Sample records for minimum efficiency performance

  1. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  2. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    achievable energy-efficient designs, based on emergingachievable energy- efficient designs, based on efficientdesign that achieves high energy efficiency by combining the most efficient

  3. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency Australia best available technology business as usual Brazil Bottom-Up EnergyAustralia South Africa Reference U.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER – energy-efficiency

  4. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

  5. Category Measure Minimum Efficiency / Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    -$6200 Xcel rebate: $120 for AFUE >= 84% Fed tax credit: 30%, up to $1500** Ground source heat pump Closed and cooling (floor, wall, and ceiling) Radiant systems must be powered by a heat pump (electric or gas Space Heating and Cooling ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES Residential Eligible Measures List #12;Category

  6. An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doug Altner

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 20, 2008 ... In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing minimum capacity s-t cuts under a polyhedral model of robustness. Our algorithm ...

  7. Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints Yoni in a fast circuit by the same factor does not yield an energy-efficient design, and we characterize efficient. A design implementation is considered to be energy efficient when it has the highest performance

  8. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retail Data Brazil – International Energy Initiative Life-business as usual Brazil Bottom-Up Energy Analysis Systemfor setting energy efficiency standards in Brazil:The case

  9. Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    1 Energy-Efficient Distributed Constructions of Minimum Spanning Tree for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks of a class of simple and local algorithms called Nearest Neighbor Tree (NNT) algorithms for energy-efficient

  10. Industrial and Process Efficiency Performance Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers the Industrial and Process Efficiency (IPE) Program to provide performance-based incentives to manufacturers and data...

  11. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market Reviews the magnitude of...

  12. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case study describes...

  13. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a gas dryer, significant time and energy savings, combined with dramatically reduced fabric temperatures, was achieved in a cost-effective manner. The key design factor lay in developing a system that matches the heat input to the dryer with the fabrics ability to absorb it. The development work done on the modulating gas dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) Up to 25% reduction in energy consumption for small and medium loads; (2) Up to 35% time savings for large loads with 10-15% energy reduction and no adverse effect on cloth temperatures; (3) Reduced fabric temperatures, dry times and 18% energy reduction for delicate loads; and, (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions.

  14. Efficient Materialization of Dynamic Web Data to Improve Web Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouras, Christos

    Efficient Materialization of Dynamic Web Data to Improve Web Performance Christos Bouras, Agisilaos of performance, response efficiency and data consistency are among the most important ones for data intensive Web a materialization policy that may be applied to data intensive Web sites. Our research relies on the performance

  15. Building Algorithm-Based Energy Efficient High Performance Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Algorithm-Based Energy Efficient High Performance Computing Systems with Resilience Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science Seminar Start Date: May 12 2015 -...

  16. GE researchers perform simulations in pursuit of more efficient...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE researchers perform simulations in pursuit of more efficient jet engines and wind turbines Author: John Spizzirri . July 1, 2014 Printer-friendly version The recent addition of...

  17. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market Acronyms and Abbreviations CSU DGS EE ESPC ESCO IOUESCO projects implemented by Pennsylvania executive agencies. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market ESPC

  18. Computational study of power conversion and luminous efficiency performance for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Computational study of power conversion and luminous efficiency performance for semiconductor) and luminous efficiency (LE) performance levels of high photometric quality white LEDs integrated with quantum dots (QDs) achieving an averaged color rendering index of 90 (with R9 at least 70), a luminous efficacy

  19. Managing Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes Implementing Energy Performance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Managing Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes ­ Implementing Energy Performance and unsecured energy supply are topics that become increasingly important in today's society. Although renewable energy technologies may be a long-term solution, more efficient energy use potentially makes a high

  20. Improving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this shortfall is critical as the focus on moving toward zero net energy buildings and carbon reductionImproving Real World Efficiency of High Performance Buildings Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/buildings February 2012 The Issue Highperformance buildings

  1. A study in hybrid vehicle architectures : comparing efficiency and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotter, Gavin M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparison of performance and efficiencies for four vehicle power architectures; the internal combustion engine (ICE), the parallel hybrid (i.e. Toyota Prius), the serial hybrid (i.e. Chevrolet Volt), ...

  2. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into account the electricity generation fuel mix, and lossesaccording to typical electricity generation fuel mix. Carbon

  3. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing heat-pump and solar water heaters in countriescountries, we consider solar water heaters to be the BAT.calculation assumes that solar water heaters reduce energy

  4. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 Table 6. Electric Storage Water Heater17 Table 7. Gas Storage Water Heater17 Table 8. Instantaneous Water Heater

  5. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    countries, we consider solar water heaters to be the BAT.calculation assumes that solar water heaters reduce energyU.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER –

  6. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study. IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2010. Comparison of ‘Energy Agency (IEA). 2010. World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris:would have. IEA’s World Energy Outlook 2010. Comparison of “

  7. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy vacuum insulated panels watts South Africa BUENASSouth Africa Reference U.S. DOE, 2010a Solar Water Heater LBNL assumption EER – energy-

  8. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traditional storage tank water heaters and heat-pump orwater heaters are not considered as an alternative to storage tank

  9. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is the case for gas water heaters and furnaces, the maximum-traditional storage tank water heaters and heat-pump or16 Table 6. Electric Storage Water Heater

  10. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard for Residential Lighting in Chile, 2010 USResidential General Service Lighting in Chile Virginie E.focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale

  11. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Letschert. 2011. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Letschert. 2012. Fan Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-

  12. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Pump Reference U.S. DOE, 2011b EC, 2009b IndustrialHeat Pumps .. 18 Furnaces .. 19 Boilers 19 Fans . 20 Standby Power . 20 Clothes Dryers . 21 Industrial

  13. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the market today are heat-pump water heaters for electricas electric CO 2 heat-pump water heaters (3.0 EF, using CO 2fired absorption heat pump water heaters (approximately 1.4

  14. 24 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 1998 Efficient Algorithms for the Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    of the MSPSA problem is called the minimum rectilinear Steiner arborescence (MRSA) problem. Given a set be shown that an MSPSA of is an MRSA of . The MSPSA and MRSA problems have applications to performance for the MRSA problem can be cl

  15. Eco- vs. productive efficiency: A new approach to effective and comparative performance analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chien-Ming Chen; Delmas, Magali A; Montes, Maria J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    social performance: an efficiency perspective. Institute offunctions, and Nerlovian efficiency. Journal of Optimization1978. Measuring the efficiency of decision making units.

  16. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: Aligning Management, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance:to improve their energy efficiency- as evidenced by the 98%the renewed interest in energy efficiency worldwide and the

  17. Efficient performance optimisation of wireless power transmission using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myung, Noh-Hoon

    Efficient performance optimisation of wireless power transmission using genetic algorithm Junghoon [1], are attracting attention for a mid-range energy transfer because these systems are so useful) to analyse and extract the parameters from the equivalent circuit model and to calculate the optimal values

  18. Performance and Efficiency: Recent Advances in Supervised Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Chuanyi

    and learning approaches, we focus on a special type of adaptive learning systems with a neural architecture. We discuss four types of learning approaches: training an individual model; combinations of several wellPerformance and Efficiency: Recent Advances in Supervised Learning SHENG MA AND CHUANYI JI

  19. Introducing Energy Performances in Production Management: Towards Energy Efficient Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Introducing Energy Performances in Production Management: Towards Energy Efficient Manufacturing.taisch}@polimi.it Abstract. Energy consumption is one of the main economic, environmental and societal issues. As stated by recent researches, manufacturing plays a major role in energy consumption. To react to this situation

  20. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The state government market is defined to include state offices, state universities, correctional facilities, and other state facilities. This study is part of a series of reports prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Association of Energy Services Companies (NAESCO) on the ESCO market and industry trends. The scope of previous reports was much broader: Goldman et al. (2002) analyzed ESCO project costs and savings in public and private sector facilities, Hopper et al. (2005) focused on ESCO project activity in all public and institutional sectors, while Hopper et al (2007) provided aggregate results of a comprehensive survey of ESCOs on current industry activity and future prospects. We decided to focus the current study on ESCO and energy efficiency activity and potential market barriers in the state government market because previous studies suggested that this institutional sector has significant remaining energy efficiency opportunities. Moreover, ESCO activity in the state government market has lagged behind other institutional markets (e.g., K-12 schools, local governments, and the federal market). Our primary objectives were as follows: (1) Assess existing state agency energy information and data sources that could be utilized to develop performance metrics to assess progress among ESPC programs in states; (2) Conduct a comparative review of the performance of selected state ESPC programs in reducing energy usage and costs in state government buildings; and (3) Delineate the extent to which state government sector facilities are implementing energy efficiency projects apart from ESPC programs using other strategies (e.g. utility ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, loan funds).

  1. A Mandated Minimum Competency Testing Program and Its Impact on Learning Disabled Students: Curricular Validity and Comparative Performances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyen, Edward L.; Alley, Gordon R.; Scannell, Dale P.; Harnden, G. Mack; Miller, Kelly F.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, LD specialists, regular class teachers, and parents of LD students judged that the objectives of the Kansas Minimum Competency Specifications prescribed for nonhandicapped students were applicable to LD ...

  2. Motivation Literature Network Performance Measure Network Robustness SCN Model Fin. Net. Model Conclusions Network Efficiency/Performance Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Conclusions Network Efficiency/Performance Measurement with Vulnerability and Robustness Analysis Conclusions 1 Motivation 2 Literature Review 3 Network Efficiency/Performance Measure Variational Inequality Robustness SCN Model Fin. Net. Model Conclusions 1 Motivation 2 Literature Review 3 Network Efficiency/Performance

  3. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the case to building owners for energy efficiency. Developoperation with energy efficiency in building systems. X X XBuildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency 11-Sept-

  4. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consensus on energy efficient designs by climate and inestimates for an energy efficient alternative design can behighly energy efficient hospitals while the design community

  5. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  6. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency iii 11-Sept-2009 ListA Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency 11-Sept-2009 Topic /A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency 11-Sept-2009 Topic /

  7. Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric)- Home Energy Solutions and Performance Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency Fund, funded by Connecticut's public benefits charge, provides home energy efficiency rebate programs to customers of The Connecticut Light and Power Company, The United...

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENT LOAD LATENCY TOLERANCE: SINGLE-THREAD PERFORMANCE FOR THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    performance in an energy-efficient way--they introduced too many new large, complex structures and re

  9. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market Acronyms and Abbreviations CSU DGS EE ESPC ESCO

  10. ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS Except where School Engineering #12;ENERGY-EFFICIENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FOR HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING PLATFORMS of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Auburn, Alabama August 9, 2008 #12;iii ENERGY-EFFICIENT

  11. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    providing preliminary energy audits or feasibility studiesCost-Effective Energy Energy Audit Energy Efficiency Projectmethod for conducting energy audits and implementing

  12. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projectionsis taken from the annual energy outlook (AEO) 2010 (DOE/EIA-

  13. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    central air conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) areair conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) UnregulatedM i l l o 10 i n s 2. Water Heaters DOE has issued a final

  14. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) are modeledair conditioners, water heaters and furnaces) UnregulatedBAT option for electric water heater and condensing water

  15. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) 2005 (EIA, 2009), whichEIA-0383(2010)) Energy Information Administration, Residential Energy Consumption Survey:

  16. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  17. Performance and energy efficiency in simple simultaneous multithreading processor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhler, Richard Stephen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous multithreading, where instructions from different threads share processor resources, has shown promise in delivering high throughput with little area and power overhead. We compare where in the performance ...

  18. Home Performance with Energy Star High Efficiency Measure Incentive (HEMI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York State Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers an incentive for homeowners of 1-4 homes that participate in the Home Performance with Energy Star program. The program...

  19. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal RegisterHydrogen andResiliency |EfficiencyDepartmentEnergyCenters |

  20. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI. Introduction ofofLoanEfficiency

  1. Measured Performance of Energy-Efficient Computer Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, D. B.; Parker, D. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this study is to explore the potential performance of both Energy Star computers/printers and add-on control devices individually, and their expected savings if collectively applied in a typical office building in a hot and humid...

  2. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the primary act,'' and three further annuli for the supply of the secondary air.'' The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  3. Meaningful Energy Efficiency Performance Metrics for the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Sidhwa, N. R.

    industries have developed standard met- rics for their plant performance. A notable example is the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII) for Oil Refining, which builds up the overall plant energy index from the energy indices for individual process units.... Energy Intensity, Oil & Gas Industry 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Ce n t s / BO E Oil & Gas prod'n Oil Refining Gas Processing Figure 11. Energy Intensity Trends for Different Business Units The ?standard energy...

  4. Energy-Efficient Pipeline Templates for High-Performance Asynchronous Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Rajit

    A Energy-Efficient Pipeline Templates for High-Performance Asynchronous Circuits Basit Riaz Sheikh and Rajit Manohar, Cornell University We present two novel energy-efficient pipeline templates for high is presented, which results in significant latency and energy savings especially as the number of outputs

  5. Energy Efficient Phase Change Memory Based Main Memory for Future High Performance Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Thomas M.

    hybrid system using a commodity DRAM cache. Keywords-Memory Controller, DRAM, PCM, Energy I. INTRODUCTIONEnergy Efficient Phase Change Memory Based Main Memory for Future High Performance Systems Abstract system of similar storage size. Our proposed system is highly energy efficient and provides 35

  6. Webinar: Impacts of Energy Efficiency on the Financial Performance of Commercial Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy conducted a review of existing market research on the impact of Energy Efficiency and Green Labels on building financial performance. This webinar will review the results...

  7. Building Energy Efficiency Standards Approved Default Cool Roof Performance Values for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Energy Efficiency Standards Approved Default Cool Roof Performance Values for Low-Sloped Roofs That Use Aggregate As the Surface Layer Aggregate used as the surface layer of low-sloped roofs shall have the default cool roof properties

  8. MEASURED ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT NEW COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: RESULTS FROM THE BECA-CN DATA COMPILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, M.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the forefront of energy- efficient design. About two-thirdaemphasis placed on energy-efficient design in the retailenergy efficient, based on actual mea8ured performance data. Despite a number of recent reports summarizing the design

  9. Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Philip Douglas

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by...

  10. Potential for Branch Predictor Adaptation at the Program and Phase Level for Performance and Energy-Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co, Michele

    Potential for Branch Predictor Adaptation at the Program and Phase Level for Performance and Energy-Efficiency savings were performed. The performance and energy- efficiency of an 8-wide issue, out-of-order processor of the branch predictor configuration to improve overall processor energy- efficiency. The results

  11. European Union Energy Performance of Building Directive and the Impact of Building Automation on Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirth, U.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gubelstrasse 22 CH-6301 Zug 00 41 41/ 7 24 55 60 wirth.ulrich@siemens.com European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and The impact of Building Automation on Energy Efficiency Buildings account for 40 percent of global energy... building automation and control and technical building management based on the same may provide a demonstrable contribution to EU savings goals of 20 percent by 2020. The goal of European Directive 2002/91/EC on the total energy efficiency of buildings...

  12. European Union Energy Performance of Building Directive and the Impact of Building Automation on Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirth, U.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gubelstrasse 22 CH-6301 Zug 00 41 41/ 7 24 55 60 wirth.ulrich@siemens.com European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and The impact of Building Automation on Energy Efficiency Buildings account for 40 percent of global energy... consumption. The European Union's 2002 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive takes this fact into account and formulates savings goals. A resulting European standard, and uniform certification, applicable throughout Europe, form the foundation since...

  13. Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Kathryn S.

