 credits for each area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    :641 - 670 Special Topics Courses Management Science and Information Systems Required Foundation: 198 Quality Management and Control 799:659 Supply Chain Solutions w/ERP/SAP I 799:660 Supply Chain Solutions w and Pharmaceutical Management which require 18 minimum credits. Additionally, all students in the MBA program must

  19. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the case for building energy-efficiency labels. 3.1 Trendsenergy efficiency. Building energy efficiency labels are anThe use of building energy efficiency labels may be the

  20. Upgrades to meet LANL SF, 121-2011, hazardous waste facility permit requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Sean B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johns - Hughes, Kathryn W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of San IIdefonso have requested information from LANL regarding implementation of the revision to LANL's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (the RCRA Permit). On January 26, 2011, LANL staff from the Waste Disposition Project and the Environmental Protection Division will provide a status update to Pueblo members at the offices of the San IIdefonso Department of Environmental and Cultural Preservation. The Waste Disposition Project presentation will focus on upgrades and improvements to LANL waste management facilities at TA-50 and TA-54. The New Mexico Environment Department issued LANL's revised Hazardous Waste Facility permit on November 30, 2010 with a 30-day implementation period. The Waste Disposition Project manages and operates four of LANL's permitted facilities; the Waste Characterization, Reduction and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) at TA-SO, and Area G, Area L and the Radioassay and Nondestructive Testing facility (RANT) at TA-54. By implementing a combination of permanent corrective action activities and shorter-term compensatory measures, WDP was able to achieve functional compliance on December 30, 2010 with new Permit requirements at each of our facilities. One component of WOP's mission at LANL is centralized management and disposition of the Laboratory's hazardous and mixed waste. To support this mission objective, WOP has undertaken a project to upgrade our facilities and equipment to achieve fully compliant and efficient waste management operations. Upgrades to processes, equipment and facilities are being designed to provide defense-in-depth beyond the minimum, regulatory requirements where worker safety and protection of the public and the environment are concerned. Upgrades and improvements to enduring waste management facilities and operations are being designed so as not to conflict with future closure activities at Material Disposal Area G and Material Disposal Area L.

  1. Hamiltonian gadgets with reduced resource requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudong Cao; Ryan Babbush; Jacob Biamonte; Sabre Kais

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of the adiabatic model of quantum computation requires efficient encoding of the solution to computational problems into the lowest eigenstate of a Hamiltonian that supports universal adiabatic quantum computation. Experimental systems are typically limited to restricted forms of 2-body interactions. Therefore, universal adiabatic quantum computation requires a method for approximating quantum many-body Hamiltonians up to arbitrary spectral error using at most 2-body interactions. Hamiltonian gadgets, introduced around a decade ago, offer the only current means to address this requirement. Although the applications of Hamiltonian gadgets have steadily grown since their introduction, little progress has been made in overcoming the limitations of the gadgets themselves. In this experimentally motivated theoretical study, we introduce several gadgets which require significantly more realistic control parameters than similar gadgets in the literature. We employ analytical techniques which result in a reduction of the resource scaling as a function of spectral error for the commonly used subdivision, 3- to 2-body and $k$-body gadgets. Accordingly, our improvements reduce the resource requirements of all proofs and experimental proposals making use of these common gadgets. Next, we numerically optimize these new gadgets to illustrate the tightness of our analytical bounds. Finally, we introduce a new gadget that simulates a $YY$ interaction term using Hamiltonians containing only $\\{X,Z,XX,ZZ\\}$ terms. Apart from possible implications in a theoretical context, this work could also be useful for a first experimental implementation of these key building blocks by requiring less control precision without introducing extra ancillary qubits.

  2. Mineral Requirements of Sheep.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constituents in feed, residues, and excrements were estimated. In connection with other digestion experiments, estimates were made of certain ash constituents in feeds, excrements and urine. The results of this work throw light upon the mineral requirements...,11 grams phosphoric acid. The ratio of lime to phosphoric acid in tri- calcium phosphate is 1 :0.80. Table 7.-Average magnesia eaten and digested. BALANCE EXPEBIMENTS In twenty tests with ten rations, the urine was analyzed in addition to the feeds...

  3. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  4. BER Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  5. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

  6. Ameren Illinois (Electric)- Custom, HVAC, and Motor Business Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prescriptive rebates are available for many HVAC and motor efficiency improvements. Pre-approval is required for all rebates. The programs are available only to non-residential customers that...

  7. Puget Sound Energy- Commercial Retrofit Energy Efficiency Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSE can provide a custom retrofit grant for any energy-efficiency project that meets specified cost-effectiveness criteria and other PSE program requirements. To be eligible, customers must...

  8. Some Observations on Energy Efficiency and Capital Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be required. This paper explores several cases where energy efficiency was improved with no increase in total plant capital (including the energy system). Cogeneration, driver selection and direct exchange are discussed. To explore the limitations...

  9. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Planning for Existing Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For meeting Federal sustainability requirements, agencies can use evaluation methods—such as benchmarking and energy audits—and planning to make their existing buildings energy efficient. To comply...

  10. Subscribe to Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Updates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP offers e-mail updates covering energy-efficient product procurement requirements, guidance, and assistance. Enter your e-mail address below to begin the registration process. After you...

  11. Federal Procurement of Energy-Efficient Products January 2013 Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the seventh issue of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement! This bi-monthly update helps Federal procurement officials, facility managers, and others remain up to date on events, training, technology, and changes to acquisition requirements.

