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1

Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for...

2

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors October 7, 2013 - 11:28am Addthis Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors. As a result of this increase in mandatory minimum standards and combined with the lack of significant availability of motors exceeding these standards, FEMP is suspending the purchasing specification for electric motors. Federal buyers may select for purchase any motor that meets design requirements.

3

Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minimum Efficiency Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories

4

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performanc...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts Title Estimate of...

5

The minimum-uncertainty coherent states for Landau levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Glauber minimum-uncertainty coherent states with two variables for Landau levels, based on the representation of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra by two different modes, have been studied about four decades ago. Here, we introduce new two-variable coherent states with minimum uncertainty relationship for Landau levels in three different methods: the infinite unitary representation of su(1, 1) is realized in two different methods, first, by consecutive levels with the same energy gaps and also with the same value for z-angular momentum quantum number, then, by shifting z-angular momentum mode number by two units while the energy level remaining the same. Besides, for su(2), whether by lowest Landau levels or Landau levels with lowest z-angular momentum, just one finite unitary representation is introduced. Having constructed the generalized Klauder-Perelomov coherent states, for any of the three representations, we obtain their Glauber coherency by displacement operator of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra.

Dehghani, A. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P. O. Box 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, P. O. Box 51666-16471 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojaveri, B. [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, P. O. Box 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 20, 2008 ... Abstract: The Minimum Capacity s-t Cut Problem (Min Cut) is an intensively studied problem in combinatorial optimization. In this paper, we...

7

An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 3, 2008 ... The Minimum Capacity s-t Cut Problem (Min Cut) is an intensively ... In this paper, we study Min Cut when arc capacities are uncertain but...

8

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mexico minimum efficiency performance standard million tons (of CO 2 ) national energyand Mexico, produces the largest savings of all the end uses: 780 TWh. The baseline energy

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Sea Level Pressure Minimum along the Kuroshio and Its Extension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric effects of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts along the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension (K-KE) are investigated by examining spatial characteristics of the climatological sea level pressure (SLP), surface winds and surface heat flux (...

Youichi Tanimoto; Tomohisa Kanenari; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The quadratic minimum spanning tree problem: A lower bounding procedure and an efficient search algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the quadratic minimum spanning tree problem (QMSTP) which is known to be NP-hard. Given a complete graph, the QMSTP consists of finding a minimum spanning tree (MST) where interaction costs between pairs of edges are prescribed. ... Keywords: Lagrangian relaxation, Local search, Quadratic minimum spanning tree problem

Temel ncan; Abraham P. Punnen

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchangers, improved fan blade design and motor efficiency,blade design), which is used in most efficient ceiling fansfans. Sathaye (2012) found that efficient blade design can

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by comparing the national energy consumption, E, of the endConsumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options. Berkeley CA: Lawrence Berkeley NationalConsumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options. Berkeley CA: Lawrence Berkeley National

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Alternative Minimum Levels for Utility Aqueous Discharges: Chemical Analytical Measurement Guide for National Pollutant Discharge El imination System (NPDES) Permits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act requires the electric utility industry to monitor their wastewater discharges to ensure compliance with discharge permit limits. EPRI developed a new definition of quantitation level appropriate to water quality compliance monitoring and used data from its previous studies on trace element analysis of utility wastewaters to calculate Alternative Minimum Levels (AMLs). The approach developed in this report will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits to meet effluen...

1997-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whether application-level software optimization can improve energy efficiency and thermal behavior. We use-life multicore system to explore two issues: (i) software tun- ing to improve scalability and energyApplication Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability Md. Ashfaquzzaman Khan

Coskun, Ayse

18

Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency at the Event Filter MBTS trigger efficiency atand counted at the Event Filter trigger level. Any eventsCHAPTER 3. MINIMUM BIAS TRIGGER Event Selection The analysis

Leyton, Michael A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Initiative Life-cycle Cost Analysis Canada and Mexico baseline energy consumption. Canadas and Mexicos marketsMexico minimum efficiency performance standard million tons (of CO 2 ) national equipment cost National Electric Manufacturers Association national energy

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

SATURATION LEVELS FOR WHITE-LIGHT FLARES OF FLARE STARS: VARIATION OF MINIMUM FLARE DURATION FOR SATURATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Taking into account results obtained from models and from statistical analyses of obtained parameters, we discuss flare activity levels and flare characteristics of five UV Ceti stars. We present the parameters of unpublished flares detected over two years of observations of V1005 Ori. We compare parameters of the U-band flares detected over several seasons of observations of AD Leo, EV Lac, EQ Peg, V1054 Oph, and V1005 Ori. Flare frequencies calculated for all program stars and maximum energy levels of the flares are compared, and we consider which is the most correct parameter as an indicator of flare activity levels. Using the One Phase Exponential Association function, the distributions of flare equivalent duration versus flare total duration are modeled for each program star. We use the Independent Samples t-Test in the statistical analyses of the parameters obtained from the models. The results reveal some properties of flare processes occurring on the surfaces of UV Ceti type stars. (1) Flare energies cannot be higher than a specific value regardless of the length of the flare total duration. This must be a saturation level for white-light flares occurring in flare processes observed in the U band. Thus, for the first time it is shown that white-light flares have a saturation in a specific energy range. (2) The span values, which are the difference between the equivalent durations of flares with the shortest and longest total durations, are almost equal for each star. (3) The half-life values, minimum flare durations for saturation, increase toward the later spectral types. (4) Both maximum total durations and maximum rise times computed from the observed flares decrease toward the later spectral types among the UV Ceti stars. According to the maximum energy levels obtained from the models, both EV Lac and EQ Peg are more active than the other three program stars, while AD Leo is the most active flare star according to the flare frequencies.

Dal, H. A.; Evren, S., E-mail: ali.dal@ege.edu.tr [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Ege, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Identifying Energy-Efficient Concurrency Levels using Machine Learning  

SciTech Connect

Multicore microprocessors have been largely motivated by the diminishing returns in performance and the increased power consumption of single-threaded ILP microprocessors. With the industry already shifting from multicore to many-core microprocessors, software developers must extract more thread-level parallelism from applications. Unfortunately, low power-efficiency and diminishing returns in performance remain major obstacles with many cores. Poor interaction between software and hardware, and bottlenecks in shared hardware structures often prevent scaling to many cores, even in applications where a high degree of parallelism is potentially available. In some cases, throwing additional cores at a problem may actually harm performance and increase power consumption. Better use of otherwise limitedly beneficial cores by software components such as hypervisors and operating systems can improve system-wide performance and reliability, even in cases where power consumption is not a main concern. In response to these observations, we evaluate an approach to throttle concurrency in parallel programs dynamically. We throttle concurrency to levels with higher predicted efficiency from both performance and energy standpoints, and we do so via machine learning, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). One advantage of using ANNs over similar techniques previously explored is that the training phase is greatly simplified, thereby reducing the burden on the end user. Using machine learning in the context of concurrency throttling is novel. We show that ANNs are effective for identifying energy-efficient concurrency levels in multithreaded scientific applications, and we do so using physical experimentation on a state-of-the-art quad-core Xeon platform.

Curtis-Maury, M; Singh, K; Blagojevic, F; Nikolopoulos, D S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; McKee, S A

2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

23

Estimated Farm Level Benefits of Improved Irrigation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are about 15 million acres of cropland in the U.S. that are irrigated from aquifers which are incurring declining water levels (sloggett). This is primarily in the Great Plains Region where irrigation water is pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer. Mining from the aquifer is estimated at 14 million acre feet per year (Frederick and Hanson). The declining groundwater supply increases pumping lift and reduces well yields. Concurrently, there has been a dramatic increase in the cost of energy for pumping since 1973. For example, in the Trans Pecos Region of Texas, natural gas prices increased 450% from 1972 to 1975. Energy has become one of the most important factors in irrigated crop production. A 1975 study showed that 53% of the total variable costs of producing corn in the Great Plains was energy related (Skold). The sensitivity of irrigated agriculture to increased fuel costs and declining groundwater levels has provided incentives for irrigated farmers to investigate alternative crop rotations and opportunities to improve irrigation water pumping and distributional efficiencies. The emphasis of this report is to estimate the value to an irrigated farmer on the Texas High Plains of improving irrigation water distribution efficiency. One means of improving the water use efficiency is to implement water conserving techniques. The main purpose of these techniques is to maximize crop production by minimizing the amount of water lost through the production systems. The major sources of water loss in a crop production system are runoff, percolation, and evaporation. Examples of water conserving techniques include terracing, furrow dams, reduced tillage, and crop rotations. In addition, improved irrigation application techniques can enhance the efficiency of water used for irrigation in the region. On-farm irrigation efficiency statewide for Texas has been estimated between 60 and 708 (Wyatt,1981). The implementation of advanced irrigation application techniques could potentially increase this efficiency up to 98% (Lyle & Bordovsky,1980). Furrow irrigation and sprinkler irrigation are the two major irrigation systems currently in use. Techniques designed to improve furrow efficiency include alternate furrow irrigation, furrow diking, and surge flow. Alternate furrow irrigation improves the timeliness of irrigation applications and increases lateral water movement thereby reducing deep percolation losses. Alternate furrow irrigation can be used with furrow diking or row dams on non-irrigated furrows to reduce rainfall runoff and soil erosion. The surge flow technique delivers large surges of water into the furrow on an intermittent cycle to reduce percolation losses at the upper end of the field. Sprinkler irrigation is the second major distribution system used for crop production primarily on mixed and sandy soils in the region. The use of these systems have increased tremendously over the past 25 years. This growth in the use of sprinkler irrigation systems is reflected in the increase for Texas from 668 thousand acres in 1958 to 2.2 million acres in 1979 (Texas Department of Water Resources). With the rapid rise in the relative price of energy during the 1970's, the emphasis of improving sprinkler efficiency has focused on both reducing their energy requirements and decreasing the amount of water lost through evaporation. One system which has been developed to meet these needs is the LEPA system or Low Energy Precision Application system (Lyle and Bordovsky,1980). This system operates by distributing water through drop tubes and low pressure emitters directly into the furrow as opposed to high pressure systems which utilize overhead sprinklers to distribute the water. In field trials of the LEPA system, measured application and distribution efficiencies averaged 98% and 96% respectively (Lyle et al., 1981).

Lee, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Ellis, John R.; Reneau, Duane R.

1984-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buildings/appliance_standards/residential/cac_heatp umps_buildings/appliance_standards/residential/fb_tsd_09 07.htmlof Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs, LBNL

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting andThe U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has placed lightingfr_tsd.html U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency &

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Determining Levels of Productivity and Efficiency in the Electricity Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A few major themes run fairly consistently through the history of productivity and efficiency analysis of the electricity industry: environmental controls, economies of scale, and private versus government.

Abbott, Malcolm

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Maximizing Combustion Efficiency Through Selection of Optimum CO Control Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased emphasis on improved combustion control and the availability of accurate and reliable multi-parameter combustion instrumentation, an analytical technique is needed to supplant the previous incomplete assumptions and misleading guidelines for maintaining maximum boiler efficiency. This paper will present an analytical technique for establishing an optimum value of CO to minimize thermal losses in the combustion process. The optimum value is established by finding that value of excess air which minimizes the combined thermal losses due to the sensible and latent heat losses associated with excess air, and the unburned fuel thermal losses which result from the formation of CO. This technique allows determination of an optimum value for CO for any given burner and resultant CO vs excess air relationship. Values obtained with this technique are generally much higher than the typical values of 100-300 PPM recommended in the current literature. As a result of this technique, boilers can now be evaluated analytically and operated near or at the point of maximum combustion efficiency. Implementation of such a control strategy dictates incorporation of an accurate and reliable in-situ CO monitor to maintain known safe and efficient conditions.

McGowan, G. F.; Ketchum, R. L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

An efficient and lightweight method for Service Level Agreement assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditional approaches to on-line end-to-end Service Level Agreement (SLA) assessment have focused on the estimation of network QoS parameters. These approaches, however, face a trade-off between accuracy and the amount of resources needed to achieve ... Keywords: Hausdorff Distance, Inter-Packet Arrival Times, SLA assessment

Ren Serral-Graci; Marcelo Yannuzzi; Yann Labit; Philippe Owezarski; Xavi Masip-Bruin

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government  

SciTech Connect

This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

Wang, Yu

31

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

32

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

33

Efficient Access Technique Using Levelized Data in Web-Based GIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient access technique is one of the most important requirements in web-based GIS. With levelized spatial data we can access spatial data efficiently, because of no access to the fully detailed spatial data. Previous spatial access methods have ...

Joon-Hee Kwon; Yong-Ik Yoon

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lifetimes of Residential Appliances. HVAC&R Research 17,of High-Efficiency Appliances in the U.S. ResidentialIndian Households From Improved Appliance Efficiency. BUENAS

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Development and Online Opertation of Minimum Bias Triggers in ATLAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of minimum bias triggers should allow for a highly efficient selection on pp-collisions, while minimising any possible bias in the event selection. In ATLAS two main minimum bias triggers have been developed using complementary technologies. A hardware based first level trigger, consisting of 32 plastic scintillators, has proven to efficienctly select pp-interactions. In particular during the start-up phase this trigger played a crucial role for the commissioning of the central trigger processor and detector sub-systems. A complementary selection is achieved by a multi-level minimum bias trigger, seeded off a random trigger on filled bunches. For the event selection at higher trigger levels a dedicated algorithm was developed, able to cope with around 86 millions of detector signals per bunch-crossing. We will present these trigger systems and their deployment online, highlighting their performance and trigger efficiencies. We outline as well the operation with increasing beam intensities and lumin...

Martin, T; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Fundamentals of PV Efficiency Interpreted by a Two-Level Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elementary physics of photovoltaic energy conversion in a two-level atomic PV is considered. We explain the conditions for which the Carnot efficiency is reached and how it can be exceeded! The loss mechanisms - thermalization, angle entropy, and below-bandgap transmission - explain the gap between Carnot efficiency and the Shockley-Queisser limit. Wide varieties of techniques developed to reduce these losses (e.g., solar concentrators, solar-thermal, tandem cells, etc.) are reinterpreted by using a two level model. Remarkably, the simple model appears to capture the essence of PV operation and reproduce the key results and important insights that are known to the experts through complex derivations.

Alam, Muhammad A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fundamentals of PV Efficiency Interpreted by a Two-Level Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elementary physics of photovoltaic energy conversion in a two-level atomic PV is considered. We explain the conditions for which the Carnot efficiency is reached and how it can be exceeded! The loss mechanisms - thermalization, angle entropy, and below-bandgap transmission - explain the gap between Carnot efficiency and the Shockley-Queisser limit. Wide varieties of techniques developed to reduce these losses (e.g., solar concentrators, solar-thermal, tandem cells, etc.) are reinterpreted by using a two level model. Remarkably, the simple model appears to capture the essence of PV operation and reproduce the key results and important insights that are known to the experts through complex derivations.

Muhammad A. Alam; M. Ryyan Khan

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

38

Efficient parallel architecture for multi-level forward discrete wavelet transform processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A resource efficient and high-performance architecture for a two-dimensional multi-level discrete wavelet transform processor is presented in this paper. The JPEG2000 standard integer lossless 5-3 filter has been implemented. It achieves optimal hardware ...

Syed Mahfuzul Aziz; Duc Minh Pham

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Consumer-products minimum energy-efficiency-standards program. Topical report on Subtask 3. 1. Evaluation of energy consumption savings of boost heaters in dishwashers  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the energy conservation and life cycle cost benefits of boost heaters for dishwashers is presented to provide technical information to assist in determining whether to modify the dishwasher test procedure to include boost heaters. Two manufacturers are offering dishwashers which have an inlet water temperature requirement of 120/sup 0/F. Cleaning performance in these appliances is maintained with an electric coil in the sump of the dishwasher, which boosts the incoming water to its final temperature. Both manufacturers have petitioned DOE for exemption from efficiency standards, since current DOE test procedures give no credit for water heater energy savings. The evaluation shows boost heaters to be energy conserving for all conditions. The life cycle cost analysis indicates boost heaters are cost effective in all cases for homes with electric water heaters, and in most cases for homes having gas water heaters. Additionally the proposed standards for dishwashers will lower water consumption in 1985 model dishwashers such that boost heaters will become cost effective in all cases.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Improving the Fermilab Booster Notching Efficiency, Beam Losses and Radiation Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast vertical 1.08-m long kicker (notcher) located in the Fermilab Booster Long-05 straight section is currently used to remove 3 out of 84 circulating bunches after injection to generate an abort gap. With the maximum magnetic field of 72.5 Gauss, it removes only 87% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400 MeV, with 75% loss on pole tips of the focusing Booster magnets, 11% on the Long-06 collimators, and 1% in the rest of the ring. We propose to improve the notching efficiency and reduce beam loss in the Booster by using three horizontal kickers in the Long-12 section. STRUCT calculations show that using horizontal notchers, one can remove up to 96% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400-700 MeV, directing 95% of it to a new beam dump at the Long-13 section. This fully decouples notching and collimation. The beam dump absorbs most of the impinging proton energy in its jaws. The latter are encapsulated into an appropriate radiation shielding that reduces impact on the machine components, personnel and environment to the tolerable levels. MARS simulations show that corresponding prompt and residual radiation levels can be reduced ten times compared to the current ones.

Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tropin, I.S.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Minimum Concave Cost Flow Over a Grid Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 12, 2012 ... Abstract: The minimum concave cost network flow problem (MCCNFP) is NP- hard, but efficient polynomial-time algorithms exist for some...

43

Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of ...

45

Minimum Magnetic Energy Theorem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Thomson's Theorem states that static charge distributions in conductors show up at the conducting surfaces in an equipotential configuration, so that the electrostatic energy is a minimum. In this work we study an analogue statement for magnetic systems: in a given set of conductors, the stored magnetic field energy reaches the minimum value for superficial current distributions so that the magnetic vector potential is tangent to the conductors surfaces. This is the counterpart of Thomson's theorem for the magnetic field.

Fiolhais, M C N

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Minimum Price Contract  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A minimum price contract is one of many tools a marketer may use to better manage price and production risk while trying to achieve financial goals and objectives. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages involved in this marketing program and the situations when it can be used.

Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

49

Framework for Link-Level Energy Efficiency Optimization with Informed Transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dramatic increase of network infrastructure comes at the cost of rapidly increasing energy consumption, which makes optimization of energy efficiency (EE) an important topic. Since EE is often modeled as the ratio of rate to power, we present a mathematical framework called fractional programming that provides insight into this class of optimization problems, as well as algorithms for computing the solution. The main idea is that the objective function is transformed to a weighted sum of rate and power. A generic problem formulation for systems dissipating transmit-independent circuit power in addition to transmit-dependent power is presented. We show that a broad class of EE maximization problems can be solved efficiently, provided the rate is a concave function of the transmit power. We elaborate examples of various system models including time-varying parallel channels. Rate functions with an arbitrary discrete modulation scheme are also treated. The examples considered lead to water-filling solutions,...

Isheden, Christian; Jorswieck, Eduard; Fettweis, Gerhard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report examines the validity and explores the practical implications of the proposition that CO2 enrichment of the leaf environment enhances plant growth and, simultaneously decreases plant water use. A theoretical analysis of the water and carbon dioxide balance of plant leaves was made in the form of a computer program based upon known physiological facts. It predicts significant increases in water use efficiency by plants as CO is enriched, the size of the increase depending upon the external conditions. Experimental tests were conducted in an environmental simulator with stands of soybean, pepper and southern pea plants. The predictions of the model were substantially verified, with CO2 concentrations ranging from normal to six-fold normal. Although CO2 is obviously an ideal antitranspirant, the efficacy of its release in open stands is doubtful in view of plausible economic factors. Butt in enclosures this would be a different matter, and for such situations the present report gives a scientific basis for engineering and system analysis.

van Bavel, C. H. M.

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Minimum Description Length Model Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Description Length Model Selection Problems and Extensions Steven de Rooij #12;#12;Minimum Description Length Model Selection Problems and Extensions #12;ILLC Dissertation Series DS-2008-07 For further-mail: illc@science.uva.nl homepage: http://www.illc.uva.nl/ #12;Minimum Description Length Model Selection

54

Efficient management of IT Infrastructure implementation and support at enterprise level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with how to manage effectively in the design, implementation and support of an IT infrastructure at an enterprise level. This particular management is lacking in today's IT infrastructure scenario. Just implementation is not sufficient for an NON-IT industry, they need a proper support in the infrastructure like documentation, support work flow, ticketing systems (used for IT related issue either hardware or software) etc... Many organizations spend a lot of money for this support and they expect a lot from the provider. Many providers sign in the SLA that they will provide them with an excellent support, but 80-90% it doesn't happen. Many times they don't meet the expectations of their client. So how to make these expectations being met 100% for the client? That is what is going to be discussed in this paper with respect to ITIL framework and other technical terminologies.

Balakrishnan, Bhargav

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air conditioning in the building are provided using the minimum energy value that does not violate physical law.

Tanskyi, O.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

57

Quantum games and minimum entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyze Nash's equilibrium (maximum utility MU) and its relations with the order state(minimum entropy ME). I introduce the concept of minimum entropy as a paradigm of both Nash-Hayek's equilibrium. The ME concept is related to Quantum Games. ...

Edward Jimnez

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

59

Commit to Energy Efficiency Campaign Pledge Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specifying and Selecting I will request energy-efficient products that meet or exceed FEMP-designated or ENERGY STAR minimum efficiency requirements whenever I specify,...