    Immix: A Mark-Region Garbage Collector with Space Efficiency, Fast Collection, and Mutator. The garbage collector therefore directly deter- mines program performance by making a classic space-time trade canonical tracing garbage collectors: semi-space, mark-sweep, and mark-compact each sacrifice one ob

  14. Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive metals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive that inserting a transition metal oxide (TMO) between the lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) layer and the metal-Yu Chen; Octavi E. Semonin; Arthur J. Nozik; Randy J. Ellingson; Matthew C. Beard."n-Type Transition Metal

  15. Designing a Practical Data Filter Cache to Improve Both Energy Efficiency and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whalley, David

    A Designing a Practical Data Filter Cache to Improve Both Energy Efficiency and Performance Alen Bardizbanyan, Chalmers University of Technology Magnus Sj¨alander, Florida State University David Whalley, Florida State University Per Larsson-Edefors, Chalmers University of Technology Conventional data filter

  16. Improving the Performance and Power Efficiency of Shared Helpers in CMPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Tim

    coal or nuclear power plants typically supply the ma- jority of power needs, during periods of peak power demand, auxiliary power plants (often powered by natural gas) are used to meet temporary loadImproving the Performance and Power Efficiency of Shared Helpers in CMPs Anahita Shayesteh Comp

  17. The Effect of the 802.11 Power Save Mechanism (PSM) on Energy Efficiency and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatti, Saleem N.

    The Effect of the 802.11 Power Save Mechanism (PSM) on Energy Efficiency and Performance During is the increased energy usage of ICT, for reasons of cost and environmental protection. The Power Save Mode (PSM and office environments. Power save mecha- nisms that exist in the variants of the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards

  18. Effects of Pipeline Complexity on SMT/CMP Power-Performance Efficiency Benjamin Lee and David Brooks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Benjamin C.

    Effects of Pipeline Complexity on SMT/CMP Power-Performance Efficiency Benjamin Lee and David for the power-performance efficiency of SMT and CMP architectures, exploring fundamental trade-offs be- tween-performance simulations of several SMT and CMP architectures employing cores of varying complexity. Our analyses identify

  19. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  20. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  1. PerformanceEvaluation of Adaptiveand Energy-efficient MAC Protocolsfor WirelessSensor Networks Torsten Braun, Philipp Hurni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Torsten

    PerformanceEvaluation of Adaptiveand Energy-efficient MAC Protocolsfor WirelessSensor Networks Bern, Switzerland braun@iam.unibe.ch, hurni@iam.unibe.ch Abstract The paper describes an energy-efficient schemes. Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Energy-efficient Protocols, MediumAccessControl I

  2. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  3. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  4. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  5. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: Aligning Management, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are significantly less energy efficient than they could be.Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) was formed.Peter Radgen, 2005, Energy Efficient Motor Driven Systems,

  6. Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China demonstration energy- efficient commercial building”,China Demonstration Energy Efficient Office Building insideUS-China demonstration energy-efficient office building Peng

  7. Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of building energy efficiency in China. Tsinghuaand energy efficiency potential in public buildings inraise the energy-efficiency awareness of building owners and

  8. Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstration energy-efficient office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an energy-efficient demonstration building and design centerenergy- efficient demonstration office building and designenergy-efficient materials, space-conditioning systems, controls, and design

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTROLYZER CONFIGURATION AND PERFORMANCE ON HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS NET THERMAL EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  10. Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

  11. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the recommendations to calculate cooling and heating energy-input-ratio (EIR) for DOE-2 simulations excluding indoor fan energy, from the rated cooling and heating seasonal performance efficiency (i.e., ...

  12. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  13. Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014 Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from to produce electricity from fuels. To speed the search for why fuel cell performance decreases over time fuels more efficiently and with fewer emissions per watt than burning fossil fuels. But as fuel cells

  14. Minimum Energy Accumulative Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Ravi

    Minimum Energy Accumulative Routing in Wireless Networks Jiangzhuo Chen, Lujun Jia, Xin Liu to address the energy efficient routing problem in multi-hop wireless networks with accumulative relay. In the accumulative relay model, partially overheard signals of previous transmis- sions for the same packet are used

  15. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly, andhas no assurance of persistence, since champions may leave the company orbe reassigned after project completion.This paper presents an alternatescenario that builds on the body of expert knowledge concerning energymanagement best practices and the experience of industrial champions toengage industry in continuous energy efficiency improvement at thefacility rather than the individual level. Under this scenario,standardized methodologies for applying and validating energy managementbest practices in industrial facilities will be developed through aconsensus process involving both plant personnel and specializedconsultants and suppliers. The resulting protocols will describe aprocess or framework for conducting an energy savings assessment andverifying the results that will be transparent to policymakers, managers,and the financial community, and validated by a third-party organization.Additionally, a global dialogue is being initiated by the United NationsIndustrial Development Organization (UNIDO) concerning the development ofan international industrial energy management standard that would be ISOcompatible. The proposed scenario will combine the resulting standardwith the best practice protocols for specific energy systems (i.e.,steam, process heating, compressed air, pumping systems, etc.) to formthe foundation of a third party, performance-based certification programfor the overall industrial facility that is compatible with existingmanagement systems, including ISO 9001:2000, 14001:2004 and 6 Sigma. Thelong term goal of this voluntary, industry designed certification programis to develop a transparent, globally accepted system for validatingenergy efficiency projects and management practices. This system wouldcreate a verified record of energy savings with potential market valuethat could be recognized among sectors and countries.

  16. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating and space heating, for which cost data were not available, and the specificity of the marketheating and space heating, for which cost data were not available, and the specificity of the market

  17. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inclusion of the social cost of carbon impact the evaluationinclusion of the social cost of carbon impact the evaluation

  18. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. , 2011. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-V. , 2012. Fan Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-

  19. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems for which heat pump water heaters are found to beachieved by 2030. Heat-pump water heaters, which represent aU.S. and the EU. Heat-pump water heaters have a high cost

  20. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EU Fuel Oil) Ecodesign Studies IDN N/A Assumption IND N/AAssumption EIA, 2010 Scenario Table (19.3 Fuel USDOE, 2011c Oil)Oil EU USA BUENAS Version 04-23-12 Rev. 07-27-12 References / Assumptions

  1. The Minimum Price Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , he can Mark Waller, Steve Amosson, Mark Welch, and Kevin Dhuyvetter* 2 lock in a floor price and still have upside poten- tial if the market rallies. Options-based marketing strategies, such as the minimum price contract, work well in times...

  2. Department of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2012 Assessing the Performance of Energy Efficient Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    of Energy Efficient Housing Overview Penn State's Department of Architecture partnered with the Union Country Housing Authority (UCHA) to create the Energy Efficient Housing Program (EEHP). A duplex was constructed and two homes were remodelled using energy efficient technologies and sustainable materials. UCHA

  3. Coordinated resource management for guaranteed high performance and efficient utilization in Lambda-Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taesombut, Nut

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, AugustConference on High Performance Computing and Communication (Conference on High Performance Computing and Networking (SC’

  4. A 93% efficiency reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter using on-chip ferroelectric capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Damak, Dina Reda

    Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) has become one of the standard techniques for energy efficient operation of systems by powering circuit blocks at the minimum voltage that meets the desired performance [1]. Switched Capacitor ...

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  6. Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, O.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...

  7. Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, O.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air...

  8. Improvement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W. Cameron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeh, Vincent

    . Earth Simulator requires 18 megawatts of power. Petaflop systems may require 100 megawatts of power[2], nearly the output of a small power plant (300 megawatts). At $100 per megawatt ($.10 per kilowatt), peakImprovement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W

  9. Improvement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W. Cameron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Rong

    of thousands of power hungry components will lead to intolerable operating costs and failure rates. High to quantify and compare the power-performance efficiency for parallel Fourier transform and matrix transpose numbers of power-hungry commercial components (e.g. Itanium) in clusters of SMPs to achieve high

  10. Macintosh HD:from FWB:IMVP Save Stuff:Engine paper stuff:Engine Paper final COST AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, Daniel

    AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINE PLANTS Daniel E Whitney* Guillermo Peschard# Denis Artzner:IMVP Save Stuff:Engine paper stuff:Engine Paper final COST AND EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINE PLANTS Abstract This paper analyzes the basic performance of 27 automobile engine lines operated by 18

  11. Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT): An Innovative Mechanism for Enhancing Energy Efficiency in India's Industrial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnik, S. P.; Martin, M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On 31st March 2012, India quietly announced a historic regulation for industrial sector in a bid to ensure energy security of the country. The regulation, with an aim to enhance energy efficiency in energy intensive industrial sectors, is empowered...

  12. A Field Comparison of Performance Based Energy Efficient and Conventionally Constructed Homes in South Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schertz, S.; Stracener, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The program, originally developed at Gulf Power Co., is an energy efficiency designation and implied the inclusion of some or all of ten recommended construction features. Central Power and Light Company's criteria for qualification as a "Good Cents Home...

  13. NREL Enables Efficient Data Exchange for Home Performance Companies (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merket, N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL supports standard data transfer protocol to streamline communication of home performance tracking systems and upgrade analysis software.

  14. Efficient End-Host Architecture for High Performance Communication Using User-level Sandboxing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - plications to have more control over the networking subsys- tem to support optimizations for their specific, passes data between "sand- boxed" extensions and the Ethernet device without copying or processing. With this generality, fine grained control is sacrificed. For in- stance, there is little support for using efficient

  15. CPU Scheduling for Statistically-Assured Real-Time Performance and Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindran, Binoy

    @mitre.org ABSTRACT We present a CPU scheduling algorithm, called Energy-efficient Utility Accrual Algorithm (or EUA, making it a prime target for energy saving in past efforts. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a common mechanism em- ployed in the past to trade CPU's energy consumption for per- formance (see [2, 12, 14

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT (EECBG) - BETTER BUILDINGS NEIGHBORHOOD PROGRAM AT GREATER CINCINNATI ENERGY ALLIANCE Project Title: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training Center, a program that was developed and funded by the Energy Alliance and housed at Cincinnati State Technical and Community College. Nearly 100 residential and commercial contractors currently participate in the Energy Alliance’s two major programs, which have together served over 2,800 residential and 100 commercial customers. Additionally, the Energy Alliance established loan programs for homeowners, nonprofits and commercial businesses. The GC-HELP program was established to provide up to ten year low interest, unsecured loans to homeowners to cover the energy efficiency products they purchased through the Energy Alliance approved contractor base. To date the Energy Alliance has financed over $1 million in energy efficiency loans for homeowners, without any loans written off. The nonprofit business community is offered five year, fixed-interest rate loans through the Building Communities Loan Fund of $250,000. Additionally, the Energy Alliance has developed GC-PACE, a commercial financing tool that enables buildings owners to finance their energy upgrades through voluntary property assessments deploying low-interest extended-term capital from the bond market. The Energy Alliance and its partners are actively evaluating additional market-based financing solutions.

  17. Project REED (Residential Energy Efficiency Design) is a Web-based building performance simulation tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -based whole building simulation program that displays graphi- cally the gas and electricity cost of building to deliver powerful build- ing performance simulation tools to precisely targeted audiences. Using interface design, the web has the potential to deliver powerful new building performance simulation tools

  18. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  19. MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

  20. Predicted versus monitored performance of energy-efficiency measures in new commercial buildings from energy edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; deBuen, O.; Diamond, R.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Edge is a research-oriented demonstration program involving 28 new commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. This paper discusses the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures for the first 12 buildings evaluated using simulation models calibrated with measured end-use data. Average energy savings per building from the simulated code baseline building was 19%, less than the 30% target. The most important factor for the lower savings is that many of the installed measures differ from the measures specified in the design predictions. Only one of the first 12 buildings met the project objective of reducing energy use by more than 30% at a cost below the target of 56 mills/kWh (in 1991 dollars). Based on results from the first 12 calibrated simulation models, 29 of the 66 energy-efficiency measures, or 44%, met the levelized cost criterion. Despite the lower energy savings from individual measures, the energy-use intensities of the buildings are lower than other regional comparison data for new buildings. The authors review factors that contribute to the uncertainty regarding measured savings and suggest methods to improve future evaluations.

  1. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sertore, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.sertore@mi.infn.it; Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sez. Milano – LASA, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20?l s{sup ?1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8?10{sup ?8}?Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6?day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2?10{sup ?9}?Pa was achieved after a 2?day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  2. Performance Verification of Production-Scalable Energy-Efficient Solutions: Winchester/Camberley Homes Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winchester/Camberley Homes with the Building America program and its NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership collaborated to develop a new set of high performance home designs that could be applicable on a production scale. The new home designs are to be constructed in the mixed humid climate zone four and could eventually apply to all of the builder's home designs to meet or exceed future energy codes or performance-based programs. However, the builder recognized that the combination of new wall framing designs and materials, higher levels of insulation in the wall cavity, and more detailed air sealing to achieve lower infiltration rates changes the moisture characteristics of the wall system. In order to ensure long term durability and repeatable successful implementation with few call-backs, this report demonstrates through measured data that the wall system functions as a dynamic system, responding to changing interior and outdoor environmental conditions within recognized limits of the materials that make up the wall system. A similar investigation was made with respect to the complete redesign of the heating, cooling, air distribution, and ventilation systems intended to optimize the equipment size and configuration to significantly improve efficiency while maintaining indoor comfort. Recognizing the need to demonstrate the benefits of these efficiency features, the builder offered a new house model to serve as a test case to develop framing designs, evaluate material selections and installation requirements, changes to work scopes and contractor learning curves, as well as to compare theoretical performance characteristics with measured results.

  3. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  4. EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE RATIO AS ENERGY RATING SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES Marko Topic1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    tilts and tracking schemes. Differences arise from different distribution of annual solar energy on the specific location, the tilt angle of the module or the tracking scheme. We have shown that PV modules with lower effective series resistance exhibit better performance at higher irradiation (e.g. in tracking

  5. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  6. Performance of an efficient 6 kW helium refrigerator for the LEP 200 project at CERN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdt, W.K.; Frandsen, P.; Guesewell, D.; Solheim, N.O.; Winkler, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kurtcuoglu, K.; Loehlein, K.; Senn, A.E.; Wagner, U.; Ziegler, B. [LINDE KRYOTECHNIK, Pfungen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CERN has installed helium refrigeration plants for the LEP 200 project in 1991 with an equivalent refrigeration capacity of 6 kW at 4.5 K. The cold boxes of the plants were specified to be installed in the LEP tunnel and were therefore limited regarding their physical size. The LINDE helium refrigeration plant combines an extremely compact construction with a remarkably good cycle efficiency. It was in part achieved by arranging 3 expansion turbines in the temperature region below 20 K, one of which expands to roughly saturated liquid. The paper describes the system, the results of performance measurements, and the experience obtained during more than one year of operation.

  7. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This report overviews the latest developments in the Russian legislation related to energy efficiency in the public sector, describes the major challenges the regulations pose, and proposes ways to overcome these challenges. Given Russia’s limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. This paper discusses how EPCs and other mechanisms can help harness energy savings opportunities in Russia in general, and thus, can be applicable to any Russian region.

  8. New Funding Alternatives, Sources and Strategies To Create High-Performing, Energy Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % on Free/Reduced Lunch Program ? 10% Contribution from Private Entity(ies) ? Conditions ? No New Construction ? Funds Issued by 12/31/2012 ? Davis Bacon Act Compliance Texas State Loan Programs ? LoanSTAR ? Revolving loan program funding energy... delivery Performance Contracting (TGC 302.001, TEC 44.901, 2166 State Agencies) ? Cons ? Must be decided on early in project ? Owners must make timely decisions ? Requires measurement and verification program Construction Manager at Risk...

