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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Minimum explanation complexity for MOD based visual concept detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visual concept detection in images has been a challenging task for many years. The recently proposed MIRFLICKR-25000 dataset has set the standards even higher as the wide variety of images and annotations require new techniques to tackle the visual concept ... Keywords: feature extraction, local distinctiveness, salient points, visual concept detection

Ard Oerlemans; Michael S. Lew

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more ...

Régnier, S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We investigate the values of the free magnetic energy estimated from either the excess energy in extrapolated fields or the magnetic virial theorem. For four different active regions, we have reconstructed the nonlinear force-free field and the linear force-free field corresponding to the minimum-energy state. The free magnetic energies are then computed. From the energy budget and the observed magnetic activity in the active region, we conclude that the free energy above the minimum-energy state gives a better estimate and more insights into the flare process than the free energy above the potential field state.

S. Regnier; E. R. Priest

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

4

FREQUENCY OF MAUNDER MINIMUM EVENTS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS INFERRED FROM ACTIVITY AND METALLICITY OBSERVATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the common proposition that the fraction of chromospherically very inactive stars in a solar-type sample is analogous to the fraction of the Sun's main-sequence lifetime spent in a grand minimum state. In a new approach to this proposition, we examine chromospheric activity log R'{sub HK} in a stellar sample having Hipparcos parallax measurements, and having spectroscopically determined metallicity close to solar (-0.1 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} 0.1). We evaluate height above the Hipparcos main sequence, and estimate age using isochrones, to identify the most Sun-like stars in this sample. As a threshold below which a star is labeled very inactive, we use the peak of the HK activity distribution mapped over the quiet Sun during the 1968 epoch. We estimate the fraction of Maunder Minimum (MM) analog candidates in our sample at 11.1%. Given the 70 yr duration of the historical MM, this suggests that in any given year there is a 1/630 chance of entering a similar grand minimum. There are three important cautions with this type of estimate. First, recent investigation using actual activity and photometric time series has suggested that very low activity may not be a necessary criterion for identifying a non-cycling MM analog candidate. Second, this type of estimate depends very strongly on the choice of very low activity threshold. Third, in instantaneous measurements of log R'{sub HK}, it is not always clear whether a star is a viable MM analog candidate or merely an older star nearing the end of its main-sequence lifetime.

Lubin, Dan [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0221 (United States); Tytler, David; Kirkman, David [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

5

Trend Detection in Regional-Mean Temperature Series: Maximum, Minimum, Mean, Diurnal Range, and SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional climate trends are of interest both for understanding natural climate processes and as tests of anthropogenic climate change signatures. Relative to global trends, however, their detection is hampered by smaller datasets and the ...

Xiaogu Zheng; Reid E. Basher; Craig S. Thompson

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Detecting active comets with SDSS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /MIT, MKI; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Princeton U. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Radiation Detection for Active Interrogation of HEU  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted by active interrogation of HEU, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in Sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. All but one of the measurement methods detect radiation emitted by induced fission in the HEU; the exception utilizes nuclear resonance fluorescence. The brief descriptions are supplemented by references. This report presents some active interrogation possibilities but the status of understanding is not advanced enough to select particular methods. Additional research is needed to evaluate these possibilities.

Mihalczo, J.T.

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

8

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÃ?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

9

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma Migration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma Migration Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma Migration And Eruption At Mt Etna (Sicily, Italy) Before The 2001 And 2002-2003 Eruptions Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Multidisciplinary Approach To Detect Active Pathways For Magma Migration And Eruption At Mt Etna (Sicily, Italy) Before The 2001 And 2002-2003 Eruptions Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Two strong flank eruptions occurred in July-August 2001 and from late October 2002 to late January 2003 at Mt. Etna volcano. The two eruptions mainly involved the upper southern flank of the volcano, a particularly active area during the last 30 years, damaging several tourist facilities and threatening some villages. The composite eruptive activity

10

Identification of active users in synchronous CDMA multiuser detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The level of multiple access interference (MAI) in code division multiple access (CDMA) communication systems is a time-varying parameter related to the number of active users. Almost all existing multiuser detection schemes were designed based on a ...

Wei-Chiang Wu; Kwang-Cheng Chen

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Minimum Changeover Cost Arborescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

having minimum changeover cost, a cost that we now describe. ... We define the changeover cost at j, denoted by d(j), as the sum of the costs at j paid for each of  ...

12

Minimum Magnetic Energy Theorem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Thomson's Theorem states that static charge distributions in conductors show up at the conducting surfaces in an equipotential configuration, so that the electrostatic energy is a minimum. In this work we study an analogue statement for magnetic systems: in a given set of conductors, the stored magnetic field energy reaches the minimum value for superficial current distributions so that the magnetic vector potential is tangent to the conductors surfaces. This is the counterpart of Thomson's theorem for the magnetic field.

Fiolhais, M C N

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay  

SciTech Connect

The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques  

SciTech Connect

Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities  

SciTech Connect

Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, K. B. (Kori Budlong); Stanbro, W. D. (William D.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Minimum Price Contract  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A minimum price contract is one of many tools a marketer may use to better manage price and production risk while trying to achieve financial goals and objectives. This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages involved in this marketing program and the situations when it can be used.

Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Welch, Mark; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

Minimum Cost Arborescences ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we analyze the cost allocation problem when a group of agents or nodes have to be connected to a source, and where the cost matrix describing the cost of connecting each pair of agents is not necessarily symmetric, thus extending the well-studied problem of minimum cost spanning tree games, where the costs are assumed to be symmetric. The focus is on rules which satisfy axioms representing incentive and fairness properties. We show that while some results are similar, there are also significant differences between the frameworks corresponding to symmetric and asymmetric cost matrices.

Bhaskar Dutta; Debasis Mishra; We Thank Daniel Granot; Anirban Kar; Herve Moulin For Comments

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Minimum Description Length Model Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Description Length Model Selection Problems and Extensions Steven de Rooij #12;#12;Minimum Description Length Model Selection Problems and Extensions #12;ILLC Dissertation Series DS-2008-07 For further-mail: illc@science.uva.nl homepage: http://www.illc.uva.nl/ #12;Minimum Description Length Model Selection

19

Quantum games and minimum entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyze Nash's equilibrium (maximum utility MU) and its relations with the order state(minimum entropy ME). I introduce the concept of minimum entropy as a paradigm of both Nash-Hayek's equilibrium. The ME concept is related to Quantum Games. ...

Edward Jiménez

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

March 2006 MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 200 APPROVED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE MINIMUM SECURITY REQUIREMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Do We Know of Any Maunder Minimum Stars?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most stars previously identified as Maunder minimum stars are old stars evolved off of the main sequence. Analysis of activity measurements from the California and Carnegie Planet Search program stars and Hipparcos parallaxes implies that the canonical age-chromospheric activity relation breaks down for stars older than $\\sim 6$ Gyr when activity is calculated from Mount Wilson S values. Stars only 1 magnitude above the main sequence exhibit significantly suppressed activity levels which have been mistaken for examples of Maunder minimum behavior.

Jason T. Wright

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Minimum Gas Service Standards (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Natural gas companies in Ohio are required to follow the Minimum Gas Service Standards, which are set and enforced by the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. These rules are found in chapter 4901...

23

Editorial: Occupation inference through detection and classification of biographical activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dealing with biographical information (e.g., biography generation, answering biography-related questions, etc.) requires the identification of important activities in the life of the individual in question. While there are activities that can be used ... Keywords: Biography information, Occupation classification

Elena Filatova; John Prager

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Activity detection for information access to oral communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oral communication is ubiquitous and carries important information yet it is also time consuming to document. Given the development of storage media and networks one could just record and store a conversation for documentation. The question is, however, ... Keywords: activity, dialogue processing, information access, oral communication, speech

Klaus Ries; Alex Waibel

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Credible Research Designs for Minimum Wage Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credible Research Designs for Minimum Wage Studies SylviaWe assess alternative research designs for minimum wageAllegretto: Institute for Research on Labor and Employment,

Allegretto, Sylvia; Dube, Arindrajit; Reich, Michael; Zipperer, Ben

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for...

27

Optimal time-resource allocation for activity-detection via multimodal sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimal allocation of measurements for activity-level detection in a wireless body area network (WBAN) for health-monitoring applications is considered. The WBAN with heterogeneous sensors is deployed in a simple star topology with the fusion center ...

Gautam Thatte; Viktor Rozgic; Ming Li; Sabyasachi Ghosh; Urbashi Mitra; Shri Narayanan; Murali Annavaram; Donna Spruijt-Metz

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

What Solar Oscillation Tell us About the Solar Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of continuous helioseismic data for two consecutive solar minima has provided a unique opportunity to study the changes in the solar interior that might have led to this unusual minimum. We present preliminary analysis of inter mediate-degree mode frequencies in the 3 mHz band during the current period of minimal solar activity and show that the mode frequencies are significantly lower than those during the previous activity minimum. Our analysis do not show any signature of the beginning of cycle 24 till the end of 2008. In addition, the zonal and meridional flow patterns inferred from inverting frequencies also hint for a delayed onset of a new cycle. The estimates of travel time are higher than the previous minimum confirming a relatively weak solar activity during the current minimum.

Jain, Kiran; Burtseva, O; Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Kholikov, S; Komm, R; Leibacher, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

31

Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

32

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity / minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero forcing set. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number Z_+(G) is introduced, and shown to be equal to |G|-OS(G), where OS(G) is the recently defined ordered set number that is a lower bound for minimum positive semidefinite rank. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number is applied to the computation of positive semidefinite minimum rank of certain graphs. An example of a graph for which the real positive symmetric semidefinite minimum rank is greater than the complex Hermitian positive semidefinite minimum rank is presented.

Barioli, Francesco; Fallat, Shaun M; Hall, H Tracy; Hogben, Leslie; Shader, Bryan; Driessche, P van den; van der Holst, Hein

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Active detection of shielded SNM with 60-keV neutrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fissile materials, e.g. {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, can be detected non-invasively by active neutron interrogation. A unique characteristic of fissile material exposed to neutrons is the prompt emission of high-energy (fast) fission neutrons. One promising mode of operation subjects the object to a beam of medium-energy (epithermal) neutrons, generated by a proton beam impinging on a Li target. The emergence of fast secondary neutrons then clearly indicates the presence of fissile material. Our interrogation system comprises a low-dose 60-keV neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 6}/s), and a 1 m{sup 2} array of scintillators for fast neutron detection. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the detectability of small quantities (370 g) of HEU shielded by steel (200 g/cm{sup 2}) or plywood (30 g/cm{sup 2}), with a typical measurement time of 1 min.

Hagmann, C; Dietrich, D; Hall, J; Kerr, P; Nakae, L; Newby, R; Rowland, M; Snyderman, N; Stoeffl, W

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

35

Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cape Charles - STIP Minimum Sustainability Requirements (Virginia...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cape Charles - STIP Minimum Sustainability Requirements (Virginia) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as...

37

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one… (more)

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY...

40

ATLAS measurements of minimum bias and soft QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first measurements of charged particle production in proton?proton collisions at center?of?mass energy s ?=?900? GeV and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Minimum bias distributions are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |?| 500? MeV and compared with the predictions from various Monte Carlo models. Activity in the underlying event was measured with respect to the highest p T track in the event. Both the minimum bias and underlying event measurements are fully corrected for detector effects to obtain distributions at the hadron level.

Maaike Limper; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Minimum weight perfect matching in O(1) parallel time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider a 2-D square array of qubits of infinite extent. We provide a formal proof that the infinite size minimum weight perfect matching problem associated with running a particular class of topological quantum error correction codes on this array can be exactly solved with a corresponding infinite 2-D square array of classical computing devices in constant average time per round of error detection provided physical error rates are below fixed nonzero values, and other physically reasonable assumptions.

Austin G. Fowler

2013-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

42

Stochastic Variational Approach to Minimum Uncertainty States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.

F. Illuminati; L. Viola

1995-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

A New Minimum Temperature Record for Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minimum temperature of ?31°F (?35°C) was recorded at Nowata, Oklahoma, on 10 February 2011. This exceeded the previous record minimum temperature for Oklahoma of ?27°F (?32.8°C). The Nowata station is in the Oklahoma Mesonet network. High pressure was ...

Gary McManus; Thomas W. Schmidlin; Christopher A. Fiebrich

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Californium-252 in situ activation and photon detection techniques for uranium ore deposit evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Four different techniques are evaluated for borehole analysis of uranium and thorium ores. Methods involving (1) detection of fission product photons following /sup 252/Cf activation, (2) detection of low-energy uranium and thorium gamma-rays, (3) direct measurement of the 1001-keV photon from /sup 234m/Pa, a progeny of /sup 238/U, and (4) isotopic excitation x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are evaluated. The first two techniques are found too unsuitable for most low grade ores. The third is found to be suitable for the in-situ analysis of uranium ores only, and the fourth method is shown to be a superior, cost effective method for both uranium and thorium ore analysis.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

46

Parabolic equations without a minimum principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we consider several parabolic equations for which the minimum principle fails. We first consider a two-point boundary value problem for a one dimensional diffusion equation. We show the uniqueness and ...

Pang, Huadong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

An active system for the detection of special fissile material in small watercraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to increasing terrorist threats and illegal proliferation of nuclear material and technology, there is a need for increased research in the area of detection of smuggled fissile material, some of which is designated by the International Atomic Energy Agency as special fissile material. This thesis focuses on a hypothetical scenario in which a terrorist organization has managed to smuggle an amount of special fissile material onto a personal recreational watercraft and sail it into a marina. If the boat could be forced to go through a detector system, then the contents could be interrogated and a determination made of whether any special fissile material was aboard. This thesis examines the hypothesis that active interrogation may be used successfully in the detection of special fissile material in such an environment. It shows that it is feasible to use an active neutron system to detect a significant quantity of special fissile material onboard a small boat via the differential dieaway technique. The MCNP Monte Carlo transport code was used to simulate the use of a pulsed neutron generator to induce fission in the fissile material and then estimate the detector response. The detector modeled was based on elastic scattering-induced recoil protons using pure hydrogen gas. There was a significant difference between the system with and without the presence of fissile material, and the estimated detector response for the system with fissile material present was shown to be sufficiently greater than the response due to background radiation only. Additionally, dose was estimated and found to be small enough that the system would not likely pose a significant radiological health risk to passengers on the boat.

Johansen, Norman Alfan, III

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A framework for activity detection in wide-area motion imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wide-area persistent imaging systems are becoming increasingly cost effective and now large areas of the earth can be imaged at relatively high frame rates (1-2 fps). The efficient exploitation of the large geo-spatial-temporal datasets produced by these systems poses significant technical challenges for image and video analysis and data mining. In recent years there has been significant progress made on stabilization, moving object detection and tracking and automated systems now generate hundreds to thousands of vehicle tracks from raw data, with little human intervention. However, the tracking performance at this scale, is unreliable and average track length is much smaller than the average vehicle route. This is a limiting factor for applications which depend heavily on track identity, i.e. tracking vehicles from their points of origin to their final destination. In this paper we propose and investigate a framework for wide-area motion imagery (W AMI) exploitation that minimizes the dependence on track identity. In its current form this framework takes noisy, incomplete moving object detection tracks as input, and produces a small set of activities (e.g. multi-vehicle meetings) as output. The framework can be used to focus and direct human users and additional computation, and suggests a path towards high-level content extraction by learning from the human-in-the-loop.

Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morrison, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Minimum error discrimination of Pauli channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve the problem of discriminating with minimum error probability two given Pauli channels. We show that, differently from the case of discrimination between unitary transformations, the use of entanglement with an ancillary system can strictly improve the discrimination, and any maximally entangled state allows to achieve the optimal discrimination. We also provide a simple necessary and sufficient condition in terms of the structure of the channels for which the ultimate minimum error probability can be achieved without entanglement assistance. When such a condition is satisfied, the optimal input state is simply an eigenstate of one of the Pauli matrices.

Massimiliano F. Sacchi

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

50

DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: MINIMUM CORE COMPETENCY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS DOE CYBER SECURITY EBK: CORE COMPETENCY...