60

Designing an Efficient Kernel-Level and User-Level Hybrid Approach for MPI Intra-Node Communication on Multi-Core Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emergence of multi-core processors has made MPI intra-node communication a critical component in high performance computing. In this paper, we use a three-stepmethodology to design an efficient MPI intra-node communication scheme from two popular ... Keywords: Cluster computing, MPI, Multi-core

Lei Chai; Ping Lai; Hyun-Wook Jin; Dhabaleswar K. Panda

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Credible Research Designs for Minimum Wage Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credible Research Designs for Minimum Wage Studies SylviaWe assess alternative research designs for minimum wageAllegretto: Institute for Research on Labor and Employment,

Allegretto, Sylvia; Dube, Arindrajit; Reich, Michael; Zipperer, Ben

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and modeling the impact of system parameters on levelized cost of electricity .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to develop low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells which are at the right intersection of cost and performance to (more)

Kang, Moon Hee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Do We Know of Any Maunder Minimum Stars?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most stars previously identified as Maunder minimum stars are old stars evolved off of the main sequence. Analysis of activity measurements from the California and Carnegie Planet Search program stars and Hipparcos parallaxes implies that the canonical age-chromospheric activity relation breaks down for stars older than $\\sim 6$ Gyr when activity is calculated from Mount Wilson S values. Stars only 1 magnitude above the main sequence exhibit significantly suppressed activity levels which have been mistaken for examples of Maunder minimum behavior.

Jason T. Wright

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Avista Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for manufactured homes) Water Heater: .93 EF minimum Insulation: Must increase the R value by R10 or greater Other equipment: Must meet the efficiency requirements on the...

65

Federal Energy Management Program: Federal Energy Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluorescent Tube Lamps FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum...

66

ATLAS measurements of minimum bias and soft QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first measurements of charged particle production in proton?proton collisions at center?of?mass energy s ?=?900? GeV and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Minimum bias distributions are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |?| 500? MeV and compared with the predictions from various Monte Carlo models. Activity in the underlying event was measured with respect to the highest p T track in the event. Both the minimum bias and underlying event measurements are fully corrected for detector effects to obtain distributions at the hadron level.

Maaike Limper; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity / minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero forcing set. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number Z_+(G) is introduced, and shown to be equal to |G|-OS(G), where OS(G) is the recently defined ordered set number that is a lower bound for minimum positive semidefinite rank. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number is applied to the computation of positive semidefinite minimum rank of certain graphs. An example of a graph for which the real positive symmetric semidefinite minimum rank is greater than the complex Hermitian positive semidefinite minimum rank is presented.

Barioli, Francesco; Fallat, Shaun M; Hall, H Tracy; Hogben, Leslie; Shader, Bryan; Driessche, P van den; van der Holst, Hein

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cape Charles - STIP Minimum Sustainability Requirements (Virginia...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cape Charles - STIP Minimum Sustainability Requirements (Virginia) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as...

69

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one (more)

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY...

71

Stochastic Variational Approach to Minimum Uncertainty States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

F. Illuminati; L. Viola

1995-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

72

A New Minimum Temperature Record for Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minimum temperature of ?31F (?35C) was recorded at Nowata, Oklahoma, on 10 February 2011. This exceeded the previous record minimum temperature for Oklahoma of ?27F (?32.8C). The Nowata station is in the Oklahoma Mesonet network. High pressure was ...

Gary McManus; Thomas W. Schmidlin; Christopher A. Fiebrich

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Standards Performance Standards Even the expert eye cannot easily tell an efficient window from a conventional window. That is why energy ratings, endorsement programs and consumer incentives play an important role in creating awareness for window energy efficiency among consumers, builders, architects and performance standard programs. Learn about NFRC certification and labeling Learn about ENERGY STAR® for windows, doors and skylights High Performance Windows and Low-E Storm Windows Volume Purchase Program Utility and State Incentives for energy efficiency improvements Building Codes Most locations have building energy codes that mandate minimum performance levels for windows, doors, and skylights. The builder, contractor or homeowner must adhere to the code requirements, which typically cover

74

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

75

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one dimensional diffusion equation. We show the uniqueness and ...

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The Use of Polar-orbiting Satellite Sounding Data to Estimate Rural Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with ...

Gregory L. Johnson; Jerry M. Davis; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; J. Dan Tarpley; Peter Bloomfield

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Energy Level Alignment in PCDTBT:PC70BM Solar Cells: Solution Processed NiOx for Improved Hole Collection and Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Solution-based NiO{sub x} outperforms PEDOT:PSS in device performance and stability when used as a hole-collection layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells formed with poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and PC70BM. The origin of the enhancement is clarified by studying the interfacial energy level alignment between PCDTBT or the 1:4 blended heterojunctions and PEDOT:PSS or NiO{sub x} using ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. The 1.6 eV electronic gap of PEDOT:PSS and energy level alignment with the BHJ result in poor hole selectivity of PEDOT:PSS and allows electron recombination at the PEDOT:PSS/BHJ interface. Conversely, the large band gap (3.7 eV) of NiO{sub x} and interfacial dipole (0.6 eV) with the organic active layer leads to a hole-selective interface. This interfacial dipole yields enhanced electron blocking properties by increasing the barrier to electron injection. The presence of such a strong dipole is predicted to further promote hole collection from the organic layer into the oxide, resulting in increased fill factor and short circuit current. An overall decrease in recombination is manifested in an increase in open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the device on NiO{sub x} versus PEDOT:PSS interlayers.

Ratcliff, E. L.; Meyer, J.; Steirer, K. X.; Armstrong, N. R.; Olson, D.; Kahn, A.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. More information on SEAD is available from its website at http://www.superefficient.org/.

Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

JBIG2 Symbol Dictionary Design Based on Minimum Spanning Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The JBIG2 standard is a very flexible bi-level image coding strategy based on pattern matching. The encoder collects a set of symbols in a dictionary and encodes a page by reference to the dictionary symbols. JBIG2 allows the encoder to view all symbols and choose a good set for the dictionary. In this paper, we examine the bit rate trade-off that arises in choosing different dictionary sizes. In particular, we propose a suboptimal dictionary design technique based on minimum spanning trees. This technique gives competitive compression ratios and allows us to specify the dictionary size almost arbitrarily, thus providing a way to study the bit rate trade-off problem in detail. Keywords: JBIG2, Text image compression, Symbol dictionary, Minimum spanning tree 1

Yan Ye; Pamela Cosman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Minimum error discrimination of Pauli channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve the problem of discriminating with minimum error probability two given Pauli channels. We show that, differently from the case of discrimination between unitary transformations, the use of entanglement with an ancillary system can strictly improve the discrimination, and any maximally entangled state allows to achieve the optimal discrimination. We also provide a simple necessary and sufficient condition in terms of the structure of the channels for which the ultimate minimum error probability can be achieved without entanglement assistance. When such a condition is satisfied, the optimal input state is simply an eigenstate of one of the Pauli matrices.

Massimiliano F. Sacchi

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: CORE COMPETENCY...

83

Focus on Energy - Commercial/Industrial Efficiency in New Construction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

certain minimum energy efficiency standards, and custom incentives based on the estimated energy savings compared to a baseline building. Custom incentives for electricity and...

84

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners Title Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-63204 Year of Publication 2007 Authors McNeil, Michael A., and Maithili Iyer Date Published 03/2007 Keywords India Air Conditioner Efficiency Standards Abstract The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency.

85

Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ACMP Flash 2011-62 ACMP Flash 2011-62 Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases up to $25,000 At least 6 months of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level I in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases $25,000 up to the simplified acquisition threshold At least 1 year of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level II in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases over the simplified acquisition threshold At least 5 years of progressively complex contracting experience Certified to Level III in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years

86

Appliance Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Appliance Efficiency Standards Part 2 of 2: Policy process and consumer gains Part 1 of this article (CBS News, Spring 1995) discussed LBNL's role in setting federal appliance efficiency standards and presented an overview of the net national benefits of standards. Here, we examine the broader policy context for appliance standards and consumer benefits. Policy Context Appliance efficiency standards provide a minimum requirement for energy efficiency at the point of manufacture (or import). These standards seek to overcome market failures-including price distortions and transaction costs-that have historically given rise to a gap between observed and attainable product efficiencies. In this way, appliance standards complement information programs, utility DSM and other incentive programs,

87

Energy Efficiency in Regulated and Deregulated Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there are highly cost-effective energy efficiency measurescosts are the final barriers to energy efficiency cited bytruly cost effective level, creating an 'energy efficiency

Rotenberg, Edan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

.90 efficiency rating minimum Dual FuelAir Source Heat Pumps: Energy Star rated; SEEREER value of 16.5 or greater Geothermal Heat Pumps (replacing existing geothermal heat...

89

Louisville Gas & Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 Window Film: 50% of material cost, up to 200 Central AC: 100, plus 100 for each SEER above minimum federal high efficiency standard Air-Source Heat Pump: 100, plus 100...

90

City of Memphis- Energy Efficiency of Rental Properties  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The city of Memphis adopted an ordinance in spring 2009 to improve the energy efficiency of the rental housing stock throughout the city. The ordinance establishes minimum energy efficiency...

91

Boulder, Colorados SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households." For the full report and other resources visit: http://middleincome.lbl.gov March 20, 2012 Boulder, Colorado's SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing The Case for Performance Standards The City of Boulder's Climate Action Plan calls for greenhouse gas emissions reductions across all sectors of the community (e.g., buildings, transportation and industry). Energy conservation in new and existing buildings plays a key role in the plan's ambitious goals. In 2006, Boulder residents overwhelmingly approved a Climate Action Tax to fund Climate Action Plan efforts. For more than a decade the city has been incrementally strengthening minimum energy efficiency standards for residential

92

Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

Somasundaram, Sriram

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Minimum wear tube support hole design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Geometric Complexity and Minimum Description Length Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The question of how one should decide among competing explanations of data is at the heart of the scientific enterprise. Quantitative methods of selecting among models have been advanced over the years without an underlying theoretical framework to guide the enterprise and evaluate new developments. In this paper, we show that differential geometry provides a unified understanding of the model selection problem. Foremost among its contributions is a reconceptualization of the problem as one of counting probability distributions. This reconceptualization naturally leads to development of a "geometric" complexity measure, which turns out to be equal to the Minimum Description Length (MDL) complexity measure Rissanen (1996) recently proposed. We demonstrate an application of the geometric complexity measure to model selection in cognitive psychology, with models of cognitive modeling in three different areas (psychophysics, information integration, categorization).

In Jae Myung; Shaobo Zhang; Mark A. Pitt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Performance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realized a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measurements of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collisions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing ET ) and jets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing ET triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the full calorime...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Introduction to the Performance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at sqrt{s} = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realised a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measuremens of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collsions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing E_{T}), jets and bjets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing E_{T} triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the ...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

TriggerPerformance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at sqrt{s} = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realised a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measuremens of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collsions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing E_{T}), jets and bjets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing E_{T} triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the ...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated CO2 increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used 13C to assess carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C ci/ca) and changes in WUEi, while direct CO2 effects on stomatal conductance were explored using 18O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO2 increased 13C-derived WUEi on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting WUEi responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modeling elevated CO2 and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

Battipaglia, Giovanna [Second University of Naples; Saurer, Matthias [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Cherubini, Paulo [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Califapietra, Carlo [University of Tuscia; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Definition of Energy Efficiency  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Users Energy Efficiency Page Energy Efficiency Definition Energy Users Energy Efficiency Page Energy Efficiency Definition Energy Efficiency: Definition Stairs) "Take the Stairs--Be More Energy Efficient" Person A interprets the sign as the "true" definition of energy efficiency. To Person A, the elevator is not being used. He is still getting to where he wants to go and using less energy in doing so. Person B considers the fact that she is not getting to where she is going with the same ease. She does not believe that she is being energy efficient, but instead she believes that she is "conserving energy" at a reduced level of service-she has to walk instead of ride. When it comes to trying to define "to be energy efficient" or "energy efficiency", there does not seem to be a single commonly-accepted definition of energy efficiency. Along the lines of Person B's thinking, it is generally thought that an increase in energy efficiency is when either energy inputs are reduced for a given level of service, or there are increased or enhanced services for a given amount of energy inputs.

100

Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock, it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock, it is either impossible or more costly to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore, by not expanding or upgrading energy efficiency standards, opportunities for saving energy would be lost. In the past two decades, standards have significantly raised the level of energy efficiency for new products. How much more might be gained by making standards more stringent on products already subject to them, or by extending standards to products not yet covered? The main goal of this study is to estimate key national impacts of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment. These impacts approximate the opportunity for national benefits that may be lost if standards are not upgraded and expanded from current levels. This study also identifies the end uses where the largest opportunities exist. This analysis was prepared for the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP). It uses an analytical approach that is similar in concept to that used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to set standard levels. It relies on much less data and uses more simplified assumptions than the detailed and complex formulations used in DOE's standard-setting process. The results of this analysis should thus be viewed as a first approximation of the impacts that would actually be achieved by new standards. All monetary values in this report are in 2002 dollars.

Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

102

Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

103

The Process of Fixing the British National Minimum Wage, 1997-2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to negotiate, with embedded mediation, a level of minimum wage that has been not only 19 acceptable to government but also, at time of writing, overwhelmingly benign in its economic and social impact. The author is grateful for the comments of David...

Brown, William

104

Energy-efficient pipelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the design of energy-efficient pipelines for asynchronous VLSI architectures. To maximize throughput in asynchronous pipelines it is often necessary to insert buffer stages, increasing the energy overhead. Instead of optimizing pipelines for minimum energy or maximum throughput, we consider a joint energy-time metric of the form ? ?,where?is the energy per operation and ? is the time per operation. We show that pipelines optimized for the ? ? energy-time metric may need fewer buffer stages and we give bounds when such stages can be removed. We present several common asynchronous pipeline structures and their energy-time optimized solutions. 1.

John Teifel; David Fang; David Biermann; Clint Kelly; Rajit Manohar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Building Information Modeling - A Minimum Mathematical Configuration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current context, the standardization of building construction is not limited to a specific country or to a specific building code. Trade globalization has emphasized the need for standardization in the process of exchange of design information, whether it is in the form of drawings or documents. Building Information Modeling is the latest transformational technology that supports interactive development of design information for buildings. No single Building Information Modeling software package is used in the Architecture Engineering Construction and Facilities Management industries, which is strength as new ideas develop, but a hindrance as the new ideas flow at a different pace into the various programs. The standards divergence of various software results in a limited ability to exchange data between and within projects, especially one sees the difficulty in moving data from one program to another. The Document eXchange File format represents an early attempt to standardize the exchange of drawing information by Autodesk. However, the data was limited to geometric data required for the production of plotted drawings. Metadata in a Building Information Model provides a method to add information to the basic geometric configuration provided in a Document eXchange File. Building Information Model programs use data structures to define smart objects that encapsulate building data in a searchable and robust format. Due to the complexity of building designs eXtensible Markup Language schemas of three dimensional models are often large files that can contain considerable amounts of superfluous information. The aim of this research is to exclude all the superfluous information from the design information and determine the absolute minimum information required to execute the construction of a project. A plain concrete beam element was used as the case study for this research. The results show that a minimal information schema can be developed for a simple building element. Further research is required on more complex elements.

Bhandare, Ruchika

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set minimum distance requirements between certain types of facilities that generate, process, store, and dispose of hazardous waste

107

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to...

108

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

109

Study on optimal train movement for minimum energy consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The presented thesis project is a study on train energy consumption calculation and optimal train driving strategies for minimum energy consumption. This study is (more)

Gkortzas, Panagiotis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Minimum Concave Cost Flow Over a Grid Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 12, 2012 ... Abstract The minimum concave cost network flow problem ... a grid network with a general nonnegative separable concave cost function.

111

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 11, 2010 ... Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents. Claudia Marini( nicosia ***at*** dia.uniroma3.it) Gaia Nicosia(nicosia ***at***...

112

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

do not require qualified personnel, or when internal costs proportional to skills are incurred .... In conclusion, we tackle four different versions of the minimum cost...

113

Optimization Online - Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 28, 2007 ... Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization. Benjamin Recht(brecht ***at*** caltech.edu)

114

On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 18, 2010 ... On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in wireless networks by joint channel assignment and power allocation.

115

New Lighting Fixtures: Combining Creativity and Style with Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This article for a building trade magazine describes a national design competition for energy efficient lighting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the American Lighting Association, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, with winners announced at ALA's Annual Conference May 14, 2004, in Tucson. The Lighting for Tomorrow competition was the first national lighting fixture design competition focusing on energy-efficient residential lighting. The competition invited fixture manufacturers and designers to come up with beautiful, functional lighting fixtures that also happen to be energy efficient. Fixtures were required to use a ''dedicated'' energy-efficient light source, such as a pin-based fluorescent lamp that cannot be replaced with a screw-in incandescent bulb. Fixtures also had to meet a minimum energy efficiency level that eliminated use of incandescent and halogen lamps, leaving the door open only to fluorescent sources and LEDs. More than 150 paper designs were submitted in the first phase of the competition, in 2003. Of those, 24 finalists were invited to submit working prototypes in 2004, and the winners were announced in May. The Grand Prize of $10,000 went to American Fluorescent of Waukegan, Illinois, for its ''Salem'' chandelier. Some winning fixtures are already available through Lowe's Home Improvement Centers.

Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Consumer Life-Cycle Cost Impacts of Energy-Efficiency Standards...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump...

117

A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam is used for heating buildings and to operate a 4000-ton steam-driven chiller. There are five natural gas-fired steam boilers that have rated capacities ranging from 40,000 lb/hr to 100,000 lb/hr at an operating pressure of 125 psig. This paper discusses the operating characteristics of the boiler and potential energy efficiency improvements. Results from the study included that reducing excess air levels to recommended minimums would save over $15,000 per year.

Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

International Energy-Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 International Energy-Efficiency Standards Two cost-effective approaches to reducing energy use in buildings are minimum energy standards for appliances and incorporating energy-efficiency principles in building codes. More than two dozen nations already have adopted, will soon adopt, or are considering the adoption of energy-efficiency standards and codes. The Environmental Energy Technologies Division has pooled its resources in the field of energy-efficiency standards with its international activities to create the International Building and Appliance Standards team. The IBAS team convenes regularly to discuss progress in existing international standards activities as well as to identify possible new Berkeley Lab opportunities to support efficiency standards the world over.

119

Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levelized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. An analysis was performed to find what level of transformer loss yields the minimum total levelized annual cost for a given kVA rating and a given set of load and cost parameters. Initial transformer costs as a function of no-load loss, load loss, and kVA were generated and used in the evaluation. Both single and multiple efficiency designs were considered. The total levelized annual costs of the two designs were compared. In each case the multiple efficiency design was less costly. A sensitivity analysis was performed to find the change in total levelized annual cost due to changes in the input parameters. Also, an analysis was conducted to determine the amount of energy required to produce the materials for distribution transformers. It was determined that the energy content of the extra materials used to produce a higher efficiency transformer was less than the amount of energy saved in operating costs. Therefore, from a total energy standpoint, it is worth using the extra energy to manufacture a more efficient transformer. Recommendations for distribution transformer efficiency characteristics and recommendations for further investigation are included. (LCL)

Braunstein, H.

1979-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

120

Short title: STOCHASTIC VARIATIONAL APPROACH TO MINIMUM UNCERTAINTY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schrdinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. PACS numbers:03.65.-w, 03.65.Ca, 03.65.Bz 1.

Fabrizio Illuminati; Lorenza Viola

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Characterization of imaging phone cameras using minimum description length principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach for the characterization of a mobile phone's color camera is presented. The use of high-order polynomials, Fourier sine series, and artificial neural networks (ANN) for solving this problem ... Keywords: artificial neural network, high-order polynomial, imaging mobile phone, minimum description length

Adrian Burian; Aki Happonen; Mihaela Cirlugea

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem Department of Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem M. Chyba Department of Mathematics 2565 McCarthy Mall for a class of underwater vehicles. We focus on the situation of initial and final configurations at rest In this paper we pursue the analysis of the minimum time problem for a special class of underwater vehicles, see

Sontag, Eduardo

123

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem Department of Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem M. Chyba Department of Mathematics 2565 McCarthy Mall for a class of underwater vehicles. We focus on the situation of initial and final configurations at rest the analysis of the minimum time problem for a special class of underwater vehicles, see [5], [6] for previous

Sussmann, Hector

124

Energy efficient all-to-all broadcast in all-wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All-to-all broadcast is a communication pattern in which every node initiates a broadcast. In this paper, we investigate the problem of building a unique cast tree of minimum total energy, which we call Minimum Unique Cast (MUC) tree, to be used for ... Keywords: All-to-all broadcast, Broadcast tree, Convergecast, Energy efficiency, Minimum power, Wireless network

Doina Bein; S. Q. Zheng

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Criteria and Test Procedures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Criteria and Test Procedures International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Criteria and Test Procedures in Standards and Labeling Programs for Computer Monitors and Commercial Gas Stoves Title International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Criteria and Test Procedures in Standards and Labeling Programs for Computer Monitors and Commercial Gas Stoves Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6506E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Khanna, Nina, Nan Zhou, David Fridley, and John Romankiewicz Date Published 12/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords Standards and labeling Abstract This report presents a technical review and comparative analysis of existing and/or proposed international mandatory energy performance standards, and voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for two products - computer monitors and commercial gas stoves - being considered for revised and new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in China. An overview of the scope of international programs, energy efficiency and other energy-related requirements, description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented. In addition, an estimation of potential energy savings if China were to adopt revised MEPS comparable to international levels is provided for computer monitors. A proposed methodology for estimating potential energy savings based on the European Union experience is provided for commercial gas stoves in the absence of available sales or energy consumption data.