  9. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  10. Asymptotic Efficiency and Finite Sample Performance of Frequentist Quantum State Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raj Chakrabarti; Anisha Ghosh

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We undertake a detailed study of the performance of maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the density matrix of finite-dimensional quantum systems, in order to interrogate generic properties of frequentist quantum state estimation. Existing literature on frequentist quantum estimation has not rigorously examined the finite sample performance of the estimators and associated methods of hypothesis testing. While ML is usually preferred on the basis of its asymptotic properties - it achieves the Cramer-Rao (CR) lower bound - the finite sample properties are often less than optimal. We compare the asymptotic and finite-sample properties of the ML estimators and test statistics for two different choices of measurement bases: the average case optimal or mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and a representative set of suboptimal bases, for spin-1/2 and spin-1 systems. We show that, in both cases, the standard errors of the ML estimators sometimes do not contain the true value of the parameter, which can render inference based on the asymptotic properties of the ML unreliable for experimentally realistic sample sizes. The results indicate that in order to fully exploit the information geometry of quantum states and achieve smaller reconstruction errors, the use of Bayesian state reconstruction methods - which, unlike frequentist methods, do not rely on asymptotic properties - is desirable, since the estimation error is typically lower due to the incorporation of prior knowledge.

  11. Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The regulations set standards for minimum flow (listed in the...

  12. Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

  13. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  14. An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi the necessary features of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms the performance of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on

  15. Optimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosman, Pamela C.

    properties of the battery under bursty discharge conditions are exploited. In this paper, we exploitOptimal Allocation of Bandwidth for Minimum Battery Consumption Qinghua Zhao, Pamela C. Cosman, a power amplifier utilizes battery energy more efficiently with a higher transmission power. For a given

  16. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPRIETARY INFORMATION? 2011 KBC Advanced Technologies plc. All Rights Reserved. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Port Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility May... Improvements ? Cost-savings initiatives ? Increasing environmental awareness ? Increasing throughput by debottlenecking processes ? Increasing government mandates 2May 2013 Energy Costs for a 200kBPD Complex refinery Typically, energy efficiency programs...

  17. Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

  18. Minimum Risk Estimation and Decoding in Large Vocabulary Continuous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, William

    refinements EP(W,A)L(W,(A)) W W ^W = argmin W W W W L(W,W )P(W |A) E(W) = W W L(W,W )P(W |A) #12;Minimum, specifically Word Error Rate ? Efficient Lattice MBR Computation E(W) = W W L(W,W )P(W |A) W W #12;Minimum path to a reference path W ? Word Error Rate Requires String-to-String Alignment W1,...,WN W1,...,WN L(W,W

  19. GMTI radar minimum detectable velocity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, John Alfred

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) is a fundamental consideration for the design, implementation, and exploitation of ground moving-target indication (GMTI) radar imaging modes. All single-phase-center air-to-ground radars are characterized by an MDV, or a minimum radial velocity below which motion of a discrete nonstationary target is indistinguishable from the relative motion between the platform and the ground. Targets with radial velocities less than MDV are typically overwhelmed by endoclutter ground returns, and are thus not generally detectable. Targets with radial velocities greater than MDV typically produce distinct returns falling outside of the endoclutter ground returns, and are thus generally discernible using straightforward detection algorithms. This document provides a straightforward derivation of MDV for an air-to-ground single-phase-center GMTI radar operating in an arbitrary geometry.

  20. Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks Sabyasachi-- Energy-efficient broadcast communication is an important problem in wireless ad hoc networks. Previously, minimum-energy broadcast that exploits the broadcast nature of radio transmission has been studied

  1. On Cartesian trees and range minimum queries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik D.

    We present new results on Cartesian trees with applications in range minimum queries and bottleneck edge queries. We introduce a cache-oblivious Cartesian tree for solving the range minimum query problem, a Cartesian tree ...

  2. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchangers used to transfer heat to tqe com- I bustion air are divided into two groups. IndiIlect ! heat exchangers called "regenerative" types an~ direct heat exchangers called "recuperative" types. In a regenerative air heater, heat is transferred i...~duced I draft, air preheat system. This system can ac~omodate either a regenerative or recuperative air heater and ! Fig. 5 - Heat recovery systems. 857 ESL-IE-80-04-157 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX...

  3. An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 3, 2008 ... under data uncertainty such as in open-pit mining or scheduling jobs on ..... maximum flow problem in that arcs e1,e2, ··· ,ei had their capacities ...

  4. Ninety - Two Percent Minimum Heater Efficiency By 1980 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieth, H. C.; Hardie, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is essential. The system can be rearranged using a single I.D. fan for negative fire box operation. This type system can achieve very high effic~en? cies and has been ecconomically applied to units ioper ating below 10 MMBtu/hr. design capacity. Corro...

  5. Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Multiple criteria minimum spanning trees Pedro Cardoso M´ario Jesus ´Alberto M´arquez Abstract The NP multiple criteria minimum spanning tree as several applications into the network design problems criteria minimum spanning trees. There are several geometric network design and application problems

  6. Methodology for Calculating Cooling and Heating Energy-Imput-Ratio (EIR) From the Rated Seasonal Performance Efficiency (SEER or HSPF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the simulations. For a simulation input, a SEER or a HSPF rating needs to be converted to COP95 (i.e., Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)/3.412) or COP47, respectively, which is the steady-state efficiency at certain test conditions specified in the ANSI.../AHRI Standard 210/240-2008 (AHRI 2008). Issue 2: Fan Energy Removal • The system efficiency ratings currently available (i.e., SEER, EER, or HSPF) are based on net cooling or heating capacity (i.e., total cooling capacity less supply fan heat for cooling...

  7. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  8. Dynamic workload characterization for energy efficient computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhiman, Gaurav

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    overall energy efficiency and performance. The basic premiseenergy efficiency and performance in terms of instruction throughput. The basic premise

  9. Energy Efficient Radio Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Energy Efficient Radio Resource Management in a Coordinated Multi-Cell Distributed Antenna System Omer HALILOGLU Introduction System Model Performance Evaluation Conclusion References Energy Efficient Hacettepe University 5 September 2014 Omer HALILOGLU (Hacettepe University) Energy Efficient Radio Resource

  10. Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set minimum distance requirements between certain types of facilities that generate, process, store, and dispose of hazardous waste and other land uses. The regulations require an...

  11. Reducing Transaction Costs for Energy Efficiency Investments and Analysis of Economic Risk Associated With Building Performance Uncertainties: Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, R.; Hendron, B.; Bonnema, E.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The small buildings and small portfolios (SBSP) sector face a number of barriers that inhibit SBSP owners from adopting energy efficiency solutions. This pilot project focused on overcoming two of the largest barriers to financing energy efficiency in small buildings: disproportionately high transaction costs and unknown or unacceptable risk. Solutions to these barriers can often be at odds, because inexpensive turnkey solutions are often not sufficiently tailored to the unique circumstances of each building, reducing confidence that the expected energy savings will be achieved. To address these barriers, NREL worked with two innovative, forward-thinking lead partners, Michigan Saves and Energi, to develop technical solutions that provide a quick and easy process to encourage energy efficiency investments while managing risk. The pilot project was broken into two stages: the first stage focused on reducing transaction costs, and the second stage focused on reducing performance risk. In the first stage, NREL worked with the non-profit organization, Michigan Saves, to analyze the effects of 8 energy efficiency measures (EEMs) on 81 different baseline small office building models in Holland, Michigan (climate zone 5A). The results of this analysis (totaling over 30,000 cases) are summarized in a simple spreadsheet tool that enables users to easily sort through the results and find appropriate small office EEM packages that meet a particular energy savings threshold and are likely to be cost-effective.

  12. Knots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denne, Elizabeth

    Knots and Minimum Distance Energy Rosanna Speller (Dated: May 11, 2008) Professor Elizabeth Denne have least Minimum Distance Energy. I previously showed that the energy is minimized for convex polygons. We hope relating the energy to chords of polygons will be a helpful step towards showing

  13. Minimum Time/Minimum Fuel Control of an Axisymmetric Rigid Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Jonathan Farina

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Many times it is necessary to reorient an aerial vehicle during flight in a minimum time or minimum fuel fashion. This thesis will present a minimum time/fuel control solution to reorienting an axisymmetric rigid body using eigenaxis maneuvers. Any...

  14. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  15. aerobic efficiency measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-10 minimum 1.50sq foot Space Heating and Cooling ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES Residential Eligible Measures List 12;Category Kammen, Daniel M. 4 Microsensor measurements of...

  16. Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

  17. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  18. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    courses including Building Energy Efficiency and Energyprovide specified building energy efficiency services. AEEexperts. Building Performance and Energy Efficiency is an

  19. Building Energy Efficient Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many new school buildings consume only half the energy required by similar efficient structures designed without energy performance as a design criterion. These are comfortable and efficient while construction costs remain about the same as those...

  20. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000...

  1. Questar Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To qualify for rebates, appliances and equipment must run on gas and must meet the minimum efficiency levels stated on the program web site. The website maintains a list of appliance models which...

  2. Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    1 Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc- demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms for their implementation. We highlight of an 'energy aware' link cache for storing this information. We also compare the performance of an on-demand

  3. Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Parametric and Kinetic Minimum Spanning Trees Pankaj K. Agarwal 1 David Eppstein 2 Leonidas J. Guibas 3 Monika R. Henzinger 4 Abstract We consider the parametric minimum spanning tree problem- pute the sequence of minimum spanning trees generated as varies. We also consider the kinetic minimum

  4. Energy Efficient Nanoelectronic System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    ://www.newairplane.com One 787 Battery: 12 Cells / 32 V DC 05/21/2013 6 #12;Why Energy Efficient Design ? Environmental energy-efficient designs. How to perform high-yield, energy efficient designs. How to perform effortless, high-yield, energy efficient designs. Gate Gate Gate Source D rain Graphene Layer 05/21/2013 14

  5. Haruvy, Katok and Pavlov: Efficiency of Coordinating Contracts Can Coordinating Contracts Improve Channel Efficiency?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Specifically, we look at three contract formats--wholesale price, two-part-tariff and minimum order quantity and extracting surplus through a lump sum payment (two part tariff) or through announcing a minimum order quantity treatment are far more efficient than two-part-tariff proposals in terms of the overall surplus

  6. ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Skylights provide natural day-lighting.· High-efficiency lighting reduces energy· costs and heat gain

  7. Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. N. Miranda; S. Nikolskaya; R. Riba

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 < Vterm. These results show that the velocity is not a monotonous function. If the initial speed is not horizontal, there is an angle range where the velocity shows the same behavior mentioned previously. Out of that range, the volocity is a monotonous function. These results come out from numerical simulations.

  8. Energy Information Handbook: Applications for Energy-Efficient Building Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency Alliance. Performance indicators: Better Bricks.Efficiency Alliance. Performance indicators: Better Bricks.operations/tools/performance-indicators-0. Website with

  9. Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevisan, Luca

    Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time Bernard Chazelle #3; Ronitt a parameter 0 minimum spanning tree- components algorithm picks O(1=#15; 2 ) vertices in the graph and then grows \\local spanning trees" whose

  10. Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems David Fern'andez­Baca 1? , Giora with a parameter. The second is an asymptotically optimal algorithm for the minimum ratio spanning tree problem, as well as other search problems, on dense graphs. 1 Introduction In the parametric minimum spanning tree

  11. Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Using Sparsification for Parametric Minimum Spanning Tree Problems David Fern´andez-Baca Giora algorithm for the minimum ratio spanning tree problem, as well as other search prob- lems, on dense graphs. 1 Introduction In the parametric minimum spanning tree problem, one is given an n-node, m

  12. Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees in Euclidean Spaces Pegah Kamousi #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Timothy M.

    Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees in Euclidean Spaces Pegah Kamousi # Computer Science University­1­4503­0682­9/11/06 ...$10.00. Keywords Algorithms, Theory General Terms Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees, Geometric Data and arbitrary but known probability p i . We want to compute the expected length of the minimum spanning tree

  13. On Two-Stage Stochastic Minimum Spanning Kedar Dhamdhere1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, R.

    On Two-Stage Stochastic Minimum Spanning Trees Kedar Dhamdhere1 , R. Ravi2 , and Mohit Singh2 1}@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract. We consider the undirected minimum spanning tree problem in a stochastic optimization setting algorithm. We then consider the Stochastic minimum spanning tree problem in a more general black-box model

  14. Minimum Cost Data Aggregation with Localized Processing for Statistical Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anandkumar, Animashree

    Minimum Cost Data Aggregation with Localized Processing for Statistical Inference Animashree--The problem of minimum cost in-network fusion of measurements, collected from distributed sensors via multihop, which implies that any Steiner- tree approximation can be employed for minimum cost fusion with the same

  15. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  16. Calorimetric measurements of energy transfer efficiency and melting efficiency in CO sub 2 laser beam welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous calorimetric studies of weld melting efficiency and arc efficiency in the GTAW and PAW processes have naturally led us to speculate as to the magnitude of the efficiencies in the LBW process which to data have also not been adequately investigated. Most welding engineers that have had experience with the LBW process are acutely aware that the metals' absorptivity, the surface finish, and the laser wavelength, all play an important role in affecting the energy transfer efficiency, but the extent of their influence and our understanding of the influence of other process variables is not well understood. In addition, it is widely thought that only the LBW or EBW processes can be selected for applications where thermal damage and distortion from the welding process must be kept to a minimum. For these reasons, we have looked forward to performing these calorimetric experiments since they potentially can answer such important questions as: whether or not the melting efficiency of the LBW process is superior to that obtainable with conventional GTAW and PAW welding processes This study was prompted by poor production yields on switching device due to cracking of the ceramic header after final closure welding with the CO{sub 2} LBW process. This calorimetric study was begun in hopes of determining if allowed variations in production process control variables were responsible for increases in heat input and the resulting thermal stresses. By measuring the net heat input to the workpiece with the calorimeter and by measuring the laser output energy and the weld fusion zone size it was possible to determine the magnitudes of both the energy transfer efficiency and the melting efficiency as well as observe their dependence on the process variables. 3 refs.

  17. A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

  18. Understanding Beef Cattle Efficiency: I) Understanding Physiological and Digestive Factors Affecting Residual Feed Intake and II) Tannin Supplementation: Effects on Animal Performance, Fermentation, and Carcass Traits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Wimberley K.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the relationship between beef cattle efficiency, namely residual feed intake (RFI), and digestive, microbial, and fermentation parameters in growing beef calves and 2) to ...

  19. Understanding Beef Cattle Efficiency: I) Understanding Physiological and Digestive Factors Affecting Residual Feed Intake and II) Tannin Supplementation: Effects on Animal Performance, Fermentation, and Carcass Traits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Wimberley K.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the relationship between beef cattle efficiency, namely residual feed intake (RFI), and digestive, microbial, and fermentation parameters in growing beef calves and 2) to examine the effects of added...