51

Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minimum Efficiency Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories

52

An active islanding detection method for small-scale distributed generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new islanding detection method for use in a small-scale, grid-interconnected distributed generator system. The proposed islanding detection method is based on voltage fluctuation injection, which can be obtained through high-impedance ... Keywords: correlation factor, distributed generator, islanding detection, voltage fluctuation injection

Wen-Yeau Chang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Positron emission mammography (PEM): Effect of activity concentration, object size, and object contrast on phantom lesion detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To characterize the relationship between lesion detection sensitivity and injected activity as a function of lesion size and contrast on the PEM (positron emission mammography) Flex Solo II scanner using phantom experiments. Methods: Phantom lesions (spheres 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mm diameter) were randomly located in uniform background. Sphere activity concentrations were 3 to 21 times the background activity concentration (BGc). BGc was a surrogate for injected activity; BGc ranged from 0.44-4.1 kBq/mL, corresponding to 46-400 MBq injections. Seven radiologists read 108 images containing zero, one, or two spheres. Readers used a 5-point confidence scale to score the presence of spheres. Results: Sensitivity was 100% for lesions {>=}12 mm under all conditions except for one 12 mm sphere with the lowest contrast and lowest BGc (60% sensitivity). Sensitivity was 100% for 8 mm spheres when either contrast or BGc was high, and 100% for 4 mm spheres only when both contrast and BGc were highest. Sphere contrast recovery coefficients (CRC) were 49%, 34%, 26%, 14%, and 2.8% for the largest to smallest spheres. Cumulative specificity was 98%. Conclusions: Phantom lesion detection sensitivity depends more on sphere size and contrast than on BGc. Detection sensitivity remained {>=}90% for injected activities as low as 100 MBq, for lesions {>=}8 mm. Low CRC in 4 mm objects results in moderate detection sensitivity even for 400 MBq injected activity, making it impractical to optimize injected activity for such lesions. Low CRC indicates that when lesions <8 mm are observed on PEM images they are highly tracer avid with greater potential of clinical significance. High specificity (98%) suggests that image statistical noise does not lead to false positive findings. These results apply to the 85 mm thick object used to obtain them; lesion detectability should be better (worse) for thinner (thicker) objects based on the reduced (increased) influence of photon attenuation.

MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Wang, Carolyn L.; Eissa, Marna; Haseley, David; Kelly, Mary M.; Liu, Franklin; Parikh, Jay R.; Beatty, J. David; Rogers, James V. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 and Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States); Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Detecting Intrusive Activity in the Smart Grid Communications Infrastructure Using Self-Organizing Maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Smart Grid Infrastructure (SGI) provides for sustainable, affordable and uninterrupted electricity supply to consumers. The communications infrastructure of the SGI is prone to several malicious attacks identified in the recent past. Customer-specific ... Keywords: Smart Grid Communications, Anomaly Detection, Self-Organizing Maps, Intrusion Detection

Zubair Ahmed Baig, Saif Ahmad, Sadiq Mohammed Sait

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Reliability testing of active SDHW components. Part III. Development of a fault detection system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a fault detection system developed for solar domestic hot water systems that will assist the homeowner and repairman in detecting major operational faults with the system. A study by the Florida Solar Energy Center showed that most homeowners were unaware of how well their systems were operating. With this need in mind, we developed a system that will detect and display circulation failures, nighttime circulation, freeze protection failure, and overheating protection failure. Cost of the unit using retail prices for components is less than $55.00 (1985 $), excluding the sensors. Fault detection systems are necessary, since it is difficult for homeowners to know the status of their system. Our device is sufficiently developed for industry to use, although further development of some of the sensors and some cost reduction is necessary.

Farrington, R.B.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Theory of Magnetic Detection of the Heart's Electrical Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The currents set up in the chest by the electromotive forces of the heart produce magnetic fields at the chest surface which have a peak intensity of about one microgauss. To detect these fields

Gerhard Baule; Richard McFee

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Minimum wear tube support hole design  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimum-wear through-bore (16) is defined within a heat exchanger tube support plate (14) so as to have an hourglass configuration as determined by means of a constant radiused surface curvature (18) as defined by means of an external radius (R3), wherein the surface (18) extends between the upper surface (20) and lower surface (22) of the tube support plate (14). When a heat exchange tube (12) is disposed within the tube support plate (14) so as to pass through the through-bore (16), the heat exchange tube (12) is always in contact with a smoothly curved or radiused portion of the through-bore surface (16) whereby unacceptably excessive wear upon the heat exchange tube (12), as normally developed by means of sharp edges, lands, ridges, or the like conventionally part of the tube support plates, is eliminated or substantially reduced.

Glatthorn, Raymond H. (St. Petersburg, FL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Geometric Complexity and Minimum Description Length Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The question of how one should decide among competing explanations of data is at the heart of the scientific enterprise. Quantitative methods of selecting among models have been advanced over the years without an underlying theoretical framework to guide the enterprise and evaluate new developments. In this paper, we show that differential geometry provides a unified understanding of the model selection problem. Foremost among its contributions is a reconceptualization of the problem as one of counting probability distributions. This reconceptualization naturally leads to development of a "geometric" complexity measure, which turns out to be equal to the Minimum Description Length (MDL) complexity measure Rissanen (1996) recently proposed. We demonstrate an application of the geometric complexity measure to model selection in cognitive psychology, with models of cognitive modeling in three different areas (psychophysics, information integration, categorization).

In Jae Myung; Shaobo Zhang; Mark A. Pitt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A Novel Technique for Improving Hardware Trojan Detection and Reducing Trojan Activation Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transitions in the circuit would be attributed to state bits and it is expected that activities converge or more transitions inside Trojan circuit so that it improves the effectiveness of transient power of nets with low transition rate, we will eliminate hard-to-activate sites in a design. This would result

Plusquellic, James

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A cost-based analysis of intrusion detection system configuration under active or passive response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the joint decisions of IDS configuration and alarm investigation capacity under active and passive responses. In active response, alarm events are blocked immediately, whereas alarm events are allowed to access the information assets ... Keywords: IDS configuration, Information security, Intrusion response, Investigation capacity

Wei T. Yue; Metin Çakany?ld?r?m

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Detection of frozen salt in pipes using gamma-ray spectrometry of potassium self-activity  

SciTech Connect

Solar plants that use molten salts as heat transfer fluid need careful control to avoid the freezing of the salt in the pipes; if such a problem occurs, a diagnostic instrument to localize where is the frozen salt plug and to determine its length is useful. If the salt contains potassium (as is the case of the most common mixture used in solar plants, NaNO{sub 3}/KNO{sub 3} 60/40% by weight), the gamma decay of the natural unstable isotope {sup 40}K can be exploited to detect the frozen salt in a non-invasive way. Simulations and experimental results regarding the detectability of such plugs with different masses/lengths are presented. (author)

Grena, Roberto; Scafe, Raffaele; Pisacane, Fabrizio; Pilato, Renzo; Crescenzi, Tommaso; Mazzei, Domenico [ENEA, Casaccia Research Centre, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Building Information Modeling - A Minimum Mathematical Configuration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current context, the standardization of building construction is not limited to a specific country or to a specific building code. Trade globalization has emphasized the need for standardization in the process of exchange of design information, whether it is in the form of drawings or documents. Building Information Modeling is the latest transformational technology that supports interactive development of design information for buildings. No single Building Information Modeling software package is used in the Architecture Engineering Construction and Facilities Management industries, which is strength as new ideas develop, but a hindrance as the new ideas flow at a different pace into the various programs. The standards divergence of various software results in a limited ability to exchange data between and within projects, especially one sees the difficulty in moving data from one program to another. The Document eXchange File format represents an early attempt to standardize the exchange of drawing information by Autodesk. However, the data was limited to geometric data required for the production of plotted drawings. Metadata in a Building Information Model provides a method to add information to the basic geometric configuration provided in a Document eXchange File. Building Information Model programs use data structures to define smart objects that encapsulate building data in a searchable and robust format. Due to the complexity of building designs eXtensible Markup Language schemas of three dimensional models are often large files that can contain considerable amounts of superfluous information. The aim of this research is to exclude all the superfluous information from the design information and determine the absolute minimum information required to execute the construction of a project. A plain concrete beam element was used as the case study for this research. The results show that a minimal information schema can be developed for a simple building element. Further research is required on more complex elements.

Bhandare, Ruchika

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Impact of CIR Storms on Thermosphere Density Variability during the Solar Minimum of 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar minimum of 2008 was exceptionally quiet, with sunspot numbers at their lowest in 75 years. During this unique solar minimum epoch, however, solar wind high - speed streams emanating from near-equatorial coronal holes occurred frequently and were the primary contributor to the recurrent geomagnetic activity at Earth. These conditions enabled the isolation of forcing by geomagnetic activity on the preconditioned solar minimum state of the upper atmosphere caused by Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs). Thermosphere density observations around 400 km from the CHAMP satellite are used to study the thermosphere density response to solar wind high - speed streams/CIRs. Superposed epoch results show that thermosphere density responds to high - speed streams globally, and the density at 400 km changes by 75% on average. The relative changes of neutral density are comparable at different latitudes, although its variability is largest at high latitudes. In addition, the response of thermosphere density to hi...

Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; McPherron, Robert L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports  

SciTech Connect

This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

Jones, C.G.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors Minimum Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors October 7, 2013 - 11:28am Addthis Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors. As a result of this increase in mandatory minimum standards and combined with the lack of significant availability of motors exceeding these standards, FEMP is suspending the purchasing specification for electric motors. Federal buyers may select for purchase any motor that meets design requirements.

68

Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) Hazardous Waste Minimum Distance Requirements (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set minimum distance requirements between certain types of facilities that generate, process, store, and dispose of hazardous waste

69

Minimum Concave Cost Flow Over a Grid Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 12, 2012 ... Abstract The minimum concave cost network flow problem ... a grid network with a general nonnegative separable concave cost function.

70

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 11, 2010 ... Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents. Claudia Marini( nicosia ***at*** dia.uniroma3.it) Gaia Nicosia(nicosia ***at*** ...

71

Minimum Concave Cost Flow Over a Grid Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 12, 2012 ... Abstract: The minimum concave cost network flow problem (MCCNFP) is NP- hard, but efficient polynomial-time algorithms exist for some ...

72

Minimum cost subset selection with two competing agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

do not require qualified personnel, or when internal costs proportional to skills are incurred .... In conclusion, we tackle four different versions of the minimum cost ...

73

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to...

74

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

75

Study on optimal train movement for minimum energy consumption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The presented thesis project is a study on train energy consumption calculation and optimal train driving strategies for minimum energy consumption. This study is… (more)

Gkortzas, Panagiotis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performanc...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts Title Estimate of...

77

An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 20, 2008 ... Abstract: The Minimum Capacity s-t Cut Problem (Min Cut) is an intensively studied problem in combinatorial optimization. In this paper, we ...

78

Optimization Online - Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 28, 2007 ... Guaranteed Minimum-Rank Solutions of Linear Matrix Equations via Nuclear Norm Minimization. Benjamin Recht(brecht ***at*** caltech.edu)

79

On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 18, 2010 ... On the complexity of maximizing the minimum Shannon capacity in wireless networks by joint channel assignment and power allocation.

80

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR on geomagnetic activity, quantified by the maximum hourly Dst and tri-hourly ap indices, in a period of 3 days after the shock, are evaluated. Correlations between shock parameters and Dst and ap geomagnetic indices

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

82

activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Variable in an Experiment Submitted by Anita Brook-Dupree, 1996 TRAC teacher at Fermilab, Teacher, Alternative Middle Years School, Philadelphia, PA. Particle physicists at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois are faced with the problem of detecting the presence of sub-atomic particles they cannot see. During my summer as a TRAC teacher at Fermilab, I tried to think of ways to teach middle school students about things we cannot see. I want to thank my nine-year-old daughter Gia for the idea for the following activity. I was lamenting that I could not come up with ideas of how to relate the work of Fermilab scientists to anything that my students would understand. Then I was reminded by my daughter, that when I brought her to school on the

83

Design and operation specifications of an active monitoring system for detecting southern resident killer whales  

SciTech Connect

Before final approval is given to the Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 for deploying the first tidal power devices in the United States in an open water environment, a system to manage the potential risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades must be demonstrated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with establishing the performance requirements for, constructing, and testing a prototype marine animal alert system for triggering temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision with a killer whale. To develop a system that relies on active sonar two critical areas must be investigated - the target strength of killer whales and the frequency content of commercially available active sonar units. PNNL studied three target strength models: a simple model, the Fourier matching model, and the Kirchoff-ray mode model. Using target strength measurements of bottlenose dolphins obtained by previous researchers and assuming killer whales share similar morphology and structure, PNNL extrapolated the target strength of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at a frequency of 67 kHz. To study the frequency content of a commercially available sonar unit, direct measurements of the signal transmitted by the sonar were obtained by using a hydrophone connected to a data acquisition system in both laboratory and field conditions. The measurements revealed that in addition to the primary frequency of 200 kHz, there is a secondary frequency component at 90 kHz, which is within the hearing range of killer whales. The amplitude of the 90-kHz frequency component is above the hearing threshold of killer whales but below the threshold for potential injuries.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Myers, Joshua R.; Jones, Mark E.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Theoretical Minimum Energy Use of a Building HVAC System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the theoretical minimum energy use required by the HVAC system in a particular code compliant office building. This limit might be viewed as the "Carnot Efficiency" for HVAC system. It assumes that all ventilation and air conditioning in the building are provided using the minimum energy value that does not violate physical law.

Tanskyi, O.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Characterization of imaging phone cameras using minimum description length principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach for the characterization of a mobile phone's color camera is presented. The use of high-order polynomials, Fourier sine series, and artificial neural networks (ANN) for solving this problem ... Keywords: artificial neural network, high-order polynomial, imaging mobile phone, minimum description length

Adrian Burian; Aki Happonen; Mihaela Cirlugea

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem Department of Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem M. Chyba Department of Mathematics 2565 McCarthy Mall for a class of underwater vehicles. We focus on the situation of initial and final configurations at rest In this paper we pursue the analysis of the minimum time problem for a special class of underwater vehicles, see

Sontag, Eduardo

87

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem Department of Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underwater vehicles: The minimum time problem M. Chyba Department of Mathematics 2565 McCarthy Mall for a class of underwater vehicles. We focus on the situation of initial and final configurations at rest the analysis of the minimum time problem for a special class of underwater vehicles, see [5], [6] for previous

Sussmann, Hector

88

Short title: STOCHASTIC VARIATIONAL APPROACH TO MINIMUM UNCERTAINTY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schrödinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. PACS numbers:03.65.-w, 03.65.Ca, 03.65.Bz 1.

Fabrizio Illuminati; Lorenza Viola

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Detection of Anomalous Reactor Activity Using Antineutrino Count Rate Evolution Over the Course of a Reactor Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard 'baseline' fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 73 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be expected by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient daily antineutrino count rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

Vera Bulaevskaya; Adam Bernstein

2010-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field  

SciTech Connect

Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

SATURATION LEVELS FOR WHITE-LIGHT FLARES OF FLARE STARS: VARIATION OF MINIMUM FLARE DURATION FOR SATURATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Taking into account results obtained from models and from statistical analyses of obtained parameters, we discuss flare activity levels and flare characteristics of five UV Ceti stars. We present the parameters of unpublished flares detected over two years of observations of V1005 Ori. We compare parameters of the U-band flares detected over several seasons of observations of AD Leo, EV Lac, EQ Peg, V1054 Oph, and V1005 Ori. Flare frequencies calculated for all program stars and maximum energy levels of the flares are compared, and we consider which is the most correct parameter as an indicator of flare activity levels. Using the One Phase Exponential Association function, the distributions of flare equivalent duration versus flare total duration are modeled for each program star. We use the Independent Samples t-Test in the statistical analyses of the parameters obtained from the models. The results reveal some properties of flare processes occurring on the surfaces of UV Ceti type stars. (1) Flare energies cannot be higher than a specific value regardless of the length of the flare total duration. This must be a saturation level for white-light flares occurring in flare processes observed in the U band. Thus, for the first time it is shown that white-light flares have a saturation in a specific energy range. (2) The span values, which are the difference between the equivalent durations of flares with the shortest and longest total durations, are almost equal for each star. (3) The half-life values, minimum flare durations for saturation, increase toward the later spectral types. (4) Both maximum total durations and maximum rise times computed from the observed flares decrease toward the later spectral types among the UV Ceti stars. According to the maximum energy levels obtained from the models, both EV Lac and EQ Peg are more active than the other three program stars, while AD Leo is the most active flare star according to the flare frequencies.