126

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 450 ppm scenarios in 2030. BUENAS Version 04-23-12 Revin 2030 (TWh) . 25Standard in 2030 (Mt CO 2 ) .. 27

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in practice current LED bulbs are generally no better thanof 100- lm/W LED general-purpose light bulbs is achievable,incandescent light bulbs. Although white LEDs can achieve

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standard for Residential Lighting in Chile, 2010 USResidential General Service Lighting in Chile Virginie E.focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale

Letschert, Virginie E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by comparing the national energy consumption of the productNational Operating Cost (NOC) is the total (site) energy consumptionNational utility and environmental impacts, however are driven by primary energy consumption,

Letschert, Virginie E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equipment costs paid, electricity bill dollars saved, and12$ back though its electricity bill savings. Considering

Letschert, Virginie E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions savings (CES) are calculated from energy savings, by applying carbon factors

Letschert, Virginie E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric Motors Industry Total EU JAP Total When we consider carbon emissions reductions (Tables 22 and 23) on top of energy savings (Electric Motors Industry Total BRA EU JAP KOR MEX Total Among the key results are: By 2030, 80 percent of the energy savings

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations

134

Polynomial Time Algorithms for Minimum Energy Scheduling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of power management policies is to reduce the amount of energy consumed by computer systems while maintaining satisfactory level of performance. One common method for saving energy is to simply suspend the system during the idle times. No energy is consumed in the suspend mode. However, the process of waking up the system itself requires a certain fixed amount of energy, and thus suspending the system is beneficial only if the idle time is long enough to compensate for this additional energy expenditure. In the specific problem studied in the paper, we have a set of jobs with release times and deadlines that need to be executed on a single processor. Preemptions are allowed. The processor requires energy L to be woken up and, when it is on, it uses one unit of energy per one unit of time. It has been an open problem whether a schedule minimizing the overall energy consumption can be computed in polynomial time. We solve this problem in positive, by providing an O(n^5)-time algorithm. In addition we pr...

Baptiste, Philippe; Durr, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Energy Efficient  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.efficientwindows.org July 2011 E nergy-efficient windows save heating and cooling energy and improve occupant comfort while allowing for downsized HVAC equipment....

136

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

Newman, J. E.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Northern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of testing the homogeneity of the basic data used in this study, that is, the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature (as derived from daily observations) of several long-term climatological stations of ...

Ramon A. Quintana-Gomez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Theory and Applications of the Minimum Spanning Tree Rank Histogram  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minimum spanning tree (MST) rank histogram (RH) is a multidimensional ensemble reliability verification tool. The construction of debiased, decorrelated, and covariance-homogenized MST RHs is described. Experiments using Euclidean L2, variance, ...

Daniel Gombos; James A. Hansen; Jun Du; Jeff McQueen

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Minimum Wage Effects Across State Borders: Estimates Using Contiguous Counties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on earnings and employment in restaurants and other low-wageOur primary focus is on restaurants, since they are the mostof minimum wages on restaurant earnings, but the local

Dube, Andrajit; Lester, T. William; Reich, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in reservoir impoundments or parts...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators that is those capable of producing more than 100...

142

What Solar Oscillation Tell us About the Solar Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of continuous helioseismic data for two consecutive solar minima has provided a unique opportunity to study the changes in the solar interior that might have led to this unusual minimum. We present preliminary analysis of inter mediate-degree mode frequencies in the 3 mHz band during the current period of minimal solar activity and show that the mode frequencies are significantly lower than those during the previous activity minimum. Our analysis do not show any signature of the beginning of cycle 24 till the end of 2008. In addition, the zonal and meridional flow patterns inferred from inverting frequencies also hint for a delayed onset of a new cycle. The estimates of travel time are higher than the previous minimum confirming a relatively weak solar activity during the current minimum.

Jain, Kiran; Burtseva, O; Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Kholikov, S; Komm, R; Leibacher, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Efficiency Planning Guidebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand planning is an essential undertaking for utilities looking to understand and quantify the dispatchable resources associated with energy efficiency and demand response programs. Further, demand planning enables a utility to select the most appropriate, cost-effective suite of energy efficiency technologies, demand response technologies, and program delivery mechanisms for its unique market and operating conditions as well as the optimal level of investment. This guidebook reviews and explains a com...

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

efficiency | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

efficiency efficiency Dataset Summary Description View 2010 energy efficiency data from AeroSys Inc, Coaire, Cold Point, First Operations, LG Electronics, Nordyne, and Quietside manufacturers. Data includes cooling capacity, cooling performance, heating capacity, and heating performance. Spreadsheet was created by combining the tables in pdf files that are included in the zip file. Source Energy Applicance Data - United States Federal Trade Commission, www.ftc.gov Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords air conditioner central air conditioner efficiency efficient energy heat pump Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010_CentralAC_All.xls (xls, 82.4 KiB) application/zip icon 2010CentralAirConditioner.zip (zip, 398.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

146

efficient | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

efficient efficient Dataset Summary Description View 2010 energy efficiency data from AeroSys Inc, Coaire, Cold Point, First Operations, LG Electronics, Nordyne, and Quietside manufacturers. Data includes cooling capacity, cooling performance, heating capacity, and heating performance. Spreadsheet was created by combining the tables in pdf files that are included in the zip file. Source Energy Applicance Data - United States Federal Trade Commission, www.ftc.gov Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords air conditioner central air conditioner efficiency efficient energy heat pump Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010_CentralAC_All.xls (xls, 82.4 KiB) application/zip icon 2010CentralAirConditioner.zip (zip, 398.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

147

Performance of the ATLAS Minimum Bias Trigger in pp collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early physics program at the ATLAS experiment includes measuring the basic properties of proton proton collisions, such as charged particle multiplicities, in order to constrain phenomenological models of soft interactions in the LHC energy regime. An inclusive and well understood trigger is crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. The ATLAS experiment uses two complementary types of minimum bias triggers. A scintillator trigger sensitive to the forward regions of 2.1trigger based on counting hits in the inner tracking detector has provided a useful control sample. The performance and efficiency measurements of these triggers and detectors will be presented.

Lauren Tompkins

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Performance of the ATLAS Minimum Bias Trigger in pp collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early physics program at the ATLAS experiment includes measuring the basic properties of proton proton collisions, such as charged particle multiplicities, in order to constrain phenomenological models of soft interactions in the LHC energy regime. An inclusive and well understood trigger is crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. The ATLAS experiment uses two complementary types of minimum bias triggers. A scintillator trigger sensitive to the forward regions of 2.1trigger based on counting hits in the inner tracking detector has provided a useful control sample. The performance and efficiency measurements of these triggers and detectors will be presented.

Tompkins, Lauren

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Reliable and efficient reprogramming in sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retasking and remote programming of sensor networks is an essential functionality to make these networks practical and effective. As the availability of more capable sensor nodes increases and new functional implementations continue to be proposed, these ... Keywords: Broadcast, energy efficiency, minimum energy broadcast, reliable distribution, reprogramming, retasking, sensor networks

Chris Miller; Christian Poellabauer

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

International Cooperation on Advancing Equipment and Appliance Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Equipment and Equipment and Appliance Efficiency The Superefficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative 1 What is SEAD? * SEAD is a global market transformation initiative for deploying super-efficient equipment and appliances. * SEAD has three goals: - To raise the efficiency ceiling * Pull super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and R&D investments - To raise the efficiency floor * Work together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards - To strengthen the foundations of efficiency programs * Coordinate technical work to support these activities 2 SEAD Partners Australia European Commission Canada France Germany India Japan Korea Mexico

151

Minimum carbon tax level needed to prompt a widespread shift to nuclear power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide is suspected to be a major contributor to global warming. In the United States, nearly 70% of electricity is produced using coal or natural gas, both of which emit carbon dioxide into the environment. Nuclear ...

Thornton, Katherine C. (Katherine Claire)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The

153

(Energy Efficiency)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DECLARATION DECLARATION INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY COOPERATION [IPEEC] Considering: Declarations of the Gleneagles, St. Petersburg and Heiligendamm Summits, which emphasize the need for global cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. Recognizing: 1. that improving energy saving and energy efficiency is one of the quickest, greenest, and most cost-effective way to address energy security, climate change, and ensuring economic growth; 2. that a comprehensive process has been launched to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision at the COP 15. 3. that all countries, both developed and developing, share common interests for improving their

154

Compliance of clinical trial registries with the World Health Organization minimum data set: a survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organization minimum data set: a survey Lorenzo P Moja* 1 ,of the WHO minimum data set. Methods: A retrospectivethe launch of the WHO minimum data set seemed to positively

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Efficient reasoning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many tasks require reasoningi.e., deriving conclusions from a corpus of explicitly stored informationto solve their range of problems. An ideal reasoning system would produce all-and-only the correct answers ... Keywords: efficiency trade-offs, soundness/completeness/expressibility

Russell Greiner; Christian Darken; N. Iwan Santoso

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Recent State Minimum Temperature Records in the Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State minimum temperature records were set or tied in Indiana (?37.8C) and Kentucky (?38.3C) in January 1994, and in Illinois (?37.2C), Iowa (?43.9C), Minnesota (?51.1C), and Wisconsin (?48.3C) in February 1996. The veracity of these ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Minimum-outage broadcast in wireless networks with fading channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of cooperative broadcasting for minimum outage in wireless networks. We consider wireless multihop broadcast as a set of transmitters that transmit in a certain order. The receiving nodes are able to combine all the previous transmissions ... Keywords: broadcast, multicast, outage, wireless networks

Tolga Girici; Gulizar Duygu Kurt

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Power Allocations in Minimum-Energy SER Constrained Cooperative Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Power Allocations in Minimum-Energy SER Constrained Cooperative Networks Behrouz Maham-Spring). Behrouz Maham and Are Hjørungnes are with UNIK ­ University Graduate Center, University of Oslo, Norway. Behrouz Maham is currently a visiting scholar at Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION Seungjin on the variance of decon­ volved signal. We also consider the maximum negen­ tropy principle and show that the CME version, without any prior knowledge (such as channel impulse response, training data). As the demand

Choi, Seungjin

160

A faster distributed protocol for constructing a minimum spanning tree  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the problem of constructing a minimum-weight spanning tree (MST) in a distributed network. This is one of the most important problems in the area of distributed computing. There is a long line of gradually improving protocols ...

Michael Elkin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Minimum cost multiple multicast network coding with quantized rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider multiple multicast sessions with intra-session network coding where rates over all links are integer multiples of a basic rate. Although having quantized rates over communication links is quite common, conventional minimum ... Keywords: Decomposition algorithm, Multicast networks, Network coding

M. A. Raayatpanah; H. Salehi Fathabadi; B. H. Khalaj; S. Khodayifar

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Minimum-mirror-area single-stage solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

A means of generating a comcentrating mirror of minimum size for a given average flux-concentration output is outlined. The method is useful for acceptance angles typical of those required for tilting and tracking solar concentrators and can result in substantial cost savings when expensive mirrors (i.e.,glass) are used. Comparisons are made with compound parabolic concentrators.

Mills, D.; Harting, E.; Giutronich, J.E.; Cellich, W.; Morton, A.; Walker, I.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH HIROKO MIYAHARA, DMITRY SOKOLOFF and ILYA G. USOSKIN Solar-Terrestrial Environmental Laboratory, Nagoya University Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan Department minima, when the solar dynamo was in a special mode. We review available sets of direct and indirect data

Usoskin, Ilya G.

164

Energy-Efficient Networking Energy-Aware Routing Protocol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from to a physical server in another DC, when, the second DC has access to the renewable energy sourcesEnergy-Efficient Networking Energy-Aware Routing Protocol Minimum Power Topology Energy-Aware Admission Control Management of Resources in the Liquid Network Summary Energy Efficient Protocols in Self

Tobagi, Fouad

165

Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

Guide to efficient unitary cooling equipment  

SciTech Connect

The universe of unitary cooling equipment is a large one; these systems are used in nearly forty percent of the residential and commercial buildings in the United States. Unitary cooling equipment is made up of off-the-shelf units: factory-assembled single or split systems, including air-source heat pumps and air conditioners. The efficiency of this class of cooling equipment has increased steadily in recent years, driven primarily by government standards. Although most of the units have efficiencies near the minimum federal standards, a significant number of models beat the standards by 10 to 30 percent. However, the larger the system, the narrower the range of efficiencies available and the fewer models available in the most efficient categories. For the buyer and the utility, this report reveals where to get efficiency information on current products, and a recommended purchasing process. It also examines the ratings, standards, and programs that can expand the number of high-efficiency models available.

Gregerson, J.; George, K.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Implementing and Sustaining Operator Led Energy Efficiency Improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continuing high price of energy, difficult trading conditions and corporate commitments to meet emissions targets means that industry faces tough challenges to improve energy efficiency and reduce operating costs. The challenge is how to maximize energy savings with optimal capital investment. During the past few years, many operating companies have made good strides towards improving the energy performance of their assets by implementing energy efficiency programs. In general, these programs and initiatives have focused on relatively easy 'low hanging fruit' energy efficiency improvements - such as reducing furnace O2 levels and implementing steam trap maintenance programs. These initiatives are an important first step. However, to significantly reduce energy consumption, the site must focus on a strategic approach which involves developing, implementing and sustaining a client specific program of energy optimization. We discuss ways of sustaining energy performance through operator led initiatives as part of the structured KBC energy management process, ENgage. We present case studies from the oil refining industry, demonstrating energy savings of up to 20 percent, in which capital expenditure were kept to the bare minimum.

Hoyle, A.; Knight, N.; Rutkowski, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Energy Efficiency Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Energy Efficiency Manual By Donald R. WulfinghoffWulfinghoff, Donald R. Energy Efficiency Manual. Wheaton,and efficiently. The Energy Efficiency Manual offers up-to-

Weintraub, Irwin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS 1. C. Teng ANL/FNAL LS-17 L. Teng March 18, 1985 The natural emittance of an electron beam in a storage ring is given by (see e.g., M. Sands, SLAC 21) (1) where Cq =~~= 3.832 x 10-l3 m 32/3 mc J x partition factor in the bending plane y = total energy in mc 2 uni ts p orbit radius in bending magnets (assumed the same in all magne ts) H yn 2 - + 2ann ' + Bn I 2 ( a, B, Y = betatron functions ) n, n I dispersion functions <> = averaging over bending magnets We shall calculate for each bending magnet, then average over all magnets. 2 A. General Expression for H This can be calculated in a straightforward manner, but we can save a great deal of arithmetic with some preliminary formal analytical

170

Minimum/maximum excitation limiter performance goals for small generation  

SciTech Connect

Small generators connected to the utility system often act as followers as they tend to follow system bus voltage variations. For the lack of kVA capacity, small machines tend to be susceptible to becoming over or under excited (excessive Vars in or Vars out of the generator) as the voltage regulator tries to maintain its setpoint with variations in system bus voltage. Minimum and maximum excitation limiters are utilized to limit the voltage regulator characteristic response to system bus voltage changes, that can otherwise result in machine overheating and/or pulling out of synchronization. This paper reviews the operating performance of minimum and maximum excitation limiters used on small machines, and provides the user typical performance expectations. The examples will highlight both main field and exciter field applications. Lastly, conditions will be reviewed that may occur during excitation limiter initial startup that can affect their ability to be initially tuned.

Eberly, T.W.; Schaefer, R.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Impact of Minimum Load Operation on Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some utilities, as part of a fleet management strategy, are keeping baseload-design plants that are not competitive for 24/7 dispatch at minimum loads to increase their ability to respond to changing demand. Units being operated this way face some associated risks and may see an additional drop in availability, further exacerbating supply management issues and increasing O&M costs. This report seeks to capture ...

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

172

Minimum weight perfect matching in O(1) parallel time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider a 2-D square array of qubits of infinite extent. We provide a formal proof that the infinite size minimum weight perfect matching problem associated with running a particular class of topological quantum error correction codes on this array can be exactly solved with a corresponding infinite 2-D square array of classical computing devices in constant average time per round of error detection provided physical error rates are below fixed nonzero values, and other physically reasonable assumptions.

Austin G. Fowler

2013-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

173

Energy and Spectral Efficiency of Very Large Multiuser MIMO Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multiplicity of autonomous terminals simultaneously transmits data streams to a compact array of antennas. The array uses imperfect channel-state information derived from transmitted pilots to extract the individual data streams. The power radiated by the terminals can be made inversely proportional to the square-root of the number of base station antennas with no reduction in performance. In contrast if perfect channel-state information were available the power could be made inversely proportional to the number of antennas. Lower capacity bounds for maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing (ZF) and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) detection are derived. A MRC receiver normally performs worse than ZF and MMSE. However as power levels are reduced, the cross-talk introduced by the inferior maximum-ratio receiver eventually falls below the noise level and this simple receiver becomes a viable option. The tradeoff between the energy efficiency (as measured in bits/J) and spectral efficiency (as measured in b...

Ngo, Hien Quoc; Marzetta, Thomas L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Energy Efficiency Resource Standard | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Resource Standard Energy Efficiency Resource Standard Energy Efficiency Resource Standard < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Savings Category Other Program Info State Colorado Program Type Energy Efficiency Resource Standard Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission The Colorado General Assembly passed a law ([http://www.leg.state.co.us/CLICS/CLICS2007A/csl.nsf/fsbillcont3/5EA2048E... HB 1037])in 2007 requiring the investor-owned electric and natural gas utilities to adopt demand-side management (DSM) programs that provide financial incentives for their customers to purchase more efficient equipment and processes, and to engage in demand response. The law provided minimum energy and demand savings targets but also authorized the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to revise the goals and establish interim

175

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Multicasting in Large Wireless Networks: Bounds on the Minimum Energy per Bit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider scaling laws for maximal energy efficiency of communicating a message to all the nodes in a wireless network, as the number of nodes in the network becomes large. Two cases of large wireless networks are studied -- dense random networks and constant density (extended) random networks. In addition, we also study finite size regular networks in order to understand how regularity in node placement affects energy consumption. We first establish an information-theoretic lower bound on the minimum energy per bit for multicasting in arbitrary wireless networks when the channel state information is not available at the transmitters. Upper bounds are obtained by constructing a simple flooding scheme that requires no information at the receivers about the channel states or the locations and identities of the nodes. The gap between the upper and lower bounds is only a constant factor for dense random networks and regular networks, and differs by a poly-logarithmic factor for extended random networks. Further...

Jain, Aman; Verdu, Sergio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Image transmission over OFDM channel with rate allocation scheme and minimum peak-toaverage power ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes new scheme for efficient rate allocation in conjunction with reducing peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Modification of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) image coder is proposed to generate four different groups of bit-stream relative to its significances. The significant bits, the sign bits, the set bits and the refinement bits are transmitted in four different groups. The proposed method for reducing the PAPR utilizes twice the unequal error protection (UEP), using the Read-Solomon codes (RS), in conjunction with bit-rate allocation and selective interleaving to provide minimum PAPR. The output bit-stream from the source code (SPIHT) will be started by the most significant types of bits (first group of bits). The optimal unequal error protection (UEP) of the four groups is proposed based on the channel destortion. The proposed structure provides significant improvement in bit error rate (BER) performance. Per...

Mohammed, Usama S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Building Technologies Office: National Residential Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at all levels. The data from the efficiency measures database is used in the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) software. Benefits The National Retrofit Measures Database...

179

An Approach to Evaluating Equipment Efficiency Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 authorized studies of several types of industrial equipment to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of labeling rules and minimum energy efficiency standards. An approach to the evaluation of these and related policy options is under development. The approach includes equipment classification and characterization, market characterization, and the subsequent evaluation of effectiveness and costs of the policy options. Technical, economic, and marketing data obtained with the cooperation of industrial groups, such of policy impacts.

Newsom, D. E.; Evans, A. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

High Efficiency, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

Donald Stanton

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

An Obstacle-avoiding Minimum Variation B-spline Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of computing a planar curve, restricted to lie between two given polygonal chains, such that the integral of the square of arc-length derivative of curvature along the curve is minimized. We introduce the Minimum Variation B-spline problem which is a linearly constrained optimization problem over curves defined by Bspline functions only. An empirical investigation indicates that this problem has one unique solution among all uniform quartic B-spline functions. Furthermore, we prove that, for any B-spline function, the convexity properties of the problem are preserved subject to a scaling and translation of the knot sequence defining the B-spline. 1

Tomas Berglund; Inge Sderkvist

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bridging Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners John Shugars, Consultant Philip Coleman, Lawrence BerkeleyNational Laboratory ChristopherPayne, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Laura Van Wie McGrory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT The energy efficiency ofmany products has increased markedly over the past decade. A conspicuous exception to this trend is commercial packaged rooftop air conditioners, which have experiencedlittle to no efficiency improvement since 1992 when the Energy Policy Act of 1992 imposed federal minimum standards. Packaged rooftop units have been estimated to use on the order of76 billion kWh annually in the US, at a cost ofroughly $5.6 billion. Sales of these units are growing, and the majority of units sold have energy efficiency ratios (EERs) at orjust above the current national minimum efficiency

183

White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the latest energy efficiency level and market development ofcapacity, improved energy efficiency market mechanism, andmanufacturing, and market mechanisms for energy efficient

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improving energy efficiency in the built environment is now seen as a growing policy priority the 1973 oil embargo. Codes by state but they generally establish a minimum energy efficiency stan- dard.S. Department of Energy to establish building code energy efficiency targets by January 1, 2014. it also

Kotchen, Matthew J.