  20. A study of IMRT planning parameters on planning efficiency, delivery efficiency, and plan quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittauer, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32603 and J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Lu Bo; Yan Guanghua; Kahler, Darren; Amdur, Robert; Liu Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32603 (United States); Gopal, Arun [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To improve planning and delivery efficiency of head and neck IMRT without compromising planning quality through the evaluation of inverse planning parameters.Methods: Eleven head and neck patients with pre-existing IMRT treatment plans were selected for this retrospective study. The Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) was used to compute new treatment plans for each patient by varying the individual or the combined parameters of dose/fluence grid resolution, minimum MU per segment, and minimum segment area. Forty-five plans per patient were generated with the following variations: 4 dose/fluence grid resolution plans, 12 minimum segment area plans, 9 minimum MU plans, and 20 combined minimum segment area/minimum MU plans. Each plan was evaluated and compared to others based on dose volume histograms (DVHs) (i.e., plan quality), planning time, and delivery time. To evaluate delivery efficiency, a model was developed that estimated the delivery time of a treatment plan, and validated through measurements on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Results: The uncertainty (i.e., variation) of the dose-volume index due to dose calculation grid variation was as high as 8.2% (5.5 Gy in absolute dose) for planning target volumes (PTVs) and 13.3% (2.1 Gy in absolute dose) for planning at risk volumes (PRVs). Comparison results of dose distributions indicated that smaller volumes were more susceptible to uncertainties. The grid resolution of a 4 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid was recommended, since it can reduce the final dose calculation time by 63% compared to the accepted standard (2 mm dose grid with a 2 mm fluence grid resolution) while maintaining a similar level of dose-volume index variation. Threshold values that maintained adequate plan quality (DVH results of the PTVs and PRVs remained satisfied for their dose objectives) were 5 cm{sup 2} for minimum segment area and 5 MU for minimum MU. As the minimum MU parameter was increased, the number of segments and delivery time were decreased. Increasing the minimum segment area parameter decreased the plan MU, but had less of an effect on the number of segments and delivery time. Our delivery time model predicted delivery time to within 1.8%. Conclusions: Increasing the dose grid while maintaining a small fluence grid allows for improved planning efficiency without compromising plan quality. Delivery efficiency can be improved by increasing the minimum MU, but not the minimum segment area. However, increasing the respective minimum MU and/or the minimum segment area to any value greater than 5 MU and 5 cm{sup 2} is not recommended because it degrades plan quality.

  1. Construction Guide: Energy Efficient, Durable Walls

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Labs | Upper Marlboro, Md High Performance Walls || CZ 3-5 2 INTRODUCTION Low market penetration of energy efficient walls Construction Guide - energy efficient,...

  2. An efficient light trapping scheme based on textured conductive photonic crystal back reflector for performance improvement of amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Ni, Jian; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-Film Devices and Technique, Institute of Photoelectronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fan, QiHua [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient light trapping scheme named as textured conductive photonic crystal (TCPC) has been proposed and then applied as a back-reflector (BR) in n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell. This TCPC BR combined a flat one-dimensional photonic crystal and a randomly textured surface of chemically etched ZnO:Al. Total efficiency enhancement was obtained thanks to the sufficient conductivity, high reflectivity and strong light scattering of the TCPC BR. Unwanted intrinsic losses of surface plasmon modes are avoided. An initial efficiency of 9.66% for a-Si:H solar cell was obtained with short-circuit current density of 14.74?mA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 70.3%, and open-circuit voltage of 0.932?V.

  3. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO[sub 2]F[sub 2] and H[sub 2]O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF[sub 6] and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % [sup 235]U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  4. Minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric calculational analysis has been performed in order to estimate the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality of homogeneous low-enriched uranium systems. The analysis was performed using a version of the SCALE-4.0 code system and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library. Water-moderated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) and hydrofluoric-acid-moderated uranium hexaflouride (UF{sub 6} and HF) systems were considered in the analysis over enrichments of 1.4 to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. Estimates of the minimum critical volume, minimum critical mass of uranium, and the minimum mass of moderator required for criticality are presented. There was significant disagreement between the values generated in this study when compared with a similar undocumented study performed in 1983 using ANISN and the Knight-modified Hansen-Roach cross sections. An investigation into the cause of the disagreement was made, and the results are presented.

  5. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  6. Selenization of Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} absorber layer: An efficient step to improve device performance of CdS/Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Meiying; Luo, Miao; Chen, Chao; Qin, Sikai; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Jie; Tang, Jiang, E-mail: jtang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} appeared as a very promising solar absorber because of their attractive material, optical and electrical properties. Previously, we reported thermal evaporated superstrate CdS/Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} solar cell achieving 1.9% efficiency. In this letter, we improved device performance to 3.7% (Voc?=?0.335?V, Jsc?=?24.4?mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF?=?46.8%) by an additional selenization step. Careful external quantum efficiency, capacitance-voltage profiling, and photoresponse study indicated selenization probably compensated selenium loss during thermal evaporation, reducing V{sub Se} associated recombination loss and improving device performance.

  7. Energy Information Handbook: Applications for Energy-Efficient Building Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    poor performance. Boiler efficiencies tend to range fromMethods Load Profiling Example 5: Boiler Efficiency vs.Part-Load Capacity Boiler efficiency is plotted and

  8. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assesment Kit Guide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Improve Data Center Efficiency Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three...

  9. On the Energy Efficiency of Orthogonal Signaling Mustafa Cenk Gursoy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gursoy, Mustafa Cenk

    On the Energy Efficiency of Orthogonal Signaling Mustafa Cenk Gursoy Department of Electrical. The impact of fading on the energy efficiency is identified. Requirements to approach the minimum bit energy of -1.59 dB are determined. I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficient transmission is of paramount importance

  10. ESPC 2.0: How New Twists on Energy Savings Performance Contracting are Improving Energy Efficiency in U.S. Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join Better Buildings Challenge Partners and Allies to learn how Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) is moving beyond the traditional education and hospital sector markets.

  11. Teuchos C++ memory management classes, idioms, and related topics, the complete reference : a comprehensive strategy for safe and efficient memory management in C++ for high performance computing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ubiquitous use of raw pointers in higher-level code is the primary cause of all memory usage problems and memory leaks in C++ programs. This paper describes what might be considered a radical approach to the problem which is to encapsulate the use of all raw pointers and all raw calls to new and delete in higher-level C++ code. Instead, a set of cooperating template classes developed in the Trilinos package Teuchos are used to encapsulate every use of raw C++ pointers in every use case where it appears in high-level code. Included in the set of memory management classes is the typical reference-counted smart pointer class similar to boost::shared ptr (and therefore C++0x std::shared ptr). However, what is missing in boost and the new standard library are non-reference counted classes for remaining use cases where raw C++ pointers would need to be used. These classes have a debug build mode where nearly all programmer errors are caught and gracefully reported at runtime. The default optimized build mode strips all runtime checks and allows the code to perform as efficiently as raw C++ pointers with reasonable usage. Also included is a novel approach for dealing with the circular references problem that imparts little extra overhead and is almost completely invisible to most of the code (unlike the boost and therefore C++0x approach). Rather than being a radical approach, encapsulating all raw C++ pointers is simply the logical progression of a trend in the C++ development and standards community that started with std::auto ptr and is continued (but not finished) with std::shared ptr in C++0x. Using the Teuchos reference-counted memory management classes allows one to remove unnecessary constraints in the use of objects by removing arbitrary lifetime ordering constraints which are a type of unnecessary coupling [23]. The code one writes with these classes will be more likely to be correct on first writing, will be less likely to contain silent (but deadly) memory usage errors, and will be much more robust to later refactoring and maintenance. The level of debug-mode runtime checking provided by the Teuchos memory management classes is stronger in many respects than what is provided by memory checking tools like Valgrind and Purify while being much less expensive. However, tools like Valgrind and Purify perform a number of types of checks (like usage of uninitialized memory) that makes these tools very valuable and therefore complement the Teuchos memory management debug-mode runtime checking. The Teuchos memory management classes and idioms largely address the technical issues in resolving the fragile built-in C++ memory management model (with the exception of circular references which has no easy solution but can be managed as discussed). All that remains is to teach these classes and idioms and expand their usage in C++ codes. The long-term viability of C++ as a usable and productive language depends on it. Otherwise, if C++ is no safer than C, then is the greater complexity of C++ worth what one gets as extra features? Given that C is smaller and easier to learn than C++ and since most programmers don't know object-orientation (or templates or X, Y, and Z features of C++) all that well anyway, then what really are most programmers getting extra out of C++ that would outweigh the extra complexity of C++ over C? C++ zealots will argue this point but the reality is that C++ popularity has peaked and is becoming less popular while the popularity of C has remained fairly stable over the last decade22. Idioms like are advocated in this paper can help to avert this trend but it will require wide community buy-in and a change in the way C++ is taught in order to have the greatest impact. To make these programs more secure, compiler vendors or static analysis tools (e.g. klocwork23) could implement a preprocessor-like language similar to OpenMP24 that would allow the programmer to declare (in comments) that certain blocks of code should be ''pointer-free'' or allow smaller blocks to be 'pointers allowed'. This would signific

  12. National Grid (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Upstate New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Custom incentives are available for projects that demonstrate the use of natural gas more efficiently than industry practices and/or more efficiently than the minimum building code requirements....

  13. National Grid (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Metro New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Custom Incentives are available for projects that demonstrate the use of natural gas more efficiently than industry practices and/or more efficiently than the minimum building code requirements....

  14. Stochastic Roadmap Simulation: Efficient Representation and Algorithms for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Stochastic Roadmap Simulation: Efficient Representation and Algorithms for the Analysis Roadmap Simulation (SRS) #12;Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS) Multiple paths at once; #12;Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS) Multiple paths at once; No local minimum problem; #12;Stochastic Roadmap

  15. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank J.

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

  16. anka karlsruhe minimum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Descrip- tion Length (MDL) principle (Rissanen, 1978, 1987, 1996), and the Minimum Length (MML) principle. Based on this analysis, we present two revised versions of MML: a...

  17. Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pathway and Migration Mechanism. Tungsten Cluster Migration on Nanoparticles: Minimum Energy Pathway and Migration Mechanism. Abstract: Transition state searches have been...

  18. Optimization Online - Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Recht

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization. Benjamin Recht(brecht ***at*** caltech.edu)

  19. Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for 128-Run Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Hongquan; Mee, Robert W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Split-Plot Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of QualityAberration in Blocked Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, 39,Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum

  20. Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for 128-Run Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongquan Xu; Robert W. Mee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Split-Plot Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of QualityAberration in Blocked Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, 39,Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum

  1. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  2. Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    Approximating the Minimum Spanning Tree Weight in Sublinear Time #3; Bernard Chazelle y Ronitt a parameter 0 minimum span- ning tree in the graph and then grows \\local spanning trees" whose sizes are speci#12;ed by a stochastic process. From

  3. Asymptotically minimum BER linear block precoders for MMSE equalisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Tim

    ) [3]. For a general block transmission scheme, optimal detection requires a joint decisionAsymptotically minimum BER linear block precoders for MMSE equalisation S.S. Chan, T.N. Davidson and K.M. Wong Abstract: An asymptotically minimum bit error rate (BER) linear block precoder

  4. THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deseri, Luca

    THE MINIMUM FREE ENERGY FOR CONTINUOUS SPECTRUM MATERIALS L. DESERI AND J.M. GOLDEN Abstract. A general closed expression is given for the isothermal minimum free energy of a linear viscoelastic states [6] are uniquely related to histories and the work function is the maximum free energy

  5. A Counterexample to Additivity of Minimum Output Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Hastings

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a random construction of a pair of channels which gives, with non-zero probability for sufficiently large dimensions, a counterexample to the minimum output entropy conjecture. As shown by Shor, this implies a violation of the additivity conjecture for the classical capacity of quantum channels. The violation of the minimum output entropy conjecture is relatively small.

  6. An energy efficient TCAM enhanced cache architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surprise, Jason Mathew

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    to focus more on architectural level energy efficiency than performance alone. The goal of this thesis is to propose a new cache architecture and to evaluate its efficiency in terms of miss rate, system performance, energy consumption, and area overhead...

  7. Minimum Entangling Power is Close to Its Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianxin Chen; Zhengfeng Ji; David W Kribs; Bei Zeng

    2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum gate $U$ acting on a bipartite quantum system, its maximum (average, minimum) entangling power is the maximum (average, minimum) entanglement generation with respect to certain entanglement measure when the inputs are restricted to be product states. In this paper, we mainly focus on the 'weakest' one, i.e., the minimum entangling power, among all these entangling powers. We show that, by choosing von Neumann entropy of reduced density operator or Schmidt rank as entanglement measure, even the 'weakest' entangling power is generically very close to its maximal possible entanglement generation. In other words, maximum, average and minimum entangling powers are generically close. We then study minimum entangling power with respect to other Lipschitiz-continuous entanglement measures and generalize our results to multipartite quantum systems. As a straightforward application, a random quantum gate will almost surely be an intrinsically fault-tolerant entangling device that will always transform every low-entangled state to near-maximally entangled state.

  8. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  9. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. D. Yang, "Enhanced thermoelectric performance of roughHigh efficiency thermoelectric materials consisting ofG. Chen, and Z. F. Ren, "High-thermoelectric performance of

  10. Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevino, E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency • Eddy Trevino • Matt Golden – – Investor Confidence Project • Josh Briggs – QECBs • Michael Flores – High Performance New Construction • Denise Malloy – Performance Contracting for Public Sector... Improvement Projects ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Texas LoanSTAR Program 12/18/13 Maximizing Energy Efficiency while Protecting the Environment ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

  11. Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevino, E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency • Eddy Trevino • Matt Golden – – Investor Confidence Project • Josh Briggs – QECBs • Michael Flores – High Performance New Construction • Denise Malloy – Performance Contracting for Public Sector... Improvement Projects ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Texas LoanSTAR Program 12/18/13 Maximizing Energy Efficiency while Protecting the Environment ESL-KT-13-12-37 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

  12. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief. Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Brochure).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02Report |toVEHICLEof EnergyPerformance |Waste Heat

  13. Efficiently Controllable Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can Gokler; Kevin Thompson; Peter Shor; Seth Lloyd

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that universal quantum computation can be performed efficiently on quantum networks while the fraction of controlled subsystems vanishes as the network grows larger. We provide examples of quantum spin network families admitting polynomial quantum gate complexity with a vanishing fraction of controlled spins. We define a new family of graphs, the efficiently controllable family, which admits efficient computation with vanishing fraction of controls. We explore generalizations to percolation clusters, fractals and random graphs. We show that the classical computational complexity of estimating the ground state of Hamiltonians described by controllable graphs is polynomial in the number of subsystems/qubits.

  14. Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Natural Resources Commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in...

  15. TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zsom, Andras

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...

  16. Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...

  17. affecting minimum alveolar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    close to the observed minimum mass. The Hubble mass can also be predicted. It is suggested that assumption 1 above could be tested using a cyclotron to accelerate particles...

  18. Tree-ring reconstruction of maximum and minimum temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , minimum temperatures, diurnal temperature range, changing tree-ring/climate relationships, b; Vaganov et al. 1999; Bar- ber et al. 2000; Lloyd, Fastie 2002). Similar changes during investigations of tree- ring growth/climate relationships in interior British Columbia (BC

  19. Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators – that is those capable of producing more than 100...

  20. Compressing Social Networks The Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safro, Ilya

    Compressing Social Networks The Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem Chad Waters School Orderings Heuristic Conclusion Motivation Determine the extent to which social networks can be compressed adjacency queries. Social networks are not random graphs. Exhibit distinctive local properties

  1. The minimum information for a qualified BioBrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Mubing

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the information of many existing BioBricks is incomplete, thus the usage of the BioBricks will be affected. It is necessary to standardize the minimum information required for a qualified BioBrick. Furthermore this ...

  2. Minimum Cost Layout Decomposition and Legalization for Triple ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    problem as a minimum cost coloring problem, and it is relaxed to a nonlinear 0-1 ... ered as a promising technology for next-generation lithogra- phy. However ...

  3. Superior Energy Performance Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency, Competitiveness, Transparency. These are the tenets of the Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™). SEP is a market-based program that helps manufacturers to improve their plants' energy performance, which in turn helps to make them more competitive.

  4. Minimum patch size thresholds of reproductive success of songbirds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butcher, Jerrod Anthony

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1 MINIMUM PATCH SIZE THRESHOLDS OF REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF SONGBIRDS A Dissertation by JERROD ANTHONY BUTCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 2 MINIMUM PATCH SIZE THRESHOLDS OF REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF SONGBIRDS A Dissertation by JERROD ANTHONY BUTCHER Submitted to the Office...