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several provisions of Missouri law govern energy efficiency in state facilities. In 1993 Missouri enacted legislation requiring life-cycle cost analysis for all new construction of state buildings...

  13. Energy Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2007 Illinois Power Agency Act (IPAA) requires both electric and natural gas utilities establish annual energy-savings goals and reduce energy delivered and peak demand. Utilities are required...

  14. IBM and Energy Efficiency: Systems Recommisiong and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veilleux, Y.; Boulianne, J. P.; Lefebvre, P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for optimal operation ? HVAC motor fans: Vriable speed drives (VFD) installation on air supply and return fans. Humidification System OptimizationBefore After TEMP-HUM:M2:2-46-545.pv % HR HVAC:M2-RDC-PLA:VLV-HUM.pv % SPECS HUMIDIT? MINIMUM.Value Plot... instruments added to meet control requirements. PID control loop tuning was performed for optimal operation. Measures resulted in reducing the cooling and heating required for the systems as well as the electrical load on the fan motors. Some operational...

  15. BES Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  16. NERSC Requirements Workshop November

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate - Events -ExascalemadeArchivalRequirements

  17. Requirements Review Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliability TechnologyRenewalReportReportsJ.TO9Complex

  18. Documentation Requirements for Sensory Impairments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Documentation Requirements for Sensory Impairments Vision and Hearing Students, faculty, staff documentation requirements: 1. Requirements of the PRACTITIONER: A) Ophthalmologists and optometrists of interest. C) Documentation must be typed, dated and signed by the evaluator and submitted to ODR

  19. Counterexamples to additivity of minimum output p-Renyi entropy for p close to 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toby Cubitt; Aram W. Harrow; Debbie Leung; Ashley Montanaro; Andreas Winter

    2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementing recent progress on the additivity conjecture of quantum information theory, showing that the minimum output p-Renyi entropies of channels are not generally additive for p>1, we demonstrate here by a careful random selection argument that also at p=0, and consequently for sufficiently small p, there exist counterexamples. An explicit construction of two channels from 4 to 3 dimensions is given, which have non-multiplicative minimum output rank; for this pair of channels, numerics strongly suggest that the p-Renyi entropy is non-additive for all p additivity exist for all p<1.

  20. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  1. Efficiently Controllable Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can Gokler; Kevin Thompson; Peter Shor; Seth Lloyd

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that universal quantum computation can be performed efficiently on quantum networks while the fraction of controlled subsystems vanishes as the network grows larger. We provide examples of quantum spin network families admitting polynomial quantum gate complexity with a vanishing fraction of controlled spins. We define a new family of graphs, the efficiently controllable family, which admits efficient computation with vanishing fraction of controls. We explore generalizations to percolation clusters, fractals and random graphs. We show that the classical computational complexity of estimating the ground state of Hamiltonians described by controllable graphs is polynomial in the number of subsystems/qubits.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Plan Requirements Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: GPH RQ = Requirement Program: 01848 LN = Line Plan: 3200MPH RG 5298 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES REQUIREMENTS, 643, 653, 675, 677 or 695 LN 0030 - Environmental Health Sciences: EHS 501, 506, 507 or 508 LN 0040

  3. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  4. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Legislature emphasized the importance of energy efficiency and established broad goals with the enactment of Assembly Bill 2021 of 2006. The bill calls for a 10% reduction in forec...

  5. Improving Fired Heater Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriver, J. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982. 2, Fehervari, Willi, "Gas Measurement and Control for Pipeline Systems," The Foxboro Company. 3. Shriver, James, "CO/02 Boiler Control: Point Is Vi tal," POWER, October 1982. Set 1\\. Dukelow, Samuel, "Improving Boiler Efficiency...

  6. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Legislature emphasized the importance of energy efficiency and established broad goals with the enactment of [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/FINAL_DECISION/85995.pdf Assembly Bill...

  7. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  8. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  9. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  10. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  11. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  12. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer are a popular method for acquiring three-dimensional geometry due to their accuracy and robustness. Maximizing a two camera range scanner design, specifically chosen to minimize calibration complexity and cost

  13. The Blob Code is Competitive with EdgeSets in Genetic Algorithms for the Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julstrom, Bryant A.

    with those of, a GA that encodes spanning trees as edge-sets on Euclidean instances of the minimum rout- ing Spanning Tree Problem Bryant A. Julstrom Department of Computer Science St. Cloud State University St. Cloud, MN, 56301 USA julstrom@stcloudstate.edu ABSTRACT Among the many codings of spanning trees

  14. LOWER BOUNDS ON THE GLOBAL MINIMUM OF A M. GHASEMI, J.B. LASSERRE, M. MARSHALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Murray

    LOWER BOUNDS ON THE GLOBAL MINIMUM OF A POLYNOMIAL M. GHASEMI, J.B. LASSERRE, M. MARSHALL Abstract. We extend the method of Ghasemi and Marshall [SIAM. J. Opt. 22(2) (2012), pp 460-473], to obtain compare this bound with the (global) lower bound fgp ob- tained by Ghasemi and Marshall, and also

  15. Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MCCDMA Systems in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Ralf R.

    Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC­CDMA Systems in Multipath Rayleigh Fading, to calculate the bit error proba­ bility in the large system limit for randomly assigned spreading sequences detec­ tion with is accurate if the number of users and the spreading factor are large. His calculations

  16. Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC-CDMA Systems in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Ralf R.

    Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC-CDMA Systems in Multipath Rayleigh Fading, to calculate the bit error proba- bility in the large system limit for randomly assigned spreading sequences detec- tion with is accurate if the number of users and the spreading factor are large. His calculations

  17. A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

  18. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products products (where normally M e N). We derive the expressions for a generalized extended Pet- lyuk arrangement for the generalized Pet- lyuk column with more than three products. The Vmin diagram was presented in part 1

  19. Speech enhancement using a minimum mean-square error short-time spectral modulation magnitude estimator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Speech enhancement using a minimum mean-square error short-time spectral modulation magnitude In this paper we investigate the enhancement of speech by applying MMSE short-time spectral magnitude estimation on the quality of enhanced speech, and find that this method works better with speech uncertainty. Finally we

  20. A design solution to the problem of adaptive output regulation for nonlinear minimum-phase systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the spirit of the internal model principle, the control law needed to fulfill the regulation objective. In [3 regulation and solved by using an "hybrid" control strategy. In that paper it was emphasized how persistenceA design solution to the problem of adaptive output regulation for nonlinear minimum-phase systems

  1. Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallis, Geoff

    Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies and analogs of the midlatitude eddy-driven jet and the subtropical jet is investigated in a barotropic b-plane model. In the model the subtropical jet is generated by a relaxation process and the eddy-driven jet

  2. Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, João H; García, Emilio Hernández; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...

  3. Minimum Interference Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Himanshu

    program and a linear program formulation of our optimization problem to obtain lower bounds on overall Mesh Networks, Channel Assignment, Graph Coloring, Interference, Mathe- matical Programming. I1 Minimum Interference Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks Anand Prabhu

  4. A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding Huan-Xiang Zhoua; published online 20 May 2008 Master equations are widely used for modeling protein folding. Here- ceptual and quantitative models for protein folding.1­15 In such models, the conformational space

  5. String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca

  6. The stackelberg minimum spanning tree game on planar and bounded-treewidth graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinal, Jean

    The Stackelberg Minimum Spanning Tree Game is a two-level combinatorial pricing problem introduced at WADS’07. The game is played on a graph, whose edges are colored either red or blue, and where the red edges have a given ...

  7. ENGINEERING PHYSICS BSE Plan Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS BSE Plan Requirements 1 Campus: UMICH RG = Requirement Group Career: UENG RQ = Requirement Program: LN = Line Plan: 2990BSE RG 6394 ENGINEERING PHYSICS MAJOR REQUIREMENTS Effective FA12/1910 (09/04/2012) RQ 4925 Physics Technical Subjects (C or higher) Effective FA12/1910 (09/04/2012) LN 0010

  8. Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of these rules is to protect public health and the environment by establishing minimum standards for the proper location, design, construction and maintenance of onsite wastewater...

  9. Home Buyer's Energy Efficiency Checklist Have any energy efficiency improvements been made?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that help shade the wall and windows? WATER SYSTEM: Is the water heater energy efficient? Look pipes wrapped with insulation? Is the hot water heater wrapped with an insulating blanket? Note: Newer models of hot water heaters do not require an insulation blanket. Are the showerheads low-flow to save

  10. Eco-efficiency Indicators: Measuring Resource-use Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    efficiency Indicators: Measuring Resource-use Efficiency and the Impact of Economic Activities on the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  11. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 Manage airflow to reduce energy required for cooling andallocate resources 39 Create an Energy Star standard forservers a: Low Energy Ventilation and

  12. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high performance networks is a consistent, widely deployed, well-maintained toolset that is optimized for wide area, high-speed data transfer (e.g. GridFTP) that allows scientists to easily utilize the services and capabilities that the network provides. Network test and measurement is an important part of ensuring that these tools and network services are functioning correctly. One example of a tool in this area is the recently developed perfSONAR, which has already shown its usefulness in fault diagnosis during the recent deployment of high-performance data movers at NERSC and ORNL. On the other hand, it is clear that there is significant work to be done in the area of authentication and access control - there are currently compatibility problems and differing requirements between the authentication systems in use at different facilities, and the policies and mechanisms in use at different facilities are sometimes in conflict. Finally, long-term software maintenance was of concern for many attendees. Scientists rely heavily on a large deployed base of software that does not have secure programmatic funding. Software packages for which this is true include data transfer tools such as GridFTP as well as identity management and other software infrastructure that forms a critical part of the Open Science Grid and the Earth System Grid.

  13. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  14. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings areSeven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings are18, 1983. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Leonard W.

  15. Sandia Energy - Enabling Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Energy Efficiency Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Enabling Energy Efficiency Enabling Energy EfficiencyTara Camacho-Lopez2015-03-26T16:33:50+0...

  16. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toResources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa.NRCAN, 2009. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to

  17. Why rig efficiencies have decreased--solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortlang, W.F.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past five or six years the drilling industry has experienced growth at a dramatic rate, beginning with the 1974-75 lease sales. During this period, contractors have increased the mobile rig fleet in the Gulf of Mexico by 116 percent, and have enjoyed 100 percent utilization. Although the rig population has exhibited this drastic rate of growth, an unexpected decline in the number of wells drilled has become evident with the average number of wells decreasing from 8.23 per mobile rig to 3.8 per mobile rig. This behavior can be directly related to rig and drilling inefficiencies. This paper outlines this phenomena, and analyzes it on the basis of four criteria: the relationship between rig production, operator expenditure, and drilling efficiency; the causative factors attributable to decreasing rig efficiencies; the prospectus for the future concerning operator requirements with regard to contractor operations; and possible solutions to increasing contractor and drilling efficiency.