185

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Minimum bias and underlying event studies at CDF  

SciTech Connect

Soft, non-perturbative, interactions are poorly understood from the theoretical point of view even though they form a large part of the hadronic cross section at the energies now available. We review the CDF studies on minimum-bias ad underlying event in p{bar p} collisions at 2 TeV. After proposing an operative definition of 'underlying event', we present part of a systematic set of measurements carried out by the CDF Collaboration with the goal to provide data to test and improve the QCD models of hadron collisions. Different analysis strategies of the underlying event and possible event topologies are discussed. Part of the CDF minimum-bias results are also presented: in this sample, that represent the full inelastic cross-section, we can test simultaneously our knowledge of all the components that concur to form hadronic interactions. Comparisons with MonteCarlo simulations are always shown along with the data. These measurements will also contribute to more precise estimates of the soft QCD background of high-p{sub T} observables.

Moggi, Niccolo; /INFN, Bologna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

Rich Kruiswyk

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Policy Recommendations Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and Congress American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy February, 2001 There are a variety of energy challenges confronting the United States at this time: First, electricity reliability problems and price s-uges have become a major crisis in California and are threatening to reach the crisis level in other regions of the country. Second, natural gas prices have increased by 100%/ or more in many parts of the country, causing skyrocketing home energy bills this winter. And high natural gas prices are expected to continue due to tight supplies and growing demand. Third, our reliance on imported oil -hasgrownduerto a-combination-ofdecciningdomesticoil- ply and growingdemand ed to the lack of fuel efficiency improvement in motor vehicles.

191

What's Energy Efficiency?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who "does" efficiency? There's no such thing as the profession of energy efficiency-in fact, many professions participate in making the world more efficient. Mechanical, chemical,...

192

Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners Title Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2000 Authors Shugars, John, Philip Coleman, Christopher T. Payne, and Laura Van Wie McGrory Conference Name Proceedings from the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Volume 10 Pagination 217-226 Date Published 01/2000 Abstract The energy efficiency ofmany products has increased markedly over the past decade. A conspicuous exception to this trend is commercialpackaged rooftop air conditioners, which have experiencedlittle to no efficiency improvement since 1992 when the Energy Policy Act of 1992 imposed federal minimum standards. Packaged rooftop units have been estimated to use on the order of76 billion kWh annually in the US, at a cost ofroughly $5.6 billion. Sales of these units are growing, and the majority of units sold have energy efficiency ratios (EERs) at orjust above the current national minimum efficiency standards. In this paper we document the static efficiencies ofcommercialpackaged air conditioners, explore the reasons behindthis efficiency gap, and assess opportunities for overcoming the barriers to efficiency improvements in these products.

193

Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Indianola Municipal Utilities - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Central AC: $250 maximum; 10 unit maximum per customer per year Commercial Lighting: $5,000 per customer per year Air Source Heat Pumps: $500 maximum; 10 units per customer per year Geothermal Heat Pumps: $1,000 maximum, 5 units per customer per year Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC: $100/unit; $50 for each SEER above minimum Commercial Lighting: $2 - $25/fixture depending on type and efficiency

194

The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data ...

Edmonds, Eric V

195

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; Kevin P. Gallo; Thomas C. Peterson; Philip D. Jones; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Energy-efficient signal processing using FPGAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present techniques for energy-efficient design at the algorithm level using FPGAs. We then use these techniques to create energy-efficient designs for two signal processing kernel applications: fast Fourier transform (FFT) and matrix ... Keywords: FFT, FPGA, energy efficient design techniques, matrix multiplicaiton, performance estimation

Seonil Choi; Ronald Scrofano; Viktor K. Prasanna; Ju-Wook Jang

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy Tamar Kaffe-Abramovich and Ron Unger Background: Proteins seem to have their native structure in a global minimum of free energy is in the global minimum of free energy. The aim of this study is to investigate such evolutionary processes

Unger, Ron

198

Minimum Multicolored Subgraph Problem in Multiplex PCR Primer Set Selection and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Multicolored Subgraph Problem in Multiplex PCR Primer Set Selection and Population is a common generalization of minimum cost multiplex PCR primer set selection and maximum likeli- hood and its variants model two important bioinformatics problems: minimum cost multiplex PCR primer set

Mandoiu, Ion

199

ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: In todays increasingly electrified world, power conversionthe process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequenciesforms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-Es ADEPT Project, short for Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology, are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards Jump to: navigation, search Many states have established minimum efficiency standards for certain appliances and equipment. In these states, the retail sale of appliances and equipment that do not meet the established standards is prohibited. The federal government has also established efficiency standards for certain appliances and equipment. When both the federal government and a state have adopted efficiency standards for the same type of appliance or equipment, the federal standard overrides the state standard even if the state standard is stricter. [1] Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Appliance Efficiency Regulations (California) Appliance/Equipment Efficiency Standards California Yes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy efficient data centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency kW/ton Fan Coil Unit Design Efficiency CFM/kWEfficiency kW/ton Fan Coil Unit Design Efficiency CFM/kWEfficiency kW/ton Fan Coil Unit Design Efficiency CFM/kW

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

Hamrick, Todd

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

International Comparative Analysis of Appliance Efficiency Standards &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Comparative Analysis of Appliance Efficiency Standards & International Comparative Analysis of Appliance Efficiency Standards & Labeling Programs: Implications for China Title International Comparative Analysis of Appliance Efficiency Standards & Labeling Programs: Implications for China Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zhou, Nan, Nina Zheng, David Fridley, and John Romankiewicz Conference Name ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Date Published 06/2012 Publisher American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Keywords appliance, china, china energy, china energy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, energy efficiency, policy studies, standards and labeling program Abstract As a growing consumer of household appliances, lighting and electronic products, China has seen a steady rise in residential electricity use with 13% average annual growth since the 1980s. Over the last twenty years, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is undertaken by drawing upon the experiences and lessons learned of key international S&L program development. Specifically, this study provides in-depth review and comparative analysis of the development and recent advancements in the U.S. MEPS and Energy Star, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Eco-Design Label and Japanese Top Runner programs with China's S&L program. The international comparative analysis focuses on key elements of S&L development including stakeholder participation, program resources, data collection and availability, analytical methods, as well as program implementation and enforcement mechanisms. This study finds that adequate program resources from national and local levels, wide-ranging stakeholder participation, incorporation of various technical and economic analyses in standards development, and program impact evaluations are key features of successful S&L programs and have room for improvement in China. At the same time, however, China has become more proactive than some international programs in areas such as launching check-testing, laboratory round-robin testing and compliance verification for S&L programs.

204

The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Forman, Miriam A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

San Isabel Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

San Isabel Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency San Isabel Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program San Isabel Electric Association - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Marathon Water Heaters: $175 Marathon Water Heaters w/ SIEA Load Control Program: $425 Electric Water Heater (minimum 30 gallon): $100 Washers: $80 Dryer w/ Moisture Sensor: $50 Dishwashers: $60 Refrigerators: $90 Freezers: $90 ETS Room Units: $72 - $180 ETS Furnaces: $432 - $768 Provider San Isabel Electric Association San Isabel Electric Association (SIEA) provides incentives for its residential customers to install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are

206

JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program JEA - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Heat Pumps Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom: Rebates capped at 50% of cost with a 2.0 year payback General/Custom: $300,000 per customer per program year Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Chillers: $5/ton (additional rebates available for units that exceed minimum efficiency requirement) Three Phase AC: $25 - $40/ton Three Phase Heat Pump: $20 - $30/ton

207

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $75 Provider Tri-County Electric Cooperative Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating of 0.90 or higher. The minimum tank size is 40 gallons, with a minimum 4,500 watt heating element. For validation purposes, a copy of the sales or installation receipt must accompany the [http://www.tcectexas.com/Forms/water%20heater%20rebate%20form.pdf

208

Louisville Gas and Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Louisville Gas and Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Louisville Gas and Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Kentucky) Louisville Gas and Electric - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Heat Pump Water Heater: $300 Refrigerator: $100 Freezer: $50 Clothes Washer: $75 Dishwasher: $50 Window Film: 50% of material cost, up to $200 Central AC: $100, plus $100 for each SEER above minimum federal high efficiency standard Air-Source Heat Pump: $100, plus $100 for each SEER above minimum federal

209

Kentucky Utilities Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kentucky Utilities Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Kentucky Utilities Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Kentucky) Kentucky Utilities Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Heat Pump Water Heater: $300 Refrigerator: $100 Freezer: $50 Clothes Washer: $75 Dishwasher: $50 Window Film: 50% of material cost, up to $200 Central AC: $100, plus $100 for each SEER above minimum federal high efficiency standard Air-Source Heat Pump: $100, plus $100 for each SEER above minimum federal

210

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

211

99TechSpecs-LevelIIIMods.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EV AMERICA TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Effective October 1, 1999 Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications 1999 EV AMERICA TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 2 MINIMUM VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS For a vehicle to be considered qualified as an EV America-USDOE "Production" level vehicle, it must meet the minimum criteria defined by "shall" terminology utilized in the Specification. [For clarity, the use of the word "Shall" defines minimum requirements, whereas the use of the word "Should" defines design and performance objectives.] Vehicles which cannot meet all of the "Shall" requirements will be considered Prototypes, and will not be considered as having "passed" EV America. The following requirements shall be met by any vehicle before it can receive EV America "Production" level status:

212

Energy-efficient broadcasting in all-wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In all-wireless networks, minimizing energy consumption is crucial as in most cases the nodes are battery-operated. We focus on the problem of power-optimal broadcast, for which it is well known that the broadcast nature of radio transmissions can be ... Keywords: approximation algorithms, complexity theory, energy efficiency, minimum-energy networks, wireless ad hoc networks

Mario ?agalj; Jean-Pierre Hubaux; Christian C. Enz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Minimum power allocation for cooperative routing in multihop wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the limited energy supplies of nodes, in many applications like wireless sensor networks, energy-efficiency is crucial for extending the lifetime of these networks. We study the routing problem for multihop wireless ad hoc networks based on cooperative ...

Behrouz Maham; Are Hjrungnes

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products  

SciTech Connect

The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

On the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aims: We aim to provide an estimate of the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere. methods: We perform a 2D radiation-MHD simulation spanning the upper convection zone to the lower corona. The simulation includes non-LTE radiative transfer and {an equation-of-state that includes non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and non-equilibrium H_2 molecule formation}. We analyze the reliability of the various assumptions made in our model in order to assess the realism of the simulation. results: Our simulation contains pockets of cool gas with down to 1660 K from 1 Mm up to 3.2 Mm height. It overestimates the radiative heating, and contains non-physical heating below 1660 K. Therefore we conclude that cool pockets in the quiet solar chromosphere might have even lower temperatures than in the simulation, provided that there exist areas in the chromosphere without significant magnetic heating. We suggest off-limb molecular spectroscopy to look for such cool pockets and 3D simulations including a local dy...

Leenaarts, Jorrit; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Minimum error discrimination between similarity-transformed quantum states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the well-known necessary and sufficient conditions for minimum error discrimination (MED), we extract an equivalent form for the MED conditions. In fact, by replacing the inequalities corresponding to the MED conditions with an equivalent but more suitable and convenient identity, the problem of mixed state discrimination with optimal success probability is solved. Moreover, we show that the mentioned optimality conditions can be viewed as a Helstrom family of ensembles under some circumstances. Using the given identity, MED between N similarity transformed equiprobable quantum states is investigated. In the case that the unitary operators are generating a set of irreducible representation, the optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability of discrimination can be determined precisely. In particular, it is shown that for equiprobable pure states, the optimal measurement strategy is the square-root measurement (SRM), whereas for the mixed states, SRM is not optimal. In the case that the unitary operators are reducible, there is no closed-form formula in the general case, but the procedure can be applied in each case in accordance to that case. Finally, we give the maximum success probability of optimal discrimination for some important examples of mixed quantum states, such as generalized Bloch sphere m-qubit states, spin-j states, particular nonsymmetric qudit states, etc.

Jafarizadeh, M. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sufiani, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazhari Khiavi, Y. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Indias Credible Minimum Deterrence A Decade Later  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deterrence in the most conventional sense implies the making of military threats in order to prevent an adversary from taking aggressive actions (Buzan 1987). According to Barry Buzan (1987: 136), deterrence as a concept purports to stop an unwanted action by the adversary before they occur and encompasses both denial and the possibility of retaliation. The introduction of nuclear weapons into this complex dynamic of deterrence does not stabilise the crisis situation, as conventional wisdom suggests, but makes it even more threatening. The core of nuclear deterrence involves convincing the adversary that the cost of an undesirable action is more than the rewards. This requires a comprehensive understanding of not only the adversarys motives, decision-making processes and objectives, but also ones own capability to influence the calculus of costs and benefits that an adversary attaches to his own belligerence. Therefore, nuclear deterrence also takes into account the credibility of ones own nuclear threat that is aimed at convincing the adversary that his belligerence will be punished by unacceptable damage through nuclear means. It is in the wake of this that India evolved its own nuclear doctrine which seeks to uphold the notion of credible minimum deterrence.

Tanvi Kulkarni; Alankrita Sinha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Intelligent Efficiency: the Next Generation of Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information and communication technologies (ICT) and their enabling technologies are responsible for a significant portion of energy efficiency improvements in the past decade. Sensors and controls, the internet, and semiconductor technologies have already changed the way we use energy and interact with other people: how we work, shop, and have fun. But that is only the start. As highly efficient technologies begin to interact with each other and respond in real time to their environment, there will be a structural change in how we use energy. This paper explores the next generation of energy efficiency: what we call intelligent efficiency. Building on recent work in this area, this paper will define intelligent efficiency and provide specific case studies to illustrate its impact. This paper will focus on the manufacturing sector, but examples include commercial building energy management, industrial automation, and transportation infrastructure. This paper will discuss how these technologies work together synergistically to reach new levels of efficiency, allowing us to not only save energy, but to improve the economy and create jobs. Finally, the paper will identify barriers and policy solutions to intelligent efficiency achieving even greater savings and economic benefits.

Trombley,D.; Molina, M.; Elliot, R. N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Multiple Gravity-Wave Breaking Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is noted that gravity waves for which |u?c| (u=mean flow speed, c=wave phase speed) has a sharp minimum in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere will have decaying amplitudes above this level despite exponentially decreasing mean ...

Richard S. Lindzen

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Energy Efficient Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency is only one aspect of motor performance. This paper discusses how efficiency is influenced by such factors as horsepower rating, poles, actual load, and starting requirements. It discusses some of the variables affecting efficiency, and how to interpret efficiency data. A perspective is given from which to evaluate available energy efficient motor offerings for a given application.

Hoffmeyer, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Impact of Minimum Quality Standards on Firm Entry, Exit and Product Quality: The Case of the Child Care Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Theory of Minimum Standards, Journal of Politi- calto Minimum Quality Standards Regulation, NBER working paperDuopoly and Quality Standards, European Economic Review,

Hotz, V. Joseph; Xiao, Mo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions. The model uses generation dispatch algorithms, efficiency levels, and capacity factors

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market sales trends and efficiency levels are made available through the reporting requirements for ENERGY

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results inin natural gas consumption by 2030 resulting from upcomingthe 2008- 2013 trend to 2030. Based on these assumptions,

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US to achieve 18% reduction in its electricity demand compared to the base case by 2030 and 11% in Natural Gas and LPG consumption.

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appliance_standards/residential/heating_p roducts_fr_appliance_standards/residential/cac_heatp umps_new_buildings/appliance_standards/residential/fb_tsd_09 07.html

Letschert, Virginie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Energy efficient data centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sealing floor openings can improve efficiency by directing airSealing floor openings can improve efficiency by directing airSealing floor openings can improve efficiency by directing air

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy Efficiency Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Energy Efficiency Manual By Donald R. WulfinghoffR. Energy Efficiency Manual. Wheaton, MD: Energy InstituteThe Energy Efficiency Manual offers up-to-date and practical

Weintraub, Irwin

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF;OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS COMMISSION REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................iii California's Successful Energy Efficiency Programs

231

Appliance Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appliance Efficiency Standards Part 1 of 2 In the National Energy Policy Conservation Act (1978), Congress required DOE to set energy-efficiency standards for 13 residential...

232

What's Energy Efficiency?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why is energy efficiency the most abundant, cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? Anywhere energy is used, there are opportunities to increase efficiency. In most...

233

What's Energy Efficiency?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berkeley Laboratory and Energy Efficiency Whether you know it or not, the chances are that you've encountered energy-efficient technology developed by Lawrence Berkeley National...

234

Efficiency of Electric Motors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the EEM program addresses testing the efficiency of electric ... 1 of Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard C390, 'Energy Efficient Test ...

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

What's Energy Efficiency?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Links Here are some other organizations that study or otherwise support energy efficiency. Find out more about efficiency's potential to reduce GHG emissions, increase economic...

236

Minimum Cost Flow Problems with Value-at-Risk and Conditional ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic minimum cost flow (SMCF) problems have been studied for applica- tions involving random ...... approach to stochastic programming of heating oil.

237

Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination Title Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6283E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Spurlock, Anna C. Date Published 05/2013 Keywords EES-EG Abstract I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards

238

An Experimental Shield Test Facility for the Development of Minimum Weight Shields for Compact Reactor Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Discussions are given of the characteristics of fission-source plate, graphite reactor, and pool-type reactor facilities applicable to development studies of minimum weight shielding materials. Advantages of a proposed SNAP dual-purpose shielding facility are described in terms of a disk-shaped fission-source plate, reactor, and building. A program for the study of advanced shielding materials is discussed for materials and configuations to be evaluted with the fission-source plate, the testing of the prototype at high-power levels, and full-power tests on the actual reactor.

Tomlinson, R.L.

1959-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

239

Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program (Maine) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MeasuresWhole Building Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Amount Upon approval of Energy Reduction...

240

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

SciTech Connect

This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

SourceGas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program SourceGas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Hot Water Insulation/Infiltration Measures: minimum purchase of $40 Programmable Thermostats: 2 per account Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount '''Small Commercial''' Furnace: $200 - $300 Boiler: $150 Proper Sizing of Boiler/Furnace: $50 Hot Water Heater (Tank): $50 Hot Water Heater (Tankless): $300 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Hot Water Insulation/Infiltration Measures: $25 Integrated Space/Water Heater: $300

242

Loveland Water and Power - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial and Industrial Energy Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Loveland Water and Power - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Manufacturing Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate $50,000 per year Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See Program Website Cooling Efficiency Room AC: $50 - $110/ton, plus $3.50 - $5.00 for each 0.1 above minimum SEER, IEER, or EER Economizer: $250 Motion Sensor Controls: $75 Building Envelope Window Replacement: $1.50/sq. ft.