  5. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  6. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shu-Yi, E-mail: Shuyi.Li@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO{sub 2} films with atom ratios z???Mg/(Mg?+?V) of 0???z?performance limits are given on T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} for thermochromic VO{sub 2} films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO{sub 2}-containing dilute nanocomposites.

  7. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results has been the utilization of Six Sigma methodology to identify and seize opportunities to improve our performance and to better meet customer needs. Since its implementation in 1999, Six Sigma has proven to be a breakthrough process that can... take Dow to the next level of performance for all our key stakeholders. The Six Sigma methodology has been especially successful in improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs and is the primary methodology used by technology center...

  8. Performance Contracting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodin, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    deferred maintenance Issues with no capital funding source Schneider Electric ? Buildings Business ? CATEE 2011 4 The Details ?Facility/Capital Improvement Program ?Energy Savings Realized Offset Project Costs ?No Up-Front Capital is Required...Performance Contracting ? A Resource for Energy Efficiency Projects Schneider Electric ? Buildings Business ? CATEE 2011 2 Top Challenges for Cities & Schools Tax Revenue Reductions Property values down, sales tax revenue down, etc Energy...

  9. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  10. A Repeated Game Formulation of Energy-Efficient Decentralized Power Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mael Le Treust; Samson Lasaulce

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Decentralized multiple access channels where each transmitter wants to selfishly maximize his transmission energy-efficiency are considered. Transmitters are assumed to choose freely their power control policy and interact (through multiuser interference) several times. It is shown that the corresponding conflict of interest can have a predictable outcome, namely a finitely or discounted repeated game equilibrium. Remarkably, it is shown that this equilibrium is Pareto-efficient under reasonable sufficient conditions and the corresponding decentralized power control policies can be implemented under realistic information assumptions: only individual channel state information and a public signal are required to implement the equilibrium strategies. Explicit equilibrium conditions are derived in terms of minimum number of game stages or maximum discount factor. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to compare the performance of the proposed power control policies with those already existing and exploiting the same information assumptions namely, those derived for the one-shot and Stackelberg games.

  11. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  12. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbara, Mamdouh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  13. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamdouh Abbara; Jean-Pierre Tillich

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  14. Building America Efficient Solutions for Existing Homes Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit of 1910 House, Portland, Oregon This case study lists project information, cost and energy efficiency performance data, energy efficiency measures and lessons...

  15. Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA's...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row Cooling...

  16. Case Study: Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Three...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA's...

  17. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  18. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  19. Sandia Inverter Performance Test Protocol Efficiency Weighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products having been tested to meet CEC incentive requirements, in 2014 a large number of inverters have publically-reported test results at three DC voltages and six power levels...

  20. Sandia Inverter Performance Test Protocol Efficiency Weighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitcheSandian Wins Award in 2015SecondInverter

  1. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovations and Trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and...

  2. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations and trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and strategies Portland,...

  3. BLIND DECONVOLUTION WITH MINIMUM RENYI'S ENTROPY Deniz Erdogmus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    BLIND DECONVOLUTION WITH MINIMUM RENYI'S ENTROPY Deniz Erdogmus1 , Jose C. Principe1 , Luis Vielva2-mail: [deniz , principe]@cnel.ufl.edu, luis@dicom.unican.es ABSTRACT Blind techniques attract the attention, from communications to control systems. Blind deconvolution is a problem that has been investigated

  4. The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications Kris Hauser Abstract on three example applications: generating human-interpretable excuses for failure, motion planning under their failures. · In human-robot interaction, semantically meaningful explanations would help people diagnose

  5. The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Minimum Constraint Removal Problem with Three Robotics Applications Kris Hauser September 13 strategies. It is demonstrated on three example applications: gener- ating human-interpretable excuses, then they provide no explanation for the failure. For several applications, it would be useful for planners

  6. Network Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"

    transmission and data storage in networks. Its power comes from the improved flexibility that codeword symbolsNetwork Coding for Joint Storage and Transmission with Minimum Cost Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang@cs.tamu.edu. Abstract-- Network coding provides elegant solutions to many data transmission problems. The usage

  7. arXiv:condmat/0310072 Minimum dissipation principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrielli, Davide

    uctuation principle which generalizes the well known Boltzmann{Einstein formula for the probability have opposite transformation properties under time reversal, the non dissipative part being in this respect akin to a magnetic term. We emphasize that the minimum dissipation principle is of general

  8. Storage Begins with Purchasing purchase minimum needed for experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Storage Begins with Purchasing · purchase minimum needed for experiment ­ do not "buy in bulk://www.ehs.washington.edu/forms/epo/peroxideguidelines.pdf #12;Chemical Storage Basics · https://web.mit.edu/environment/pdf/sop/sop_0023.pdf · http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/chsp/html/storage level · do not store chemicals in fume hoods · flammable storage refrigerator needed for flammable

  9. Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interior Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite architecture studio course is required for architecture majors enrolled in the interior architecture minor (1 is required for Architecture majors): IARC 484 Interior Design Studio (6), IARC 486 Furniture

  10. Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Architecture Minor Tracking Sheet Total Minimum Credits: 26 Minor standing is prerequisite Notes: Required courses in one's major will not count for the minor with one exception: 1 architecture studio course is required for interior architecture majors enrolled in the architecture minor, and this studio

  11. The Clique Partition Problem with Minimum Clique Size ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    May 5, 2005 ... Page 1 ... We will explain later in section 2.1, what we mean by “x is the .... since we don't know a concrete description for R(G, S), we will start from. ¯ ..... Now consider CPPMIN: S is the minimum size for each cluster, so the ...

  12. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving for predicting daily Rn have been widely used. However, when the paucity of detailed climatological data

  13. A minimum problem with free boundary for a degenerate quasilinear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 8, 2005 ... By the strong minimum principle, w0 = 0 in B5/8, since w0 ? 0 and w0(0) ..... 4.7 in [2] and pp. 19–20 in [3]; see also our proof of Theorem 5.1.

  14. A stochastic minimum principle and an adaptive pathwise algorithm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric power systems a b s t r a c t We present a numerical method for finite-horizon stochastic optimal control models. We derive a stochastic minimum principle (SMP) and then develop a numerical method based-parametric interpolation methods. We present results from a standard linear quadratic control model, and a realistic case

  15. The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

  16. Effect of mechanical parameters on dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Effect of mechanical parameters on dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures Jun Shintake energy structures Jun Shintake*a,b , Samuel Rosseta , Dario Floreanob , Herbert R. Sheaa a Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel, Switzerland b

  17. Information Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wenye

    transmission paths [8], [9]. By spending the energy resources in a wireless network wisely, the existingInformation Delivery in Large Wireless Networks with Minimum Energy Expense Yi Xu and Wenye Wang in large-scale multihop wireless networks because of the limited energy supplies from batteries. We

  18. Jamming-Aware Minimum Energy Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goeckel, Dennis L.

    1 Jamming-Aware Minimum Energy Routing in Wireless Networks Azadeh Sheikholeslami, Majid Ghaderi; however, energy-aware routing in the presence of active adversary (jammers) has not been considered. We. There has been some study of energy-aware ad hoc routing protocols in the literature [13], [14], [15], [16

  19. improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing policy priority the 1973 oil embargo. Codes by state but they generally establish a minimum energy efficiency stan- dard.S. Department of Energy to establish building code energy efficiency targets by January 1, 2014. it also

  20. Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing Considering Residual Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Energy-Efficient Reliable Routing Considering Residual Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Javad minimum energy routing (RMER). RMECR addresses three important requirements of ad hoc networks: energy-efficiency energy of nodes as well as quality of links to find energy-efficient and reliable routes that increase

  1. Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdict, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

  2. Approximating the Minimum Hub Cover Problem on Planar Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 25, 2014 ... The proposed algorithm incrementally constructs a search tree representing the ..... Subsea: an efficient heuristic algorithm for subgraph ...

  3. Management and Performance PERFORMANCE REPORTING AND PLANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (FAA), the Aviation Safety #12;Management and Performance PERFORMANCE REPORTING AND PLANNING M on real flight datasets of at least 10 terabytes. NASA provided the capabilities to the Federal Aviation necessary to design radically new aviation systems, and enabling efficient, high-confidence design

  4. Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jinyao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon as Efficient Thermoelectric Material Jinyao Tang 1,This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thinat room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is

  5. Aligning Utility Interests with Energy Efficiency Objectives...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interests with Energy Efficiency Objectives: A Review of Recent Efforts at Decoupling and Performance Incentives Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Aligning...

  6. Observation of the Density Minimum in Deeply Supercooled Confined Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dazhi Liu; Yang Zhang; Chia-Cheng Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Peter H Poole; Sow-Hsin Chen

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to measure the density of heavy water contained in 1-D cylindrical pores of mesoporous silica material MCM-41-S-15, with pores of diameter of 15+-1 A. In these pores the homogenous nucleation process of bulk water at 235 K does not occur and the liquid can be supercooled down to at least 160 K. The analysis of SANS data allows us to determine the absolute value of the density of D2O as a function of temperature. We observe a density minimum at 210+-5 K with a value of 1.041+-0.003 g/cm3. We show that the results are consistent with the predictions of molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled bulk water. This is the first experimental report of the existence of the density minimum in supercooled water.

  7. Dangerous implications of a minimum length in quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosimo Bambi; Katherine Freese

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence of a minimum length and a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle seem to be two fundamental ingredients required in any consistent theory of quantum gravity. In this letter we show that they would predict dangerous processes which are phenomenologically unacceptable. For example, long--lived virtual super--Planck mass black holes may lead to rapid proton decay. Possible solutions of this puzzle are briefly discussed.

  8. Investigation of a minimum energy Earth-Mars trajectory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard Emett

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF A MINIMUM ENERGY EARTH-MARS TRAJECTORY A Thesis by Richard Emmett grown Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of the Texas ASM University in partia1 fulfi11ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering INVESTIGATION OF A MINIMIIM ENERGy EARTH MARS TRAJECTORy A Thesis by Richard Emmett Brown Approved as to style and content by; (Co-chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) May I967 TABLE...

  9. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  10. SOLAR ROTATION RATE DURING THE CYCLE 24 MINIMUM IN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.i, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.ed [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum of solar cycle 24 is significantly different from most other minima in terms of its duration as well as its abnormally low levels of activity. Using available helioseismic data that cover epochs from the minimum of cycle 23 to now, we study the differences in the nature of the solar rotation between the minima of cycles 23 and 24. We find that there are significant differences between the rotation rates during the two minima. There are differences in the zonal-flow pattern too. We find that the band of fast rotating region close to the equator bifurcated around 2005 and recombined by 2008. This behavior is different from that during the cycle 23 minimum. By autocorrelating the zonal-flow pattern with a time shift, we find that in terms of solar dynamics, solar cycle 23 lasted for a period of 11.7 years, consistent with the result of Howe et al. (2009). The autocorrelation coefficient also confirms that the zonal-flow pattern penetrates through the convection zone.

  11. Home Performance with Energy Star

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Home Performance with Energy Star program, Focus on Energy offers instant rewards for installing select recommended efficiency measures following a home energy audit. Energy consultants...

  12. An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

  13. Efficiency Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:research community --EducationEfficiency

  14. Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContractElectron-StateEnergyHeavy Duty VehicleNuclearEnergy-Efficiency Sign In

  15. Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

  16. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

  17. The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optimum level of FeS in the cathode resulted in minimum Ni particle growth and improved battery cycling performance. The results of electrochemical characterization indicated...

  18. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  19. Modeling the Energy Efficiency of Heterogeneous Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Yong-Meng

    are an alternative for energy-efficient clusters [18], [20], [23]. On the contrary, other researchersModeling the Energy Efficiency of Heterogeneous Clusters Lavanya Ramapantulu, Bogdan Marius Tudor analyze the energy efficiency of mixing high-performance and low-power nodes in a cluster. Using a model

  20. Designing Energy-Efficient Fetch Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co, Michele

    Designing Energy-Efficient Fetch Engines Michele Co Department of Computer Science University · Results · Summary #12;3 Introduction · Energy efficiency ­ Balance power and performance (runtime) · Fetch & Ranganathan] #12;7 Why Study Fetch Engine Energy Efficiency? · High fetch bandwidth mechanisms ­ Rotenberg, et

  1. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  2. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  3. Determination of the minimum masses of heavy elements in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier Mousis; Ulysse Marboeuf; Jonathan I. Lunine; Yann Alibert; Leigh N. Fletcher; Glenn S. Orton; Francoise Pauzat; Yves Ellinger

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the minimum mass of heavy elements required in the envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn to match the observed oversolar abundances of volatiles. Because the clathration efficiency remains unknown in the solar nebula, we have considered a set of sequences of ice formation in which the fraction of water available for clathration is varied between 0 and 100 %. In all the cases considered, we assume that the water abundance remains homogeneous whatever the heliocentric distance in the nebula and directly derives from a gas phase of solar composition. Planetesimals then form in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn from the agglomeration of clathrates and pure condensates in proportions fixed by the clathration efficiency. A fraction of Kr and Xe may have been sequestrated by the H3+ ion in the form of stable XeH3+ and KrH3+ complexes in the solar nebula gas phase, thus implying the formation of at least partly Xe- and Kr-impoverished planetesimals in the feeding zones of Jupiter and Saturn. These planetesimals were subsequently accreted and vaporized into the hydrogen envelopes of Jupiter and Saturn, thus engendering volatiles enrichments in their atmospheres, with respect to hydrogen. Taking into account both refractory and volatile components, and assuming plausible molecular mixing ratios in the gas phase of the outer solar nebula, we show that it is possible to match the observed enrichments in Jupiter and Saturn, whatever the clathration efficiency. Our calculations predict that the O/H enrichment decreases from 6.7 to 5.6 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Jupiter and from 18.1 to 15.4 times solar (O/H) in the envelope of Saturn with the growing clathration efficiency in the solar nebula.

  4. Little Green Codes: Energy-Efficient Short-Range Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Little Green Codes: Energy-Efficient Short-Range Communication Pulkit Grover and Anant Sahai, the optimizing rate for our bounds on the energy consumption of green codes converges to 1 in the context of AWGN energy as green codes. Classical information theoretic approach finds the minimum transmission energy

  5. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

  6. Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense...

  7. Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers Harry Atkinson to better mixing of combustion gasses. A. An over fire air system should be installed to direct high.c. pressure minimum. Oil burner fans from 1980 on will usually be a good source for a used fan. a. ½ h.p. on 2

  8. Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors Laboratoire de Technologie Optique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    57 Comparative efficiencies of solar energy collectors M. Duban Laboratoire de Technologie Optique the solar energy during a day or a year, independant of their dimensions, the amount of energy collected seuils K = 0 et K = 0,5 (K étant le rapport entre 1'energie minimum nécessaire pour un fonctionnement

  9. Energy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    consumption of a device has to be minimum to increase battery life, the energy-delay- product hasEnergy Efficient Datapath Scheduling using Multiple Voltages and Dynamic Clocking Saraju P. Mohanty clocking in a co-ordinated manner in order to reduce energy consumption of datapath circuits. In dynamic

  10. Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

    Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense...

  11. Minimum time control of a pair of two-level quantum systems with opposite drifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffaele Romano; Domenico D'Alessandro

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we solve two equivalent time optimal control problems. On one hand, we design the control field to implement in minimum time the SWAP (or equivalent) operator on a two-level system, assuming that it interacts with an additional, uncontrollable, two-level system. On the other hand, we synthesize the SWAP operator simultaneously, in minimum time, on a pair of two-level systems subject to opposite drifts. We assume that it is possible to perform three independent control actions, and that the total control strength is bounded. These controls either affect the dynamics of the target system, under the first perspective, or, simultaneously, the dynamics of both systems, in the second view. We obtain our results by using techniques of geometric control theory on Lie groups. In particular, we apply the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, and provide a complete characterization of singular and non-singular extremals. Our analysis shows that the problem can be formulated as the motion of a material point in a central force, a well known system in classical mechanics. Although we focus on obtaining the SWAP operator, many of the ideas and techniques developed in this work apply to the time optimal implementation of an arbitrary unitary operator.