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont provides financial incentives for its residential customers to install energy efficient equipment in their homes. Eligible Energy Star equipment includes dehumidifiers (seasonal...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Down the Costs of Efficient LED Lighting On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Energy Efficiency, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid...

  20. Brief Announcement: Energy-Optimal Distributed Algorithms for Minimum Spanning Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    associated with the messages exchanged among the nodes in a distributed algorithm, and design energy-efficient) problem, an important problem in distributed computing. We study energy-efficient distributed algorithms Algorithm, Energy-Efficient, Mini- mum Spanning Tree, Distributed Approximation Algorithm 1. MODEL

  1. Application of Reinforcement Learning to Requirements Engineering: Requirements Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) can be appreciated by the customers who request and expect delivery the phases of the SDLC, a number of steps can be taken. Requirements tracing ensures that requirements

  2. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  3. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of one component of any of the control loops that, together, constitute the boiler control system requires that the operator exercises manual control until the failed component is returned to service. However skilled and conscienti ous an operator... of the story. If one element of one control loop in the boiler control system drifts, the entire interactive control scheme is impaired. Operating efficiencies are sacrificed. Frequent calibration checks and recalibration is a great maintenance expense...

  4. HOW TO DEVELOP LAB-SPECIFIC TRAINING University of Maryland Chemical Hygiene Plan requires that all lab members be trained on the specific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    HOW TO DEVELOP LAB-SPECIFIC TRAINING SUMMARY University of Maryland Chemical Hygiene Plan requires for each new lab member. At minimum should include completion of: Chemical Hygiene Training for Laboratory OPERATIONS Know the Chemical Hygiene Plan SOP requirements and the lab's process for developing and reviewing

  5. Energy Efficiency of Future Networks Energy Efficient Transmission in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Efficiency of Future Networks Part 1: Energy Efficient Transmission in Classical Wireless #12;Goals Energy Efficiency: What it meant last decade; what it means today From a communication network design perspective what should we care about for energy efficient design of cellular

  6. Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy Daniel Pohlenz. These are characterized by high efficiency and high torque as well as power density. The generation of reference currents that the MTPC method deviates considerably from the best efficiency under certain boundary conditions. The use

  7. Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    1 Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc- demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms for their implementation. We highlight of an 'energy aware' link cache for storing this information. We also compare the performance of an on-demand

  8. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

  9. Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements, originally presented on June 25, 2013.

  10. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power) Auxiliary & Portable Power) Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria pollutants Commercial CHP $4.9M $3.4M Portable Power Backup Power $20.4M Residential and Small Commercial CHP $4.9M $3

  11. Energy Efficiency Revitalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, R. L.

    To set the tone for my remarks I will start by saying- today, energy efficiency is a tough sell. In General Motors, our plant engineering people, faced with headcount deductions, budget cuts, and capital spending constraints are up to their “you...

  12. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In the United States: > 200 fuel cell vehicles > 20 fuel cell buses ~ 60 fueling stations Production & Delivery biomass & solar). · Potential U.S. employment from fuel cell and hydrogen industries of up to 925,000 jobsEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program

  13. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transportation Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria's portfolio of transportation technologies will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and oil consumption. DOE levels--by 2050. Key Findings Include: Estimated Government Cost to Support a Transition to FCVs Systems

  14. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Harbor #12;U.S. Energy Consumption U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector 2 #12 · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction in criteria pollutants U.S. Department of Energy #12;7 Market Transformation Government acquisitions could significantly reduce the cost

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  16. SEPTEMBER 2009 ENERGY EFFICIENCY &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Desert, California 16 Boulder County, Colorado 17 Babylon, New York 18 Case Study Comparison Chart 19 5SEPTEMBER 2009 GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICTS FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENTS PREPARED BY RENEWABLE AND APPROPRIATE ENERGY LABORATORY (RAEL) UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

  17. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federal buildings which begin the planning process by 2020 to achieve zero-net energy by 2030 PotentialEnergy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita of Energy Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference March 17-18, 2010 San Diego, CA #12;2 1. Overview

  18. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency...

  19. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    peak load, boiler efficiency (%), pumping efficiency (hp/to evaluate the efficiency of chiller and boiler systems

  20. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contract - CHPRC (United States)] [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contract - CHPRC (United States); West, Lori D. [East Tennessee Materials and Energy Corporation - M and EC (United States)] [East Tennessee Materials and Energy Corporation - M and EC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to resource scarcity; limited cross-training capability; and reduced capability to respond to changes in DOE priorities. Finally, there are many challenges to achieving these cost savings. With a workforce nearing retirement effective succession planning becomes critical to success and requires establishing a balance between the cost of hiring and training and cost-saving activities. With six active waste management facilities spread across nearly 15 square miles, scheduling and deploying cross-trained surveillance and maintenance teams is a logistical challenge, particularly as the loss of funding has not diminished emphasis by regulatory agencies placed on the safe and compliant performance of DOE and its contractors. As reflected in Table I, efficiencies are currently being implemented on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) that deliver cost savings that align with the current site budget while maintaining critical capabilities. It is currently estimated that these efficiencies will result in a cost savings of approximately $9 million for FY13 in base and minimum safe operations on the PRC - a cost reduction of more than 13 percent over FY12 and nearly 30 percent over FY09 levels. (authors)

  1. Energy-Efficient Mobile Data Transport via Online Multi-Network Packet Aaron Cote, Adam Meyerson, Brian Tagiku

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerson, Adam W.