Dal, H. A.; Evren, S., E-mail: ali.dal@ege.edu.tr [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Ege, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) Rules Establishing Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations

93

LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES AT THE MINIMUM OF THE 23rd SOLAR CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

Low- and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from 2006 September 21, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, to 2009 June 26, CR 2084) were analyzed using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of +-40{sup 0} around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620 +- 40 km s{sup -1}. The three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the global magnetic field of the Sun possessed a multi-pole structure during this time period. Calculation of the harmonic power spectrum of the solar magnetic field demonstrates a greater prevalence of multi-pole components over the dipole component in the 2007 solar minimum compared to the 1996 solar minimum. The unusual large separation between the dipole and multi-pole components is due to the very low magnitude of the dipole component, which is three times lower than that in the previous 1996 solar minimum.

Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Linker, Jon; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Luhmann, Janet; Lee, Christina O. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Trends of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in Northern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of testing the homogeneity of the basic data used in this study, that is, the mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature (as derived from daily observations) of several long-term climatological stations of ...

Ramon A. Quintana-Gomez

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Theory and Applications of the Minimum Spanning Tree Rank Histogram  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minimum spanning tree (MST) rank histogram (RH) is a multidimensional ensemble reliability verification tool. The construction of debiased, decorrelated, and covariance-homogenized MST RHs is described. Experiments using Euclidean L2, variance, ...

Daniel Gombos; James A. Hansen; Jun Du; Jeff McQueen

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Selection of minimum earthquake intensity in calculating pipe failure probabilities  

SciTech Connect

In a piping reliability analysis, it is sometimes necessary to specify a minimum ground motion intensity, usually the peak acceleration, below which the ground motions are not considered as earthquakes and, hence, are neglected. The calculated probability of failure of a piping system is dependent on this selected minimum earthquake intensity chosen for the analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effects of the minimum earthquake intensity on the probability of pipe failure. The results indicated that the probability of failure of the piping system is not very sensitive to the variations of the selected minimum peak ground acceleration. However, it does have significant effects on various scenarios that make up the system failure.

Lo, T.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Minimum Stream Flow and Water Sale Contracts (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The commission may provide certain minimum quantities of stream flow or sell water on a unit pricing basis for water supply purposes from the water supply storage in reservoir impoundments or parts...

98

Minimum Purchase Price Regulations (Prince Edward Island, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Minimum Purchase Price Regulations establish the price which utilities must pay for power produced by large-scale renewable energy generators – that is those capable of producing more than 100...

99

Minimum Wage Effects Across State Borders: Estimates Using Contiguous Counties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on earnings and employment in restaurants and other low-wageOur primary focus is on restaurants, since they are the mostof minimum wages on restaurant earnings, but the local

Dube, Andrajit; Lester, T. William; Reich, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Robust Minimum Capacity st Cuts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 3, 2008 ... The Minimum Capacity s-t Cut Problem (Min Cut) is an intensively ... In this paper, we study Min Cut when arc capacities are uncertain but ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) Minimum Stream Flow Standards (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations apply to all dams and structures which impound or divert waters on rivers or their tributaries, with some exceptions. The

103

Development and Online Opertation of Minimum Bias Triggers in ATLAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of minimum bias triggers should allow for a highly efficient selection on pp-collisions, while minimising any possible bias in the event selection. In ATLAS two main minimum bias triggers have been developed using complementary technologies. A hardware based first level trigger, consisting of 32 plastic scintillators, has proven to efficienctly select pp-interactions. In particular during the start-up phase this trigger played a crucial role for the commissioning of the central trigger processor and detector sub-systems. A complementary selection is achieved by a multi-level minimum bias trigger, seeded off a random trigger on filled bunches. For the event selection at higher trigger levels a dedicated algorithm was developed, able to cope with around 86 millions of detector signals per bunch-crossing. We will present these trigger systems and their deployment online, highlighting their performance and trigger efficiencies. We outline as well the operation with increasing beam intensities and lumin...

Martin, T; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Classical capacity of bosonic broadcast communication and a new minimum output entropy conjecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work on the classical information capacities of bosonic channels has established the capacity of the single-user pure-loss channel, bounded the capacity of the single-user thermal-noise channel, and bounded the capacity region of the multiple-access channel. The latter is a multi-user scenario in which several transmitters seek to simultaneously and independently communicate to a single receiver. We study the capacity region of the bosonic broadcast channel, in which a single transmitter seeks to simultaneously and independently communicate to two different receivers. It is known that the tightest available lower bound on the capacity of the single-user thermal-noise channel is that channel's capacity if, as conjectured, the minimum von Neumann entropy at the output of a bosonic channel with additive thermal noise occurs for coherent-state inputs. Evidence in support of this minimum output entropy conjecture has been accumulated, but a rigorous proof has not been obtained. In this paper, we propose a new minimum output entropy conjecture that, if proved to be correct, will establish that the capacity region of the bosonic broadcast channel equals the inner bound achieved using a coherent-state encoding and optimum detection. We provide some evidence that supports this new conjecture, but again a full proof is not available.

Saikat Guha; Jeffrey H. Shapiro; Baris I. Erkmen

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

105

SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS DETECTED WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR DURING ITS MOST PROLIFIC ACTIVITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E{sub peak} and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BB fits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high-temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature. We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

Van der Horst, A. J.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gorgone, N. M. [Connecticut College, New London, CT 06320 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Goegues, E.; Lin, L. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, V. L.; Goldstein, A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, CSPAR, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Granot, J. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Watts, A. L. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissaldi, E.; Gruber, D. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M., E-mail: A.J.VanDerHorst@uva.nl [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

THINNING OF THE SUN'S MAGNETIC LAYER: THE PECULIAR SOLAR MINIMUM COULD HAVE BEEN PREDICTED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar magnetic activity cycle causes changes in the Sun on timescales that are equivalent to human lifetimes. The minimum solar activity that preceded the current solar cycle (cycle 24) was deeper and quieter than any other recent minimum. Using data from the Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON), we show that the structure of the solar sub-surface layers during the descending phase of the preceding cycle (cycle 23) was very different from that during cycle 22. This leads us to believe that a detailed examination of the data would have led to the prediction that the cycle 24 minimum would be out of the ordinary. The behavior of the oscillation frequencies allows us to infer that changes in the Sun that affected the oscillation frequencies in cycle 23 were localized mainly to layers above about 0.996 R{sub Sun }, depths shallower than about 3000 km. In cycle 22, on the other hand, the changes must have also occurred in the deeper-lying layers.

Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

Compliance of clinical trial registries with the World Health Organization minimum data set: a survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organization minimum data set: a survey Lorenzo P Moja* 1 ,of the WHO minimum data set. Methods: A retrospectivethe launch of the WHO minimum data set seemed to positively

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Recent State Minimum Temperature Records in the Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State minimum temperature records were set or tied in Indiana (?37.8°C) and Kentucky (?38.3°C) in January 1994, and in Illinois (?37.2°C), Iowa (?43.9°C), Minnesota (?51.1°C), and Wisconsin (?48.3°C) in February 1996. The veracity of these ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Minimum-outage broadcast in wireless networks with fading channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of cooperative broadcasting for minimum outage in wireless networks. We consider wireless multihop broadcast as a set of transmitters that transmit in a certain order. The receiving nodes are able to combine all the previous transmissions ... Keywords: broadcast, multicast, outage, wireless networks

Tolga Girici; Gulizar Duygu Kurt

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Power Allocations in Minimum-Energy SER Constrained Cooperative Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Power Allocations in Minimum-Energy SER Constrained Cooperative Networks Behrouz Maham-Spring). Behrouz Maham and Are Hjørungnes are with UNIK ­ University Graduate Center, University of Oslo, Norway. Behrouz Maham is currently a visiting scholar at Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSTRAINED MINIMUM ENTROPY AND MAXIMUM NEGENTROPY BLIND DECONVOLUTION AND EQUALIZATION Seungjin on the variance of decon­ volved signal. We also consider the maximum negen­ tropy principle and show that the CME version, without any prior knowledge (such as channel impulse response, training data). As the demand

Choi, Seungjin

112

A faster distributed protocol for constructing a minimum spanning tree  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the problem of constructing a minimum-weight spanning tree (MST) in a distributed network. This is one of the most important problems in the area of distributed computing. There is a long line of gradually improving protocols ...

Michael Elkin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Minimum cost multiple multicast network coding with quantized rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider multiple multicast sessions with intra-session network coding where rates over all links are integer multiples of a basic rate. Although having quantized rates over communication links is quite common, conventional minimum ... Keywords: Decomposition algorithm, Multicast networks, Network coding

M. A. Raayatpanah; H. Salehi Fathabadi; B. H. Khalaj; S. Khodayifar

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Minimum-mirror-area single-stage solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

A means of generating a comcentrating mirror of minimum size for a given average flux-concentration output is outlined. The method is useful for acceptance angles typical of those required for tilting and tracking solar concentrators and can result in substantial cost savings when expensive mirrors (i.e.,glass) are used. Comparisons are made with compound parabolic concentrators.

Mills, D.; Harting, E.; Giutronich, J.E.; Cellich, W.; Morton, A.; Walker, I.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE SOLAR CYCLE AT THE MAUNDER MINIMUM EPOCH HIROKO MIYAHARA, DMITRY SOKOLOFF and ILYA G. USOSKIN Solar-Terrestrial Environmental Laboratory, Nagoya University Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan Department minima, when the solar dynamo was in a special mode. We review available sets of direct and indirect data

Usoskin, Ilya G.

116

Detecting Source Regions of Wave Activities in the Tropical Atmosphere by Applying Beamforming to Interpolated Data Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave activities are primary sources of weather disturbances and cyclones in the tropical atmosphere. One such activity is the intraseasonal variations in wind, convection, and precipitation in the tropical Indian and western tropical Pacific ...

Qi Hu; Zhaoning Liang; Michael W. Hoffman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR MINIMUM EMITTANCE LATTICE FOR SYNCHROTRON RADIATION STORAGE RINGS 1. C. Teng ANL/FNAL LS-17 L. Teng March 18, 1985 The natural emittance of an electron beam in a storage ring is given by (see e.g., M. Sands, SLAC 21) (1) where Cq =~~= 3.832 x 10-l3 m 32/3 mc J x partition factor in the bending plane y = total energy in mc 2 uni ts p orbit radius in bending magnets (assumed the same in all magne ts) H yn 2 - + 2ann ' + Bn I 2 ( a, B, Y = betatron functions ) n, n I dispersion functions <> = averaging over bending magnets We shall calculate for each bending magnet, then average over all magnets. 2 A. General Expression for H This can be calculated in a straightforward manner, but we can save a great deal of arithmetic with some preliminary formal analytical

118

Minimum/maximum excitation limiter performance goals for small generation  

SciTech Connect

Small generators connected to the utility system often act as followers as they tend to follow system bus voltage variations. For the lack of kVA capacity, small machines tend to be susceptible to becoming over or under excited (excessive Vars in or Vars out of the generator) as the voltage regulator tries to maintain its setpoint with variations in system bus voltage. Minimum and maximum excitation limiters are utilized to limit the voltage regulator characteristic response to system bus voltage changes, that can otherwise result in machine overheating and/or pulling out of synchronization. This paper reviews the operating performance of minimum and maximum excitation limiters used on small machines, and provides the user typical performance expectations. The examples will highlight both main field and exciter field applications. Lastly, conditions will be reviewed that may occur during excitation limiter initial startup that can affect their ability to be initially tuned.

Eberly, T.W.; Schaefer, R.C.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The minimum-uncertainty coherent states for Landau levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Glauber minimum-uncertainty coherent states with two variables for Landau levels, based on the representation of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra by two different modes, have been studied about four decades ago. Here, we introduce new two-variable coherent states with minimum uncertainty relationship for Landau levels in three different methods: the infinite unitary representation of su(1, 1) is realized in two different methods, first, by consecutive levels with the same energy gaps and also with the same value for z-angular momentum quantum number, then, by shifting z-angular momentum mode number by two units while the energy level remaining the same. Besides, for su(2), whether by lowest Landau levels or Landau levels with lowest z-angular momentum, just one finite unitary representation is introduced. Having constructed the generalized Klauder-Perelomov coherent states, for any of the three representations, we obtain their Glauber coherency by displacement operator of Weyl-Heisenberg algebra.

Dehghani, A. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P. O. Box 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhri, H. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, P. O. Box 51666-16471 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojaveri, B. [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, P. O. Box 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

JBIG2 Symbol Dictionary Design Based on Minimum Spanning Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The JBIG2 standard is a very flexible bi-level image coding strategy based on pattern matching. The encoder collects a set of symbols in a dictionary and encodes a page by reference to the dictionary symbols. JBIG2 allows the encoder to view all symbols and choose a good set for the dictionary. In this paper, we examine the bit rate trade-off that arises in choosing different dictionary sizes. In particular, we propose a suboptimal dictionary design technique based on minimum spanning trees. This technique gives competitive compression ratios and allows us to specify the dictionary size almost arbitrarily, thus providing a way to study the bit rate trade-off problem in detail. Keywords: JBIG2, Text image compression, Symbol dictionary, Minimum spanning tree 1

Yan Ye; Pamela Cosman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The extended minimum of solar cycle 23 as seen by radial velocity (GOLF, GONG) and intensity (VIRGO) helioseismic instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the variability of the solar oscillation spectrum during solar cycle 23 and its extended minimum. We use simultaneous observations of the low-degree solar p modes collected by the space-based, Sun-as-a-star GOLF (radial velocity) and VIRGO (intensity) instruments, and by the ground-based, multi-site network GONG. We investigate in particular the response of the p-mode eigenfrequencies to the observed peculiar deep solar minimum of surface activity of 2007-2009 as compared with the previous solar cycle 23. We study the different temporal variations of the p-mode frequencies with individual angular degrees.

Salabert, D; Palle, P L; Jimenez-Reyes, S J; Jimenez, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Impact of Minimum Load Operation on Steam Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some utilities, as part of a fleet management strategy, are keeping baseload-design plants that are not competitive for 24/7 dispatch at minimum loads to increase their ability to respond to changing demand. Units being operated this way face some associated risks and may see an additional drop in availability, further exacerbating supply management issues and increasing O&M costs. This report seeks to capture ...

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

123

DogoIDS: a mobile and active intrusion detection system for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are particularly vulnerable to attacks, since they feature constraint nodes, multi-hop communication, and an open wireless communication channel. These features limit the feasibility of the deployment of contemporary Intrusion ... Keywords: intrusion detection, security, wireless mesh networks

Rodrigo do Carmo; Matthias Hollick

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

An Obstacle-avoiding Minimum Variation B-spline Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of computing a planar curve, restricted to lie between two given polygonal chains, such that the integral of the square of arc-length derivative of curvature along the curve is minimized. We introduce the Minimum Variation B-spline problem which is a linearly constrained optimization problem over curves defined by Bspline functions only. An empirical investigation indicates that this problem has one unique solution among all uniform quartic B-spline functions. Furthermore, we prove that, for any B-spline function, the convexity properties of the problem are preserved subject to a scaling and translation of the knot sequence defining the B-spline. 1

Tomas Berglund; Inge Söderkvist

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Minimum bias and underlying event studies at CDF  

SciTech Connect

Soft, non-perturbative, interactions are poorly understood from the theoretical point of view even though they form a large part of the hadronic cross section at the energies now available. We review the CDF studies on minimum-bias ad underlying event in p{bar p} collisions at 2 TeV. After proposing an operative definition of 'underlying event', we present part of a systematic set of measurements carried out by the CDF Collaboration with the goal to provide data to test and improve the QCD models of hadron collisions. Different analysis strategies of the underlying event and possible event topologies are discussed. Part of the CDF minimum-bias results are also presented: in this sample, that represent the full inelastic cross-section, we can test simultaneously our knowledge of all the components that concur to form hadronic interactions. Comparisons with MonteCarlo simulations are always shown along with the data. These measurements will also contribute to more precise estimates of the soft QCD background of high-p{sub T} observables.

Moggi, Niccolo; /INFN, Bologna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Forman, Miriam A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

128

DETECTION OF COMA ACTIVITY OF THE ACO/QUASI-HILDA OBJECT 212P/2000YN{sub 30}  

SciTech Connect

The quasi-Hilda object 212P/2000YN{sub 30}, which has a cometary-like orbit, was found to display a dust tail structure between 2009 January and March. From orbital calculations, it is shown that this object could have been an active comet in the past before being transported to its current orbital configuration in quasi-stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter.