  12. Minimum Time Optimal Synthesis for a Control System on SU(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesca Albertini; Domenico D'Alessandro

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    For the time optimal control on an invariant system on SU(2), with two independent controls and a bound on the norm of the control, the extremals of the maximum principle are explicit functions of time and the resulting differential equations can be explicitly integrated. We use this fact here to perform the optimal synthesis for these systems, i.e., find all optimal trajectories. As a consequence, we describe a simple method to find the minimum time control for every desired final condition. Although the Lie group SU(2) is three dimensional, optimal trajectories can be described in the unit disk of the complex plane. We find that a circular trajectory separates optimal trajectories that reach the boundary of the unit disk from the others. Inside this separatrix circle another trajectory (the critical trajectory) plays an important role in that all optimal trajectories end at an intersection with this curve. Our results are of interest to find the minimum time needed to achieve a given evolution of a two level quantum system.

  13. Fermion Masses and Mixings from a Minimum Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo Alonso

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $\\left[U(3)\\right]^5\\otimes {\\mathcal O}(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one mixing angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and one maximal relative Majorana phase. The scheme presented here could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay and cosmological measurements.

  14. Efficiency United (Gas)- Residential Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United program is intended to provide assistance and incentives to customers who employ energy efficient measures. Programs offer rebates on natural gas water heaters, clothes...

  15. Minimum pressure envelope cavitation analysis using two-dimensional panel method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Christopher J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis tool for calculating minimum pressure envelopes was developed using XFOIL. This thesis presents MATLAB® executables that interface with a modified version of XFOIL for determining the minimum pressure of a foil ...

  16. The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmonds, Eric V

    Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data ...

  17. "Imagine An Energy Efficient Campus:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imagine An Energy Efficient Campus: Benchmarking Energy Use through ENERGY STAR Are you frustrated by rising energy costs? Are your campus buildings operating efficiently? How can you benchmark your portfolio?s energy consumption? We will show... you how you can use the ENERGY STAR?s free online Portfolio Program to benchmark your buildings? energy performance across your campus. Establishing a baseline for energy use throughout your portfolio of buildings will allow you to prioritize energy...

  18. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report on Energy Efficient Data Centers - A Rocky MountainReport on Energy Efficient Data Centers - A Rocky MountainEnergy Efficient Data Centers Prepared by William Tschudi,

  19. Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Keystone HELP Energy Efficiency Loan Program is designed to help homeowners improve energy efficiency with special financing for high-efficiency heating, air conditioning, insulation, windows,...

  20. Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayeed, Akbar M.

    Minimum Energy Per Bit for Secret Key Acquisition Over Multipath Wireless Channels Tzu-Han Chou the secret key capacity. We analyze the low-SNR regime to quantify the minimum energy per secret key bit of conventional channel capacity, there is a non-zero SNR that achieves the minimum energy per key bit. A time

  1. LANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ). The top three panels correspond to the southern segment of the solar minimum orbit; repeated passesLANGMUIR WAVE ACTIVITY: COMPARING THE ULYSSES SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM ORBITS R. J at the electron plasma frequency) during the solar minimum and solar maximum orbits of Ulysses. At high latitudes

  2. Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings C. R. Sullivan J. D. Mc the IEEE. #12;Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings Charles R. Sullivan://engineering.dartmouth.edu/inductor Abstract--Litz-wire windings for gapped inductors are optimized for minimum cost within a loss constraint

  3. An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An On-demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network Sheetalkumar Doshi of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol and suggests mechanisms for their imple- mentation. We of an on-demand minimum energy routing protocol in terms of energy savings with an existing on-demand ad

  4. Does the current minimum validate (or invalidate) cycle prediction methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathaway, David H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This deep, extended solar minimum and the slow start to Cycle 24 strongly suggest that Cycle 24 will be a small cycle. A wide array of solar cycle prediction techniques have been applied to predicting the amplitude of Cycle 24 with widely different results. Current conditions and new observations indicate that some highly regarded techniques now appear to have doubtful utility. Geomagnetic precursors have been reliable in the past and can be tested with 12 cycles of data. Of the three primary geomagnetic precursors only one (the minimum level of geomagnetic activity) suggests a small cycle. The Sun's polar field strength has also been used to successfully predict the last three cycles. The current weak polar fields are indicative of a small cycle. For the first time, dynamo models have been used to predict the size of a solar cycle but with opposite predictions depending on the model and the data assimilation. However, new measurements of the surface meridional flow indicate that the flow was substantially fa...

  5. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  6. TEST STATION SALE OF PERFORMANCE TESTED BULLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    in the test had to meet minimum performance requirements. Those were: CREEP NON-CREEP Adj 205 day wt. 560 520AS-B428 U T BULL TEST STATION SALE OF PERFORMANCE TESTED BULLS THURSDAY, MARCH 8, 2012 12:00 NOON IN GREENEVILLE AND KNOXVILLE LIVESTOCK CENTER http://animalscience.ag.utk.edu/ (For video) #12;UT BULL TEST

  7. Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrick, Todd

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

  8. PDSF Job Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently Running Jobs Efficiently Job Efficiency A job's efficiency is the ratio of its CPU time to the actual time it took to run, i.e., cputime ...

  9. Optimization of VAV AHU Terminal Box Minimum Airflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the optimal terminal box airflow is a complex process which is influenced by various factors, such as weather condition, supply air temperature, primary air fraction and internal load. A guideline for determination of a cost efficient...

  10. Energy Efficiency Analysis of MISO-OFDM Communication Systems Considering Power and Capacity Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Cheng-Xiang

    Energy Efficiency Analysis of MISO-OFDM Communication Systems Considering Power and Capacity efficiency of multi-input single-output and orthogonal frequency division multiplex- ing (MISO problem of MISO-OFDM communication systems, the minimum subchannel transmission power is analyzed

  11. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  12. Reflections on a record minimum The numbers are in 2012 broke the record for minimum sea ice extent and is still heading down (see

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in climate models. The approach was to freeze an icebreaker into the pack ice and drift for a year makingReflections on a record minimum The numbers are in ­ 2012 broke the record for minimum sea ice extent and is still heading down (see Figure 1). The sea ice extent data tell an unequivocal story of ice

  13. Neutrino Mixing and Masses from a Minimum Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, R; Isidori, G; Maiani, L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $[SU(3)]^5\\otimes {\\mathcal O}(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and precise values for the two Majorana phases. Adding small perturbations the predicted structure for the neutrino mass matrix is in excellent agreement with present observations and could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay. The generalization of these results to arbitrary sew-saw models is also discussed.

  14. R Coronae Borealis Stars at Minimum Light -- UW Cen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; B. E. Reddy; D. L. Lambert

    2004-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Two high-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star UW Cen in decline are discussed. A spectrum from mid-1992 when the star had faded by three magnitudes shows just a few differences with the spectrum at maximum light. The ubiquitous sharp emission lines seen in R CrB at a similar drop below maximum light are absent. In contrast, a spectrum from mid-2002 when the star was five magnitudes below maximum light shows an array of sharp emission lines and a collection of broad emission lines. Comparisons are made with spectra of R CrB obtained during the deep 1995-1996 minimum. The many common features are discussed in terms of a torus-jet geometry.

  15. On Hastings' counterexamples to the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki

    2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hastings recently reported a randomized construction of channels violating the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture. Here we revisit his argument, presenting a simplified proof. In particular, we do not resort to the exact probability distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of a random bipartite pure state, as in the original proof, but rather derive the necessary large deviation bounds by a concentration of measure argument. Furthermore, we prove non-additivity for the overwhelming majority of channels consisting of a Haar random isometry followed by partial trace over the environment, for an environment dimension much bigger than the output dimension. This makes Hastings' original reasoning clearer and extends the class of channels for which additivity can be shown to be violated.

  16. Efficiency Improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    synchronous machines PMSM. Both current components id and iq have to be chosen dependent upon the actual components. Reference [2] investigated the optimum efficiency operation of a PMSM, which shows that the performance can be increased by field weakening. A loss minimization control of PMSM was investigated in [3

  17. High Performance New Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Agenda • Concept of Project – Challenging Metrics • HPDB / IPD – Accountability / Outcomes Focus • Energy Modeling = Total Cost of Ownership • GMAX = Predictable Costs...-18 High Performance Design-Build • Age Myth • Cost Myth • Complexity Myth • Time Advantage • Early Cost Confirmation • Lower Cost For Design Changes ESL-KT-13-12-40 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...

  18. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  19. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Minnesota legislature passed the Next Generation Energy Act (NGEA), which requires both electric and natural gas investor-owned utilities to reduce energy sales, and spend a minimum ...

  20. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  1. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  2. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. More information on SEAD is available from its website at http://www.superefficient.org/.

  3. Efficiency United (Gas)- Commercial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Efficiency United Program, administered by CLEAResult Consulting, provides commercial gas incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

  4. Minimum Resource Characterization of Biochemical Analyses for Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akella, Srinivas

    ;2 Lingzhi Luo and Srinivas Akella 1 Introduction Low-cost, portable lab-on-a-chip systems capable of rapid versatile, yet low cost systems. Hence it is important to iden- tify the class of biochemical analyses requirements, towards the design of cost and space-efficient biochips. Mixers and storage units are two primary

  5. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007. Enabling an Energy-Efficient Future Internet ThroughIEEE 802.3az: The Road to Energy Efficient Ethernet. IEEEPHY Compliant With New Energy Efficient Ethernet Guidelines;

  6. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  7. Energy efficient data centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Varone. 2002a. Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres. ANew Buildings S Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres:FC Source: Energy- and Eco-Efficiency of Data Centres: A

  8. Minimum-Bias and Early QCD Physics in ALICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus; for the ALICE collaboration

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In addition to its heavy-ion physics program, it also has a rich proton-proton physics program benefiting from a detector with a low momentum cut-off (pT about 50 MeV/c) and a small material budget (about 11% of a radiation length until the outer wall of the main tracking detector, the Time-Projection Chamber). ALICE has excellent means of particle identification (PID) with methods ranging from specific energy loss and time of flight to transition and Cherenkov radiation. The good primary and secondary vertex resolution allows for measurements of strangeness and heavy flavor with low backgrounds. ALICE has taken proton-proton collision data at 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV. In this article results of the first minimum-bias and soft-QCD measurements are presented. Inclusive pseudorapidity, multiplicity, and transverse momentum distributions are discussed as well as distributions of identified particles including strange particles. Further, results on two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in collisions at the LHC are shown.

  9. Energy Efficiency -- Home Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues...

  10. Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports data center efficiency initiatives by encouraging Federal agencies to adopt best practices and construct energy-efficient data centers.

  11. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and how to interpret efficiency data. A perspective is given from which to evaluate available energy efficient motor offerings for a given application....

  12. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from energy-intensive industries. See "Energy-Efficiency Measurement: Discussion". bluenext.gif (2052 bytes) Energy-Efficiency Measurement line divider For specific questions...

  13. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  14. Energy-Efficient Mortgages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homeowners can take advantage of energy efficient mortgages (EEM) to either finance energy efficiency improvements to existing homes, including renewable energy technologies, or to increase their...

  15. Efficiency Vermont's Enhanced Building Operations Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laflamme, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assistance, economic analysis, and financial incentives to help Vermont households and businesses reduce their energy costs 4 Efficiency Vermont?s Commercial & Industrial Programs New Construction Program ? Prescriptive - Rebates ? Core Performance... ? Custom Market Opportunity Program ? Prescriptive - Rebates ? Custom Retrofit Program ? Custom* * includes improving building operations programs More Information at www.efficiencyvermont.com 5 Efficiency Vermont?s Operational Improvement...

  16. An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan Hemant

    Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically ...

  17. Unitil (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unitil offers its New Hampshire residential customers a number of programs to encourage more energy efficient homes. The Home Performance with Energy Star Program can help to improve the energy...

  18. Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting standards for outdoor area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting with a minimum of 3 foot candles. This lighting level is for daytime and at night. Public Streets Streets must have a minimum of one foot candles average with a minimum of .6 foot candles. Augmented lighting should

  19. Job Postings The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain posted before it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Job Postings 121610 The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain: EXTERNAL JOB POSTINGS1, 2 · Staff ­ one week minimum · Administrative ­ two weeks minimum · Faculty ­ two weeks minimum 1 The recruitment process for EXTERNAL job postings may be opened to: all

  20. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  1. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  2. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  3. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  4. Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App Graphic of the inside of a house, with table and chairs,...

  5. Effective Daylighting: Evaluating Daylighting Performance in the San Francisco Federal Building from the Perspective of Building Occupants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konis, Kyle Stas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance,” or “energy efficient” design. This approach isstandards for the design of energy efficient buildings (standards for the design of energy efficient buildings (e.g.

  6. Energy performance listings: Electric chillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Performance Listings series provides comparative information across manufacturers on products. The Electric Chillers Listings include more than 600 models with efficiencies that meet or exceed levels contained in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers` (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-1989, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except New Low-Rise Residential Buildings. Information on model energy efficiency levels, performance characteristics, and manufacturer names permits easy selection of top-performing equipment. Each Energy Performance Listing includes an introductory section, two sections of model listings, and an appendix with manufacturer contacts. The first model-listing section presents information in descending order of efficiency for all manufacturers. These efficiency-ordered listings also include the symbol to identify models with efficiencies that meet or exceed U.S. DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). With these listings, users can quickly identify the most efficient product in a particular size range, identify products that meet the efficiency criteria of a specific voluntary program, or determine an efficiency threshold that will include a specific number of manufacturers. The second section of model listings presents products grouped by manufacturer and catalog number, allowing users to quickly find and identify performance information on specific models. Energy Performance Listings are tools that support purchasing and procurement by federal, state, and local governments and others, including utility companies, energy interest groups, and research organizations. The listings may be used for program design and planning purposes, equipment selection, specification, and purchasing decisions. The listings are a product of the Energy-Efficient Procurement Collaborative, Inc. and are available through NYSERDA.

  7. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  8. Maryland Efficiency Program Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maryland Efficiency Program Options, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  9. Furnace Blower Performance Improvements - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    efficiencies of only 10%-15%. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) garnered a 2013 Top Innovation award for their work on evaluating the performance of...