    Energy-Efficient Mobile Data Transport via Online Multi-Network Packet Scheduling Aaron Cot´e, Adam related to energy-efficiency in mobile data transport. This model incorporates multiple networks with non energy-efficiency, our model requires that packets have larger values for more energy- efficient networks

  2. Charge-Balanced Minimum-Power Controls for Spiking Neuron Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasanayake, Isuru

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the optimal control of phase models for spiking neuron oscillators. We focus on the design of minimum-power current stimuli that elicit spikes in neurons at desired times. We furthermore take the charge-balanced constraint into account because in practice undesirable side effects may occur due to the accumulation of electric charge resulting from external stimuli. Charge-balanced minimum-power controls are derived for a general phase model using the maximum principle, where the cases with unbounded and bounded control amplitude are examined. The latter is of practical importance since phase models are more accurate for weak forcing. The developed optimal control strategies are then applied to both mathematically ideal and experimentally observed phase models to demonstrate their applicability, including the phase model for the widely studied Hodgkin-Huxley equations.

  3. On the minimum and maximum mass of neutron stars and the delayed collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strobel, K; Strobel, Klaus; Weigel, Manfred K.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum and maximum mass of protoneutron stars and neutron stars are investigated. The hot dense matter is described by relativistic (including hyperons) and non-relativistic equations of state. We show that the minimum mass ($\\sim$ 0.88 - 1.28 $M_{\\sun}$) of a neutron star is determined by the earliest stage of its evolution and is nearly unaffected by the presence of hyperons. The maximum mass of a neutron star is limited by the protoneutron star or hot neutron star stage. Further we find that the delayed collapse of a neutron star into a black hole during deleptonization is not only possible for equations of state with softening components, as for instance, hyperons, meson condensates etc., but also for neutron stars with a pure nucleonic-leptonic equation of state.

  4. On the minimum and maximum mass of neutron stars and the delayed collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Strobel; Manfred K. Weigel

    2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum and maximum mass of protoneutron stars and neutron stars are investigated. The hot dense matter is described by relativistic (including hyperons) and non-relativistic equations of state. We show that the minimum mass ($\\sim$ 0.88 - 1.28 $M_{\\sun}$) of a neutron star is determined by the earliest stage of its evolution and is nearly unaffected by the presence of hyperons. The maximum mass of a neutron star is limited by the protoneutron star or hot neutron star stage. Further we find that the delayed collapse of a neutron star into a black hole during deleptonization is not only possible for equations of state with softening components, as for instance, hyperons, meson condensates etc., but also for neutron stars with a pure nucleonic-leptonic equation of state.

  5. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR RESIDENTIALAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Manager EFFICIENCYSTANDARDS OFFICE E. Ross Deter. De~utvDirector ENERGY EFFICIENCY DIVISION Kent Smith

  7. Energy Efficient Nanoelectronic System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    ://www.newairplane.com One 787 Battery: 12 Cells / 32 V DC 05/21/2013 6 #12;Why Energy Efficient Design ? Environmental energy-efficient designs. How to perform high-yield, energy efficient designs. How to perform effortless, high-yield, energy efficient designs. Gate Gate Gate Source D rain Graphene Layer 05/21/2013 14

  8. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other technical performance requirements in existing international programs in order to shed light on where Chinese programs currently stands and considerations for their 2010 programs.

  9. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Minnesota legislature passed the Next Generation Energy Act (NGEA), which requires both electric and natural gas investor-owned utilities to reduce energy sales by 1.5% of average...

  10. Energy Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2008, Iowa enacted S.B. 2386, which requires the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) to create energy savings standards (electricity and natural gas) for all rate-regulated utilities. The IUB ordered...

  11. A minimum hypothesis explanation for an IMF with a lognormal body and power law tail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu; C. E. Jones

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a minimum hypothesis model for an IMF that resembles a lognormal distribution at low masses but has a distinct power-law tail. Even if the central limit theorem ensures a lognormal distribution of condensation masses at birth, a power-law tail in the distribution arises due to accretion from the ambient cloud, coupled with a non-uniform (exponential) distribution of accretion times.

  12. LIGHT SUBGRAPHS IN PLANAR GRAPHS OF MINIMUM DEGREE 4 AND EDGE-DEGREE 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohar, Bojan

    LIGHT SUBGRAPHS IN PLANAR GRAPHS OF MINIMUM DEGREE 4 AND EDGE-DEGREE 9 B. MOHAR , R. SKREKOVSKI vertices of degree 4 are adjacent. A graph H is light in G if there is a constant w such that every graph is w. Then we also write w(H) w. It is proved that the cycle Cs is light if and only if 3 s 6, where

  13. Water Efficiency Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Efficiency Water Efficiency Case Studies Water Efficiency Case Studies These case studies feature examples of water-efficiency projects implemented by Federal agencies. They are...

  14. Energy Efficient Mortgages | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Financing Financing Structures Energy Efficient Mortgages Energy Efficient Mortgages Energy efficient mortgages (EEMs) encourage energy efficiency by giving buyers a better...