243

Tillamook County PUD - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tillamook County PUD - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Tillamook County PUD - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Tillamook County PUD - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info Expiration Date Rebate program is a limited time offer based on availability of funds and is subject to change without notice. State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heaters (minimum of a ten-year warranty): $25 Clothes Washers: $70 Refrigerators/Freezers: $15 Dishwashers: $25

244

SourceGas - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program SourceGas - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Hot Water Insulation/Infiltration Measures: minimum purchase of $40 Programmable Thermostats: 2 per account Insulation/Air Sealing: $300 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Furnace: $200 - $300 Boiler: $150 Proper Sizing of Boiler/Furnace: $50 Hot Water Heater (Tank): $50 Hot Water Heater (Tankless): $300 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Hot Water Insulation/Infiltration Measures: $25 Insulation/Air Sealing: 30% of cost

245

Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Atmos Energy - Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Miscellaneous Hot Water Insulation and Infiltration Measures: minimum purchase of $40 Programmable Thermostats: 2/account Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount '''Residential and Small Commercial''' Furnace: $200-$300 Boiler: $150 Proper Sizing of Furnaces/Boilers: $50 Storage Water Heater: $50 Tankless Water Heater: $300 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Furnace Maintenance: $40

246

Polynomial-time algorithms for minimum energy scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of power management policies is to reduce the amount of energy consumed by computer systems while maintaining a satisfactory level of performance. One common method for saving energy is to simply suspend the system during idle times. No energy ... Keywords: Job scheduling, dynamic programming, minimizing energy consumption

Philippe Baptiste; Marek Chrobak; Christoph Drr

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Admission REQUiREmEnTsnsC PROGRAMME MINIMUM ADMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACCEPTANCE LEVEL SELECTION PROCEDURES HEALTH SCIENCES · Bachelor of Medicine and Bach- elor of Surgery - MB BCh (6 years) · Bachelor of Pharmacy ­ BPharm (4 years) · Bachelor of Dental Science ­ BDS (5 years) · Bachelor of Science in Physio- therapy ­ BSc(Physiotherapy) (4 years) · Bachelor of Health Sciences (Bio

Wagner, Stephan

248

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners  

SciTech Connect

The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results of these analyses in May 2006, at a meeting of BEEs Technical Committee for Air Conditioners. This meeting was attended by a wide array of stakeholder, including industry representatives, engineers and consumer advocates. Comments made by stakeholders at this meeting are incorporated into the final analysis presented in this report. The current analysis begins with the Rating Plan drafted by BEE in 2006, along with an evaluation of the market baseline according to test data submitted by manufacturers. MEPS, label rating levels, and baseline efficiencies are presented in Section 2. First, we compare Indian MEPS with current standards in other countries, and assess their relative stringency. Baseline efficiencies are then used to estimate the fraction of models likely to remain on the market at each phase of the program, and the impact on market-weighted efficiency levels. Section 3 deals with cost-effectiveness of higher efficiency design options. The cost-benefit analysis is grounded in technical parameters provided by industry representatives in India. This data allows for an assessment of financial costs and benefits to consumers as a result of the standards and labeling program. A Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation is used to evaluate the impacts of the program at the unit level, thus providing some insight into the appropriateness of the levels chosen, and additional opportunities for further ratcheting. In addition to LCC, we also calculate payback periods, cost of conserved energy (CCE), and return on investment (ROI). Finally, Section 4 covers national impacts. This is an extension of unit level estimates in the two previous sections. Extrapolation to the national level depends on a forecast of air conditioner purchases (shipments), which we describe here. Following the cost-benefit analysis, we construct several efficiency scenarios including the BEE plan, but also considering further potential for efficiency improvement. These are combined with shipments through a stock accounting model in order to forecast air conditioner energy consumption

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Top 10 Energy Efficiency Opportunities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Top 10 Energy Efficiency Top 10 Energy Efficiency Opportunities Federal Utility Partnership Working Group San Francisco, 5/22/2013 Siva Sethuraman Customer Energy Solutions PG&E 2 Whole Building A comprehensive, performance-based approach to achieving 15+% energy savings in existing commercial buildings - quantification of energy use baselines and estimate savings at the whole building level leveraging the power of interval meter data. Behavioral Operational Retrofit Types of Energy Savings * Simplified, integrated offering * Bigger incentives tied to performance * Flexibility to pursue a range of measures overtime * Transparent and credible bill savings Baseline Analytics, Examples 3 Small Commercial EMS * Energy management system (EMS) products that offer integrated

250

Energy efficient data centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cogeneration can improve reliability and increase chiller efficiency (by using waste heat) for larger data centers.

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Assessments Lynn Price Staff Scientist China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Definition and overview of key components - International experience - Chinese situation and recommendations - US-China collaboration Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Analysis of the use of energy and potential for energy efficiency in an industrial facility * Current situation * Recommendations for improving energy efficiency * Cost-benefit analysis of recommended options * An action plan for realizing potential savings Types of Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Preliminary or walk-through - Detailed or diagnostic Audit criteria

252

Provably Efficient Adaptive Scheduling for Parallel Jobs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scheduling competing jobs on multiprocessors has always been an important issue for parallel and distributed systems. The challenge is to ensure global, system-wide efficiency while offering a level of fairness to user ...

He, Yuxiong

253

Norwich Public Utilities (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rebates are also available for central AC systems as well as air-source and geothermal heat pumps; incentive amounts vary according to equipment size and efficiency level. In...

254

Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths corrected.S.A. Abstract The calculation of a minimum free energy path can be considered as a two-point boundary value box solvers. The second paragraph of Section 1 is corrected. Because free energy is defined in terms

Skeel, Robert

255

A branch-and-cut algorithm for the minimum labeling Hamiltonian cycle problem and two variants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a mathematical model, valid inequalities and polyhedral results for the minimum labeling Hamiltonian cycle problem. This problem is defined on an unweighted graph in which each edge has a label. The aim is to determine a Hamiltonian ... Keywords: Branch-and-cut, Minimum labeling problem, Traveling salesman problem

Nicolas Jozefowiez; Gilbert Laporte; Frdric Semet

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fast Algorithms for Specially Structured Minimum Cost Flow Problems with Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the classical minimum cost flow problem is to send units of a good that reside at one or more points in a network (sources or supply nodes) with arc capacities to one or more other points in the network (sinks or demand nodes), incurring ... Keywords: analysis of algorithms, applications, computational complexity, flow algorithms, minimum cost flow problem, networks

Balachandran Vaidyanathan; Ravindra K. Ahuja

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Minimum Energy Compensation Strategy and Characteristic Analysis for Dynamic Voltage Restorer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The minimum energy compensation strategy and its characteristic for Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) considering the equipments voltage limitation are discussed. The strategy when the injection voltage is under or especially above the voltage limitation ... Keywords: dynamic voltage restorer, minimum energy compensation, compensation strategy, compensation characteristic, voltage limitation

Yingying Liu; Xu Yonghai; Xiao Xiangning; Guo Chunlin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Testing the efficiency of a tradeable permits market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A tradeable permits market is said to be efficient when all affected firms trade permits until their marginal costs equal the market price. Detailed firm-level data are generally required to perform such an efficiency test, ...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula: In-Situ Formation of Close-In Super-Earths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Close-in super-Earths, with radii R = 2-5 R_Earth and orbital periods P < 100 days, orbit more than half, and perhaps nearly all Sun-like stars in the universe. We use this omnipresent population to construct the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula (MMEN), the circumstellar disk of solar-composition solids and gas from which such planets formed, if they formed near their current locations and did not migrate. In a series of back-of-the-envelope calculations, we demonstrate how in-situ formation in the MMEN is fast, efficient, and can reproduce many of the observed properties of close-in super-Earths, including their gas-to-rock fractions. Testable predictions are discussed.

Chiang, E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEE Consortium for Energy Efficiency CFL Compact fluorescentEfficiency Measures Lighting Turning off lights in unoccupied areas Lighting level standards Lighting controls Daylighting Replace incandescent with CFL

Kermeli, Katerina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

EERE: Energy Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

increase energy efficiency nationwide. Photo of residential home with roof covered in solar panels Photo of the exterior of an energy-efficient office building Photo of a plug-in...

263

Energy Efficiency of Rack Level Liquid Cooling in Data Centers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

William Tschudi In the past 3 to 5 years computer equipment power in a standard data center IT rack increased to the point where cooling using conventional methods is becoming...

264

Preston Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Preston Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Preston Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Preston Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER Appliances

265

Lake City Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lake City Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Lake City Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Lake City Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: Varies, see program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER Refrigerators: $25, plus $50 for recycling an old, working unit

266

Litchfield Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Litchfield Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Litchfield Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Litchfield Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER Appliances Refrigerators: $25, plus $50 for recycling an old, working unit

267

Fairmont Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fairmont Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Fairmont Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Fairmont Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump: $200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER

268

Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Saint Peter Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum

269

Wells Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wells Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Wells Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Wells Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER Appliances

270

Blooming Prairie Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Blooming Prairie Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Blooming Prairie Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Blooming Prairie Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum

271

Redwood Falls Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Redwood Falls Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Redwood Falls Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Redwood Falls Public Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus bonus for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump: $100 - $200, plus bonus for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump: $200/ton, plus $25/ton for each 1 EER above minimum requirement Refrigerators: $25, plus $50 for recycling an old, working unit

272

Mora Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mora Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Mora Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Mora Municipal Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump: $200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum required EER

273

Appliance Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination C. Anna Spurlock Energy Analysis & Environmental Impact Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence...

274

ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Skylights provide natural day-lighting.· High-efficiency lighting reduces energy· costs and heat gain

Escher, Christine

275

California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating (Glass) Efficient Electric Melting Intelligent Extruder (DOE) Near Net Shape Casting Efficient Curing Ovens

Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; Rafael Friedmann; Rufo, Mike

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

277

www.wine-economics.org Restaurant Prices and the Minimum Wage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the eect of the minimum wage on restaurant prices. For that purpose, we estimate a price rigidity model by exploiting a unique dataset of individual price quotes used to calculate the Consumer Price Index in France. We nd a positive and signicant impact of the minimum wage on prices. We obtain that the eect of the minimum wage on prices is very protracted. The aggregate impact estimated with our model takes more than a year to fully pass through to retail prices.

Denis Fougre; Erwan Gautier; Herv Le Bihan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Surface structure determination by a one-stop search method for the deepest minimum  

SciTech Connect

We report results of a one-stop automated search method for the deepest minimum in surface structure determination. Starting from known chemical bond lengths, the deepest minimization frozen low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) method locates the deepest minimum in a single run without any human intervention. This is achieved by using an approximation method, the frozen LEED, which has a radius of convergence of over 0.8 A, together with a simulated annealing algorithm that hops out of local minima until a deepest minimum is found. Demonstrations are presented using simulated and experimental results.

Yu, Z.X. [Department of Physics, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tong, S.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials, City University of Hong Kong (China)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fort Collins Utilities - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial and Industrial Energy Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Fort Collins Utilities - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Other Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Insulation Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Building Tune Up: $50,000 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Roof Top A/C: $100 - $150, plus $5 for each 0.1 SEER or IEER above minimum requirement Variable Frequency Drives: $85 - $120/HP Packaged Terminal A/C: $50, plus $5 for each 0.1 EER above minimum

280

Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages  

SciTech Connect

Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Efficient optimal design space characterization methodologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the primary advantages of a high-level synthesis system is its ability to explore the design space. This paper presents several methodologies for design space exploration that compute all optimal tradeoff points for the combined ... Keywords: bounding, clock-length determination, design space exploration, efficient searching, high-level synthesis, module selection, scheduling

Stephen A. Blythe; Robert A. Walker

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Towards the capability of providing power-area-delay trade-off at the register transfer level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new register-transfer level (RT-level) power estimation technique based on technology decomposition. Given the Boolean description of a circuit function, the power consumption of two typical circuit implementations, namely the minimum ...

Chun-hong Chen; Chi-ying Tsui

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buildings/appliance_standards/residential/ac_central.html>LBNL-56207 Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential andLevels for Upgraded Standards....8 6. Estimation of

Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

32 December 2009 Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government Elizabeth Doris, Jaquelin Cochran, and Martin Vorum National...

285

Quantifying Drilling Efficiency - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

short-term learning curve at the company or play level rather than an efficiency trend across industry due to technology. As these examples illustrate, ...

286

Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Hydrostatic Ice Sheet...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solver for the hydrostatic equations that demonstrates textbook multigrid efficiency (an order of magnitude reduction in residual per iteration and solution of the fine-level...

287

Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent trends in the mean surface minimum and maximum air temperatures over eastern Africa by use of both graphical and statistical techniques. Daily records for 71 stations for the period 193992 were used.

S. M. Kinguyu; L. A. Ogallo; E. K. Anyamba

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Minimum Uncertainty, Coherence and Squeezing in Diffusion Processes, and Stochastic Quantization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati; Giuseppe Vitiello

1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

MINIMUM UNCERTAINTY AND SQUEEZING IN DIFFUSION PROCESSES AND STOCHASTIC QUANTIZATION 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states. 1

S. De Martino; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati; G. Vitiello

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A Local Minimum Aliasing Method for Use in Nonlinear Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local spectral method is a minimum aliasing technique for the discretization and numerical integration of prognostic systems consisting of nonlinear partial differential equations. The technique embodies many features of both spectral ...

John R. Anderson

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Hallam, Steven

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Systematic Biases in Manual Observations of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that manual observations of daily maximum and minimum temperature are strongly biased toward temperatures ending in certain digits. The nature and severity of these biases are quantified using standard statistical methods. ...

Jon M. Nese

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Method to Estimate Missing Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate missing daily maximum and minimum temperatures is presented. Temperature estimates are based on departures from daily temperature normals at the three closest stations with similar observation times. Although applied to ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston; Warren W. Knapp

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Minimum bayes risk decoding with enlarged hypothesis space in system combination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new system combination strategy in Statistical Machine Translation. Tromble et al. (2008) introduced the evidence space into Minimum Bayes Risk decoding in order to quantify the relative performance within lattice or n-best output ...

Tsuyoshi Okita; Josef van Genabith

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The Minimum Spanning Tree Histogram as a Verification Tool for Multidimensional Ensemble Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The minimum spanning tree (MST) histogram is a multivariate extension of the ideas behind the conventional scalar rank histogram. It tabulates the frequencies, over n forecast occasions, of the rank of the MST length for each ensemble, within the ...

D. S. Wilks

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Reconstructed Annual Minimum Temperatures for the Gulf States, 17991988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A very long series of minimum winter temperatures for the United States Gulf Coast region was developed. A search was made through sources of archival data to locate early temperature records for the region. Records from a number of different ...

Robert D. Erhardt Jr.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

DiffServ node with join minimum cost queue policy and multiclass traffic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DiffServ, the vehicle for providing relative QoS in the Internet is also easily amenable to simple and effective pricing mechanisms. By pricing access to a relative QoS, we can model a DiffServ node as a 'Join Minimum Cost Queue' in which an arriving ... Keywords: diffServ, finite buffer queues, join minimum cost queue, join shortest queue, network pricing, quasi-birth--death processes, queue control

Rahul Tandra; N. Hemachandra; D. Manjunath

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

On-Off Minimum-Time Control With Limited Fuel Usage: Global Optima Via Linear Programming  

SciTech Connect

A method for finding a global optimum to the on-off minimum-time control problem with limited fuel usage is presented. Each control can take on only three possible values: maximum, zero, or minimum. The simplex method for linear systems naturally yields such a solution for the re-formulation presented herein because it always produces an extreme point solution to the linear program. Numerical examples for the benchmark linear flexible system are presented.

DRIESSEN,BRIAN

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy Efficiency Loans for State Government Agencies | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Energy Efficiency Loans for State Government Agencies Energy Efficiency Loans for State Government Agencies < Back Eligibility State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Maximum Rebate Not specified Program Info State Kentucky Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount Minimum loan: $50,000 Provider Division of Facility Finance and Administration Cabinet Through the Green Bank of Kentucky, state agencies may be eligible for three separate energy loan products, depending on the proposed energy

302

An efficient solar energy harvester for wireless sensor nodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar harvesting circuits have been recently proposed to increase the autonomy of embedded systems. One key design challenge is how to optimize the efficiency of solar energy collection under non stationary light conditions. This paper proposes a scavenger that exploits miniaturized photovoltaic modules to perform automatic maximum power point tracking at a minimum energy cost. The system adjusts dynamically to the light intensity variations and its measured power consumption is less than 1mW. Experimental results show increments of global efficiency up to 80%, diverging from ideal situation by less than 10%, and demonstrate the flexibility and the robustness of our approach. 1.

Davide Brunelli; Luca Benini; Clemens Moser; Lothar Thiele

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

What's Energy Efficiency?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is energy efficiency? What is energy efficiency? Energy efficiency is "using less energy to provide the same service". There are other definitions, but this is a good operational one. The best way to understand this idea is through examples: When you replace a single pane window in your house with an energy-efficient one, the new window prevents heat from escaping in the winter, so you save energy by using your furnace or electric heater less while still staying comfortable. In the summer, efficient windows keep the heat out, so the air conditioner does not run as often and you save electricity. When you replace an appliance, such as a refrigerator or clothes washer, or office equipment, such as a computer or printer, with a more energy-efficient model, the new equipment provides the same service, but

304

Transmission Efficiency Technology Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reduction of our carbon footprint and increasing the role of renewable energy are important parts of the strategy for the greening of electric energy supply. As a result, efficient power delivery is also becoming a priority of our national and international energy strategies. Energy efficiency is usually associated with the customers compact florescent light bulbs and other energy saving appliances. Efficiency, however, is also applied to utilities and their distribution of power to their customers....

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Transmission Efficiency Technology Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing our carbon footprint and increasing the role of renewable energy are important parts of the strategy for the greening of electric energy supply. Energy efficiency will be a major contributing factor to achieving a low-carbon future. Traditionally, energy-efficiency measures have focused on end-use efficiency. But if one considers the electricity consumed by auxiliary loads at power plants and lost in power delivery, the single largest industrial consumer of electricity is the electric power indu...

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

Green Transmission Efficiency Initiative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a consequence of escalating interest in the environment and climate changea national focus on energy efficiency, and growing electricity demandthe time is right to assess energy efficiency from both an end-use perspective as well as across the utility value chain, from generation, to transmission, to distribution. The reduction of our carbon footprint and increasing the role of renewable energy are an important part of the strategy for the greening for electric energy supply. As a result, efficient po...

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Energy Efficiency Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Events at SC11 News & Publications ESnet in the News ESnet News Media & Press Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Contact Us...

308

Efficient Water Use & Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary...

309

Bayer Process Efficiency Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The process efficiency has a great influence on the production yield, energy consumption, investment and operation cost in Bayer process.

310

Efficiency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in...

311

Buildings Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office building windows, clean room, infrared thermograph, data graphic Buildings Energy Efficiency Researchers, in close cooperation with industry, develop technologies for...

312

Alunorte Global Energy Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The plant has a specific energy consumption of less than 8 GJ per ton of alumina which defines the world-wide benchmark for energy efficiency in alumina...

313

Window Energy Efficiency Checklist  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Window Energy Efficiency Checklist While most new windows have labels indicating their energy properties, such information is not often available for existing windows. Here is a...

314

Energy Efficient Buildings Hub  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office Peer Review Meeting Purpose and Objectives * Problem Statement - Building energy efficiency has not increased in recent decades compared to other sectors especially...

315

Maximizing Drilling Efficiency Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the United States by increasing supply, reducing cost, and increasing efficiency of exploration and production while minimizing environmental impacts. Growth in supply of...

316

Energy efficient data centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficient operation of cooling towers. Various resources arereset control schedule. Cooling tower sequence (i.e. , oneton, closed circuit water-cooling towers and condenser water

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Stirling Engine Cycle Efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT This study strives to provide a clear explanation of the Stirling engine and its efficiency using new automation technology and the Lab View software. (more)

Naddaf, Nasrollah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

From energy efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy efficiency upgrades to light-rail projects, clean energy and clean transportation continue to create jobs and drive economic growth. By tracking job announcements from...

319

Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

None

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Potential for Energy Efficiency. Prepared for The EnergyIndustrial Sector Energy Efficiency Potential Study - DraftIndustrial Energy Efficiency Market Characterization Study.

Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; Rafael Friedmann; Rufo, Mike

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiency programat various costs is with energy efficiency supply curves.Energy Efficiency in Industry Table 4 summarizes the benefit-cost

Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; Rafael Friedmann; Rufo, Mike

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Kinematic Structure of a Hurricane with Sea Level Pressure Less Than 900 mb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration aircraft recorded the first Doppler radar data in a tropical cyclone with a minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) <900 mb during a reconnaissance mission in Hurricane Gilbert on 14 September 1988, ...

Peter Dodge; Robert W. Burpee; Frank D. Marks Jr.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Estimating Noise Levels of Remotely Sensed Measurements from Satellites Using Spatial Structure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique is presented whereby the noise level of satellite measurements of the atmosphere and earth can be estimated. The technique analyzes a spatial array of data measured by a satellite instrument. A minimum of about 200 satellite ...

Donald W. Hillger; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Southern Power District - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southern Power District - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Southern Power District - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Southern Power District - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Source Heat Pump: $100- $300 Geothermal Heat Pump: $400 Heat Pump (14 Seer minimum): $50 contractor rebate Attic Insulation: $0.15/sq. ft. HVAC Tune-Up: $30 Provider Southern Power District Southern Power District (SPD) offers rebates for the purchase and installation of efficient air source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, attic insulation, and HVAC tune-ups. Contractors who install 14 Seer or

325

Austin Energy - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Austin Energy - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program Austin Energy - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program Austin Energy - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Ventilation Heat Pumps Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Option One: $15,000 Option Two: $15,000 Option Three: $20,000 Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Minimum Loan: $1,500 Provider Austin Energy Austin Energy offers three types of loans to residential customers to finance energy efficient improvements in eligible homes. The "Home Energy Improvements Loan" (Option One) can be used to complete suggested

326

North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum

327

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of energy; · increase efficiency and productivity of the existing energy infrastructure; · bring clean lives of Americans by productively enhancing their energy choices and quality of life. Energy Efficiency Performance and Sustainable Buildings by 2015 Design all new Federal buildings which begin the planning

328

Landscaping for energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Energy efficient laboratory fume hood  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

Feustel, Helmut E. (Albany, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Efficient Window Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 The Efficient Window Collaborative http://www.efficientwindows.org Energy-efficient windows make up only about 35% of the U.S. residential window market, even though they are cost-effective in approximately 80% or more of all applications. To ensure that efficient windows reach their optimum potential in homes throughout the U.S., the Department of Energy and key players in the U.S. window industry have formed the Efficient Window Collaborative (EWC). The EWC's goal is doubling the market share of efficient windows by 2005. With 31 charter members from the window and glass industries, the EWC is managed jointly by the Washington, D.C.-based Alliance to Save Energy and the Center for Building Science's Windows and Daylighting Group. The EWC serves as a focal point for voluntary

331

Energy Efficient Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficient Technologies Energy Efficient Technologies Energy efficient technologies are available now! Many of the vehicles currently on display in dealer showrooms boast new performance-enhancing, fuel-saving technologies that can save you money. Engine Technologies Transmission Technologies All Engine Technology Average Efficiency Increase Variable Valve Timing & Lift improve engine efficiency by optimizing the flow of fuel & air into the engine for various engine speeds. 5% Cylinder Deactivation saves fuel by deactivating cylinders when they are not needed. 7.5% Turbochargers & Superchargers increase engine power, allowing manufacturers to downsize engines without sacrificing performance or to increase performance without lowering fuel economy. 7.5% Integrated Starter/Generator (ISG) Systems automatically turn the engine on/off when the vehicle is stopped to reduce fuel consumed during idling. 8%

332

How Far Energy Efficiency?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysts agree about the need for developing both new and cleaner energy resources. At the same time, some argue that energy efficiency can provide only a minimal role in meeting future energy needs. Hence, energy supply is encouraged while energy efficiency is supported only minimally. Analysts Douglas Lightfoot and Christopher Green suggest in a series of papers, for example, that there are practical limits that will constrain the rate of efficiency improvement to no more than about one percent per annum over the next 100 years. This paper explores the assumptions that underpin such practical limits and concludes that efficiency gains perhaps could more than double the rate suggested by Lightfoot and Green. The question is not one of practical limits; rather, the issue is one of choosing to develop energy paths that allow greater system efficiencies to emerge.