  10. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  11. Constructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    algorithm, power awareness, ad hoc networks, energy consumption optimization, broad- cast and multicastConstructing Minimum-Energy Broadcast Trees In Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department related to power consump- tion in this kind of network. One is the minimum-energy broadcast tree problem

  12. Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialatte, François

    1 Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information Backpropagation L;210 Multichannel Blind Deconvolution of Non-minimum Phase Systems Using Information Backpropagation L.-Q. Zhang, A- composition approach, for multichannel blind de- convolution of non-minimumphase systems. In 20] we has

  13. On the random 2-stage minimum spanning tree Abraham D. Flaxman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivelevich, Michael

    On the random 2-stage minimum spanning tree Abraham D. Flaxman Department of Mathematical Sciences random variables, uniformly distributed between 0 and 1, then the expected cost of the minimum spanning tree is asymptotically equal to #16;(3) = P 1 i=1 i 3 . Here we consider the following stochastic two

  14. A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unger, Ron

    in a simple model of protein folding. Results: Three possible evolutionary processes are explored. First can be achieved. The assumption that proteins fold to a conformation which is in the global minimum sequences that can find the global minimum [5]. In computer science terms this means that `protein folding

  15. Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in the Ventilation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone of the Tropical North Atlantic PETER BRANDT) ABSTRACT Changes in the ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North Atlantic centimeters per second in the depth range of the OMZ contribute to the ventilation of the OMZ. A conceptual

  16. Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Cooperative Repair with Minimum-Storage Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage Jun Li, Baochun--Distributed storage systems store redundant data to tolerate failures of storage nodes and lost data should be repaired when storage nodes fail. A class of MDS codes, called minimum- storage regenerating (MSR) codes

  17. Guidelines for Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    this process we present the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR ExperimentsGuidelines for Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments Jim F Vandesompele,6 Carl T. Wittwer,12 and Stephen A. Bustin13 There is growing interest in digital PCR (dPCR) be

  18. Towards a deployable satellite gripper based on multisegment dielectric elastomer minimum energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Towards a deployable satellite gripper based on multisegment dielectric elastomer minimum energy dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures O. A. Araromi*a , I. Gavrilovichb , J. Shintakea , S. Rosseta , H. R. Sheaa a Microsystems For Space Technologies Laboratory, �cole Polytechnique Fédérale de

  19. Non-Additivity of Minimum Output p-$\\mathbf{R\\acute{e}nyi}$ Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nengkun Yu; Mingsheng Ying

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hastings disproved additivity conjecture for minimum output entropy by using random unitary channels. In this note, we employ his approach to show that minimum output $p-$R\\'{e}nyi entropy is non-additive for $p\\in(0,p_0)\\cup(1-p_0,1)$ where $p_0\\approx 0.2855$.

  20. Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Y. Charlie

    Minimum-Energy Broadcast Using Practical Directional Antennas in All-Wireless Networks Sabyasachi ad hoc networks. Previously, minimum-energy broadcast that exploits the broadcast nature of radio not be within direct transmis- sion range of each other. Such decentralized networks can enable flexible

  1. Minimum-Energy Topology Control Algorithms in Ad Hoc Joseph Y. Halpern Li (Erran) Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpern, Joseph Y.

    for an extended period of time. In order to accomplish this without a renewable energy source, energy conservationMinimum-Energy Topology Control Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks1 Joseph Y. Halpern Li (Erran) Li Dept Holmdel, NJ 07733 halpern@cs.cornell.edu erranlli@dnrc.bell-labs.com August 7, 2004 1 Based on "Minimum-Energy

  2. The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spielman, Daniel A.

    1 The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman Abstract--Worst-case upper bounds are derived on the minimum distance of parallel concatenated Turbo codes that parallel-concatenated Turbo codes and repeat-convolute codes with sub-linear memory are asymptotically bad

  3. Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Intercharger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucher, N.; Baisley, T.; Beers, C.; Cameron, R.; Holman, K.; Kotkoskie, T.; Norris, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Care? Energy Efficiency Program Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Interchanger ESL-IE-13-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Copyright 2013 Momentive Performance... Materials Inc. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL IETC Energy Efficiency Award Winner Distillation Interchanger ? Waterford, NY Agenda ? Momentive Overview ? Waterford, NY Site Overview ? Project Overview ? Project Timeline ? NYSERDA ? Project Team...

  4. Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankaj Mehta; Anatoli Polkovnikov

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in arbitrary non-equilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the non-equilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions.These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples.

  5. Tax advantages of a deferred minimum annual royalty provision in oil and gas leases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.B. Jr.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how a deferred minimum annual royalty provision can serve to meet conflicting economic demands without adverse tax consequences. A deferred minimum annual royalty provision is an economic hybrid of a production royalty and a lease bonus. To a lessor, it has the advantage of guaranteeing a minimum return without regard to production. It should also encourage prompt development of the lease since a lessee will desire to void incurring subsequent minimum annual royalties on unproductive acreage. To an accrual-basis lessee, it has greater tax advantages than a lease bonus because it is deductible in the year paid or incurred. Although it exposes the lessee to more economic risk, this risk can be reduced through proper planning. In appropriate circumstances, a deferred minimum annual-royalty provision may therefore be worthy of consideration by either or both parties in an oil- and gas-leasing transaction. 44 references.

  6. Sample Contract Language for Construction Using Energy-Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSTRUCTION USING ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTS Section C - Performance Work StatementDescriptions, Specifications The Contractor shall comply with Sections 524 and Sections 525 of...

  7. ORNL tests energy-efficient technologies for expeditionary military...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tests energy-efficient technologies for expeditionary military bases in the tropics Over the summer, ORNL researchers tested the performance of various tent configurations and HVAC...

  8. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance deer11flowers.pdf More Documents &...

  9. IBM Research Report Efficient High-precision Dense Matrix Algebra ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 29, 2008 ... staple of high performance computing to efficiently solve discrete optimization problems on modern computational platforms. Matrix-based ...

  10. Anaheim Public Utilities- Residential Home Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Upon request, Anaheim Public Utilities will perform a free home efficiency inspection, in which they will recommend energy saving improvements, rebates and provide some free energy saving devices....

  11. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

  12. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and...

  13. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    light on improving solar cell efficiency Ernest Orlandomanufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiencythe impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from

  14. Best Management Practice #5: Water-Efficient Irrigation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water efficiency must be considered from the initial irrigation system design phase through installation to ensure optimal performance. Consistent management and maintenance is also essential.

  15. Energy-Performance Tradeoffs in Processor Architecture and Circuit Design: A Marginal Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Benjamin C.

    Design, Performance Keywords Microarchitecture, Energy efficiency, Design trade-offs, Op- timization

  16. Financing of Industrial Energy Efficiency Through State Energy Offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.; Weidenbaum, A.

    almost 80 percent of the total energy (11). Over the last twenty years, many loan programs have been offered to residential and commercial energy consumers by state energy offices and electric utilities. Notable among the recent programs are those... and veterans' organizations. The interest subsidies work as follows: ? The borrower applies to one of 105 participating commercial lending institutions for a loan to undertake an energy-efficiency improvement project. Some lenders have minimum loan...

  17. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  18. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating between the turbine stages. Analyses carried out as part of the current investigation confirm the possibilities of improving the cycle efficiency that have been identified in previous investigations. The options in this group include: increasing the heat exchanger and turbomachinery sizes, raising of the cycle high end pressure (although the improvement potential of this option is very limited), and optimization of the low end temperature and/or pressure to operate as close to the (pseudo) critical point as possible. Analyses carried out for the present investigation show that significant cycle performance improvement can sometimes be realized if the cycle operates below the critical temperature at its low end. Such operation, however, requires the availability of a heat sink with a temperature lower than 30 C for which applicability of this configuration is dependent upon the climate conditions where the plant is constructed (i.e., potential performance improvements are site specific). Overall, it is shown that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle efficiency can potentially be increased to 45 %, if a low temperature heat sink is available and incorporation of larger components (e.g.., heat exchangers or turbomachinery) having greater component efficiencies does not significantly increase the overall plant cost.

  19. Solar wind turbulence at 0.72 AU and solar minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Munteanu, Costel; Zhang, Tielong; Bruno, Roberto; Kovacs, Peter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Venus Express (VEX) observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24. The Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of the magnetic field components have been computed for the time intervals that satisfy data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow defined for speeds larger and respectively smaller than 450 km/s. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast than for the slow wind. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005-0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is -1.60 for fast solar wind and -1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is ...

  20. A Stable Whole Building Performance Method for Standard 90.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Eley, Charles

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wouldn’t it be great if a single energy model could be used to demonstrate minimum code compliance, green code compliance, establish a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating, and determine eligibility for federal tax and utility incentives? Even better, what if the basic rules for creating those models did not change every few years? This paper descibes a recently proposed addendum to ASHRAE/ANSI/IES Standard 90.1 aims to meet those goals. Addendum BM establishes the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of Standard 90.1 as a new method of compliance while maintaining its traditional use in gauging the efficiency of beyond code buildings. Furthermore, Addendum BM sets a common baseline building that does not change with each update to the standard.

  1. AbstractAbstract Improving efficiency of thermoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    AbstractAbstract · Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major-classical transport models used to predict ZT can effectively predict thermoelectric performance of bulk materials method proposed to couple quantum and scattering effects to predict thermoelectric performance. · NEGF

  2. Performance Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2014-08-25 14:37:27...

  3. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  4. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ? 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  5. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2008, New Mexico enacted H.B. 305, the Efficient Use of Energy Act, which created an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) for New Mexico’s electric utilities, and a requirement that all ...

  6. Energy Efficiency Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillingham, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their energy consumption to stay competitive. An alternative to reduced energy consumption is to put in place an energy efficiency strategy. However, while most plastic manufactures are aware of the energy efficiency opportunities in their facilities...

  7. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The 2013 Three Year Efficiency Plans have not yet been approved. The process is underway. For the latest draft plan, review the Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council [http://www.ma...

  8. Energy Efficiency Goals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, Missouri enacted the Missouri Energy Efficiency Investment Act, creating energy efficiency sales and peak reduction goals to be met through investment in demand side management. The goals...

  9. Development of an automated efficiency and loss measurement system for high-efficiency power converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Grace M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When building a high performance power converter system, characterization becomes a significant task in and of itself. This thesis addresses the development of an automated efficiency and loss measurement system for ...

  10. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

  11. Energy Efficiency Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutiso,S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency Program Overview Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency CATEE Conference November 18-20, 2014 Dallas, TX ESL-KT-14-11-02 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 General Overview • State of Texas... enacted legislation requiring Transmission and Distribution utilities (TDUs) achieve annual goals for energy efficiency • Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) implemented rules and guidelines for consistency among the TDU programs • Texas TDUs...

  12. Energy Efficiency Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information and examples of state financing for energy efficiency programs, with descriptions on implementation methods and concerns.

  13. Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almaguer, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500...

  14. OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF.B. Blevins Executive Director Valerie Hall Deputy Director Efficiency, Renewables and Demand Analysis Elaine Hussey Contract Manager #12;Acknowledgments The Efficiency Committee expresses its gratitude

  15. Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative)______ (Fraction of DNA spread on plate) = ______ µg plasmid DNA spread on plate #12;2 5. Transformation efficiency

  16. Buildings Energy Efficiency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Efficiency Wind Biomass Natural Gas Combined Cycle Nuclear Coal IGCC Photovoltaics RangeofBuildings Energy Efficiency Policy ­ A Brief History Steven Nadel Executive Director American Council for an Energy- Efficient Economy #12;U.S. Energy Use in Relation to GDP 1970-2008 0.0 50.0 100

  17. Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Floating Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    Evaluating Energy Efficiency of Floating Point Matrix Multiplication on FPGAs Kiran Kumar Matam, prasanna}@usc.edu Abstract--Energy efficiency has emerged as one of the key performance metrics in scientific computing. In this work, we evaluate the energy efficiency of floating point matrix multipli

  18. Efficiency Impact of Convergence Bidding on the California Electricity Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Efficiency Impact of Convergence Bidding on the California Electricity Market Ruoyang Li · Alva J test for market efficiency by assessing the performance of trading strategies from the perspective of the time-varying forward premium. Our backtesting results cast doubt on the efficiency of the CAISO

  19. Propulsive Efficiency of the Underwater Dolphin Kick in Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Frank

    Propulsive Efficiency of the Underwater Dolphin Kick in Humans Alfred von Loebbecke Rajat Mittal's propulsive efficiencies. These estimates are compared with those of a ceta- cean performing the dolphin kick kinematics is based on underwater video footage. The simulations indicate that the propulsive efficiency

  20. Ultrahigh Efficiency Multiband Solar Cells Final Report for Director's Innovation Initiative Project DII-2005-1221

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Multijunction Solar Cell Performance in RadiationIgari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Versionof Multijunction Solar Cell Performance in Radiation

  1. Building America Case Study: Hygrothermal Performance of a Double-Stud Cellulose Wall, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future of CSP:BrookhavenHygrothermal Performance of a Double-Stud

  2. Building America Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole House Retrofit, Stockton, California (Fact Sheet), Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future of CSP:BrookhavenHygrothermal Performance ofTommyNew

  3. IDAPA 37.03.03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3.03 - Rules and Minimum Standards for the Construction and Use of Injection Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  4. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 2. Three-Product Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway We show that the minimum energy requirement algebraic procedure, via expressions for pinch zone compositions at the connection points as functions

  5. Online Supplement to "Bounding Distributions for the Weight of a Minimum Spanning Tree in Stochastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shier, Douglas R.

    Online Supplement to "Bounding Distributions for the Weight of a Minimum Spanning Tree in Stochastic Networks" Kevin R. Hutson · Douglas R. Shier Department of Mathematics & Computer Science, Denison

  6. MINIMUM REJECTION SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS Nahid Saberi and Mark J. Coates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MINIMUM REJECTION SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS Nahid Saberi and Mark J. Coates Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering McGill University Montreal, QC, Canada E-mail: nahid.saberi

  7. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Statistical Analysis and Time Series Models for Minimum/Maximum Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    temperatures, thereby reducing the adverse effect of global warming in the Antarctic Peninsula. Keywords that the observed increase in the minimum temperatures is a consequence of human activity rather than natural causes

  9. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  10. Introducing Minimum Fisher Regularisation Tomography to Bolometric and Soft X-ray Diagnostic Systems of the COMPASS Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introducing Minimum Fisher Regularisation Tomography to Bolometric and Soft X-ray Diagnostic Systems of the COMPASS Tokamak

  11. 322 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2000 COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN OF MINIMUM COST IRRIGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    OF MINIMUM COST IRRIGATION CANAL SECTIONS By Prabhata K. Swamee,1 Govinda C. Mishra,2 and Bhagu R. Chahar3

  12. Double active shielded magnetic field gradient design with minimum inductance method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xu

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOUBLE ACTIVE SHIELDED MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT DESIGN WITH MINIMUM INDUCTANCE METHOD A Thesis by XU WANG Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Physics DOUBLE ACTIVE SHIELDED MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT DESIGN WITH MINIMUM INDUCTANCE METHOD A Thesis by XU WANG Approved as to style and content by: F. R. Huson (Chair of Committee) Steve Wry (Member) Edward...

  13. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    efficiency, purchase price, energy costs, hours of operation, load factor, and utility rebates are taken into account. -Utility rebate program data, which includes minimum qualifying efficiency and rebate dollar values. -Menus and extensive Help screens... in accordance with these two assumptions, the private sector will supply the delivery mechanisms for Motor Challenge tools because they will represent a value added to their existing commercial products. Industry and DOE Drivers Industry and DOE, in general...

  14. On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden-Eijnden 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    On-the-fly string method for minimum free energy paths calculation Luca Maragliano *, Eric Vanden and simplified version of the string method in collective variables for computing minimum free energy paths) the minimum free energy path (MFEP) plays an important role. Given a set of collective variables to describe

  15. Evalutaion of Energy Efficiency Measures for K-12 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyojin, K; Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Methodology Base-Case School Model 18 EE/RE Measures Results Summary Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Measures for K-12 Schools CATEE 2011 Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 3 Introduction Energy Saving Potential in High... Performance Schools ? Energy use of the most efficient schools = 1/3 of the least efficient schools (EPA 2010) ? 20% to 40% energy savings in high performance schools (Im and Haberl 2006) Elementary...

  16. Recently, a new Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) scheme has been proposed that increases energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin, Todd M.

    energy efficiency significantly by allowing the processor to operate at or slightly below the minimum the point of timing failure can yield significant energy sav- ings. Razor [1] is one such example padding in the operating voltage, which in turn increases the energy consumption of designs. Since

  17. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking Industrial Eneergy Efficiency and Co2 Emissions”.2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toCanada’s Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa. NRCAN, 2009.