  15. A Survey of Energy-Efficient Scheduling Mechanisms in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lan

    A Survey of Energy-Efficient Scheduling Mechanisms in Sensor Networks Lan Wang and Yang Xiao, these energy-efficient scheduling mech- anisms (also called topology configuration mechanisms) need to satisfy certain application requirements while saving energy. In this paper, we provide a survey on energy-efficient

  16. ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS Except where School Engineering #12;ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Auburn, Alabama August 9, 2008 #12;iii ENERGY-EFFICIENT

  17. ERTP: Energy-Efficient and Reliable Transport Protocol for Data Streaming in Wireless Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    ERTP: Energy-Efficient and Reliable Transport Protocol for Data Streaming in Wireless Sensor applications in Wireless Sensor Networks require re- liable and energy-efficient transport protocols [17] [18 of minutes or hours), energy-efficiency is. Long-term operation and reliable delivery of the sensed data

  18. THINNING OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC LAYER: THE PECULIAR SOLAR MINIMUM COULD HAVE BEEN PREDICTED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar magnetic activity cycle causes changes in the Sun on timescales that are equivalent to human lifetimes. The minimum solar activity that preceded the current solar cycle (cycle 24) was deeper and quieter than any other recent minimum. Using data from the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON), we show that the structure of the solar sub-surface layers during the descending phase of the preceding cycle (cycle 23) was very different from that during cycle 22. This leads us to believe that a detailed examination of the data would have led to the prediction that the cycle 24 minimum would be out of the ordinary. The behavior of the oscillation frequencies allows us to infer that changes in the Sun that affected the oscillation frequencies in cycle 23 were localized mainly to layers above about 0.996 R{sub Sun }, depths shallower than about 3000 km. In cycle 22, on the other hand, the changes must have also occurred in the deeper-lying layers.

  19. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.

  20. Major Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Laboratories --Implications for Health and Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.; Sartor, Dale A.; Bell, Geoffrey C.; Drummond,David

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficient design, partly due to their health and safety requirements. Recent experience has shown that there is significant energy efficiency potential in laboratory buildings. However, there is often a misperception in the laboratory community that energy efficiency will inherently compromise safety. In some cases, energy efficiency measures require special provisions to ensure that safety requirements are met. In other cases, efficiency measures actually improve safety. In this paper we present five major, yet under-utilized, energy efficiency strategies for ventilation-intensive laboratories and discuss their implications for health and safety. These include: (a) optimizing ventilation rates; (b) reducing laboratory chemical hood energy use; (c) low-pressure drop HVAC design; (d) right-sizing HVAC systems; and (e) reducing simultaneous heating and cooling. In all cases, the successful design and implementation of these strategies requires active and informed participation by health and safety personnel.

  1. Software Quality Assurance Subcommittee : Guidelines for Requirements...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Software Quality Assurance Subcommittee : Guidelines for Requirements Management Software Quality Assurance Subcommittee : Guidelines for Requirements Management Requirements...

  2. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  3. Efficient Quantum Ratchet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuan-Feng Li; Rong-Chun Ge; Guang-Can Guo

    2012-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum resonance is one of the main characteristics of the quantum kicked rotor, which has been used to induce accelerated ratchet current of the particles with a generalized asymmetry potential. Here we show that by desynchronizing the kicked potentials of the flashing ratchet [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110603 (2005)], new quantum resonances are stimulated to conduct directed currents more efficiently. Most distinctly, the missed resonances $\\kappa=1.0\\pi$ and $\\kappa=3.0\\pi$ are created out to induce even larger currents. At the same time, with the help of semiclassical analysis, we prove that our result is exact rather than phenomenon induced by errors of the numerical simulation. Our discovery may be used to realize directed transport efficiently, and may also lead to a deeper understanding of symmetry breaking for the dynamical evolution.

  4. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results has been the utilization of Six Sigma methodology to identify and seize opportunities to improve our performance and to better meet customer needs. Since its implementation in 1999, Six Sigma has proven to be a breakthrough process that can... take Dow to the next level of performance for all our key stakeholders. The Six Sigma methodology has been especially successful in improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs and is the primary methodology used by technology center...

  5. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  6. Calculating Fired Heater Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.; Ritter, E. L.

    bills. A review of the Heat Loss and Input/Output methods of efficiency analyses is presented, along with a discussion of their relative accuracy. Examples cited include refinery mixed fuel gas, coal, and chemical recovery fueled applications, using.... 75 percent excess 02 (dry basis) -- a respectable operation. Eva luate boi ler effieiency when burning mixed refinery gas (at an oil refinery), coa1 (at a central power station) and black liquor (at a paper mill). The practical definition of LHV...

  7. Integrated Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heins, S.

    Integrated Energy Efficiency Steve Heins VP Communications and Government Affairs Orion Energy Systems, Inc. 2 MegaTrend Convergence We need companies to commercialize technologies that use less energy without compromise to operations. Energy... Environment US electricity consumption growing 43% by 2030 Power generation expected to account for 50% of CO 2 emission increases 3 How Electricity Is Used 24 Hour Operation Midnight 6 a.m. Noon 6 p.m. Midnight kW 4 Lighting is a Major Component...

  8. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace012aceves2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  9. High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedlove, C. W.

    Replacing nominal efficient electrical motors with premium efficiency can save on electrical power costs in cotton gins. Connected horsepower load on industrial air fans is approximately 60% of the total horsepower in a typical cotton gin...