John A. skip Laitner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Energy Efficient Data Centers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficient Data Centers Energy Efficient Data Centers Title Energy Efficient Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-54163 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Tschudi, William F., Tengfang T. Xu, Dale A. Sartor, Jonathan G. Koomey, Bruce Nordman, and Osman Sezgen Call Number LBNL-54163 Abstract Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to Californias economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to Californias industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commissions PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research roadmap defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency.

334

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy Integrating Efficiency Into Climate Change Mitigation Policy Speaker(s): Steven R. Schiller Date: December 8, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Diamond Steve will discuss policy options for deploying energy efficiency resources in electricity (non-transportation) end-use markets to meet needed GHG emission reduction levels. This discussion will include listing some barriers inherent to climate policy design, as well as energy markets, that inhibit efficiency investment as an emissions reduction strategy. However, the focus of the talk is on recommendations for effective mechanisms that incorporate end-use electricity energy efficiency into climate change mitigation efforts. In a recent ACEEE paper, Steve and his co-authors,

335

Thermodynamic Efficiency of Heat Exchange Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continued rise in the cost of energy 'has it imperative to augment the usual heat flow analyses for power plants, refineries, chemical plants and other energy intensive industries by adding analyses of available energy flow and device irreversibilities. The reclamation of what was formerly 'waste heat' by using additional, or more efficient, equipment has become not only economically feasible, but sometimes essential. A thermodynamic efficiency based on the second law of thermodynamics is defined for heat exchange devices. The efficiency can be simply written in terms of the mean absolute temperature levels of the two fluids exchanging heat, and an appropriate environment temperature. It is also shown that for a given ratio of hot to cold inlet temperatures, the efficiency and effectiveness for particular heat exchange configurations are related. Conclusions regarding the effect of stream temperatures on the efficiency of various types of exchangers are made. The concept is applied to typical heat exchange cases to demonstrate its applicability and sensitivity.

Witte, L. C.; Shamsundar, N.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 January 2013 Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 This paper presents average levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought on line in 2018 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Early Release Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized cost is often cited as a convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies. It represents the per-kilowatthour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a generating plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle. Key

337

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Industrial Energy Efficiency in Ukraine: The Business Outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ukraine is full of profitable opportunities for energy efficiency. Industry accounts for many of these opportunities because of its high level of energy consumption and its ability to pay for energy efficiency measures in hard currency. This paper provides an overview of steps which companies can take to tap into the Ukrainian energy efficiency market, as well as a description of a sample energy efficiency opportunity at a Ukrainian industrial enterprise.

Evans, M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Testing minimum energy with powerful radio sources in clusters of galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze ROSAT data for cluster gas surrounding powerful radio galaxies, which is well fitted by a ``beta-model'' gas distribution, after allowing for a compact central source. The cluster thermal pressure at the distance of the radio lobes is typically an order of magnitude larger than the lobe minimum pressure. Since radio lobes are sharply-bounded, the missing pressure is not simply entrained intra-cluster gas. Thus the minimum energy in the lobes is a severe underestimate of the actual energy content. We argue that the extra energy is mostly in the form of particles, so that the magnetic field is below equipartition and thus not a major factor in the lobe dynamics. The large departure from minimum energy has far-reaching implications for the nature of AGN central engines and the supply of mechanical energy to the cluster gas.

J. P. Leahy; Nectaria A. B. Gizani

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

340

Impact of CIR Storms on Thermosphere Density Variability during the Solar Minimum of 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar minimum of 2008 was exceptionally quiet, with sunspot numbers at their lowest in 75 years. During this unique solar minimum epoch, however, solar wind high - speed streams emanating from near-equatorial coronal holes occurred frequently and were the primary contributor to the recurrent geomagnetic activity at Earth. These conditions enabled the isolation of forcing by geomagnetic activity on the preconditioned solar minimum state of the upper atmosphere caused by Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). Thermosphere density observations around 400 km from the CHAMP satellite are used to study the thermosphere density response to solar wind high - speed streams/CIRs. Superposed epoch results show that thermosphere density responds to high - speed streams globally, and the density at 400 km changes by 75% on average. The relative changes of neutral density are comparable at different latitudes, although its variability is largest at high latitudes. In addition, the response of thermosphere density to hi...

Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; McPherron, Robert L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Point sensitive NMR imaging system using a magnetic field configuration with a spatial minimum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A point-sensitive NMR imaging system (10) in which a main solenoid coil (11) produces a relatively strong and substantially uniform magnetic field and a pair of perturbing coils (PZ1 and PZ2) powered by current in the same direction superimposes a pair of relatively weak perturbing fields on the main field to produce a resultant point of minimum field strength at a desired location in a direction along the Z-axis. Two other pairs of perturbing coils (PX1, PX2; PY1, PY2) superimpose relatively weak field gradients on the main field in directions along the X- and Y-axes to locate the minimum field point at a desired location in a plane normal to the Z-axes. An RF generator (22) irradiates a tissue specimen in the field with radio frequency energy so that desired nuclei in a small volume at the point of minimum field strength will resonate.

Eberhard, Philippe H. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Efficient independent component analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used for blind source separation in many fields such as brain imaging analysis, signal processing and telecommunication. Many statistical techniques based on M-estimates have been proposed for estimating the mixing matrix. Recently several nonparametric methods have been developed but in-depth analysis on asymptotic efficiency has not been available. We analyze ICA using semiparametric theories and propose a straightforward estimate based on the efficient score function by using B-spline approximations. The estimate is asymptotically efficient under moderate conditions and exhibits better performance than standard ICA methods in a variety of simulations.

Chen, Aiyou

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The Efficient Windows Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Petermann, Nils

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

Low- and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from 2006 September 21, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, to 2009 June 26, CR 2084) were analyzed using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of +-40{sup 0} around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620 +- 40 km s{sup -1}. The three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the global magnetic field of the Sun possessed a multi-pole structure during this time period. Calculation of the harmonic power spectrum of the solar magnetic field demonstrates a greater prevalence of multi-pole components over the dipole component in the 2007 solar minimum compared to the 1996 solar minimum. The unusual large separation between the dipole and multi-pole components is due to the very low magnitude of the dipole component, which is three times lower than that in the previous 1996 solar minimum.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Linker, Jon; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Luhmann, Janet; Lee, Christina O. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Market barriers to energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

Howarth, R.B. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Andersson, B. (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Market barriers to energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

Howarth, R.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B. [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Assessment of Retro-Fit Energy Savings Devices: Power Efficiency Corporation's Three-Phase Motor Efficiency Controller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes and documents the energy savings and power quality results of testing performed on Power Efficiency Corporation's Motor Efficiency Controller (MEC). The MEC is designed with patented E-Save Technology to help increase motor efficiency at low load levels, which in turn will introduce energy savings for the customer. Testing includes efficiency testing from an unloaded state to 100% load and power quality testing, such as sags and sustained undervoltage. The objectives of this project...

2010-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

348

Consortium for Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ti ti M k t o p p y Accelerating Markets for Super Efficient for Super Efficient Products and Services Federal Utility Partnership W rking Gro 2009 Fall Working Group 2009 Fall Meeting Ed Wisniewski Deputy Director November 19, 2009 Ontario, CA Who We Are Who We Are Created in 1991 by y administrators of ratepayer-funded EE programs and non- profits As their organization to: * Leverag ge efficiency y resources ( (US & Canada) ) to address structural market barrier & capture greater total savings * Sh Share "b "best" t" practi tices * Identify common needs to enhance savings impacts impacts 3 Who We Are Who We Are Nonprofit Governed and funded by members and sponsors 118 members from states and provinces with ratepayer-funded efficiency programs

349

Energy efficient data centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Efficiency Energy Systems Integration What follows issystems approach (integration) Develop standards as well as guides Establish champion industry group (e.g. energysystems approach (integration) Develop standards as well as guides Establish champion industry group (e.g. energy

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

JANUARY 2010 Energy Efficiency &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JANUARY 2010 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2008 SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT #12;i Table......................................................................................... 105 5.1 Private Investment in Solar Energy .................................................................................. 105 5.2 U.S. Department of Energy Investment in Solar Energy

351

Energy Efficient Digital Networks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with EETD scientists on cooperative research? Get a job in EETD? Make my home more energy-efficient? Find a source within EETD for a news story I'm writing, shooting, or...

352

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) cell, or solar cell, is the percentage of the solar energy shining on a PV device that is converted into electrical energy, or electricity....

353

Photovoltaic Cell Quantum Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Quantum efficiency (QE) is the ratio of the number of charge carriers collected by a photovoltaic (PV) cell to the number of photonsor packets of lightof a given energy shining on the solar cell....

354

Wideband, Efficient Optical Serrodyne Frequency Shifting with a Phase Modulator and a Nonlinear Transmission Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report shifting of the frequency of an 850 nm laser with an instantaneous bandwidth of (350-1650), MHz and an efficiency between 35% (minimum) to 80% (best at frequencies around 600 and 1500, MHz) by phase modulation with a sawtooth waveform ("serrodyne frequency shifting"). We use a fiber-coupled traveling wave electro-optical modulator driven by a nonlinear transmission line.

Houtz, Rachel; Mueller, Holger

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Efficient Data Centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results and FindingsThis technical update provides an overview of airflow management using variable speed drives (VSDs) on direct expansion (DX) computer room air conditioners (CRACs), and particularly how reduced airflow can improve energy efficiency in data centers. VSDs on CRAC units coupled with good airflow management within a data center can have a dramatic impact on energy efficiency. Typically, a lot more cold air is circulated within conventional data centers ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Managing Energy Efficiency Improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1991, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) introduced Eco- Efficiency as a management strategy to link financial and environmental performance to create more value with less ecological impact. Based on this strategy, CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily on sour gas processing facilities, has developed methods and programs to identify opportunities for energy conservation and GHG reductions. The program outlined in this paper consists of four interrelated phases that are used to identify and track efficiency opportunities as well as promote the use of energy efficient methodologies and technologies. If, as program results suggest, 15% to 20% of the gas that is now consumed at by plant operations can be saved through efficiencies, it would save $500 to $700 million worth of gas for sale on the market. Although this small Pilot Program in the gas processing sector has surfaced major opportunities, there are significantly greater opportunities in other sectors with high GHG emissions intensity, such as sweet gas processing, conventional oil, heavy oil and oil sands. Capturing these opportunities will require a carefully considered strategy. This strategy should include, in addition to commitments for expanding the scope of the current Program, sustained leadership by industry champions and by governments - all aimed at changing the operating mode and improving the culture in the oil and gas industry.

Almaguer, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Efficient Windows Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

Nils Petermann

2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

Energy Efficiency Upgrades  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

Roby Williams

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

359

Efficient Windows Collaborative  

SciTech Connect

The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

Nils Petermann

2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

360

Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program Efficiency Maine Multifamily Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Program Info State Maine Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Upon approval of Energy Reduction Plan: $100 prescriptive path per apartment unit; $200 modeling path per apartment unit Upon approval of installations: $1400 all paths or 50% of installed cost (whichever is less) Efficiency Maine's Multifamily Efficiency Program offers incentives to multifamily residency building owners for improving energy efficiency. Residencies must have 5 to 20 apartment units to qualify for this rebate.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

How Will An Increase From $6.75 to $7.75 in the California Minimum Wage Impact the California Economy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact of the 2001 California Minimum Wage Increase."Statistics and Research, California Industrial Relationsthe Minimum Wage in California," memorandum, Institute for

Vassalotti, Amy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Stochastic Modelling and 3D Minimum Variance RecursiveEstimation of Image Sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the 3D minimum variance filtering problem is considered. The proposed spatiotemporal filter is derived according to the assumption that the 3D signal can be modelled by an ensemble of smooth 3D gaussian random fields. The resulting ... Keywords: image processing, optimal filtering, stochastic modelling

L. Jetto

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A hierarchical application of the Minimum Current Corona C. Beveridge and D.W. Longcope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hierarchical application of the Minimum Current Corona C. Beveridge and D.W. Longcope Department. Beveridge, C.: 2003, Ph.D. Thesis, University of St. Andrews. Beveridge, C. and Longcope, D.W.: 2005, Solar.M.: 1990, Astrophys. J., 366, 577. Longcope, D.W.: 1996, Solar Phys, 169, 91. Longcope, D.W.: 2001, Phys

Longcope, Dana

364

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time Yu Ru, Jan Kleissl, and Sonia Martinez Abstract-- In this paper, we study a battery sizing problem for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems assuming that the battery charging/discharging limit scales linearly with its

Martínez, Sonia

365

Mobility-assisted minimum connected cover in a wireless sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All properties of mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs) are inherited from static wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and meanwhile have their own uniqueness and node mobility. Sensor nodes in these networks monitor different regions of an area of interest ... Keywords: Energy-aware selection method, Minimum connected sensor cover set, Mobile wireless sensor networks, Redundant node, Relocation

Ahmed M. Khedr; Walid Osamy

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A robust forced dynamic sliding mode minimum energy position controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a contribution towards improving the environment, a new position controller for vector controlled electric drives employing permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) is presented that achieves approximately 27% less frictional energy loss than a ... Keywords: forced dynamic control, minimum energy manoeuvres, sliding mode control, synchronous motor drives

Stephen J. Dodds; Gunaratnam. Sooriyakumar; Roy Perryman

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A stochastic minimum principle and an adaptive pathwise algorithm for stochastic optimal control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a numerical method for finite-horizon stochastic optimal control models. We derive a stochastic minimum principle (SMP) and then develop a numerical method based on the direct solution of the SMP. The method combines Monte Carlo pathwise simulation ... Keywords: Electric power systems, Monte Carlo simulation, Stochastic control

Panos Parpas, Mort Webster

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Statistical inference of minimum BD estimators and classifiers for varying-dimensional models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic modeling for large-scale datasets usually involves a varying-dimensional model space. This paper investigates the asymptotic properties, when the number of parameters grows with the available sample size, of the minimum-BD estimators and classifiers ... Keywords: A diverging number of parameters, Exponential family, Hemodynamic response function, Loss function, Optimal Bayes rule, primary, secondary

Chunming Zhang

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Analysis on Achieving a Minimum Bunch Length in LCLS Bunch Compressor One  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ultra-short bunch is required by different applications in many aspects. In this paper, the condition to achieve a minimum bunch length at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) [1] bunch compressor one (BC1) is analyzed analytically and evaluated by simulation. The space charge, wake field and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects are not discussed here.

Sun, Yipeng

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

371

Externally Forced and Internal Variability in Ensemble Climate Simulations of the Maunder Minimum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the climate system to natural, external forcing during the Maunder Minimum (ca. a.d. 16451715) is investigated using a comprehensive climate model. An ensemble of six transient simulations is produced in order to examine the ...

Masakazu Yoshimori; Thomas F. Stocker; Christoph C. Raible; Manuel Renold

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle Namwook Kim. INTRODUCTION he optimal control of HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) is an important topic not only because, Sukwon Cha, Huei Peng Abstract - A number of strategies for the power management of HEVs (Hybrid Electric

Peng, Huei

373

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR on geomagnetic activity, quantified by the maximum hourly Dst and tri-hourly ap indices, in a period of 3 days after the shock, are evaluated. Correlations between shock parameters and Dst and ap geomagnetic indices

374

Improved Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Minimum-Flip Consensus Trees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In computational phylogenetics, the problem of constructing a consensus tree for a given set of rooted input trees has frequently been addressed. In this article we study the Minimum-Flip Problem: the input trees are transformed into a binary ... Keywords: Phylogenetics, consensus tree, fixed-parameter algorithm

Sebastian Bcker; Quang Bao Anh Bui; Anke Truss

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Level-3 Calorimetric Resolution available for the Level-1 and Level-2 CDF Triggers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the Tevatron luminosity increases sophisticated selections are required to be efficient in selecting rare events among a very huge background. To cope with this problem, CDF has pushed the offline calorimeter algorithm reconstruction resolution up to Level 2 and, when possible, even up to Level 1, increasing efficiency and, at the same time, keeping under control the rates. The CDF Run II Level 2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on a simple algorithm that was used in Run I. This system has worked well for Run II at low luminosity. As the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitation due to this simple algorithm starts to become clear: some of the most important jet and MET (Missing ET) related triggers have large growth terms in cross section at higher luminosity. In this paper, we present an upgrade of the Level 2 Calorimeter system which makes the calorimeter trigger tower information available directly to a CPU allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be implemented in software. Both Level 2 jets and MET can be made nearly equivalent to offline quality, thus significantly improving the performance and flexibility of the jet and MET related triggers. However in order to fully take advantage of the new L2 triggering capabilities having at Level 1 the same L2 MET resolution is necessary. The new Level-1 MET resolution is calculated by dedicated hardware. This paper describes the design, the hardware and software implementation and the performance of the upgraded calorimeter trigger system both at Level 2 and Level 1.

A. Canepa; M. Casarsa; T. Liu; G. Cortiana; G. Flanagan; H. Frisch; D. Krop; C. Pilcher; V. Rusu; V. Cavaliere; V. Greco; P. Giannetti; M. Piendibene; L. Sartori; M. Vidal

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

Clean Energy Solutions Energy Efficiency Revolving Loan Fund (New Jersey) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Energy Solutions Energy Efficiency Revolving Loan Fund (New Clean Energy Solutions Energy Efficiency Revolving Loan Fund (New Jersey) Clean Energy Solutions Energy Efficiency Revolving Loan Fund (New Jersey) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Maximum Rebate Maximum Loan: $2.5 million or 80% project costs (total state funding may not exceed 100% of project costs) Program Info Funding Source New Jersey Societal Benefits Charge (public benefits fund) Start Date 07/18/2011 State New Jersey Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount Varies by project (minimum loan of $250,000) Provider New Jersey Economic Development Authority

377

Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Verifiable Savings: up to 70% of project cost Heat Pumps/Air Conditioners: 50% of actual project cost Economizers: 50% of actual economizer system installed cost Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Verifiable Savings: $0.17/kWh, based upon annual kilowatt-hours saved Heat Pumps/Air Conditioners: $200 per ton X minimum or actual SEER

378

Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense out, rapid deterioration, due to acid corrosion, of the outlet duct and stack would result. With the development of the condensing heat exchanger, boiler efficiency can now exceed 90%. Approximately 1% gain in boiler efficiency can be expected for every 40F (4.5C) reduction in flue gas stack temperature. In the CHX condensing heat exchanger, all gas wetted surfaces are covered with DuPont Teflon. The Teflon covered heat exchanger surfaces are impervious to all acids normally resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. This allows the flue gas to be cooled to below the water vapor dew point with no subsequent corrosion of the heat exchanger surfaces.

Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan (CPUC, 2008) The Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan (Plan) was developed through a collaborative process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan (CPUC, 2008) The Long Term Energy Efficiency together over an elevenmonth period. This Plan sets forth a roadmap for energy efficiency in California costeffective deep levels of energy efficiency improvements including building shell upgrades, highefficiency

380

Energy Efficiency Revitalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To set the tone for my remarks I will start by saying- today, energy efficiency is a tough sell. In General Motors, our plant engineering people, faced with headcount deductions, budget cuts, and capital spending constraints are up to their you know what in alligators. Its a real challenge to try to keep a manufacturing or assembly plant running under the present circumstances. In todays atmosphere energy efficiency is just not a priority item demanding immediate action. Perhaps by this time you may have noticed I have not yet used the word conservation. This was a deliberate move. In General Motors, we are dropping the word conservation, which has developed a connotation of freezing in the dark and has been badly misunderstood over the years. We are opting for a more descriptive term- energy efficiency. As a matter of fact my title now is Manager-Energy Efficiency rather than Manager- Energy Conservation. We hope the use of the term energy efficiency will be more indicative of our endeavors and more in step with productivity and competitiveness. The business of saving money through increased energy efficiency needs all the help it can get. In fact, in our opinion, energy cost savings must become one of the before mentioned alligators. Or at least, a good sized burr in our collective saddles. Now dont get me wrong. I am not advocating being a nasty old ogre in regard to energy efficiency. By the way, ogre is defined as a dreaded person or object. Acting as an ogre will get you absolutely nothing but a lot of criticism and rebuff. What I am advocating is doing everything possible to keep energy efficiency in the lineup of important things our people must do to properly fulfill their jobs. It almost has to become second nature to our business such as quality and safety. Thats a big order and how do you do it? I certainly dont have all the answers to that question, but I will recount what we are attempting to do at GM in regard to energy efficiency. I do this with the hope that you may build on our experience and perhaps arrive at some new and original approach for our particular program.