Cheng, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H., E-mail: m969005@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

The impact of minimum age of employment regulation on child labor and schooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Promoting minimum age of employment regulation has been a centerpiece in child labor policy for the last 15 years. If enforced, minimum age regulation would change the age profile of paid child employment. Using micro-data ...

Edmonds, Eric V

130

A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; Kevin P. Gallo; Thomas C. Peterson; Philip D. Jones; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ACMP Flash 2011-62 ACMP Flash 2011-62 Contracting Officer Warrant Requirements Function Experience Minimum Training Continuous Learning GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases up to $25,000 At least 6 months of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level I in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases $25,000 up to the simplified acquisition threshold At least 1 year of Government Purchase Card experience Certified to Level II in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years GS-1105s with a warrant for purchases over the simplified acquisition threshold At least 5 years of progressively complex contracting experience Certified to Level III in the ACMP Purchasing Program 80 hours every two years

132

The quadratic minimum spanning tree problem: A lower bounding procedure and an efficient search algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the quadratic minimum spanning tree problem (QMSTP) which is known to be NP-hard. Given a complete graph, the QMSTP consists of finding a minimum spanning tree (MST) where interaction costs between pairs of edges are prescribed. ... Keywords: Lagrangian relaxation, Local search, Quadratic minimum spanning tree problem

Temel Öncan; Abraham P. Punnen

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple model for evolution of proteins towards the global minimum of free energy Tamar Kaffe-Abramovich and Ron Unger Background: Proteins seem to have their native structure in a global minimum of free energy is in the global minimum of free energy. The aim of this study is to investigate such evolutionary processes

Unger, Ron

134

Minimum Multicolored Subgraph Problem in Multiplex PCR Primer Set Selection and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum Multicolored Subgraph Problem in Multiplex PCR Primer Set Selection and Population is a common generalization of minimum cost multiplex PCR primer set selection and maximum likeli- hood and its variants model two important bioinformatics problems: minimum cost multiplex PCR primer set

Mandoiu, Ion

135

Development of a scintillation flow-cell detection system for environmental restoration and waste management applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flow-cell detection system was developed utilizing a coincidence circuit and tested with BaF{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}:Eu and scintillating glass. The coincidence detection system reduced the background from {approximately}200 cps to {approximately}0.5 cps. The detection efficiencies for these cells ranged from 0.38 to 0.66 for {sup 45}Ca beta particles (E{sub max} = 0.257 MeV) and from 0.45 to 0.52 for {sup 233}U alpha particles (E{sub {alpha}} = 4.8 MeV). The minimum detectable activity was calculated for a 30 s count time and determined to be in the range of 1-2 Bq.

DeVol, T.A.; Branton, S.D.; Fjeld, R.A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

Thomas, L.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

THE BEHAVIOR OF THE 17 GHz SOLAR RADIUS AND LIMB BRIGHTENING IN THE SPOTLESS MINIMUM XXIII/XXIV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current solar minimum has surprised the entire solar community because the spotless period is presently almost 2-3 years longer than the usual minima. To better understand this, we studied the variation of the solar radius and the polar limb brightening at 17 GHz, comparing the results from the minimum at the end of cycle XXIII with those of the previous one. Daily maps obtained by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) from 1992 through 2010 were analyzed. Whereas the variation of the solar radius at radio frequencies indicates the heating of the solar atmosphere due to solar activity, the limb brightening intensity depends on the organization of the polar magnetic field of the Sun, including the global dipole and the features formed around it. These features are more prominent during minima periods. As a common result, researchers have observed a decrease in both radius and limb brightness intensity at 17 GHz during the present minimum when compared with the previous one. The mean solar radius is 0.''9 {+-} 0.''6 smaller and the limb brightening reduced its intensity by around 20%. Both decrements are interpreted in terms of the weaker solar chromospheric activity of the present cycle. Measurement of the radius and limb brightening at 17 GHz can be used as an alternative solar activity index and should be included in the set of parameters used to predict future cycles.

Selhorst, C. L. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do ParaIba-UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [NoRH, Nobeyama Radioheliograph (Japan)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radon detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

139

Radon detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

On the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aims: We aim to provide an estimate of the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere. methods: We perform a 2D radiation-MHD simulation spanning the upper convection zone to the lower corona. The simulation includes non-LTE radiative transfer and {an equation-of-state that includes non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and non-equilibrium H_2 molecule formation}. We analyze the reliability of the various assumptions made in our model in order to assess the realism of the simulation. results: Our simulation contains pockets of cool gas with down to 1660 K from 1 Mm up to 3.2 Mm height. It overestimates the radiative heating, and contains non-physical heating below 1660 K. Therefore we conclude that cool pockets in the quiet solar chromosphere might have even lower temperatures than in the simulation, provided that there exist areas in the chromosphere without significant magnetic heating. We suggest off-limb molecular spectroscopy to look for such cool pockets and 3D simulations including a local dy...

Leenaarts, Jorrit; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Minimum error discrimination between similarity-transformed quantum states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the well-known necessary and sufficient conditions for minimum error discrimination (MED), we extract an equivalent form for the MED conditions. In fact, by replacing the inequalities corresponding to the MED conditions with an equivalent but more suitable and convenient identity, the problem of mixed state discrimination with optimal success probability is solved. Moreover, we show that the mentioned optimality conditions can be viewed as a Helstrom family of ensembles under some circumstances. Using the given identity, MED between N similarity transformed equiprobable quantum states is investigated. In the case that the unitary operators are generating a set of irreducible representation, the optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability of discrimination can be determined precisely. In particular, it is shown that for equiprobable pure states, the optimal measurement strategy is the square-root measurement (SRM), whereas for the mixed states, SRM is not optimal. In the case that the unitary operators are reducible, there is no closed-form formula in the general case, but the procedure can be applied in each case in accordance to that case. Finally, we give the maximum success probability of optimal discrimination for some important examples of mixed quantum states, such as generalized Bloch sphere m-qubit states, spin-j states, particular nonsymmetric qudit states, etc.

Jafarizadeh, M. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sufiani, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran 19395-1795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazhari Khiavi, Y. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

India’s Credible Minimum Deterrence A Decade Later  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deterrence in the most conventional sense implies the making of military threats in order to prevent an adversary from taking aggressive actions (Buzan 1987). According to Barry Buzan (1987: 136), deterrence as a concept purports to stop an unwanted action by the adversary before they occur and encompasses both denial and the possibility of retaliation. The introduction of nuclear weapons into this complex dynamic of deterrence does not stabilise the crisis situation, as conventional wisdom suggests, but makes it even more threatening. The core of nuclear deterrence involves convincing the adversary that the cost of an undesirable action is more than the rewards. This requires a comprehensive understanding of not only the adversary’s motives, decision-making processes and objectives, but also one’s own capability to influence the calculus of costs and benefits that an adversary attaches to his own belligerence. Therefore, nuclear deterrence also takes into account the credibility of one’s own nuclear threat that is aimed at convincing the adversary that his belligerence will be ‘punished ’ by unacceptable damage through nuclear means. It is in the wake of this that India evolved its own nuclear doctrine which seeks to uphold the notion of credible minimum deterrence.

Tanvi Kulkarni; Alankrita Sinha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

Wang, Linghua [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Impact of Minimum Quality Standards on Firm Entry, Exit and Product Quality: The Case of the Child Care Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Theory of Minimum Standards,” Journal of Politi- calto Minimum Quality Standards Regulation,” NBER working paperDuopoly and Quality Standards,” European Economic Review,

Hotz, V. Joseph; Xiao, Mo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

UNICORN: misuse detection for UNICOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, by changes in the vulnerability posture of the system configuration, and in other ... Keywords: anomaly detection, computer misuse, auditing, UNICOS, computer security, hacking, intrusion detection, security logs

Gary G. Christoph; Kathleen A. Jackson; Michael C. Neuman; Christine L. B. Siciliano; Dennis D. Simmonds; Cathy A. Stallings; Joseph L. Thompson

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Minimum Cost Flow Problems with Value-at-Risk and Conditional ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic minimum cost flow (SMCF) problems have been studied for applica- tions involving random ...... approach to stochastic programming of heating oil.

147

Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency at the Event Filter MBTS trigger efficiency atand counted at the Event Filter trigger level. Any eventsCHAPTER 3. MINIMUM BIAS TRIGGER Event Selection The analysis

Leyton, Michael A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mexico minimum efficiency performance standard million tons (of CO 2 ) national energyand Mexico, produces the largest savings of all the end uses: 780 TWh. The baseline energy

Letschert, Virginie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Remote detection of fissile material : Cherenkov counters for gamma detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The need for large-size detectors for long-range active interrogation (Al) detection has generated interest in water-based detector technologies. AI is done using external radiation sources to induce fission and to detect, ...

Erickson, Anna S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Annual Progress Report on the Development of Waste Tank Leak Monitoring and Detection and Mitigation Activities in Support of M-45-08  

SciTech Connect

Milestone M-45-09E of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) [TPA 1996] requires submittal of an annual progress report on the development of waste tank leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) activities associated with the retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs). This report details progress for fiscal year 2000, building on the current LDMM strategy and including discussion of technologies, applications, cost, schedule, and technical data. The report also includes discussion of demonstrations conducted and recommendations for additional testing. Tri-Party Agreement Milestones M-45-08A and M-45-08B required design and demonstration of LDMM systems for initial retrieval of SST waste. These specific milestones have recently been deleted as part of the M-45-00A change package. Future LDMM development work has been incorporated into specific technology demonstration milestones and SST waste retrieval milestones in the M-45-03 and M-45-05 milestone series.

DEFIGH PRICE, C.

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

151

A branch-and-cut algorithm for the minimum labeling Hamiltonian cycle problem and two variants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a mathematical model, valid inequalities and polyhedral results for the minimum labeling Hamiltonian cycle problem. This problem is defined on an unweighted graph in which each edge has a label. The aim is to determine a Hamiltonian ... Keywords: Branch-and-cut, Minimum labeling problem, Traveling salesman problem

Nicolas Jozefowiez; Gilbert Laporte; Frédéric Semet

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-Point Boundary Value Problems for Curves: The Case of Minimum Free Energy Paths corrected.S.A. Abstract The calculation of a minimum free energy path can be considered as a two-point boundary value box solvers. The second paragraph of Section 1 is corrected. Because free energy is defined in terms

Skeel, Robert

153

Minimum Energy Compensation Strategy and Characteristic Analysis for Dynamic Voltage Restorer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The minimum energy compensation strategy and its characteristic for Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) considering the equipment’s voltage limitation are discussed. The strategy when the injection voltage is under or especially above the voltage limitation ... Keywords: dynamic voltage restorer, minimum energy compensation, compensation strategy, compensation characteristic, voltage limitation

Yingying Liu; Xu Yonghai; Xiao Xiangning; Guo Chunlin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fast Algorithms for Specially Structured Minimum Cost Flow Problems with Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the classical minimum cost flow problem is to send units of a good that reside at one or more points in a network (sources or supply nodes) with arc capacities to one or more other points in the network (sinks or demand nodes), incurring ... Keywords: analysis of algorithms, applications, computational complexity, flow algorithms, minimum cost flow problem, networks

Balachandran Vaidyanathan; Ravindra K. Ahuja

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd  

SciTech Connect

A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Solis, Jose L. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

156

"Table A52. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" 2. Nonswitchable Minimum Requirements and Maximum Consumption" " Potential by Census Region, 1991" " (Estimates in Physical Units)" ,,,,"RSE" ,"Actual","Minimum","Maximum","Row" "Type of Energy","Consumption","Consumption(a)","Consumption(b)","Factors" "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.2,0.8 ," Total United States" ,"-","-","-" "Electricity Receipts(c) (million kilowatthours)",718480,701478,766887,2 "Natural Gas (billion cubic feet)",5345,3485,5887,2 "Distillate Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",23885,19113,201081,3.7 "Residual Fuel Oil (thousand barrels)",65837,36488,201921,2.6

157

www.wine-economics.org Restaurant Prices and the Minimum Wage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the e¤ect of the minimum wage on restaurant prices. For that purpose, we estimate a price rigidity model by exploiting a unique dataset of individual price quotes used to calculate the Consumer Price Index in France. We …nd a positive and signi…cant impact of the minimum wage on prices. We obtain that the e¤ect of the minimum wage on prices is very protracted. The aggregate impact estimated with our model takes more than a year to fully pass through to retail prices.

Denis Fougère; Erwan Gautier; Hervé Le Bihan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Surface structure determination by a one-stop search method for the deepest minimum  

SciTech Connect

We report results of a one-stop automated search method for the deepest minimum in surface structure determination. Starting from known chemical bond lengths, the deepest minimization frozen low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) method locates the deepest minimum in a single run without any human intervention. This is achieved by using an approximation method, the frozen LEED, which has a radius of convergence of over 0.8 A, together with a simulated annealing algorithm that hops out of local minima until a deepest minimum is found. Demonstrations are presented using simulated and experimental results.

Yu, Z.X. [Department of Physics, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tong, S.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials, City University of Hong Kong (China)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiproton discrimination: Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antiproton and antihydrogen trajectories in this magnetic geometry, and reconstruct the antihydrogen energy distribution from the measured annihilation time history.

C. Amole; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; A. Deller; S. Eriksson; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; A. Gutierrez; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; M. E. Hayden; A. J. Humphries; R. Hydomako; L. Kurchaninov; S. Jonsell; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele

2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

160

Recent Trends of Minimum and Maximum Surface Temperatures over Eastern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent trends in the mean surface minimum and maximum air temperatures over eastern Africa by use of both graphical and statistical techniques. Daily records for 71 stations for the period 1939–92 were used.

S. M. King’uyu; L. A. Ogallo; E. K. Anyamba

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Use of Polar-orbiting Satellite Sounding Data to Estimate Rural Maximum and Minimum Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric sounding products from NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites were used to derive and test predictive equations of rural shelter-level maximum and minimum temperatures. Sounding data from both winter and summer months were combined with ...

Gregory L. Johnson; Jerry M. Davis; Thomas R. Karl; Alan L. McNab; J. Dan Tarpley; Peter Bloomfield

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Local Minimum Aliasing Method for Use in Nonlinear Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local spectral method is a minimum aliasing technique for the discretization and numerical integration of prognostic systems consisting of nonlinear partial differential equations. The technique embodies many features of both spectral ...

John R. Anderson

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Recent Trends in Maximum and Minimum Temperature Threshold Exceedences in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the annual number of daily maximum and minimum temperature threshold exceedences between 1951 and 1993 are assessed at a network of 22 primarily rural sites in the northeastern United States. After adjusting the annual time series for ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Hallam, Steven

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

Minimum bayes risk decoding with enlarged hypothesis space in system combination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new system combination strategy in Statistical Machine Translation. Tromble et al. (2008) introduced the evidence space into Minimum Bayes Risk decoding in order to quantify the relative performance within lattice or n-best output ...

Tsuyoshi Okita; Josef van Genabith

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The Minimum Spanning Tree Histogram as a Verification Tool for Multidimensional Ensemble Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The minimum spanning tree (MST) histogram is a multivariate extension of the ideas behind the conventional scalar rank histogram. It tabulates the frequencies, over n forecast occasions, of the rank of the MST length for each ensemble, within the ...

D. S. Wilks

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Systematic Biases in Manual Observations of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that manual observations of daily maximum and minimum temperature are strongly biased toward temperatures ending in certain digits. The nature and severity of these biases are quantified using standard statistical methods. ...

Jon M. Nese

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Method to Estimate Missing Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to estimate missing daily maximum and minimum temperatures is presented. Temperature estimates are based on departures from daily temperature normals at the three closest stations with similar observation times. Although applied to ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston; Warren W. Knapp

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Reconstructed Annual Minimum Temperatures for the Gulf States, 1799–1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A very long series of minimum winter temperatures for the United States Gulf Coast region was developed. A search was made through sources of archival data to locate early temperature records for the region. Records from a number of different ...