  10. B.A. GEOLOGY CHECKLIST of required courses for major Courses in Natural Sciences: 5-6 courses, 18 credits minimum*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    to Geochemistry 431 ­ Structural Geology 445 - Sedimentology 515 ­ X-ray Fluorescence Analysis 517 ­ Sedimentary

  11. Transformer requirements for the year 2000. Final report, December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this program was to determine the design parameters required for transformers of the year 2000. The approach to meeting this objective was to determine the changes which may occur in transmission and distribution systems over the next twenty years, and how these changes might affect design parameters of distribution and power transformers. Emphasis was placed on domestic requirements, although the impact of international practices was factored into the overall requirements for transformers. Possible investigations that could help transformer designers meet the long term technical requirements of future transformers were also identified. The principal conclusions of this study were: 1200 kV transmission could be in service by the late 1980's and it is essential to develop 1200 kV transformers for these systems; transformer manufacturers must be prepared to supply higher MVA ratings at all voltage levels; there will be a strong demand for low-loss, minimum cost transformers; and environmental/safety, reliability, and size reduction considerations will increase in importance. (LLL)

  12. Program permits fast solution to pipeline loop requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G.D.

    1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A program developed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator can provide pipeline engineers with a quick and easy means for determining loop requirements on existing gas-transmission pipelines. Adding pipe in parallel to an existing pipeline, referred to as looping, is necessary to insure that with a given flow rate, the gas will arrive at a certain point on the pipeline with a pressure equal to or greater than the minimum required pressure. The automatic loop program calculates loop by first determining the total number of segments which require looping within the section of pipeline being evaluated. A section of pipe is usually the pipeline between compressor stations and is divided into segments by either receipt or delivery points along the pipeline. The number of segments which require looping is found by adding loop to individual segments until the final pressure (i.e., the pressure at the point of interest downstream on the pipeline) is equal to or greater than the specified design pressure.

  13. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Division, and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. This isFusion Energy Sciences NetworkRequirements Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Energy

  14. Intelligent Efficiency: the Next Generation of Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trombley,D.; Molina, M.; Elliot, R. N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of buildings, an entire city, or the electric power grid, allow a scaling up of intelligent efficiency, amplifying the benefits by coordinating all systems. Through intelligent efficiency, smart grids, cities, transportation systems, and communications..., there is another aspect of intelligent efficiency that is the key to realizing its potential: intelligent infrastructure. Intelligent efficiency enables more integrated, smarter, and more reliable infrastructure, such as smart power grids, cities...

  15. Intelligent Efficiency: the Next Generation of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trombley,D.; Molina, M.; Elliot, R. N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of buildings, an entire city, or the electric power grid, allow a scaling up of intelligent efficiency, amplifying the benefits by coordinating all systems. Through intelligent efficiency, smart grids, cities, transportation systems, and communications..., there is another aspect of intelligent efficiency that is the key to realizing its potential: intelligent infrastructure. Intelligent efficiency enables more integrated, smarter, and more reliable infrastructure, such as smart power grids, cities...

  16. Energy Efficiency and Pollution Prevention: Industrial Efficiency Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pye, M.; Elliott, R. N.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    successfully combined energy efficiency and pollution prevention technologies and strategies to enhance the environment, productivity and the bottom line....

  17. Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    workforce development and incentive initiatives for energy efficiency professionals. The Business Models Guide helps professionals expand their services, establish business...

  18. LEDs_3LEDs_3 current efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    efficiencySec. 8.2 From our toolbox Current efficiency #12;4 Light extraction efficiencyLight extraction extraction efficiencyDesign to improve extraction efficiencySec. 8.4 What are the features of this LED from;6 Various efficienciesVarious efficienciesSecs. 8.4, 8.5 Present record is 56%Wall-plug efficiency Wall

  19. Direct determination of quantum efficiency of semiconducting films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faughnan, Brian W. (Princeton, NJ); Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic quantum efficiency of semiconductor samples is determined directly, without requiring that a built-in photovoltage be generated by the sample. Electrodes are attached to the sample so as to form at least one Schottky barrier therewith. When illuminated, the generated photocurrent carriers are collected by an external bias voltage impressed across the electrodes. The generated photocurrent is measured, and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is calculated therefrom.

  20. Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matley, R.

    Measuring Energy Efficiency Improvements in Industrial Battery Chargers Ryan Matley, Sr. Program Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Francisco, CA ABSTRACT Industrial battery chargers have provided the energy requirements... to 100 GWh per year. There are three areas of energy losses in the battery and charger system: ? Power Conversion Efficiency (energy out of charger vs. energy into charger) ? Charge Return (energy out of battery vs. energy into battery): some...

  1. CFD optimization study of high-efficiency jet ejectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanawanavet, Somsak

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CFD OPTIMIZATION STUDY OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY JET EJECTORS A Dissertation by SOMSAK WATANAWANAVET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CFD OPTIMIZATION STUDY OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY JET EJECTORS A Dissertation by SOMSAK WATANAWANAVET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  2. Efficiency of alum coagulation for removal of trihalomethane precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Joe Dan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFICIENCY OF ALUM COAGULATION FOR REMOUAL OF TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS A Thesis by JOE DAN SHANNON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1980 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EFFICIENCY OF ALUM COAGULATION FOR REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS A Thesis by JOE DAN SHANNON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Memb ) (Head of Department...