Kelly, R. L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Energy Efficiency -- Home Page  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home >Energy Users EEnergy Efficiency Page Energy-Efficiency Measurement MEASUREMENT DISCUSSION: Measures and Policy Issues Energy Intensity as a Common Surrogate for Energy Efficiency Indices as a Measure of Relative Changes Market-Basket Comprehensive Factorial Decomposition Divisia Index OTHER MEASUREMENT APPROACHES: Best Practice MEASUREMENT ISSUES : Site Energy Versus Primary Energy Physical Versus Economic Units picture of line graph on stand Energy Efficiency Measurement Discussion The development of energy-efficiency indictors, for any country, is limited by the availability of data. Data are limited for several reasons. As the amount of data collected increases so do the costs of collecting, processing, and analyzing the data. The configuration of certain technologies and processes can also limit the possibility of obtaining microdata. As an example, in the manufacturing sector, some motors are encased in such a way that it is impossible to collect data on the motor unless records have been maintained for the motor. This leads to another reason data are limited--respondent burden. Care has to be taken so that surveys are not so long that participation is discouraged or inaccurate answers are given due to the difficulty and time it takes to obtain the data.

382

Efficient Hardware Looping Units for FPGAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Looping operations impose a significant bottleneck to achieving better computational efficiency for embedded applications. To confront this problem in embedded computation either in the form of programmable processors or FSMD (Finite-State Machine with ... Keywords: FPGA, embedded system, high-level synthesis, hardware looping, control unit

Nikolaos Kavvadias; Konstantinos Masselos

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Empower Maryland Efficiency Act | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Empower Maryland Efficiency Act Empower Maryland Efficiency Act Empower Maryland Efficiency Act < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Maryland Program Type Energy Efficiency Resource Standard In April 2008 Maryland enacted legislation setting a state goal of achieving a 15% reduction in per capita electricity consumption and 15% reduction in per capita peak demand by 2015, compared to 2007 levels. The legislation requires the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) to direct the state's electric utilities to implement programs designed to achieve a 5% reduction in per capita electricity consumption by 2011 and a 10% reduction by 2015. The remainder of the overall goal of 15% is to be accomplished independently through other means. Utility targets for per capita peak demand reduction are set at 5% by 2011, 10% by 2013, and 15% by

384

Water Efficiency Program Prioritization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Program Efficiency Program Prioritization Federal Energy Management Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy January 2009 Will Lintner (william.lintner@ee.doe.gov) Federal Energy Management The Goal - EO 13423 Beginning in 2008, Federal agencies must reduce water consumption intensity through life- effective measures, relative to the baseline of the agency's water consumption in fiscal year 2007 by 2 percent annually through the end of FY 2015 or 16 percent by the end of FY 2015. 2 Water Use Intensit ty (gal/sqft) Federal Sector Glide-Path to Meeting WUI Reduction Goal 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 FY 07 FY 08 FY 09 FY 10 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 FY 14 FY 15 Total Federal sector FY07 WUI Glide-Path for meeting WUI reduction goal (16%) 3 Next Steps * Compile Water Data FY 2008. The baseline for water

385

Efficient Data Transfer Protocols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficient Efficient Data Transfer Protocols for Big Data Brian Tierney ∗ , Ezra Kissel † , Martin Swany † , Eric Pouyoul ∗ ∗ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94270 † School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 Abstract-Data set sizes are growing exponentially, so it is important to use data movement protocols that are the most efficient available. Most data movement tools today rely on TCP over sockets, which limits flows to around 20Gbps on today's hardware. RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) is a promising new technology for high-performance network data movement with minimal CPU impact over circuit-based infrastructures. We compare the performance of TCP, UDP, UDT, and RoCE over high latency 10Gbps and 40Gbps network paths, and show that RoCE-based data transfers can fill a 40Gbps path using much less CPU than other protocols.

386

Perspectives on Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 nd U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Forum Dr. Arun Majumdar Director Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy U.S. Department of Energy May 6, 2011 Berkeley, California Perspectives on Energy Efficiency 2 | U.S. Department of Energy energy.gov Policy Framework R&D - Advance innovative technologies for appliances, equipment, and products - Integrated buildings approaches Market Priming - Pull new products, practices and services into market faster at scale - Technical support to ENERGY STAR / new higher tier Codes & Standards - Leverage market priming and advanced technologies - Broaden coverage and update frequently to capture savings opportunities Increasing Energy Efficiency (Metrics) Number of Unit Sales At least $23B net benefits Over 3.5 quads saved annually Over 2

387

EIA Energy Efficiency-  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

- Energy Efficiency, energy consumption - Energy Efficiency, energy consumption savings households, buildings, industry & vehicles Energy Savings Links Home > Households, Buildings & Industry > Energy Efficiency > Energy Savings Energy Savings saving energy in all sectors Last Page Modified: August 2010 All Sectors, Home, Commercial Building , Automobile Transportation, Manufacturing, Federal Government Program, Nonprofit and Other Organizations These links are provided solely as a service to our customers, and therefore should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any position of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition, EIA does not guarantee the content or accuracy of any information presented in linked sites. If you have an "Energy Savings" web site that may be an appropriate link for this site, please contact us if you wish to be listed on this page.

388

Energy Efficient Commercial Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Technologies April 11th, 2012 Presented by: Warren Willits Energy Solutions Center (202) 824-7150 www.ESCenter.org Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Spring 2012 Jekyll Island, GA Todays Energy Efficient Technologies  Water Heating  Heating  Air Conditioning  Humidity Control  CHP / Cogeneration Atmospheric Direct Vent High Efficiency .7 EF Atmospheric water heaters now available 97 % efficient tank water heaters now available Traditional Tank Style Water Heating  Tankless Water Heaters  EF = .82 Standard Unit  EF = .97 Condensing  Solar Water Heaters  With H.E. gas back up systems Newer Water Heaters Water Heater Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle Costs Electric Tank Water Heater Gas Water Heater

389

Energy Efficiency Links  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Energy Efficiency Organizations Energy Efficiency Organizations Release Date: October 1999 Last Updated: Septembert 2009 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages contain hypertext links to information created and maintained by other public and private organizations. These links provide additional information that may be useful or interesting and are being provided consistent with the intended purpose of the EIA website. EIA does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. EIA does not endorse the organizations sponsoring linked websites, the views they express, or the products and services they offer. U.S. Federal Government / Regional / U.S. Nonprofit / International U.S. Federal Government and Related Agencies

390

Energy Efficient Buildings Hub  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Henry C. Foley Henry C. Foley April 3, 2013 Presentation at the U.S. DOE Building Technologies Office Peer Review Meeting Purpose and Objectives * Problem Statement - Building energy efficiency has not increased in recent decades compared to other sectors especially transportation - Building component technologies have become more energy efficient but buildings as a whole have not * Impact of Project - A 20% reduction in commercial building energy use could save the nation four quads of energy annually * Project Focus - This is more than a technological challenge; the technology needed to achieve a 10% reduction in building energy use exists - The Hub approach is to comprehensively and systematically address

391

Ashland Electric Utility - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Pump: Minimum 9.0 HSPF and 14.0 SEER Ductless Heat Pump: Must employ inverter driven outdoor compressor unit Windows (.30 U-value minimum), Washing Machines,...

392

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000 NRCAN, 2006. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 toResources Canadas Office of Energy Efficiency, Ottawa.NRCAN, 2009. Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

CSP transactors for asynchronous transaction level modeling and IP reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In synchronous circuit design, new levels of abstraction above RTL allow the designer to model, simulate, debug and explore various architectures more efficiently than before. These are known as transaction level modeling. The translation between signals ...

Lilian Janin; Doug Edwards

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Energy efficiency in wireless networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy is a critical resource in the design of wireless networks since wireless devices are usually powered by batteries. Battery capacity is finite and the progress of battery technology is very slow, with capacity expected to make little improvement in the near future. Under these conditions, many techniques for conserving power have been proposed to increase battery life. In this dissertation we consider two approaches to conserving the energy consumed by a wireless network interface. One technique is to use power saving mode, which allows a node to power off its wireless network interface (or enter a doze state) to reduce energy consumption. The other is to use a technique that suitably varies transmission power to reduce energy consumption. These two techniques are closely related to theMAC (Medium Access Control) layer. With respect to power saving mode, we study IEEE 802.11 PSM (Power Saving Mechanism) and propose a scheme that improves its energy efficiency. We also investigate the interaction between power saving mode and TCP (Transport Control Protocol). As a second approach to conserving energy, we investigate a simple power control protocol, called BASIC, which uses the maximum transmission power for RTS-CTS and the minimum necessary power for DATA-ACK. We identify the deficiency of BASIC, which increases collisions and degrades network throughput, and propose a power control protocol that addresses these problems and achieves energy savings. Since energy conservation is not an issue limited to one layer of the protocol stack, we study a cross layer design that combines power control at the MAC layer and power aware routing at the network layer. One poweraware routing metric is minimizing the aggregate transmission power on a path from source to destination. This metric has been used along with BASIC-like power control under the assumption that it can save energy, which we show to be false. Also, we show that the power aware routing metric leads to a lower throughput. We show that using the shortest number of hops in conjunction with BASIC-like power control conserves more energy than power aware routing with BASIC-like power control.

Jung, Eun-Sun

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION TO INFORM DATA-DRIVEN ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Effective demand-side energy efficiency policies are needed to reduce residential electricity consumption and its harmful effects on the environment. The first step to devise such polices is to quantify the potential for energy efficiency by analyzing the factors that impact consumption. This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze large data sets of residential electricity consumption to derive insights for policy making and energy efficiency programming. In this method, underlying behavioral determinants that impact residential electricity consumption are identified using Factor Analysis. A distinction is made between long-term and short-term determinants of consumption by developing separate models for daily maximum and daily minimum consumption and analyzing their differences. Finally, the set of determinants are ranked by their impact on electricity consumption, using a stepwise regression model. This approach is then applied on a large data set of smart meter data and household information as a case example. The results of the models show that weather, location, floor area, and number of refrigerators are the most significant determinants of daily minimum (or idle) electricity consumption in residential buildings,

Amir Kavousian; Ram Rajagopal; Martin Fischer; Amir Kavousian; Ram Rajagopal; Martin Fischer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 en Energy Efficiency: Helping Home Owners and Businesses Understand Energy Usage http:energy.govarticlesenergy-efficiency-helping-home-owners-and-businesses-understand-energy...

397

NETL: Turbine Projects - Efficiency Improvement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Improvemenet Turbine Projects Efficiency Improvemenet Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig DataFact Sheets System Study for Improved Gas Turbine...

398

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Houck Low E Brings High Savings in Newark, Delaware Newark, Delaware used an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant to install energy efficient windows and lights. July...

399

Energy Efficiency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Energy Efficiency refers to products or systems using less energy to do the same or better job than conventional products or systems. Energy...

400

Energy efficiency and appliance replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1004 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND APPLIANCE REPLACEMENT Jeffrey T.adopt energy efficient appliances, even though the financialmix of energyusing appliances predicts that under plausible

LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's buildings and will provide hot water. Table 7: Summary of UTC Power 2009 Projects Source: Fuel Cells 2000Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2009 FUEL CELL MARKET REPORT NOVEMBER 2010 #12;Authors was the result of hard work and valuable contributions from government staff and the fuel cell industry

402

ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

Tim Richter

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2009 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT AUGUST 2010 #12;2009 Wind Associates) Suzanne Tegen (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Table of Contents Acknowledgments' Association); Ed DeMeo (Renewable Energy Consulting Services, Inc.); Mike O'Sullivan (NextEra Energy Resources

404

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Operating Efficiency Comes From Teamwork  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A group of operating and planning personnel formed the INter Plant Utilities Team [INPUT] to improve energy efficiency and reliability for Exxon's Baytown, Texas, refinery and chemical plants complex. The Team coordinates the day-to-day operations of the Site's utilities generation and distribution systems, which cross the operating boundaries of all three of the plants in the complex, and supports both capital improvements and long-term energy optimization projects for those systems. INPUTs origins go back to the early 1980's, when a utility coordination team was organized to manage the interplay of the Site's several high-level steam systems, and to reduce the impact of occasional steam shortages on the operations of both Refinery and Chemical Plant. Three years ago the current team was formed to find ways to make the systems more efficient and reliable, and to pave the way for the Site's cogeneration expansion. INPUT provides a regular forum for surfacing and resolving issues that affect the economics and reliability of the Site's utility systems, and is a commitment on the part of the three Plants at the Site to work together for the overall benefit of the Site --a commitment worth over $5,000,000 annually in operating cost savings.

Relyea, D. L.; Stone, A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June 2008 Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June 2008 Smart Grid Implementation Workshop Breakout Group Report, a discussion of metrics for smart grid implementation. The following major caveats and findings were identified: Optimizing asset utilization and operating efficiently depends on proper integration of technologies with business processes and associated IT Build metrics, by definition, need to be updated regularly to reflect new technology Build metrics should not be technology prescriptive or result innarrowing technology options for Smart Grid (should be as "technology agnostic"as possible) Build metrics need to differentiate between statistics

408

Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June 2008 Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently, June 2008 Smart Grid Implementation Workshop Breakout Group Report, a discussion of metrics for smart grid implementation. The following major caveats and findings were identified: Optimizing asset utilization and operating efficiently depends on proper integration of technologies with business processes and associated IT Build metrics, by definition, need to be updated regularly to reflect new technology Build metrics should not be technology prescriptive or result innarrowing technology options for Smart Grid (should be as "technology agnostic"as possible) Build metrics need to differentiate between statistics

409

Efficiency United (Gas) - Residential Efficiency Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency United (Gas) - Residential Efficiency Program Efficiency United (Gas) - Residential Efficiency Program Efficiency United (Gas) - Residential Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Other Ventilation Manufacturing Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Weatherization Measures: 50% of the cost Windows: $150 Water Heaters/Clothes Washers: 1 Pipe Wrap: Limit of 10 linear ft. Faucet Aerators: 2 High Efficiency Shower Head: 2 Program Info State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Boiler: $200 Furnace: $100 - $200

410

THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CA (United States); Forman, Miriam A., E-mail: jtu46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Investigation of Catalyst Deactivation from Operation Below the Minimum Operating Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expanding use of alternative and renewable energy sources is forcing large coal-fired power plants to operate at low load more frequently and for longer periods. For units with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and without economizer bypass capabilities, low-load operation requires the SCR system to operate at reduced flue gas temperatures. For units burning high-sulfur coal, these lower temperatures are often below the minimum operating temperature defined by SCR catalyst vendors. ...

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

412

THE EFFECT OF A MINIMUM WEIGHT RADIAL REFLECTOR ON SNAP SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

A model was derived for a minimum-weight radial reflector for SNAP reactors. The effect, which the use of this optimal reflector has on radiation shield weight requirements is investigated. Weights of systems employing conventional and optimal radial reflectors are compared using the FARSE and FARSER computer codes. It is found that for the configuration under study additional shield weight required when the optimal reflector is used is in excess of the reflector weight savings. (auth)

Bernick, R.L.

1963-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.

S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

414

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more ...

Rgnier, S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Classical capacity of bosonic broadcast communication and a new minimum output entropy conjecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work on the classical information capacities of bosonic channels has established the capacity of the single-user pure-loss channel, bounded the capacity of the single-user thermal-noise channel, and bounded the capacity region of the multiple-access channel. The latter is a multi-user scenario in which several transmitters seek to simultaneously and independently communicate to a single receiver. We study the capacity region of the bosonic broadcast channel, in which a single transmitter seeks to simultaneously and independently communicate to two different receivers. It is known that the tightest available lower bound on the capacity of the single-user thermal-noise channel is that channel's capacity if, as conjectured, the minimum von Neumann entropy at the output of a bosonic channel with additive thermal noise occurs for coherent-state inputs. Evidence in support of this minimum output entropy conjecture has been accumulated, but a rigorous proof has not been obtained. In this paper, we propose a new minimum output entropy conjecture that, if proved to be correct, will establish that the capacity region of the bosonic broadcast channel equals the inner bound achieved using a coherent-state encoding and optimum detection. We provide some evidence that supports this new conjecture, but again a full proof is not available.

Saikat Guha; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; Baris I. Erkmen

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

416

THINNING OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC LAYER: THE PECULIAR SOLAR MINIMUM COULD HAVE BEEN PREDICTED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar magnetic activity cycle causes changes in the Sun on timescales that are equivalent to human lifetimes. The minimum solar activity that preceded the current solar cycle (cycle 24) was deeper and quieter than any other recent minimum. Using data from the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON), we show that the structure of the solar sub-surface layers during the descending phase of the preceding cycle (cycle 23) was very different from that during cycle 22. This leads us to believe that a detailed examination of the data would have led to the prediction that the cycle 24 minimum would be out of the ordinary. The behavior of the oscillation frequencies allows us to infer that changes in the Sun that affected the oscillation frequencies in cycle 23 were localized mainly to layers above about 0.996 R{sub Sun }, depths shallower than about 3000 km. In cycle 22, on the other hand, the changes must have also occurred in the deeper-lying layers.

Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low

Michalek, Jeremy J.

418

The exact distribution of the maximum, minimum and the range of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact distribution of the maximum and minimum frequencies of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric distributions of n balls in m urns is compactly represented as a product of stochastic matrices. This representation ... Keywords: Dirichlet multinomial, Multinomial maximum, minimum, range, Multinomial outliers, inliers, Multivariate hypergeometric, Stochastic matrix

Charles J. Corrado

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Sustainability: Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability: Energy Efficiency Sustainability: Energy Efficiency (Green Consulting Unit) Overview Walks students through the process of building a model home while considering 11 parameters that influence energy use, such as building orientation, room configuration, building envelope, and energy systems (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.). Objectives The students will be able to: Use models to learn how to maximize the comfort-conditioning of a home. Observe, gather, and analyze data from the model simulations. Draw conclusions from the data. Time Week 1 Period 1 (M) Introduction Period 2 (W) Activities 1, 2 Period 3 (F) Activities 3, 4 Week 2 Period 4 (M) Activities 5, 6, 7 Period 5 (W) Activities 8, 9, 10, 11 Period 6 (F) Activities Presentations and conclusion

420

Process for Efficient CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficient CO Efficient CO 2 Capture Using a Regenerable Sorbent Opportunity Research is active on the technologies titled "Process for CO 2 Capture Using a Regenerable Magnesium Hydroxide Sorbent" and "Process for Minimization of Steam Requirements and Enhancement of WGS with Warm Gas Temperature CO 2 Sorbent." These two related technologies are available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview Fossil fuels will be used to provide clean, affordable energy well into the 21st century, but there are concerns about impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from fossil fuels. Capture of carbon from fossil fuel plants can produce CO

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy-Efficient Networks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Architecting and Operating Architecting and Operating Energy-Efficient Networks Inder Monga (ESnet) With input from Dan Kilper, Thierry Klein (Bell Labs) Vijay Sivaraman (UNSW, Australia) Jaafar Elmirghani (University of Leeds, UK) § Global research consortium representing industry, government and academic organizations § Launched in May 2010 § Focus on sustainability and growth § Holistic and ambitious: Goal of 1000x § 57 member organizations § 300+ leading scientists § Recognized by the World Economic Forum as an industry-led best practice toward sustainability DELIVER ARCHITECTURE, SPECIFICATIONS AND SOLUTIONS AND DEMONSTRATE KEY TECHNOLOGIES TO INCREASE NETWORK ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY A FACTOR 1000 COMPARED TO 2010 GREENTOUCH(tm) (www.greentouch.org)

422

Energy Efficiency Financing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Financing Financing Cisco DeVries | May 6, 2011 The Second U.S-China Energy Efficiency Forum Goals for Financing Program Supports highly leveraged private capital Serves residential and commercial markets Supports reactive and proactive projects Private Capital Sources Reactive & Proactive Residential & Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Property owner repays bond through property tax bill (up to 20 years) Proceeds from revenue bond or other financing provided to property owner to pay for energy project Property owners voluntarily sign-up for financing and install energy projects City or county creates type of land-secured financing district or similar legal mechanism The Second U.S-China Energy Efficiency Forum Commercial PACE Benefits * No or Low Upfront Costs. Removes high first cost

423

From energy efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

energy efficiency energy efficiency upgrades to light-rail projects, clean energy and clean transportation continue to create jobs and drive economic growth. By tracking job announcements from companies, elected officials, the media, and elsewhere, Environmental Entrepreneurs' (E2's) jobs reports show how and where clean energy works in the United States. For more details, including state-by-state breakdowns and more clean energy jobs stories, visit www.cleanenergyworksforus.org. For more information, please contact Bob Keefe, communications director, Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2) at bkeefe@e2.org or 202.289.2373. The Independent Business Voice for the Environment CLEAN ENERGY WORKS FOR US: 2013 Second Quarter Clean Energy/ Clean Transportation Jobs Report 2013 SECOND-QUARTER SNAPSHOT

424

Product Efficiency Cases  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

product-efficiency-cases Office of Hearings and product-efficiency-cases Office of Hearings and Appeals 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC, 20585 202-287-1566 en EXC-13-0004 - In the Matter of Liebherr Canada Ltd. http://energy.gov/oha/downloads/exc-13-0004-matter-liebherr-canada-ltd EXC-13-0004 - In the Matter of Liebherr Canada Ltd.

425

Solar bowl component efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex.