Robert D. Erhardt Jr.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Minimum Uncertainty, Coherence and Squeezing in Diffusion Processes, and Stochastic Quantization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati; Giuseppe Vitiello

1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

MINIMUM UNCERTAINTY AND SQUEEZING IN DIFFUSION PROCESSES AND STOCHASTIC QUANTIZATION 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states. 1

S. De Martino; S. De Siena; F. Illuminati; G. Vitiello

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

DiffServ node with join minimum cost queue policy and multiclass traffic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DiffServ, the vehicle for providing relative QoS in the Internet is also easily amenable to simple and effective pricing mechanisms. By pricing access to a relative QoS, we can model a DiffServ node as a 'Join Minimum Cost Queue' in which an arriving ... Keywords: diffServ, finite buffer queues, join minimum cost queue, join shortest queue, network pricing, quasi-birth--death processes, queue control

Rahul Tandra; N. Hemachandra; D. Manjunath

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

On-Off Minimum-Time Control With Limited Fuel Usage: Global Optima Via Linear Programming  

SciTech Connect

A method for finding a global optimum to the on-off minimum-time control problem with limited fuel usage is presented. Each control can take on only three possible values: maximum, zero, or minimum. The simplex method for linear systems naturally yields such a solution for the re-formulation presented herein because it always produces an extreme point solution to the linear program. Numerical examples for the benchmark linear flexible system are presented.

DRIESSEN,BRIAN

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Activation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Application of In-Situ High Energy-Resolution Fluorescence Detection and Time-Resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy: Catalytic Activation of Oxygen over Supported Gold Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Life-time-broadening reduction in high-energy-resolution fluorescence detected XAS produced spectra of unprecedented detail. Au L3 edge spectra of a Au/Al2O3 catalyst under various reaction conditions showed the interaction of oxygen with the gold particles on this catalyst. A reaction path on the gold particle in the oxidation of CO was established.

Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Tromp, Moniek [University of Southampton, School of Chemistry, Southampton (United Kingdom); Glatzel, Pieter; Safonova, Olga [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

177

Predictive analysis of concealed social network activities based on communication technology choices: early-warning detection of attack signals from terrorist organizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

activities based on communication technology choices: early-of what their communications technology choices may revealall avail- able communications technology use records over

Drozdova, Katya; Samoilov, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solar system fault detection  

SciTech Connect

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO); Pruett, Jr., James C. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Solar system fault detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

1984-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Testing minimum energy with powerful radio sources in clusters of galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze ROSAT data for cluster gas surrounding powerful radio galaxies, which is well fitted by a ``beta-model'' gas distribution, after allowing for a compact central source. The cluster thermal pressure at the distance of the radio lobes is typically an order of magnitude larger than the lobe minimum pressure. Since radio lobes are sharply-bounded, the missing pressure is not simply entrained intra-cluster gas. Thus the minimum energy in the lobes is a severe underestimate of the actual energy content. We argue that the extra energy is mostly in the form of particles, so that the magnetic field is below equipartition and thus not a major factor in the lobe dynamics. The large departure from minimum energy has far-reaching implications for the nature of AGN central engines and the supply of mechanical energy to the cluster gas.

J. P. Leahy; Nectaria A. B. Gizani

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Point sensitive NMR imaging system using a magnetic field configuration with a spatial minimum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A point-sensitive NMR imaging system (10) in which a main solenoid coil (11) produces a relatively strong and substantially uniform magnetic field and a pair of perturbing coils (PZ1 and PZ2) powered by current in the same direction superimposes a pair of relatively weak perturbing fields on the main field to produce a resultant point of minimum field strength at a desired location in a direction along the Z-axis. Two other pairs of perturbing coils (PX1, PX2; PY1, PY2) superimpose relatively weak field gradients on the main field in directions along the X- and Y-axes to locate the minimum field point at a desired location in a plane normal to the Z-axes. An RF generator (22) irradiates a tissue specimen in the field with radio frequency energy so that desired nuclei in a small volume at the point of minimum field strength will resonate.

Eberhard, Philippe H. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Stochastic Modelling and 3D Minimum Variance RecursiveEstimation of Image Sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the 3D minimum variance filtering problem is considered. The proposed spatiotemporal filter is derived according to the assumption that the 3D signal can be modelled by an ensemble of smooth 3D gaussian random fields. The resulting ... Keywords: image processing, optimal filtering, stochastic modelling

L. Jetto

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The Process of Fixing the British National Minimum Wage, 1997-2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to negotiate, with embedded mediation, a level of minimum wage that has been not only 19 acceptable to government but also, at time of writing, overwhelmingly benign in its economic and social impact. The author is grateful for the comments of David...

Brown, William

184

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery Sizing for Grid Connected PV Systems with Fixed Minimum Charging/Discharging Time Yu Ru, Jan Kleissl, and Sonia Martinez Abstract-- In this paper, we study a battery sizing problem for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems assuming that the battery charging/discharging limit scales linearly with its

Martínez, Sonia

185

A hierarchical application of the Minimum Current Corona C. Beveridge and D.W. Longcope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hierarchical application of the Minimum Current Corona C. Beveridge and D.W. Longcope Department. Beveridge, C.: 2003, Ph.D. Thesis, University of St. Andrews. Beveridge, C. and Longcope, D.W.: 2005, Solar.M.: 1990, Astrophys. J., 366, 577. Longcope, D.W.: 1996, Solar Phys, 169, 91. Longcope, D.W.: 2001, Phys

Longcope, Dana

186

Improved Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Minimum-Flip Consensus Trees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In computational phylogenetics, the problem of constructing a consensus tree for a given set of rooted input trees has frequently been addressed. In this article we study the Minimum-Flip Problem: the input trees are transformed into a binary ... Keywords: Phylogenetics, consensus tree, fixed-parameter algorithm

Sebastian Böcker; Quang Bao Anh Bui; Anke Truss

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Mobility-assisted minimum connected cover in a wireless sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All properties of mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs) are inherited from static wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and meanwhile have their own uniqueness and node mobility. Sensor nodes in these networks monitor different regions of an area of interest ... Keywords: Energy-aware selection method, Minimum connected sensor cover set, Mobile wireless sensor networks, Redundant node, Relocation

Ahmed M. Khedr; Walid Osamy

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A robust forced dynamic sliding mode minimum energy position controller for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a contribution towards improving the environment, a new position controller for vector controlled electric drives employing permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) is presented that achieves approximately 27% less frictional energy loss than a ... Keywords: forced dynamic control, minimum energy manoeuvres, sliding mode control, synchronous motor drives

Stephen J. Dodds; Gunaratnam. Sooriyakumar; Roy Perryman

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A stochastic minimum principle and an adaptive pathwise algorithm for stochastic optimal control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a numerical method for finite-horizon stochastic optimal control models. We derive a stochastic minimum principle (SMP) and then develop a numerical method based on the direct solution of the SMP. The method combines Monte Carlo pathwise simulation ... Keywords: Electric power systems, Monte Carlo simulation, Stochastic control

Panos Parpas, Mort Webster

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Statistical inference of minimum BD estimators and classifiers for varying-dimensional models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic modeling for large-scale datasets usually involves a varying-dimensional model space. This paper investigates the asymptotic properties, when the number of parameters grows with the available sample size, of the minimum-BD estimators and classifiers ... Keywords: A diverging number of parameters, Exponential family, Hemodynamic response function, Loss function, Optimal Bayes rule, primary, secondary

Chunming Zhang

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Analysis on Achieving a Minimum Bunch Length in LCLS Bunch Compressor One  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ultra-short bunch is required by different applications in many aspects. In this paper, the condition to achieve a minimum bunch length at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) [1] bunch compressor one (BC1) is analyzed analytically and evaluated by simulation. The space charge, wake field and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects are not discussed here.

Sun, Yipeng

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

193

Externally Forced and Internal Variability in Ensemble Climate Simulations of the Maunder Minimum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the climate system to natural, external forcing during the Maunder Minimum (ca. a.d. 1645–1715) is investigated using a comprehensive climate model. An ensemble of six transient simulations is produced in order to examine the ...

Masakazu Yoshimori; Thomas F. Stocker; Christoph C. Raible; Manuel Renold

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle Namwook Kim. INTRODUCTION he optimal control of HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles) is an important topic not only because, Sukwon Cha, Huei Peng Abstract - A number of strategies for the power management of HEVs (Hybrid Electric

Peng, Huei

195

Detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

Smith, J.E.

1981-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

196

Detection Apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention concerns a sensitive apparatus for detecting and counting neutrons, particularly neutrons liberated in an alpha, neutron reaction. The apparatus includes an improved ionization chamber structure together with an improved combination alpha-particle source and holder for the material under test.

Anderson, H.L.

1950-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

How Will An Increase From $6.75 to $7.75 in the California Minimum Wage Impact the California Economy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact of the 2001 California Minimum Wage Increase."Statistics and Research, California Industrial Relationsthe Minimum Wage in California," memorandum, Institute for

Vassalotti, Amy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

An Analysis of a Spreader Bar Crane Mounted Gamma-Ray Radiation Detection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over 95% of imports entering the United States from outside North America arrive via cargo containers by sea at 329 ports of entry. The current layered approach for the detection only scans 5% of cargo bound for the United States. This is inadequate to protect our country. This research involved the building of a gamma-ray radiation detection system used for cargo scanning. The system was mounted on a spreader bar crane (SBC) at the Port of Tacoma (PoT) and the applicability and capabilities of the system were analyzed. The detection system provided continuous count rate and spectroscopic data among three detectors while operating in an extreme environment. In a separate set of experiments, 60Co and 137Cs sources were positioned inside a cargo container and data were recorded for several count times. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code was used to simulate a radioactive source inside an empty cargo container and the results were compared to experimentally recorded data. The detection system demonstrated the ability to detect 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, highly-enriched uranium (HEU), and weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) with minimum detectable activities (MDA) of 5.9 ± 0.4 microcuries (?Ci), 19.3 ± 1.1 ?Ci, 11.7 ± 0.6 ?Ci, 3.5 ± 0.3 kilograms (kg), and 30.6 ± 1.3 grams (g), respectively. This system proved strong gamma-ray detection capabilities, but was limited in the detection of fissile materials Additional details of this system are presented and advantages of this approach to cargo scanning over current approaches are discussed.

Grypp, Matthew D

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Detection device for hazardous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a detection device that is activated by the interaction of a hazardous chemical with a coating interactive with said chemical on an optical fiber thereby reducing the amount of light passing through the fiber to a light detector. A combination of optical filters separates the light into a signal beam and a reference beam which after detection, appropriate amplification, and comparison with preset internal signals, activates an alarm means if a predetermined level of contaminant is observed.

Partin, J.K.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Stawarz, Joshua E. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CA (United States); Forman, Miriam A., E-mail: jtu46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu, E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Boulder, Colorados SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Policy Brief is an excerpt from the report: "Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households." For the full report and other resources visit: http://middleincome.lbl.gov March 20, 2012 Boulder, Colorado's SmartRegs: Minimum Performance Standards for Residential Rental Housing The Case for Performance Standards The City of Boulder's Climate Action Plan calls for greenhouse gas emissions reductions across all sectors of the community (e.g., buildings, transportation and industry). Energy conservation in new and existing buildings plays a key role in the plan's ambitious goals. In 2006, Boulder residents overwhelmingly approved a Climate Action Tax to fund Climate Action Plan efforts. For more than a decade the city has been incrementally strengthening minimum energy efficiency standards for residential

202

Spectroscopic detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Investigation of Catalyst Deactivation from Operation Below the Minimum Operating Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expanding use of alternative and renewable energy sources is forcing large coal-fired power plants to operate at low load more frequently and for longer periods. For units with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and without economizer bypass capabilities, low-load operation requires the SCR system to operate at reduced flue gas temperatures. For units burning high-sulfur coal, these lower temperatures are often below the minimum operating temperature defined by SCR catalyst vendors. ...

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

204

THE EFFECT OF A MINIMUM WEIGHT RADIAL REFLECTOR ON SNAP SHIELDING REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

A model was derived for a minimum-weight radial reflector for SNAP reactors. The effect, which the use of this optimal reflector has on radiation shield weight requirements is investigated. Weights of systems employing conventional and optimal radial reflectors are compared using the FARSE and FARSER computer codes. It is found that for the configuration under study additional shield weight required when the optimal reflector is used is in excess of the reflector weight savings. (auth)

Bernick, R.L.

1963-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Computational Method for Detecting and Enhancing Protein ...  

Technology Marketing Summary ORNL researchers have developed a method that uses simulation and experimental data to detect, analyze, and manipulate protein activity.

206

The exact distribution of the maximum, minimum and the range of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact distribution of the maximum and minimum frequencies of Multinomial/Dirichlet and Multivariate Hypergeometric distributions of n balls in m urns is compactly represented as a product of stochastic matrices. This representation ... Keywords: Dirichlet multinomial, Multinomial maximum, minimum, range, Multinomial outliers, inliers, Multivariate hypergeometric, Stochastic matrix

Charles J. Corrado

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low

Michalek, Jeremy J.

208

Performance of the ATLAS Minimum Bias Trigger in pp collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early physics program at the ATLAS experiment includes measuring the basic properties of proton proton collisions, such as charged particle multiplicities, in order to constrain phenomenological models of soft interactions in the LHC energy regime. An inclusive and well understood trigger is crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. The ATLAS experiment uses two complementary types of minimum bias triggers. A scintillator trigger sensitive to the forward regions of 2.1trigger based on counting hits in the inner tracking detector has provided a useful control sample. The performance and efficiency measurements of these triggers and detectors will be presented.

Lauren Tompkins

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

Performance of the ATLAS Minimum Bias Trigger in pp collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early physics program at the ATLAS experiment includes measuring the basic properties of proton proton collisions, such as charged particle multiplicities, in order to constrain phenomenological models of soft interactions in the LHC energy regime. An inclusive and well understood trigger is crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. The ATLAS experiment uses two complementary types of minimum bias triggers. A scintillator trigger sensitive to the forward regions of 2.1trigger based on counting hits in the inner tracking detector has provided a useful control sample. The performance and efficiency measurements of these triggers and detectors will be presented.

Tompkins, Lauren

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fuel washout detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting grossly failed reactor fuel by detection of particulate matter as accumulated on a filter.

Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Model Diagnosis of Nighttime Minimum Temperature Warming during Summer due to Irrigation in the California Central Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the mechanisms of nighttime minimum temperature warming in the California Central Valley during summer due to irrigation. The Scripps Experimental Climate Prediction Center (ECPC) Regional Spectral Model (RSM) was used to ...

Hideki Kanamaru; Masao Kanamitsu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The Relative Importance of Solar and Anthropogenic Forcing of Climate Change between the Maunder Minimum and the Present  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climate during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The Goddard Institute ...

David Rind; Drew Shindell; Judith Perlwitz; Jean Lerner; Patrick Lonergan; Judith Lean; Chris McLinden

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A Comparative Study of Maximum and Minimum Temperatures over Argentina: NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis versus Station Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares surface-station temperature observations over Argentina with gridpoint analyses available in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset. The primary objective is to determine whether the maximum and minimum surface temperatures from the ...

Matilde M. Rusticucci; Vernon E. Kousky

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Spatial Interpolation of Daily Maximum and Minimum Air Temperature Based on Meteorological Model Analyses and Independent Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly meteorological forecast model initializations are used to guide the spatial interpolation of daily cooperative network station data in the northeastern United States. The hourly model data are transformed to daily maximum and minimum ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Brian N. Belcher

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A Southeastern South American Daily Gridded Dataset of Observed Surface Minimum and Maximum Temperature for 1961–2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents a southeastern South American gridded dataset of daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures for 1961–2000. The data used for the gridding are observed daily data from meteorological stations in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and ...

Bárbara Tencer; Matilde Rusticucci; Phil Jones; David Lister

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Voice Activity Detection in the Tiger Platform.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Sectra Communications AB has developed a terminal for encrypted communication called the Tiger platform. During voice communication delays have sometimes been experienced resulting in… (more)

Thorell, Hampus

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Multicasting in Large Wireless Networks: Bounds on the Minimum Energy per Bit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider scaling laws for maximal energy efficiency of communicating a message to all the nodes in a wireless network, as the number of nodes in the network becomes large. Two cases of large wireless networks are studied -- dense random networks and constant density (extended) random networks. In addition, we also study finite size regular networks in order to understand how regularity in node placement affects energy consumption. We first establish an information-theoretic lower bound on the minimum energy per bit for multicasting in arbitrary wireless networks when the channel state information is not available at the transmitters. Upper bounds are obtained by constructing a simple flooding scheme that requires no information at the receivers about the channel states or the locations and identities of the nodes. The gap between the upper and lower bounds is only a constant factor for dense random networks and regular networks, and differs by a poly-logarithmic factor for extended random networks. Further...