  3. Efficiency of light-frequency conversion in an atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Jen; T. A. B. Kennedy

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of frequency up and down conversion of light in an atomic ensemble, with a diamond level configuration, is analyzed theoretically. The conditions of pump field intensities and detunings required to maximize the conversion as a function of optical thickness of the ensemble are determined. The influence of the probe pulse duration on the conversion efficiency is investigated by numeric solution of the Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  4. An efficient method for treating uncertainties in structural dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bing

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EFFICIENT METHOD FOR TREATING UNCERTAINTIES IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS A Thesis by BING WANG Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...) Alan . Pa zolo (Member) ames . . Yao (Head of D artment) December 1992 ABSTRACT An Efficient Method for Treating Uncertainties in Structural Dynamics. (December 1992) Bing Wang, B. S. , Tsinghua University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr...

  5. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

  6. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Oil Industry Safety Directorate, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas) China (Jinyang Zheng, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas OISD ­ Duties 1. Development of standards 2. Institutionalized safety: Safety requirements on compression storage, handling and refueling of natural gas in the automotive

  7. Efficient high density train operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P. (Oakland, CA); Evans, John A. (Hayward, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  8. Effects of Dietary Energy Density and Intake on Maintenance Energy Requirements in Beef Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trubenbach, Levi Anthony

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    nutritional manipulation strategies to optimize cow efficiency. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of dietary energy density and intake on maintenance energy requirements in beef cows. In a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement, thirty...

  9. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2009, U.S. Virgin Islands enacted legislation Act 7075. This legislation requires all new developments, and substantial building modifications, must be installed with energy efficient solar...

  10. GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY ENERGY SPECTRA AND COMPOSITION DURING THE 2009-2010 SOLAR MINIMUM PERIOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, K. A.; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H. [Department of Physics and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; De Nolfo, G. A.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 {<=} Z {<=} 28 in the energy range {approx}50-550 MeV nucleon{sup -1}. Several recent improvements have been made to the earlier CRIS data analysis, and therefore updates of our previous observations for the 1997-1998 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than {approx}7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than {approx}4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2{sigma}, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple ''leaky-box'' galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  11. Engineering Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Using energy more efficiently is essential if carbon emissions are to be reduced. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), energy efficiency improvements represent the largest and least costly savings in carbon emissions, even when...

  12. Modelling energy efficiency for computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reams, Charles

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last decade, efficient use of energy has become a topic of global significance, touching almost every area of modern life, including computing. From mobile to desktop to server, energy efficiency concerns are now ubiquitous. However...

  13. Energy efficiency in office technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandridge, Cyane Bemiss

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis, directed toward a wide variety of persons interested in energy efficiency issues with office technology, explores several issues relating to reducing energy use and improving energy efficiency of office ...

  14. Iron efficiency in sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . DeKoch (28) indicated that the total amount of Fe in the roots of plants bears little relation to chlorosis, as roots of chlorotic plants may contain a higher percentage of Fe than roots of healthy plants. Fe was internally inactivated in soybeans...) developed a technique to de- termine Fe efficiency in plants, they stated that some control of pH was needed in the growth medium and they + accomplished this by using NO 3 nitrogen and NH 4 nitrogen in nutrient solutions. A decrease in pH of the growth...

  15. Efficiency of stripping mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2003-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several physical processes to remove gas from galaxies in clusters, with subsequent starvation and star formation quenching: tidal interactions between galaxies, or tidal stripping from the cluster potential itself, interactions with the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) through ram pressure, turbulent or viscous stripping, or also outflows from star formation of nuclear activity, We review the observational evidence for all processes, and numerical simulations of galaxies in clusters which support the respective mechanisms. This allows to compare their relative efficiencies, all along cluster formation.

  16. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, C.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    calculations take credit for 7% line losses * Based on current forecast. Subject to change prior to EEPR filing 3 ESL-KT-14-11-04 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 050,000 100,000 150,000 Portfolio 2012 2013 2014... 2015 2012 - 2015 Savings Comparison k W • 2015 – CLM reduced to 55 MW from 60 MW in 2014 • Impact of commercial lighting and air conditioning Federal Standard changes are reflected in the 2015 Commercial portfolio For Oncor Internal Use Only 4 0 50...

  17. Iron efficiency in sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) James Craig Esty, B, S. , Panhandle State College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Arthur B. Onken Dr. Lloyd R. Hossner R tt *ht ' d f * ' g * gh L~Sh bicolor (L. ) Moenchj parental lines and Fl hybrids indicate varying degrees of iron (Fe...) utilization. Visual ratings after seven days of Fe stress indicated only one hybrid, ATx 378 x RTx 2536, to be green or Fe efficient. Hybrids or parental lines rated partially chlorotic were: ATx 378 x RTx 415 and RTx 2536. Those sorghums rated chlorotic...

  18. Efficient Repeated Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, J; Sabourian, Hamid

    , outcome a˜i ? A used in the construction of Si above satisfies (4). Then, for any ? ? ??(R?), t, ?(t) and ?t, we have: (i) g?(t)(?,R?) = g?; (ii) m?(t),? t i (?,R ?) = (·, 0) for all i; (iii) a?(t),? t (?,R?) ? f(?). Proof. First we establish two claims... , for each i, outcome a˜i ? A used in the construction of Si above satisfies (4). Then, for any ? ? ??(R?), pi?(t)i (?,R ?) = vi(f) for any i, t > 1 and ?(t). Proof. Suppose not; then f is efficient in the range but there exist some ? ? ??(R?), t > 1 and ?...

  19. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  20. High Efficiency Recoil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartmentInnovation Portal 130221326|Efficiency