  18. Performative architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araya, Sergio (Sergio Alejandro)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following thesis explores two central hypotheses. On the one hand it introduces the idea of performative architecture (performance in design), and has done so with the desire to contribute directly to the expansion of ...

  19. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  20. Energy Efficiency: A Priority 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency: A Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a... priority Energenia?s profile Consulting firm specializing exclusively in energy efficency Founded by Robert Patenaude in 2003 National Bank?s main partner for the development, implementation and supervision of the energy efficiciency program since...

  1. Energy Efficiency: A Priority

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patenaude, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency: A Priority October 9th 2013 2 Energy efficiency: a priority NBC profile (April 30th, 2013) 1st financial institution in Quebec 19 920 employees 451 branches in Canada 2,4 million individual clients 3 Energy efficiency: a... priority Energenia?s profile Consulting firm specializing exclusively in energy efficency Founded by Robert Patenaude in 2003 National Bank?s main partner for the development, implementation and supervision of the energy efficiciency program since...

  2. Heat Pipe Performance Enhancement with Binary Mixture Fluids that Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of concentrator photovoltaic systems using high-efficiencyphotovoltaic module electrical performance: A review of efficiency/efficiency degradation. This is especially true for concentrator photovoltaic (

  3. Bearwall Energy Efficient Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovero,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CATEE Conference November 20, 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Brief History of Bearwall… Who We Are: ? Manuel Sovero ? Luis Osorio Energy Conservation... Experience: ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Programs… ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Bearwall Methodology… Introduction...

  4. Appliance Efficiency Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  5. Energy Efficiency Links

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to research, develop, and use advanced energy efficiency, renewable energy, pollution prevention technologies for industrial customers. The site includes information on...

  6. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  7. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  8. Efficiency Maine Trust

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maine's public benefits fund for energy efficiency was authorized originally in 1997 by the state's electric-industry restructuring legislation. Under the initial arrangement, the administration of...

  9. Energy Efficiency Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Connecticut's original electric-industry restructuring legislation (Public Act 98-28), enacted in April 1998, created separate funds to support energy efficiency and renewable energy.* The...

  10. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

  11. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the case for building energy-efficiency labels. 3.1 Trendsenergy efficiency. Building energy efficiency labels are anThe use of building energy efficiency labels may be the

  12. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  13. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  15. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other technical performance requirements in existing international programs in order to shed light on where Chinese programs currently stands and considerations for their 2010 programs.

  16. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

  17. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance characterization efforts within the SunShot Systems Integration activities focus on collaborations with U.S. solar companies to:

  18. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer in boiler Boiler efficiency Heat used in boiler *hr. Assuming boiler heat recovery efficiency of 90%, totalEfficiency Improvement An analysis of the performance of the heat recovery components (boilers,

  19. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  20. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  1. Device Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Device Performance group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we measure the performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reporting conditions--defined as a reference temperature (25 C), total irradiance (1000 Wm-2), and spectral irradiance distribution (IEC standard 60904-3). Typically, these are ''global'' reference conditions, but we can measure with respect to any reference set. To determine device performance, we conduct two general categories of measurements: spectral responsivity (SR) and current versus voltage (I-V). We usually perform these measurements using standard procedures, but we develop new procedures when required by new technologies. We also serve as an independent facility for verifying device performance for the entire PV community. We help the PV community solve its special measurement problems, giving advice on solar simulation, instrumentation for I-V measurements, reference cells, measurement procedures, and anomalous results. And we collaborate with researchers to analyze devices and materials.

  2. Performance Contracting for Public Sector Improvement Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallory, A. D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 2 Johnson Controls Confidential Overview ? What is Performance Contracting? ? What is the Performance Contracting Process? ? When does Performance Contracting Work Best? ? Government Entity ? ESCO ? 3rd Party... Finance Company ? How do I Pay for Performance Contracting? ? Benefits of Performance Contracting? ESL-KT-13-12-41 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 3 Johnson Controls Confidential COMPANY BACKGROUND...

  3. Counterexamples to additivity of minimum output p-Renyi entropy for p close to 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toby Cubitt; Aram W. Harrow; Debbie Leung; Ashley Montanaro; Andreas Winter

    2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementing recent progress on the additivity conjecture of quantum information theory, showing that the minimum output p-Renyi entropies of channels are not generally additive for p>1, we demonstrate here by a careful random selection argument that also at p=0, and consequently for sufficiently small p, there exist counterexamples. An explicit construction of two channels from 4 to 3 dimensions is given, which have non-multiplicative minimum output rank; for this pair of channels, numerics strongly suggest that the p-Renyi entropy is non-additive for all p additivity exist for all p<1.

  4. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  5. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorne, Jennifer

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges. We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologies are characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics and environmental performance. This paper provides an overview of the results, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, and neither will we in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costs compared to current technologies.

  6. Efficient Management of Idleness in Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirni, Evgenia

    -off between the performance of fore- ground and background tasks. As a result, the storage system is better4 Efficient Management of Idleness in Storage Systems NINGFANG MI College of William and Mary ALMA of storage sys- tems are scheduled with low priority and served during idle times. Under such conditions

  7. Hill Air Force Base Energy Performance Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, M. D.

    the original plants were n t required to meet current ASHRAE 15 standards ~ r refrigerant leak detection and evacuation. The chill r replacement will result in energy savings by utilizi g the more efficient screw-compressor chiller betwe n 30% part load... ed from the system. The concept of this ECM is to redIce stearn distribution pressures to the minimum require to provide necessary steam flow at each of the buildi gs connected on the distribution system, which is curre tly calculated...

  8. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  9. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Legislature emphasized the importance of energy efficiency and established broad goals with the enactment of Assembly Bill 2021 of 2006. The bill calls for a 10% reduction in forec...

  10. Improving Fired Heater Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriver, J. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982. 2, Fehervari, Willi, "Gas Measurement and Control for Pipeline Systems," The Foxboro Company. 3. Shriver, James, "CO/02 Boiler Control: Point Is Vi tal," POWER, October 1982. Set 1\\. Dukelow, Samuel, "Improving Boiler Efficiency...

  11. Energy Efficiency Resource Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Legislature emphasized the importance of energy efficiency and established broad goals with the enactment of [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/FINAL_DECISION/85995.pdf Assembly Bill...

  12. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  13. ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND PARAMETERIZED DESIGNS FOR FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM ON FPGAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Ju-Wook

    +govindu+prasanna}@usc.edu jjang@sogang.ac.kr ABSTRACT In this paper, we develop energy efficient designs for the Fast Fourier efficiency and arrive at energy-efficient designs. A parametrized This work is supported by the DARPA Power. We determine design trade-offs using high-level performance esti- mation to obtain energy-efficient

  14. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability changes during CO{sub 2} flooding due to saturation changes, dissolution, and precipitation.

  15. New Lighting Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for energy efficient lighting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Lighting Association, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The Lighting for Tomorrow competition was the first national lighting fixture design competition focusing on energy-efficient residential lighting. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional lighting fixtures that also happen to be energy efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' energy-efficient light source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum energy efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.

  16. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual efficiency technologies like hybrid power, aerodynamic fairings, auxiliary power units, super

  17. OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

  18. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  19. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of differences in size of the energy services market amongGiven the size of the market, barriers and remaining energy

  20. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market buildings, their floor area, energy consumption andstudy states Metric Floor Area Energy Expenditure Energyof buildings, their floor area, energy consumption and

  1. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market Trends in the U.S. ESCO Industry: Results from the2007. “A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth andInstitutional Markets for ESCO Services: Comparing Programs,

  2. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 Table 3. ESPC projects completed in state governmentlevel characteristics for ESPC projects in state government11 Table 11. Aggregate ESPC project

  3. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Abbreviations CSU DGS EE ESPC ESCO IOU LBNL NAESCO NASBOlist of six ESCO http://www.ga.wa.gov/EAS/ESPC/municipal.htmDCAM modified its ESPC process to an ESCO-financed program

  4. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or back- up power. Hospital electrical systems currently arepower sources. X X X • Demonstrate electrical system designsand power distribution losses. 6.2. Electrical system

  5. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not collect baseline energy consumption data for their statedoes not have any energy consumption data for CSU campuses?characteristics or energy consumption data is not current or

  6. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metering - Energy monitoring and management systems targetedconstruction - Energy monitoring and management systems forEnergy monitoring, assessment, and management systems -

  7. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only electricity consumption. State Government Buildings:government facilities while no shading indicates consumption of electricityGovernment Market Note: Blue shading indicates energy consumption of all types of fuels while no shading indicates consumption of electricity

  8. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies, reduced over-cooling of supply air, chilled watersupplies, reduced over-cooling of supply air, chilled wateris separation of cooling from clean air supply. Analyze

  9. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategy to reduce energy use in Western states by 20% by 2020 and to meet http://epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-programs/state-and-local/

  10. Measured Performance of Energy-Efficient Computer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, D. B.; Parker, D. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate. Recent surveys have shown that the use of personal computer systems in commercial office buildings is expanding rapidly. The energy consumption of such a growing end-use also has a significant impact on the total building power demand. In warmer...

  11. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projects,” March 31. New York State Energy CoordinatingNew York Power Authority New York State Energy Research andprogram operated by the New York State Energy Research and

  12. Improving Performance of an Energy Efficient Hydraulic Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master to Use In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Postgraduate degree control are presented under a constant resistive and an inertial load. The test results showed

  13. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facility’s building automation systems, that will allow forconsumption and building automation systems providing retro-

  14. Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    28223, USA {lcao2, tdahlber, ywang32}@uncc.edu Abstract-- Energy aware routing protocols metric and aim to save energy consumption per packet. However, such protocols do not take the nodes' energy capacity into account. Thus, the energy consumption is not fair among nodes in the network

  15. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    include the lack of waste heat capture and infrequent use ofefficiency. Utilization of “waste” heat from HVAC equipment,e.g. to ensure that all “waste” heat – e.g. from chillers –

  16. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Develop and promote awareness of energy monitoring andand/or promote market awareness of energy monitoring andIncrease market awareness and utilization of existing energy

  17. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary of energy & sustainability codes. • Analysis ofCoordinate energy and sustainability codes, standards andconsolidation of energy and sustainability codes, standards

  18. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a chiller replacement or a cogeneration plant. Table ES- 2.a chiller replacement or a cogeneration plant ( CaliforniaManagement Systems Cogeneration Conservation Not specified (

  19. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judgea. Part B 1 PartMarket | Department of

  20. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |in STEMEnergyI. Introduction ofofLoan

  1. Building Performance Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiller efficiency  Boiler efficiency  Daylighting control the chiller or boiler efficiency inputs to the EnergyPlus both chiller COP and  boiler efficiency are assumed to be 

  2. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer are a popular method for acquiring three-dimensional geometry due to their accuracy and robustness. Maximizing a two camera range scanner design, specifically chosen to minimize calibration complexity and cost

  3. The Blob Code is Competitive with EdgeSets in Genetic Algorithms for the Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julstrom, Bryant A.

    with those of, a GA that encodes spanning trees as edge-sets on Euclidean instances of the minimum rout- ing Spanning Tree Problem Bryant A. Julstrom Department of Computer Science St. Cloud State University St. Cloud, MN, 56301 USA julstrom@stcloudstate.edu ABSTRACT Among the many codings of spanning trees

  4. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

  5. Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements-integrated multi-effect and three non-integrated distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus of the paper is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration

  6. eVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , such as hybrid and electric vehicles, to pedestrians has become an important issue for public policy [1], car a localization paradigm to test the detectability of hybrid and internal combustion cars by measuring listenereVADER: A Perceptual Approach to Finding Minimum Warning Sound Requirements for Quiet Cars. Ryan

  7. Analysis on Achieving a Minimum Bunch Length in LCLS Bunch Compressor One

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-short bunch is required by different applications in many aspects. In this paper, the condition to achieve a minimum bunch length at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) [1] bunch compressor one (BC1) is analyzed analytically and evaluated by simulation. The space charge, wake field and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects are not discussed here.

  8. LOWER BOUNDS ON THE GLOBAL MINIMUM OF A M. GHASEMI, J.B. LASSERRE, M. MARSHALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Murray

    LOWER BOUNDS ON THE GLOBAL MINIMUM OF A POLYNOMIAL M. GHASEMI, J.B. LASSERRE, M. MARSHALL Abstract. We extend the method of Ghasemi and Marshall [SIAM. J. Opt. 22(2) (2012), pp 460-473], to obtain compare this bound with the (global) lower bound fgp ob- tained by Ghasemi and Marshall, and also

  9. Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MCCDMA Systems in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Ralf R.

    Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC­CDMA Systems in Multipath Rayleigh Fading, to calculate the bit error proba­ bility in the large system limit for randomly assigned spreading sequences detec­ tion with is accurate if the number of users and the spreading factor are large. His calculations

  10. Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC-CDMA Systems in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Ralf R.

    Minimum Bit Error Probability of Large Randomly Spread MC-CDMA Systems in Multipath Rayleigh Fading, to calculate the bit error proba- bility in the large system limit for randomly assigned spreading sequences detec- tion with is accurate if the number of users and the spreading factor are large. His calculations

  11. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products products (where normally M e N). We derive the expressions for a generalized extended Pet- lyuk arrangement for the generalized Pet- lyuk column with more than three products. The Vmin diagram was presented in part 1

  12. Speech enhancement using a minimum mean-square error short-time spectral modulation magnitude estimator

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    Speech enhancement using a minimum mean-square error short-time spectral modulation magnitude In this paper we investigate the enhancement of speech by applying MMSE short-time spectral magnitude estimation on the quality of enhanced speech, and find that this method works better with speech uncertainty. Finally we

  13. A design solution to the problem of adaptive output regulation for nonlinear minimum-phase systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the spirit of the internal model principle, the control law needed to fulfill the regulation objective. In [3 regulation and solved by using an "hybrid" control strategy. In that paper it was emphasized how persistenceA design solution to the problem of adaptive output regulation for nonlinear minimum-phase systems

  14. Bachelor of Science with Major in Geology (Minimum of 120 credits required)

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    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Bachelor of Science with Major in Geology (Minimum of 120 credits required) The Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree is designed for students planning professional careers in geology, hydrogeology work in geology, geosciences and environmental science. Prerequisite Coursework for Transfer Students

  15. Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Bachelor of Arts with Major in Geology: Earth and Space Science (Minimum of 120 credits required) The Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Geology (Earth Science) is designed for students planning professional 2053 & 2048L 5 College Algebra MAC 1105 3 Introductory Statistics STA 2023 3 Total 19 Geology (Earth

  16. Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallis, Geoff

    Jet Interaction and the Influence of a Minimum Phase Speed Bound on the Propagation of Eddies and analogs of the midlatitude eddy-driven jet and the subtropical jet is investigated in a barotropic b-plane model. In the model the subtropical jet is generated by a relaxation process and the eddy-driven jet

  17. Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, João H; García, Emilio Hernández; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...

  18. Minimum Interference Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Himanshu

    program and a linear program formulation of our optimization problem to obtain lower bounds on overall Mesh Networks, Channel Assignment, Graph Coloring, Interference, Mathe- matical Programming. I1 Minimum Interference Channel Assignment in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks Anand Prabhu

  19. A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    A minimum-reaction-flux solution to master-equation models of protein folding Huan-Xiang Zhoua; published online 20 May 2008 Master equations are widely used for modeling protein folding. Here- ceptual and quantitative models for protein folding.1­15 In such models, the conformational space

  20. String method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    York University, New York, New York 10012 Giovanni Ciccottid INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica in the free energy. Provided that the number of collective variables is large enough, the new techniqueString method in collective variables: Minimum free energy paths and isocommittor surfaces Luca