Jain, Aman; Verdu, Sergio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Image transmission over OFDM channel with rate allocation scheme and minimum peak-toaverage power ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes new scheme for efficient rate allocation in conjunction with reducing peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Modification of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) image coder is proposed to generate four different groups of bit-stream relative to its significances. The significant bits, the sign bits, the set bits and the refinement bits are transmitted in four different groups. The proposed method for reducing the PAPR utilizes twice the unequal error protection (UEP), using the Read-Solomon codes (RS), in conjunction with bit-rate allocation and selective interleaving to provide minimum PAPR. The output bit-stream from the source code (SPIHT) will be started by the most significant types of bits (first group of bits). The optimal unequal error protection (UEP) of the four groups is proposed based on the channel destortion. The proposed structure provides significant improvement in bit error rate (BER) performance. Per...

Mohammed, Usama S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Nonradiating and minimum energy sources and their fields: Generalized source inversion theory and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A new general framework for characterizing scalar and electromagnetic (EM) nonradiating (NR) and minimum energy (ME) sources and their fields is developed that is of interest for both radiation and source reconstruction problems. NR sources are characterized in connection with the concept of reciprocity as nonreceptors. Localized ME sources are shown to be free fields truncated within the source’s support. A new source analysis tool is developed that is based on the decomposition of a source and its field into their radiating and NR components. The individual radiating and reactive energy roles of the radiating and NR parts of a source are characterized. The general theory is illustrated with a time-harmonic EM example. Index Terms—Inverse problems.

Edwin A. Marengo; Richard W. Ziolkowski

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.

C. Bouchiat

2003-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

224

Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

Hamrick, Todd

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

225

Sunspot minimum between solar cycles No 23 and 24. Prediction of solar cycle No 24 magnitude on the base of "Waldmeier's rule"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main purpose of this study is the determination of solar minimum date of the new sunspot cycle No 24. It is provided by using of four types of mean daily data values for the period Jan 01. 2006 - Dec 31. 2009: (1) the solar radioindex F10.7; (2) the International sunspot number Ri; (3) the total solar irradiance index (TSI), and (4) the daily number of X-ray flares of classes from "B" to "X" from the soft X-ray GOES satellite channel (0.1 - 0.8 nm). It is found that the mean starting moment of the upward solar activity tendency (the mean solar minimum) is Nov. 06th, 2008. So, the solar cycle No 23 length is estimated to ~12.6 years. A conclusion for a relatively weak general magnitude of solar cycle No 24 is made. By using of relationship based on the "Waldmeier's rule" a near maximal mean yearly sunspot number value of 72 \\pm 27 has been determined.

Komitov, B; Stoychev, K; Dechev, M; Koleva, K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Performance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at ?s = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realized a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measurements of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collisions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing ET ) and jets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing ET triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the full calorime...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Introduction to the Performance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at sqrt{s} = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realised a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measuremens of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collsions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing E_{T}), jets and bjets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing E_{T} triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the ...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

TriggerPerformance of the ATLAS Trigger Reconstruction for Minimum Bias Events, Missing Transverse Energy and Jets in pp-collisions at ?s = 7 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the restart of the LHC, ATLAS has successfully recorded data at sqrt{s} = 0.9 and 7 TeV. The ATLAS trigger strategy realised a step-wise activation of the three level trigger system, starting with hardware-based first-level (L1) triggers and moving with increasing luminosities to the deployment of the software-based high-level triggers (HLT). We will present L1 and HLT triggers and their performance on 7 TeV collision data, whose use case range from the measuremens of inelastic charged particle spectra to new physics searches. We will focus on triggers selecting inelastic pp-collsions (minimum bias), missing transverse energies (missing E_{T}), jets and bjets. Different minimum bias triggers based of central tracking and forward detector components, their efficiencies as well as possible biases are presented. We highlight missing E_{T} triggers, which require the magnitude of the vector sum of all transverse energies to exceed some threshold. While look-up-tables allow fast trigger decisions at L1, the ...

Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection  

SciTech Connect

Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Minimum bed parameters for in situ processing of oil shale. Second quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the second in a series of quarterly reports on the Minimum Bed Parameters for In Situ Processing of Oil Shale Program (FE Control No. 4-79 ET 14165.000). It describes activities during the period January 1 to March 31, 1980, including modification of the laboratory retorting system to eliminate problems with the ignition and product collecttion systems and the successful retorting of a 16% void sample. The sample consisted of a 7.6 cm diameter by 23 cm competent core of oil shale with three 0.64 cm slices of material removed parallel to the axis of the cylinder. The 1.4 cm thick slabs constituted 70% of the sample volume, while oil shale rubble (-.32 + .16 cm) was used to occupy nearly half the remaining volume (14%), leaving 16% void. The sample was instrumented, sealed in an insulated retort vessel, ignited with hot (700/sup 0/C) air, and combustion-retorted with air. The observed retorting rate was 10 cm/hr, the local heating rate near the block surface in the retorting zone was 18/sup 0/C/min, and peak temperatures were about 825/sup 0/C. Temperature profiles across the retort cross-section indicated some limited heat loss. Oil yield was 92% of Fischer Assay. Results of block retort model calculations (without rubble in the fracture) are in good agreement with those observed, namely a retorting rate of 12 cm/hr, a local heating rate of 7/sup 0/C/min, peak temperatures around 900/sup 0/C, and a yield of 90% FA.

Tyner, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Outlier detection by logic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of effective knowledge discovery techniques has become a very active research area in recent years due to the important impact it has had in several relevant application domains. One interesting task therein is that of singling out anomalous ... Keywords: Outlier detection, computational complexity, logic programming, nonmonotonic reasoning

Fabrizio Angiulli; Gianluigi Greco; Luigi Palopoli

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Determining Reserves in Low Permeability and Layered Reservoirs Using the Minimum Terminal Decline Rate Method: How Good are the Predictions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the applicability of forecasting production from low permeability and layered tight gas wells using the Arps hyperbolic equation at earlier times and then switching to the exponential form of the equation at a predetermined minimum decline rate. This methodology is called the minimum terminal decline rate method. Two separate completion types have been analyzed. The first is horizontal completions with multi-stage hydraulic fractures while the second is vertical fractured wells in layered formations, completed with hydraulic fractures. For both completion types both simulated data and real world well performance histories have been evaluated using differing minimum terminal decline rates and the benefit of increasing portions of production history to make predictions. The application of the minimum terminal decline rate method to the simulated data in this study (3 percent minimum decline applied to multiple fractured horizontal wells MFHW- and 7 percent applied to vertical fractured layered wells) gave high errors for some simulations within the first two years. Once additional production data is considered in making predictions, the errors in estimated ultimate recovery and in remaining reserves is significantly reduced. This result provides a note of caution, when using the minimum decline rate method for forecasting using small quantities of production history. The evaluation of real world data using the minimum terminal decline rate method introduces other inaccuracies such as poor data quality, low data frequency, operational changes which affect the production profile and workovers / re-stimulations which require a restart of production forecasting process. Real well data for MFHW comes from the Barnett Shale completions of the type which have been widely utilized since 2004. There is insufficient production history from real wells to determine an appropriate minimum terminal decline rate. In the absence of suitable analogs for the determination of the minimum terminal decline rate it would be impossible to correctly apply this methodology. Real well data for vertical fractured layered wells from the Carthage Cotton Valley field indicate that for wells similar to Conoco operated Panola County wells a feasible decline rate is between 5 percent and 10 percent. Further if a consistent production trend and with more than 2 years of production history are used to forecast, the EUR can be predicted to within plus/minus 10 percent and remaining reserves to within plus/minus 15 percent.

McMillan, Marcia Donna

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

234

Exact and approximate solutions for the quantum minimum-Kullback-entropy estimation problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimum Kullback entropy principle (mKE) is a useful tool to estimate quantum states and operations from incomplete data and prior information. In general, the solution of a mKE problem is analytically challenging and an approximate solution has been proposed and employed in different context. Recently, the form and a way to compute the exact solution for finite dimensional systems has been found, and a question naturally arises on whether the approximate solution could be an effective substitute for the exact solution, and in which regimes this substitution can be performed. Here, we provide a systematic comparison between the exact and the approximate mKE solutions for a qubit system when average data from a single observable are available. We address both mKE estimation of states and weak Hamiltonians, and compare the two solutions in terms of state fidelity and operator distance. We find that the approximate solution is generally close to the exact one unless the initial state is near an eigenstate of the measured observable. Our results provide a rigorous justification for the use of the approximate solution whenever the above condition does not occur, and extend its range of application beyond those situations satisfying the assumptions used for its derivation.

Carlo Sparaciari; Stefano Olivares; Francesco Ticozzi; Matteo G. A. Paris

2013-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

The effect of longitudinal spacer ribs on the minimum pressure drop in a heated annulus  

SciTech Connect

When evaluating a heated flow passage for vulnerability to static flow excursions, special note should be taken of flow restrictions which might allow premature vapor generation. In this study, measurements of steady state pressure drop were made for the downward flow of water in a vertical annulus. The outer wall was uniformly heated to allow subcooled boiling. Minima in the pressure drop characteristics were compared for test sections with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. For a given power and inlet temperature, the minimum occurred at a higher flow rate in the ribbed test section. This is attributed to vapor generation at the ribs. The work cited in this document show how a restriction in a heated channel can produce vapor which would not be observed in the absence of the restriction. In the present study, the effect of a flow restriction on the tendency to flow excursion is explored by finding demand curves for a heated annulus in subcooled boiling flow. The annulus is heated from the outside, and alternately equipped with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. These ribs separate the heated and unheated walls; in pressing against the heated wall they provide a means for premature vapor production.

Johnston, B.S.; Neff, J.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Revised equipartition & minimum energy formula for magnetic field strength estimates from radio synchrotron observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The commonly used classical equipartition or minimum-energy estimate of total magnetic fields strengths from radio synchrotron intensities is of limited practical use because it is based on the hardly known ratio K of the total energies of cosmic ray protons and electrons and also has inherent problems. We present a revised formula, using the number density ratio K for which we give estimates. For particle acceleration in strong shocks K is about 40 and increases with decreasing shock strength. Our revised estimate for the field strength gives larger values than the classical estimate for flat radio spectra with spectral indices of about 0.5-0.6, but smaller values for steep spectra and total fields stronger than about 10 muG. In very young supernova remnants, for example, the classical estimate may be too large by up to 10x. On the other hand, if energy losses of cosmic ray electrons are important, K increases with particle energy and the equipartition field may be underestimated significantly. Our revised larger equipartition estimates in galaxy clusters and radio lobes are consistent with independent estimates from Faraday rotation measures, while estimates from the ratio between radio synchrotron and X-ray inverse Compton intensities generally give much weaker fields. This may be explained e.g. by a concentration of the field in filaments. Our revised field strengths may also lead to major revisions of electron lifetimes in jets and radio lobes estimated from the synchrotron break frequency in the radio spectrum.

Rainer Beck; Marita Krause

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Minimum Energy Dwelling (MED) workbook: an investigation of techniques and materials for energy conscious design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This workbook is based upon information gathered during the design phase of the Minimum Energy Dwelling. The objective of the project, sponsored by the Southern California Gas Co., Department of Energy, and Mission Viejo is to substantially reduce energy use by the incorporation of energy conservation and solar techniques in a single-family detached dwelling. The Project will demonstrate to builders, as well as to the general public, a number of technological innovations that can, at reasonable cost, be included in a dwelling design. The problem facing Southern California Gas Co., along with most other gas utilities, is ever-decreasing amounts of gas at increasing prices. The dwelling designed has approximately 1,150 ft/sup 2/, consistent with current home-building trends. Through the optimum use of energy-conserving appliances, insulation, window and wall shading, exterior coloring, and thermal mass, the yearly energy usage has been reduced by over 50%. Of the remaining 50% of the energy required for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water, the majority is supplied by the solar-energy system. Three hundred twenty square feet (270 effective) of evacuated tube collector are incorporated into the building structure. The hot water provided by the collectors is used to run an absorption chiller for cooling, the domestic hot water, and the heating system. The remaining energy requirements are met by an auxiliary natural gas energy system and a cool-air-economizer cycle.

Not Available

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Portable modular detection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

239

Radiation Detection Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Radiation Detection Instruments. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security requested ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

240

A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Minimum Free Energy Reaction Path for the E2 Reaction between Fluoro Ethane and a Fluoride Ion, such as the mechanism and the free-energy profile, remains an important challenge not only for enzyme catalysis1 of the reaction free-energy profile is very cumbersome with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) and umbrella

Nielsen, Steven O.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

An exact solution for finding minimum recombinant haplotype configurations on pedigrees with missing data by integer linear programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the problem of reconstructing haplotype configurations from genotypes on pedigree data with missing alleles under the Mendelian law of inheritance and the minimum recombination principle, which is important for the construction of haplotype ... Keywords: branch-and-bound algorithm, haplotyping, integer linear programming, missing data imputation, pedigree analysis, recombination

Jing Li; Tao Jiang

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

P2.23 Trace Impurity Detection in Electronic Grade Arsine by Cavity ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arsine was found to be a strongly absorbing matrix gas with an extremely ... A minimum detection concentration of 31 ppb water vapor in arsine was achieved. .... P1.4 Effect of Ammonia Flow Rate and 70 MeV Si Ion Irradiation Induced Defects ...

243

Performance evaluation of wireless sensor networks for event-detection with shadowing-induced radio irregularities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study a particular application of wireless sensor networks for event-detection and tracking. In this kind of application, the transport of data is simplified, and guaranteeing a minimum number of packets at the monitoring node is the ...

Giuseppe De Marco; Tao Yang; Makoto Ikeda; Leonard Barolli

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Detection of pump degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

Casada, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere by transient solar events and the fact that in 1999-2000 Ulysses observed only intermediate (<650 km s{sup {minus}1}) solar wind speed (whose contents in pick-up He is less energetic than in the fast solar wind streams observed in 1992-1994) favored the protons with respect to alpha particles. Hence the fact that the average values of the H/He ratio observed by Ulysses during the rising phase of the solar cycle (1999-2000) were higher than those observed during the declining phase (1992-1994).

J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Integrated Technology for Distribution Systems Applications: Survey and Testing of Voltage Detecting/Indicating Devices for AC Power Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes product reviews and testing commercially available voltage-sensing devices used to detect energized electric distribution lines, with particular focus on minimum detection and indication performance. To adequately detect line energization across the entire spectrum of possible voltage levels on a power line (from 40 Vac to full line voltage), multiple devices are currently necessary. The ideal improvement to address current gaps in voltage sensing would be the development of a ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

247

Sound design concepts meeting minimum sound requirements—Advantages and disadvantages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A young field of activity for acoustic engineers has emerged in the context of vehicle exterior noise design considering the aspect of pedestrian safety. The fear of blind associations

André Fiebig; Klaus Genuit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON  

SciTech Connect

Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers, ?in-furnace NO x control,? which includes: staged low-NO x burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of ?in-furnace? NO x control processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum ?in-furnace? NO x control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NO x burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NO x burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NO x burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NO x control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NO x burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI?s coal combustion code to take account of recently obtained fundamental data on char reactivity during the late stages of burnout. This will improve our ability to predict carbon burnout with low-NO x firing systems.

A.F. SAROFIM; BROWN UNIVERSITY. R.A. LISAUSKAS; D.B. RILEY, INC.; E.G. EDDINGS; J. BROUWER; J.P. KLEWICKI; K.A. DAVIS; M.J. BOCKELIE; M.P. HEAP; REACTION ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL. D.W. PERSHING; UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. R.H. HURT

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Intrusion Detection: Characterising intrusion detection sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intrusion detection sensor is defined as a device that collects and analyses network traffic for the purpose of identifying suspicious events. Too often the value of a sensor is associated with its data collection and analysis features. Experience ...