O'Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L. (College of Engineering, Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Membranes Improve Insulation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been determined from extensive tests involving test models and home attics that loose fill and fiber batt insulation does not function as expected by the industry. The reason for this deficiency is current test methods do not accurately predict the magnitude of air infiltration into fiber insulation as used in home attics, radiant heat infiltration into the insulation during summer, or radiant heat loss through the insulation during winter conditions. The use of (1) moisture permeable membranes over the insulation, and (2) layered membranes between fiber batts to form closed cells in the insulation both dramatically improve the efficiency of the fiber insulation. The efficiency of this insulation will be improved to an even greater degree if these membranes reflect radiant heat as well as reduce convection air currents. Extensive tests have also been conducted which show that if moisture permeable membranes are used over fiber insulation, the moisture content of the insulation will be reduced.

Bullock, C. A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy Efficiency Potential Assessment: (Appendices)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains the appendices to EPRI Report 1008911, "Energy Efficiency Potential Assessment."

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

428

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations Energy Efficiency Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saudi Aramco Gas Operations (GO) created energy efficiency strategies for its 5-year business plan (2011-2015), supported by a unique energy efficiency program, to reduce GO energy intensity by 26% by 2015. The program generated an energy savings of $ 8.8 MM, equivalent to 5% energy intensity reduction in 2011 as compared to 2010 level. The program works through a structured process, pre-set energy targets, installations of online energy management tools, and implementation of key high impact energy efficiency initiatives and completion of energy conservation projects. The long-term fruit of the program was recognized as a best practice to be adapted by most of Saudi Aramco facilities. The generation of innovative energy saving ideas under implementation resulted in potential energy savings of $23 MM. This paper confirms what many others in the industry have found, the opportunity is significant. The author illustrates GO organization crafted a structured energy efficiency program and innovative approaches to unlock the full potential of higher standards of energy efficiency performance. Gas Operation energy efficiency program will ideally translates energy intensity strategies into realities and transforms the missed opportunities into practical tactics for capturing the millions of dollars of savings potential that exist across GO facilities.

Al-Dossary, F. S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Energy-efficient windows  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions  

SciTech Connect

The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden)] [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)] [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan)] [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States)] [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India)] [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia)] [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom)] [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency] [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)] [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Title Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2010 Authors Goldman, Charles A., Michael Reid, Roger Levy, and Alison Silverstein Pagination 74 Date Published 01/2010 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025.1 Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries-which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity-is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that "the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW" by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

432

Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual efficiency technologies like hybrid power, aerodynamic fairings, auxiliary power units, super

Michael Killian

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business Making Efficiency a More Efficient Business July 10, 2012 - 2:10pm Addthis The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program is supporting an expanding energy efficiency workforce upgrading buildings in communities around the country. Roland Risser Roland Risser Program Director, Building Technologies Office What does this project do? Six Better Buildings case studies profile successful workforce development and incentive initiatives for energy efficiency professionals. The Business Models Guide helps professionals expand their services, establish business strategies around energy efficiency, and incorporate market sector perspectives into public-private partnerships. Even with the sweltering heat and relaxation that summer usually brings, the Energy Department's Better Buildings

434

Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinas Current Appliance Standards and Labeling Program toAnalysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room AirGlobal Potential of Efficiency Standards in the Residential

McNeil, Michael A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Utility Energy Efficiency Potential Calculator v2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of energy efficiency savings mandates in many states and other jurisdictions, utilities and policy makers have a keen interest in understanding the potential for energy efficiency at the national, regional, subregional, state, and service-territory levels. Many load serving entities are required by their regulatory commissions to submit ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

436

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation NREL, Ren Anderson Building America Technical Update Meeting July 25 th , 2012 Issue 5 - How Much Insulation is Too Much? How do we define the cost-effective limit for improvements in enclosure efficiency? Key Factors to Consider: -Cost of savings vs. cost of grid-supplied energy -Cost of efficiency savings vs. cost of savings from renewable generation. -Savings from envelope improvements vs. other efficiency options Context * It is widely believed that code-specified insulation levels also represent cost-effective limits. * However, the cost-effective insulation levels exceed IECC values in many climates. * The homeowner-driven value of modest increases in enclosure performance can create economies of scale that will reduce

437

Efficiency United (Gas) - Commercial Efficiency Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency United (Gas) - Commercial Efficiency Program Efficiency United (Gas) - Commercial Efficiency Program Efficiency United (Gas) - Commercial Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Other Construction Manufacturing Water Heating Maximum Rebate See Page Four of Utility Application: $100-$50,000/customer/year depending on utility and remaining funding Custom:40% of project cost Program Info State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Trap Repair or Replacement: $50/unit Boilers: $1-$1.50/MBH Furnace Replacement: $1.50/MBH or $150/unit Boiler Modulation Burner Control Retrofit: $1000/unit Boiler Water Reset Control: $300/unit

438

Energy Efficiency Fund (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency Fund (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Fund (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Energy Efficiency Fund (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate All Gas Programs: Contact utility Custom Retrofits: 40% Comprehensive Project: 50% of total cost Program Info Funding Source Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund State Connecticut Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount

439

Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Commercial and Industrial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs Eligibility Commercial Industrial...

440

Industrial Energy Efficiency:Policy, Initiatives, & Opportunities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency:Policy, Initiatives, & Opportunities Industrial Energy Efficiency:Policy, Initiatives, & Opportunities presentation Industrial Energy Efficiency:Policy, Initiatives, &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Branch and Price Approach to the k-Clustering Minimum Biclique ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

work by developing a Branch and Price algorithm that embeds a new metaheuristic based on ... The metaheuristic is also adapted to solve efficiently the pricing.

442

Georgia Nonprofit Spreads the Word About Energy Efficiency | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Georgia Nonprofit Spreads the Word About Energy Efficiency Georgia Nonprofit Spreads the Word About Energy Efficiency Georgia Nonprofit Spreads the Word About Energy Efficiency January 12, 2010 - 3:25pm Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy At a time of strapped budgets, service organizations that find ways to save money through energy efficiency will more easily meet their fundraising goals. CHRIS Kids, an Atlanta-based nonprofit that provides housing to disadvantaged young people, is taking that idea to the next level. By upgrading its buildings with the latest in high-efficiency technologies, the group will reap the rewards of increased energy savings and, at the same time, teach the next generation about energy-efficiency technologies and behaviors.

443

Harmonizing Global Metrics for Data Center Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 Page 1 Harmonizing Global Metrics for Data Center Energy Efficiency Global Taskforce Reaches Agreement on Measurement Protocols for PUE - Continues Discussion of Additional Energy Efficiency Metrics February 28th, 2011 The data center has become an increasingly important part of most business operations in the twenty-first century. With escalating demand and rising energy prices, it is essential for the owners and operators of these mission critical facilities to assess and improve their performance with energy efficiency metrics. However, even with the global presence of many companies, these metrics are often not applied consistently at a global level. To address these inconsistencies, a group of global leaders has been meeting regularly to agree

444

Self-Assembling Efficient Organic Electronics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self-Assembling Efficient Organic Electronics Self-Assembling Efficient Organic Electronics Speaker(s): Rachel Segalman Date: April 26, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Venkat Srinivasan In the last decade, the use of self-assembling block copolymers to nanopattern substrates and template synthesis has made incredible gains as a primary step towards the fabrication of nanodevices. Many studies have demonstrated a sophisticated level of control over the self-assembling, coil-type polymer systems to produce long range order. The knowledge now exists to begin to pattern polymers with a much higher degree of complexity and inherent functionality. It is apparent, for instance, that the mesostructure of conductive polymers impacts their luminescence and photovoltaic efficiency. For instance, block copolymers made from

445

buildings efficiency cbecs | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

buildings efficiency cbecs buildings efficiency cbecs Dataset Summary Description Source NREL Date Released July 28th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated July 28th, 2010 (4 years ago) Keywords buildings efficiency cbecs Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote Comments 1 comment Read more If you rate this dataset, your published comment will include your rating. Syndicate content 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142256151

446

ORNL Energy Efficiency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ORNL Energy Efficiency (Redirected from Energy Efficiency Capabilities at ORNL) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Energy Efficiency Capabilities at ORNL Name Energy Efficiency...

447

Public Sector Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capitol dome Capitol dome Public Sector Energy Efficiency Research on sustainable federal operations supports the implementation of sustainable policies and practices in the public sector. This work serves as a bridge between the technology development of Department of Energy's National Laboratories and the operational needs of public sector. Research activities involve many aspects of integrating sustainability into buildings and government practices, including technical assistance for sustainable building design, operations, and maintenance; project financing for sustainable facilities; institutional change in support of sustainability policy goals; and procurement of sustainable products. All of those activities are supported by our work on program and project evaluation, which analyzes overall program effectiveness while ensuring

448

OpenEI - efficiency  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Appliance Data - Appliance Data - Central Air Conditioners - 2010 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/132 View 2010 energy efficiency data from AeroSys Inc, Coaire, Cold Point, First Operations, LG Electronics, Nordyne, and Quietside manufacturers.  Data includes cooling capacity, cooling performance, heating capacity, and heating performance.   Spreadsheet was created by combining the tables in pdf files that are included in the zip file.

License
Type of License: 

449

Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles  

SciTech Connect

Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

Martin, Peter M.

2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Energy efficient data centers  

SciTech Connect

Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case study findings, and participation in data center industry meetings and workshops. Industry partners enthusiastically provided valuable insight into current practice, and helped to identify areas where additional public interest research could lead to significant efficiency improvement. This helped to define and prioritize the research agenda. The interaction involved industry representatives with expertise in all aspects of data center facilities, including specialized facility infrastructure systems and computing equipment. In addition to the input obtained through industry workshops, LBNL's participation in a three-day, comprehensive design ''charrette'' hosted by the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) yielded a number of innovative ideas for future research.

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since as many as 40-60% of a plant's steam traps may be used on steam tracer lines, it is essential to select the correct, properly sized 'traps'; to optimize the efficient removal of condensate while providing maximum heat transfer to maintain desired product temperatures and greatly reduce steam losses. Factors related to achieving uniform product temperatures and maximum heat transfer rates and energy efficiency are: 1.Types and Methods used for Steam Tracing; 2. Systematic heat balance required to achieve economic tracer lengths; 3. Maximum allowable trapping distance for specific applications 4.Data important to determine condensate loads; 5. Trap selection, sizing, good installation practices, and proper maintenance. Using an engineered approach to steam trapping of trace heating systems have resulted in stable tracer line temperatures while reducing steam consumption 10-50% with minimum maintenance.

Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Implementing Energy Efficiency in Wastewater to Reduce Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the industrial world creating a quality product at minimum cost is the goal. In this environment all expenses are scrutinized, when they are part of the manufacturing process. However, even at the most conscientious facility the wastewater system is often overlooked, just plain accepted as is. At many locations facility personnel are completely unaware of utility costs but more importantly they are not aware of their energy consumption. The Wisconsin Focus on Energy Industrial Program has surveyed and assessed many municipal and industrial wastewater systems across the state, identified opportunities to save energy and assisted in implementing energy efficiency modifications without adversely impacting the quality of the treatment system or the manufacturing process. In many instances not only did the energy efficiency modification result in reduced energy consumption and costs, it also reduced maintenance and down time while improving effluent quality. Most of the opportunities that were implemented were installed while the manufacturing operations remained in operation.

Cantwell, J. C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Building Energy Efficiency Standards in Hong Kong and Mainland China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates building energy efficiency standards in Hong Kong and mainland China. Building energy regulations are placed in the context of broad trends in energy supply and demand, and of energy policy. The paper offers an overview of the requirements of specific energy-efficiency laws and codes for buildings, and discusses how these requirements affect building design. While its fundamental economic policy approach emphasizes free markets and minimum government intervention, Hong Kong has developed building energy codes for commercial and other buildings largely in response to the energy and environmental concerns. Mandatory code for building envelope was enforced since 1995; energy codes for building services were developed and implemented on a voluntary basis in recent years. Performance-based compliance options and better integration of the codes are needed for future development.

Sam C. M. Hui; Grove California

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

An approach for evaluating the market effects of energy efficiency programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy efficiency technology (e.g. , CFL) or practice(s) inefficiency levels to assess market effects, while the CFLCFL programs), through which sales varied widely across the major groups of interest (The Energy Efficiency (

Vine, Edward; Prahl, Ralph; Meyers, Steve; Turiel, Isaac

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Pupillary efficient lighting system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination. 5 figs.

Berman, S.M.; Jewett, D.L.

1989-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

Pupillary efficient lighting system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Jewett, Don L. (Mill Valley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Commit to Efficiency Resource Kit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resource Resource Kit Step 1. Commit to efficiency. Open this resource kit, register your commitment at femp.energy.gov/commit, and review your Commit to Efficiency materials. Step 2. Push for efficiency. Buy and specify energy-efficient products for every purchase. Step 3. Spread the word! Tell your colleagues to commit to efficiency, and ask your suppliers for exclusively energy-efficient products. Commercial Space Heating and Cooling * Boilers p * Central Air Conditioners n * Chillers - Air-Cooled Electric p - Water-Cooled Electric p * Air Source Heat Pumps n Commercial Water Heating * Gas Water Heaters p Residential Space Heating and Cooling

460

Commit to Efficiency Resource Kit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resource Resource Kit Step 1. Commit to efficiency. Open this resource kit, register your commitment at femp.energy.gov/commit, and review your Commit to Efficiency materials. Step 2. Push for efficiency. Buy and specify energy-efficient products for every purchase. Step 3. Spread the word! Tell your colleagues to commit to efficiency, and ask your suppliers for exclusively energy-efficient products. Commercial Space Heating and Cooling * Boilers p * Central Air Conditioners n * Chillers - Air-Cooled Electric p - Water-Cooled Electric p * Air Source Heat Pumps n Commercial Water Heating * Gas Water Heaters p Residential Space Heating and Cooling

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum efficiency levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Economic Development Phase: Create a Vision Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual Website: info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub5501.pdf References: http://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub5501.pdf Logo: State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency.

462

I/o-efficient efficient algorithms for computing contours on a terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A terrain M is the graph of a bivariate function. We assume that M is represented as a triangulated surface with N vertices. A contour (or isoline) of M is a connected component of a level set of M. Generically, each contour is a closed ... Keywords: contours, geographical information systems, i/o-efficient algorithms, terrains

Pankaj K. Agarwal; Lars Arge; Thomas Mlhave; Bardia Sadri

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

New and Underutilized Technology: Bi-level Stairwell Lighting | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stairwell Lighting Stairwell Lighting New and Underutilized Technology: Bi-level Stairwell Lighting October 7, 2013 - 8:53am Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for bi-level stairwell lighting within the Federal sector. Benefits Bi-level stairwell lighting uses integral occupancy sensor motion detectors to monitor the stairwell. When occupancy is detected, the lights go to full level. When the space has been vacated after a programmed period, the fixture goes to a minimum level. Application Bi-level stairwell lighting is applicable in most multi-story buildings. Key Factors for Deployment Bi-level stairwell lighting is a good technology to implement concurrently with an overall building lighting improvement project. Ranking Criteria Federal energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and probability of success are

464

FREQUENCY OF MAUNDER MINIMUM EVENTS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS INFERRED FROM ACTIVITY AND METALLICITY OBSERVATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the common proposition that the fraction of chromospherically very inactive stars in a solar-type sample is analogous to the fraction of the Sun's main-sequence lifetime spent in a grand minimum state. In a new approach to this proposition, we examine chromospheric activity log R'{sub HK} in a stellar sample having Hipparcos parallax measurements, and having spectroscopically determined metallicity close to solar (-0.1 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} 0.1). We evaluate height above the Hipparcos main sequence, and estimate age using isochrones, to identify the most Sun-like stars in this sample. As a threshold below which a star is labeled very inactive, we use the peak of the HK activity distribution mapped over the quiet Sun during the 1968 epoch. We estimate the fraction of Maunder Minimum (MM) analog candidates in our sample at 11.1%. Given the 70 yr duration of the historical MM, this suggests that in any given year there is a 1/630 chance of entering a similar grand minimum. There are three important cautions with this type of estimate. First, recent investigation using actual activity and photometric time series has suggested that very low activity may not be a necessary criterion for identifying a non-cycling MM analog candidate. Second, this type of estimate depends very strongly on the choice of very low activity threshold. Third, in instantaneous measurements of log R'{sub HK}, it is not always clear whether a star is a viable MM analog candidate or merely an older star nearing the end of its main-sequence lifetime.

Lubin, Dan [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0221 (United States); Tytler, David; Kirkman, David [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

465

Searching for the Optimal Mix of Solar and Efficiency in Zero Net Energy Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zero net energy (ZNE) buildings employ efficiency to reduce energy consumption and solar technologies to produce as much energy on site as is consumed on an annual basis. Such buildings leverage utility grids and net-metering agreements to reduce solar system costs and maintenance requirements relative to off-grid photovoltaic (PV)-powered buildings with batteries. The BEopt software was developed to efficiently identify cost-optimal building designs using detailed hour-by-hour energy simulation programs to evaluate the user-selected options. A search technique identifies optimal and near-optimal building designs (based on energy-related costs) at various levels of energy savings along the path from a reference building to a ZNE design. In this paper, we describe results based on use of the BEopt software to develop cost-optimal paths to ZNE for various climates. Comparing the different cases shows optimal building design characteristics, percent energy savings and cash flows at key points along the path, including the point at which investments shift from building improvements to purchasing PV, and PV array sizes required to achieve ZNE. From optimizations using the BEopt software for a 2,000-ft{sup 2} house in 4 climates, we conclude that, relative to a code-compliant (IECC 2006) reference house, the following are achievable: (1) minimum cost point: 22 to 38% source energy savings and 15 to 24% annual cash flow savings; (2) PV start point: 40 to 49% source energy savings at 10 to 12% annual cash flow savings; (3) break-even point: 43 to 53% source energy savings at 0% annual cash flow savings; and (4) ZNE point: 100% source energy savings with 4.5 to 8.1 kW{sub DC} PV arrays and 76 to 169% increase in cash flow.

Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Replacing nominal efficient electrical motors with premium efficiency can save on electrical power costs in cotton gins. Connected horsepower load on industrial air fans is approximately 60% of the total horsepower in a typical cotton gin. By replacing old inefficient centrifugal fans with new higher efficiency fans, additional power savings can be achieved.

Breedlove, C. W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or contact the utility directly. Water Heaters: .94 EF minimum Air-Source Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 8.5 HSPF minimum Geothermal Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 4.2 COP minimum Refrigerator: Must be...

468

Black Hills Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of no more than 4,500 watts at Water Heaters: .94 EF minimum Air-Source Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 8.5 HSPF minimum Geothermal Heat Pump: 15 SEER, 4.2 COP minimum Refrigerator: Must be...

469

Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

470

Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CFL technology has matured, CFL efficiency levels have beenthe CFL standards and labeling programs, energy efficiencyto bare bulb CFL. Comparison of Energy Efficiency Values In

Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Refines Efficiency Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

WRI

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resources » Energy Resource Library » Energy Efficiency Resources » Energy Resource Library » Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency Below are resources for Tribes on energy efficiency. Energy Efficiency Opportunities at USDA Provides an overview of the various programs at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) that address energy use in rural America. The paper examines changes to existing energy efficiency programs proposed in both the House and Senate versions of the Farm Bill, and offers a set of recommendations to make energy efficiency resources at USDA more accessible. Source: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Energy Planning: A Guide for Northwest Indian Tribes Information and resources to help Tribes select, implement, and finance projects that conserve energy, generate renewable energy, construct and

473

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficient, Summer-Friendly Appliances If you're interested in looking for big energy efficiency purchases, here's a guide to help you get started. June 2, 2009 Secretary Chu...

474

Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency From the incandescent to CFLs to LEDs, we're exploring the long history of the light bulb and...

475

Energy efficiency in office technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis, directed toward a wide variety of persons interested in energy efficiency issues with office technology, explores several issues relating to reducing energy use and improving energy efficiency of office ...

Dandridge, Cyane Bemiss

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

energy efficiency | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Keywords air conditioners cooling capacity EER energy efficiency Energy Efficiency Ratio room air conditioners Data applicationvnd.ms-excel icon brand.xls (xls, 122.9 KiB)...

477

Bifacial Efficiency at Monofacial Cost  

solar cells; photovoltaics; PV; bifacial efficiency; Monofacial Cost, Bifacial Cells; bifacial Modules; industry growth forum; gamma solar Created ...

478

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using ...  

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using Superhydrophobic (SH) Technology Evaporative desalination is a simple and easy way to convert salt ...

479

Transportation Energy-Efficiency Workshop  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Notes on the Energy Information Administration's summary session on Transportation Sector Energy-Efficiency Workshop on March 21, 1996

480

Energy Efficiency Financing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

D. Peterson, President and CEO D. Peterson, President and CEO Center for Climate Strategies Climate Economy Energy May 6, 2011 www.climatestrategies.us 2 STATE CLIMATE PLANS JOBS, INCOME, GSP May 6, 2011 www.climatestrategies.us 3 North Carolina Macroeconomic (Income) Impact Analysis of Residential, Commercial and Industrial EE Options State Climate Action Plans Include DSM, Building Codes, Appliance Standards, and Other EE Programs  Community Energy Loan Program  State Agency Loan Program (SALP)  Maryland Strategic Energy Investment Fund  Green Building Income Tax Credit  Change a Light program  Home Performance with ENERGY STAR  Weatherization Program low income energy efficiency improvements  Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing  Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit

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