Siraj A. Shaikh; Howard Chivers; Philip Nobles; John A. Clark; Hao Chen

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Detecting and Analyzing Multiple Moving Objects in a Crowd  

with a video recording apparatus to detect, count, and analyze regions of activity in crowds was developed by computer scientists at ORNL. The algorithm

251

Microfluidic gas flow profiling using remote detection NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using remote detection NMR Christian Hilty* † , Eringas mixture containing 0.3% NMR active 129 Xe (1% Xe atNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to obtain spatially and

Hilty, Christian; McDonnell, Erin; Granwehr, Josef; Pierce, Kimberly; Han, Song-I Han; Pines, Alexander

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Parallelizing data race detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detecting data races in multithreaded programs is a crucial part of debugging such programs, but traditional data race detectors are too slow to use routinely. This paper shows how to speed up race detection by spreading the work across multiple cores. ... Keywords: data race detection, uniparallelism

Benjamin Wester; David Devecsery; Peter M. Chen; Jason Flinn; Satish Narayanasamy

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Improved isolation of the p-p underlying event based on minimum-bias trigger-associated hadron correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some aspects of hadron production in p-p collisions remain unresolved, including the low-hadron-momentum structure of high-parton-energy dijets, separation of triggered dijets from the underlying event (UE), the systematics of multiple parton interactions and possible systematic underestimation of dijet contributions to high-energy nuclear collisions. In this study we apply a minimum-bias trigger-associated (TA) correlation analysis to p-p collisions. We extract a hard component from TA correlations that can be compared with measured jet fragment systematics derived from e-e collisions. The kinematic limits on jet fragment production may be determined. The same method may be extended to A-A collisions where the role of minimum-bias jets in spectra and correlations is strongly contested.

Thomas A. Trainor; Duncan J. Prindle

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

ANL Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activities of the DOD Activities of the DOD Project Office focus today on the Navy's Free Electron Laser Program Argonne Accelerator Institute Meeting June 16, 2009 2 Several Beam Activities and Interests Ongoing  Terahertz sources and applications  Navy Free Electron Laser (Focus area today)  Free Electron Laser Applications  Electromagnetic Interference Technology Review Committees  Novel Fiber Optic Materials with Army Research Lab  Optical Diagnostics for next-generation light sources  Neutron detection schemes  NATO Sensors and Electronics Panel, international field tests of directed energy source applications  Controls  Radiation Oncology 3 Background, Naval Directed Energy History The U.S Navy has been investigating utility of lasers since the 1960's and the

255

Alternative Minimum Levels for Utility Aqueous Discharges: Chemical Analytical Measurement Guide for National Pollutant Discharge El imination System (NPDES) Permits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act requires the electric utility industry to monitor their wastewater discharges to ensure compliance with discharge permit limits. EPRI developed a new definition of quantitation level appropriate to water quality compliance monitoring and used data from its previous studies on trace element analysis of utility wastewaters to calculate Alternative Minimum Levels (AMLs). The approach developed in this report will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits to meet effluen...

1997-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Minimum Column Density of 1 g cm^-2 for Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive stars are very rare, but their extreme luminosities make them both the only type of young star we can observe in distant galaxies and the dominant energy sources in the universe today. They form rarely because efficient radiative cooling keeps most star-forming gas clouds close to isothermal as they collapse, and this favors fragmentation into stars ~ 1 g cm^-2 can avoid fragmentation and form massive stars. This threshold, and the environmental variation of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) that it implies, naturally explain the characteristic column densities of massive star clusters and the difference between the radial profiles of Halpha and UV emission in galactic disks. The existence of a threshold also implies that there should be detectable variations in the IMF with environment within the Galaxy and in the characteristic column densities of massive star clusters between galaxies, and that star formation rates in some galactic environments may have been systematically underestimated.

Mark R. Krumholz; Christopher F. McKee

2008-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

257

Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fracture detection and mapping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, E.L.

1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

260

An estimate for the sum of a Dirichlet series in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a vertical line segment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behaviour of the sum of an entire Dirichlet series is analyzed in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a system of vertical line segments. Also a more general problem, connected with the Polya conjecture is posed and solved. It concerns the minimum modulus of an entire function with Fabri gaps and its growth along curves going to infinity. Bibliography: 33 titles.

Gaisin, Ahtyar M; Rakhmatullina, Zhanna G

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Simple Technique for Islanding Detection with Negligible Nondetection Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although active islanding detection techniques have smaller nondetection zones than passive techniques, active methods could degrade the system power quality and are not as simple and easy to implement as passive methods. ...

Kirtley Jr, James L.

262

Exploring underwater target detection by imaging polarimetry and correlation techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Exploring underwater target detection by imaging polarimetry and correlation techniques M *Corresponding author: ayman.al-falou@isen.fr Underwater target detection is investigated by combining active. This experimentally study illustrates the potential of polarization imaging for underwater target detection and opens

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Enhancing byte-level network intrusion detection signatures with context  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) use byte sequences as signatures to detect malicious activity. While being highly efficient, they tend to suffer from a high false-positive rate. We develop the concept of contextual signatures as ... Keywords: bro, evaluation, network intrusion detection, pattern matching, security, signatures, snort

Robin Sommer; Vern Paxson

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Detecting research topics via the correlation between graphs and texts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we address the problem of detecting topics in large-scale linked document collections. Recently, topic detection has become a very active area of research due to its utility for information navigation, trend analysis, and high-level description ... Keywords: citation graphs, correlation of text and links, graph mining, probabilistic measure, topic detection

Yookyung Jo; Carl Lagoze; C. Lee Giles

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Minimum State Awareness for Resilient Control Systems Under Cyber-Attack  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State awareness for a control system is the accurate knowledge of the internal states of the system realization. To maintain stable operation, a controller requires a certain degree of state awareness. By definition, a cyber-attacker decreases the state awareness by modifying or removing the information available to the operator and control system. By doing so, the attacker can directly cause damage to the physical system through the control system, or indirectly by causing the operator to react in a damaging manner to the false information. In a number of recent papers, detection and mitigation strategies have been proposed that assume state awareness. The goal of the attacker to reduce or remove state awareness makes this assumption invalid for most situations. One of the central problems of resilient control is developing methods to retain sufficient state awareness to continue operation during a cyberattack. In this paper, we will define state awareness, discuss the consequences of loss of state awareness, and some potential research directions for maintaining state awareness.

Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

268

LANL | Physics | Active Interrogation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physics Division activities in standoff active-interrogation for detecting Physics Division activities in standoff active-interrogation for detecting terrorist nuclear devices, 2011 Detonation of a terrorist nuclear device in a major city would have severe economic, psychological and cultural consequences. To help prevent the fulfillment of such a threat, Physics Division has been exploring techniques by which highly-enriched uranium could be detected before reaching its intended target. We have focused on the use of high-energy protons and negative-muons because of their ability to probe deeply into structures and shielding that would surround the uranium, and their capability to stimulate radiation signatures indicating 235U. Our experimental studies for standoff active-interrogation are enabled by the 800-MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, which

269

Neutron-detection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atomic fission counting apparatus used for neutron detection is provided with spirally curved electrode plates uniformly spaced apart in a circular array and coated with fissile material.

Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

1981-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

270

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

271

Neutron detection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atomic fission counting apparatus used for neutron detection is provided with spirally curved electrode plates uniformly spaced apart in a circular array and coated with fissile material.

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Valentine, Kenneth H. (Lenoir City, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method For Detecting The Presence Of A Ferromagnetic Object  

SciTech Connect

A method for detecting a presence or an absence of a ferromagnetic object within a sensing area may comprise the steps of sensing, during a sample time, a magnetic field adjacent the sensing area; producing surveillance data representative of the sensed magnetic field; determining an absolute value difference between a maximum datum and a minimum datum comprising the surveillance data; and determining whether the absolute value difference has a positive or negative sign. The absolute value difference and the corresponding positive or negative sign thereof forms a representative surveillance datum that is indicative of the presence or absence in the sensing area of the ferromagnetic material.

Roybal, Lyle G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Real time cross-layer adaptation for minimum energy wireless image transport using bit error rate control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In wireless multimedia systems, significant power is consumed in processing image/video content This research looks specifically at the energy cost of wireless image/video transport focusing on image quality as an end metric. The quality of received ... Keywords: PSNR values, real-time cross-layer adaptation, minimum-energy wireless image transport, bit error rate control, wireless multimedia systems, wireless image-video content processing, communication channel, image-video data compression, received signal quality, minimal RF energy consumption, optimization procedure, varying channel conditions, baseband signal, RF power amplifier, RF PA, optimal transmission bit error rate value, closed loop feedback control

J. Natarajan; S. Sen; A. Chatterjee

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Implication of a covenant to diligently develop and mine in hard mineral leases that provide for minimum rents or royalties  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the status of the implied covenant to develop in hard mineral leases which contain minimum royalty provisions discusses the rationale for the implied development covenant, restrictions on its use, and scenarios under which mining delays occur. Later sections delineate the rules of construction and interpretative tests used in various mining jurisdictions. The author then analyzes the logic of these tests in light of the regulatory and economic climate of today's mining industry. He finds that this climate forces prudent mining companies to delay mine development in many instances. The substantial relation test considers all factors that are indicative of the original parties expectations; the demand for development rule does not.

Bender, J.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

An Experimental Shield Test Facility for the Development of Minimum Weight Shields for Compact Reactor Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Discussions are given of the characteristics of fission-source plate, graphite reactor, and pool-type reactor facilities applicable to development studies of minimum weight shielding materials. Advantages of a proposed SNAP dual-purpose shielding facility are described in terms of a disk-shaped fission-source plate, reactor, and building. A program for the study of advanced shielding materials is discussed for materials and configuations to be evaluted with the fission-source plate, the testing of the prototype at high-power levels, and full-power tests on the actual reactor.

Tomlinson, R.L.

1959-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

Flaw Detection and Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Planar flaw classification and NDE detection methods...Lack of bonding Forging or rolling lap Casting cold shut Heat treatment cracks Grinding cracks Plating cracks Fatigue cracks Stress-corrosion cracks Welding cracks Lack of fusion Incomplete penetration Brazing debond NDE detection methods Visual Replication microscopy Magnetic particle Magnetic...

280

On Detecting Spatial Outliers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ever-increasing volume of spatial data has greatly challenged our ability to extract useful but implicit knowledge from them. As an important branch of spatial data mining, spatial outlier detection aims to discover the objects whose non-spatial ... Keywords: algorithm, outlier detection, spatial data mining

Dechang Chen; Chang-Tien Lu; Yufeng Kou; Feng Chen

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Lean blowoff detection sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

282

Analytes Detected from Crude, Dirty Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Page 5. Kit-Based Platform Explosives detection Fission product detection Nerve agent detection Bioagent detection DNA Extraction? Page 6. ...

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured [Ressler 2010]. The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 {mu}s. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit the authors to labeling the 1204-keV gamma ray as a very strong candidate for isomeric transition in 235U. Regardless of the physics origins, the time structure of the 1204-keV gamma ray can be used as at a minimum as an indication of fissile material, if the 1204-keV gamma ray is attributed to a fission product, or it may be a unique signature for 235U, if it is a signature of an isomeric state in 235U.

Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

P. Somasundaran

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

The Effects of Data Gaps on the Calculated Monthly Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperatures in the Continental United States: A Spatial and Temporal Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gaps in otherwise regularly scheduled observations are often referred to as missing data. This paper explores the spatial and temporal impacts that data gaps in the recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures have on the calculated monthly ...

David E. Stooksbury; Craig D. Idso; Kenneth G. Hubbard

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Comparison among Strategies for Interpolating Maximum and Minimum Daily Air Temperatures. Part I: The Selection of “Guiding” Topographic and Land Cover Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the derivation and selection of a comprehensive set of continuous topographic and land cover–related variables to guide the interpolation of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over England and Wales, for an entire annual ...

Claire H. Jarvis; Neil Stuart

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Comparison among Strategies for Interpolating Maximum and Minimum Daily Air Temperatures. Part II: The Interaction between Number of Guiding Variables and the Type of Interpolation Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a comparative experiment, the sequence of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for 1976 was interpolated over England and Wales to a resolution of 1 km using partial thin plate splines, ordinary kriging, trend surface, and an automatic ...

Claire H. Jarvis; Neil Stuart

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaluation of the AR4 Climate Models’ Simulated Daily Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature, and Precipitation over Australia Using Probability Density Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupled climate models used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are evaluated. The evaluation is focused on 12 regions of Australia for the daily simulation of precipitation, minimum temperature, ...

S. E. Perkins; A. J. Pitman; N. J. Holbrook; J. McAneney

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Prediction of Summer Maximum and Minimum Temperature over the Central and Western United States: The Roles of Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical model based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was used to explore climatic associations and predictability of June–August (JJA) maximum and minimum surface air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) as well as the frequency of Tmax ...

Eric J. Alfaro; Alexander Gershunov; Daniel Cayan

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development and Testing of Canada-Wide Interpolated Spatial Models of Daily Minimum–Maximum Temperature and Precipitation for 1961–2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of trivariate thin-plate smoothing splines to the interpolation of daily weather data is investigated. The method was used to develop spatial models of daily minimum and maximum temperature and daily precipitation for all of ...

Michael F. Hutchinson; Dan W. McKenney; Kevin Lawrence; John H. Pedlar; Ron F. Hopkinson; Ewa Milewska; Pia Papadopol

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Detecting Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The likelihood ratio of the data for a hypothesis of some change, relative to the hypothesis of no change, is a suitable statistical measure for the detection of climate change. Likelihood ratios calculated on the basis of Angell and Korshover's (...

Edward S. Epstein

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Detection of counterfeit currency  

SciTech Connect

A method of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1250 namometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency.

Burns, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Efficient elastic burst detection in data streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Burst detection is the activity of finding abnormal aggregates in data streams. Such aggregates are based on sliding windows over data streams. In some applications, we want to monitor many sliding window sizes simultaneously and to report those windows ... Keywords: data stream, elastic burst

Yunyue Zhu; Dennis Shasha

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Efficient search algorithms for RNAi target detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism used to study gene functions, inhibit viral activities, and treat diseases therapeutically. However, RNAi has off-target effects--non-target genes can be unintentionally silenced. ... Keywords: Off-target, RNAi target detection, Reverse string search, String inexact matching, String kernels, siRNA seed region

Shibin Qiu; Terran Lane; Cundong Yang

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

KIDS: keyed intrusion detection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since most current network attacks happen at the application layer, analysis of packet payload is necessary for their detection. Unfortunately malicious packets may be crafted to mimic normal payload, and so avoid detection if the anomaly detection method ... Keywords: Kerckhoffs' principle, anomaly detection, keyed IDS, network intrusion detection, word model

Sasa Mrdovic; Branislava Drazenovic

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The Minimum-Mass Extrasolar Nebula: In-Situ Formation of Close-In Super-Earths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Close-in super-Earths, with radii R = 2-5 R_Earth and orbital periods P < 100 days, orbit more than half, and perhaps nearly all Sun-like stars in the universe. We use this omnipresent population to construct the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula (MMEN), the circumstellar disk of solar-composition solids and gas from which such planets formed, if they formed near their current locations and did not migrate. In a series of back-of-the-envelope calculations, we demonstrate how in-situ formation in the MMEN is fast, efficient, and can reproduce many of the observed properties of close-in super-Earths, including their gas-to-rock fractions. Testable predictions are discussed.

Chiang, E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber  

SciTech Connect

Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

Gentry, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optoelectronic Design Dept.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

Girling, P.M.

1986-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Error detection method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

Olson, Eric J.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

302

Composition for detecting uranyl  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an indicator composition for use in spectrophotometric detection of a substance in a solution, and a method for making the composition. Useful indicators are sensitive to the particular substance being measured, but are unaffected by the fluid and other chemical species that may be present in the fluid. Optical indicators are used to measure the uranium concentration of process solutions in facilities for extracting uranium from ores, production of nuclear fuels, and reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The composition comprises an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for the substance, in such a manner that the product is itself an indicator that provides increased spectral resolution for detecting the substance. The indicator is preferably arsenazo III and the organohalide is preferably cyanuric chloride. These form a composition that is ideally suited for detecting uranyl.

Baylor, L.C.; Stephens, S.M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Detection of solar events  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

304

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

Nelson, Melvin A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Davies, Terence J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Morton, III, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

NVLAP Radiation Detection Instruments LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Detection Instruments LAP. Leticia Pibida uses a hand-held radiation detection device to check cargo. Photo: Copyright Robert Rathe. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

Confidence Probability versus Detection Probability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a discovery sampling activity the auditor seeks to vet an inventory by measuring (or inspecting) a random sample of items from the inventory. When the auditor finds every sample item in compliance, he must then make a confidence statement about the whole inventory. For example, the auditor might say: ''We believe that this inventory of 100 items contains no more than 5 defectives with 95% confidence.'' Note this is a retrospective statement in that it asserts something about the inventory after the sample was selected and measured. Contrast this to the prospective statement: ''We will detect the existence of more than 5 defective items in this inventory with 95% probability.'' The former uses confidence probability while the latter uses detection probability. For a given sample size, the two probabilities need not be equal, indeed they could differ significantly. Both these probabilities critically depend on the auditor's prior belief about the number of defectives in the inventory and how he defines non-compliance. In other words, the answer strongly depends on how the question is framed.

Axelrod, M

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

307

Detection of counterfeit currency  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1,250 nanometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency. 18 figs.

Burns, D.A.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

308

DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

Tillman, J.E.

1951-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Toward gravitational wave detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An overview of some tools and techniques being developed for data conditioning (regression of instrumental and environmental artifacts from the data channel), detector design evaluation (modeling the science ``reach'' of alternative detector designs and configurations), noise simulations for mock data challenges and analysis system validation, and analyses for the detection of gravitational radiation from gamma-ray burst sources.

L. S. Finn; G. Gonzalez; J. Hough; M. F. Huq; S. Mohanty; J. Romano; S. Rowan; P. R. Saulson; K. A. Strain

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

310

Wikipedia vandalism detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia that anyone can access and edit. It has become one of the most important sources of knowledge online and many third party projects rely on it for a wide-range of purposes. The open model of Wikipedia allows pranksters, ... Keywords: Wikipedia vandalism detection, machine learning, natural language processing, reputation

Santiago M. Mola-Velasco

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radiation Detection from Fission  

SciTech Connect

This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted in fission, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. The brief descriptions are supplemented by reference.

Mihalczo, J.

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiation detection system  

SciTech Connect

A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Initiative for Explosives Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capabilities. Staff at PNNL are developing effective integrated systems for explosives detection, addressing, fundamental science and health. Battelle, based in Columbus, Ohio, has operated PNNL since 1965. PNNL's long. PNNL is located in Richland, Washington. Additional web resources are at: http

314

Proposing a multi-touch interface for intrusion detection environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network Intrusion Detection is a critical task in today's environment, where network attacks and intrusions are everyday occurrences and state-level cyber warfare is a major concern. At the same time, it is a very difficult task, in part due to the large ... Keywords: activity theory, cognitive task analysis, data exploration, natural user interfaces, network intrusion detection visualization

Jeffrey Guenther; Fred Volk; Mark Shaneck

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Efficient data race detection for distributed memory parallel programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a precise data race detection technique for distributed memory parallel programs. Our technique, which we call Active Testing, builds on our previous work on race detection for shared memory Java and C programs and it handles ...

Chang-Seo Park; Koushik Sen; Paul Hargrove; Costin Iancu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

317

Using a Family of Dividing Surfaces Normal to the Minimum EnergyPath for Quantum Instanton Rate Constants  

SciTech Connect

One of the outstanding issues in the quantum instanton (QI) theory (or any transition state-type theory) for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions is the choice of an appropriate ''dividing surface'' (DS) that separates reactants and products. (In the general version of the QI theory, there are actually two dividing surfaces involved.) This paper shows one simple and general way for choosing DS's for use in QI Theory, namely using the family of (hyper) planes normal to the minimum energy path (MEP) on the potential energy surface at various distances s along it. Here the reaction coordinate is not one of the dynamical coordinates of the system (which will in general be the Cartesian coordinates of the atoms), but rather simply a parameter which specifies the DS. It is also shown how this idea can be implemented for an N-atom system in 3d space in a way that preserves overall translational and rotational invariance. Numerical application to a simple system (the colliner H + H{sub 2} reaction) is presented to illustrate the procedure.

Li, Yimin; Miller, Wlliam H.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

318

Negative ion rich plasmas in continuous and pulsed wave modes in a minimum-B magnetic field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generation of hydrogen negative ion rich plasmas is investigated in continuous wave (CW) and pulse modulated (PM) wave modes of 2.45 GHz in a minimum-B magnetic field. The waves are launched directly into the plasma device and utilize wave particle resonances for high density plasma generation. In CW operation, the chamber is divided into two sections, namely, the source and downstream region, separated by a transverse magnetic field that allows only cold electrons ({approx}1 eV) into the downstream region helpful for the generation of negative ions. The H{sup -} density is measured by the second derivative beat method and is compared with the values obtained from a steady state model and the extracted current density. In the pulsed mode, temporal filtering generates negative ion rich plasmas in the afterglow phase. The H{sup -} density in the afterglow is estimated using saturation current ratio method and the results are compared with a time dependent model using particle balance equations. The essential idea in both the filtering techniques is to assist generation of negative ions and prevent its destruction by hot electrons.

Sahu, Debaprasad; Pandey, Shail; Aneja, Jyoti; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Changes in quasi-periodic variations of solar photospheric fields: precursor to the deep solar minimum in the cycle 23?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using both wavelet and Fourier analysis, a study has been undertaken of the changes in the quasi-periodic variations in solar photospheric fields in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima experienced in the past 100 years. This unusual and deep solar minimum occurred between solar cycles 23 and 24. The study, carried out using ground based synoptic magnetograms spanning the period 1975.14 to 2009.86, covered solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. A hemispheric asymmetry in periodicities of the photospheric fields was seen only at latitudes above $\\pm45{^{\\circ}}$ when the data was divided, based on a wavelet analysis, into two parts: one prior to 1996 and the other after 1996. Furthermore, the hemispheric asymmetry was observed to be confined to the latitude range 45${^{\\circ}}$ to 60${^{\\circ}}$. This can be attributed to the variations in polar surges that primarily depend on both the emergence of surface magnetic flux and varying solar surface flows. The observed asymmetry when coupled with the fact that bot...

Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Chakrabarty, D; Ananthakrishnan, S; Divekar, Ankur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Protein detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

Fruetel, Julie A. (Livermore, CA); Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Bethesda, MD); Kliner, Dahv A. V. (San Ramon, CA); McIlroy, Andrew (Livermore, CA)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solar neutrino detection  

SciTech Connect

More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

Miramonti, Lino [Physics department of Milano University and INFN (Italy)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Cell Phone Detection Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Solar neutrino detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

Lino Miramonti

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

Detection of pump degradation  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Connecting blackbody radiation and zero-point radiation within classical physics: A new minimum principle and a status review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new thermodynamic analysis is presented for the intimate connections between blackbody radiation and zero-point radiation within classical physics. First, using the thermodynamic behavior of an oscillator under an adiabatic change of frequency, we show that the thermodynamic functions can all be derived from a single function of w/T, analogous to Wien's displacement theorem. The high- and low-frequency limits allow asymptotic energy forms involving T alone or w alone, corresponding to energy equipartition and zero-point energy. It is then suggested that the actual thermodynamic behavior for a harmonic oscillator is given by the function satisfying the Wien displacement result which provides the smoothest possible interpolation between scale-decoupled energy equipartition at low frequency and scale-invariant zero-point energy at high frequency. This leads to the Planck spectrum. Second, we turn to radiation in a box with conducting walls and a conducting partition so that the discrete normal mode structure of the box becomes important. The contrasting Casimir energies are explored for the Rayleigh-Jeans and zero-point spectra. The Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum involves no change of energy with partition position, and the zero-point spectrum involves no change of entropy. It is suggested that the Planck spectrum with zero-point radiation satisfies a natural minimum principle which corresponds to greatest independence of the system energy from the position of the partition for a fixed temperature. Numerical calculation is used for confirmation. Third, we review the previous derivations of the Planck radiation spectrum in classical physics, all of which involve zero-point radiation.

Timothy H. Boyer

2002-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar magnitude.

Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

HRT LEAK DETECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

All HRT process piping and equipment is contained in a large tank and flanged connections with stainless steel ring gaskets are used where needed to permit the removal of values and items of equipment. Underwater remote maintenance is to be employed and special provisions are required for indicating and locating leaks at all mechanical joints in the process system. Each joint is monitored and a signal is given when a leak occurs. The valve operator stems are sealed with stainless steel bellows and a means of detecting a leak in the bellows has been included. (auth)

Kuster, J.E.

1956-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Flaw detection and evaluation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of and apparatus for optically inspecting nuclear fuel pellets for surface flaws. The inspection system includes a prism and lens arrangement for scanning the surface of each pellet as the same is rotated. The resulting scan produces data indicative of the extent and shape of each flaw which is employed to generate a flaw quality index for each detected flaw. The flaw quality indexes from all flaws are summed and compared with an acceptable surface quality index. The result of the comparison is utilized to control the acceptance or rejection of the pellet.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays is discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost-effective for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic-trough arrays.

Edenburn, M.W.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

THE EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS ON A CORONAL SOURCE SURFACE AT 2.3 R{sub Sun} DURING SOLAR MINIMUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory to produce global maps of coronal outflow velocities and densities in the regions where the solar wind is undergoing acceleration. The maps use UV and white light coronal data obtained from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer and the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph, respectively, and a Doppler dimming analysis to determine the mean outflow velocities. The outflow velocities are defined on a sphere at 2.3 R{sub Sun} from Sun-center and are organized by Carrington Rotations during the solar minimum period at the start of solar cycle 23. We use the outflow velocity and density maps to show that while the solar minimum corona is relatively stable during its early stages, the shrinkage of the north polar hole in the later stages leads to changes in both the global areal expansion of the coronal hole and the derived internal flux tube expansion factors of the solar wind. The polar hole areal expansion factor and the flux tube expansion factors (between the coronal base and 2.3 R{sub Sun }) start out as super-radial but then they become more nearly radial as the corona progresses away from solar minimum. The results also support the idea that the largest flux tube expansion factors are located near the coronal hole/streamer interface, at least during the deepest part of the solar minimum period.

Strachan, L.; Panasyuk, A. V.; Kohl, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lamy, P., E-mail: lstrachan@cfa.harvard.edu [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR6110 CNRS/Universite de Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Initiative Life-cycle Cost Analysis Canada and Mexico –baseline energy consumption. Canada’s and Mexico’s marketsMexico minimum efficiency performance standard million tons (of CO 2 ) national equipment cost National Electric Manufacturers Association national energy

Letschert, Virginie E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Outlier Detection Rules for Fault Detection in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fault detection. Furthermore, the proposed models become more reliable as the number of PV measurements analysis specifically for PV installation. Several fault detection models and monitoring systems have been studied for PV systems [8]­[14]. PV monitoring and fault detection models based on energy yield and power

Lehman, Brad

334

Detecting alien life forms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detecting alien life forms Detecting alien life forms Name: Brian S Foster Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What would you do to find out if there is any life form on other planets? Replies: If you mean intelligent life, probably the best way would be to listen for radio messages, since you could do this from very far away. Earth emits as much radio energy as a small star --- very noticeable. If you mean just any kind of life it gets harder and you would have to send a robot or human in a spacecraft to visit. You could then look for the absorption of reflected light by oxygen molecules in the atmosphere. Oxygen is such a reactive molecule that it can only stay in the atmosphere if it is continually replenished by something, such as plants photosynthesizing. We cannot of course know that other life will build itself as does life on Earth, out of carbon-containing molecules which are formed by cracking apart carbon dioxide molecules with light energy (releasing oxygen). So the only sure way would probably be to land on the planet and look around. And even then you might well miss something

335

Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract The high frequency switching megawatt-class High Voltage Converter Modulator (HVCM) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now in operation. One of the major problems with the modulator systems is shoot-thru conditions that can occur in a IGBTs H-bridge topology resulting in large fault currents and device failure in a few microseconds. The Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis (DFDC) is a fault monitoring system; it monitors transformer flux saturation using a window comparator and dV/dt events on the cathode voltage caused by any abnormality such as capacitor breakdown, transformer primary turns shorts, or dielectric breakdown between the transformer primary and secondary. If faults are detected, the DFDC will inhibit the IGBT gate drives and shut the system down, significantly reducing the possibility of a shoot-thru condition or other equipment damaging events. In this paper, we will present system integration considerations, performance characteristics of the DFDC, and discuss its ability to significantly reduce costly down time for the entire facility.

Mize, Jeffery J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Collision detection and proximity queries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course will primarily cover widely accepted and proved methodologies in collision detection. In addition more advanced or recent topics such as continuous collision detection, ADFs, and using graphics hardware will be introduced. When appropriate ...

Sunil Hadap; Dave Eberle; Pascal Volino; Ming C. Lin; Stephane Redon; Christer Ericson

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Microburst Detection Using Agent Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic detection of microbursts with Doppler radar data is an interesting challenge. Traditionally, manual detection is performed by trained meteorologists who scan through the volumetric radar data for appropriate signatures, bringing to bear ...

Sandy Dance; Rodney Potts

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Thin-Film Fiber Optic Sensors for Power Control and Fault Detection. Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Described is the development of an optical current measurement device, an active power conditioning system, and sol gel type thin films for the detection of magnetic fields.

Duncan, Paul Grems

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

7-MeV Neutron Interrogation: Scanner for Detection of Special ...  

Medium-energy (3-7 MeV) neutrons are utilized to provide enhanced cargo penetration and reduced activation of cargo materials that would interfere with detection;

340

Radiation Detection with Plastic Scintillators  

Environmental information. ... As well as help in detecting neutrons in major scientific projects. ... for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes methods used for the detection of cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV (UHECR

Carla Aramo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nanofluidic biosensing for beta-amyloid detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanofluidic biosensor using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect the ?-amyloid (A?) protein, one of the biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have indicated that investigating changes in relative concentrations of structure specific A? oligomers in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) during the progression of AD could be important indicators for diagnosing AD pre-mortem. However, there is no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis of AD thus far because of the lack of technology available for sensitive A? detection. Hence, the development of a system for detecting the structure specific A? oligomers, along with the concentrations of these oligomers in CSF, would be useful in the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of A? cytotoxicity associated with AD. In this thesis, a nanofluidic trapping device trapping system for detecting biomolecules at sub-picomolar concentrations was developed for using SERS. The device, with a microchannel leading to a nanochannel, carries out dual functions: encouraging sizedependent trapping of gold nanoparticles (60nm) at the entrance of the nanochannel as well as restricting the target molecules between the gaps created by the aggregated nanoparticles. Initially, the trapping capability of the nanofluidic device was tested using fluorescent polystyrene and gold nanoparticles. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the gold nanoparticle clusters at the entrance to the nanochannel. The device established controlled, reproducible, SERS active sites within the interstices of gold nanoparticle clusters and shifted the plasmon resonance to the near infrared, in resonance with incident laser light. Two strongly Raman active molecules, adenine and Congo red, were used to test the feasibility of the SERS nanofluidic device as a platform for the detection of multiple analytes. The results showed that strong SERS signals were obtained from the nanoparticle clusters at the nanochannel entrance. Once the feasibility of the approach was determined with strong Raman molecules, A? was detected using this nanofluidic SERS platform. Distinct surface-enhanced Raman spectra of A? was observed in different conformational states as a function of concentration and structure (monomer versus oligomer form) due to A? refolding from ?-helical to a predominantly ?-pleated sheet form. The sensor was also shown to potentially distinguish A? from insulin and albumin, confounder proteins in cerebral spinal fluid. Thus, a novel platform was developed to detect picomoler levels of A? with the ultimate goal of facilitating the diagnosis and understanding of Alzheimer’s disease by means of detecting structure specific oligomers of A?.

Chou, I-Hsien

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

An Intrusion-Detection Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of a real-time intrusion-detection expert system capable of detecting break-ins, penetrations, and other forms of computer abuse is described. The model is based on the hypothesis that security violations can be detected by monitoring a system's ... Keywords: statistical measures, Abnormal behavior, auditing, intrusions, monitoring, profiles, security

Dorothy E. Denning

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Monitoring smartphones for anomaly detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we demonstrate how to monitor a smartphone running Symbian operating system and Windows Mobile in order to extract features for anomaly detection. These features are sent to a remote server because running a complex intrusion detection ... Keywords: anomaly detection, monitoring, smartphones

Aubrey-Derrick Schmidt; Frank Peters; Florian Lamour; Christian Scheel; Seyit Ahmet Çamtepe; Sahin Albayrak

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

PRACTICAL METHODS FOR CONTINUOUS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTION USING PULSAR TIMING DATA  

SciTech Connect

Gravitational waves (GWs) are tiny ripples in the fabric of space time predicted by Einstein's general relativity. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are well poised to detect low-frequency (10{sup -9}-10{sup -7} Hz) GWs in the near future. There has been a significant amount of research into the detection of a stochastic background of GWs from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). Recent work has shown that single continuous sources standing out above the background may be detectable by PTAs operating at a sensitivity sufficient to detect the stochastic background. The most likely sources of continuous GWs in the pulsar timing frequency band are extremely massive and/or nearby SMBHBs. In this paper we present detection strategies including various forms of matched filtering and power spectral summing. We determine the efficacy and computational cost of such strategies. It is shown that using an optimal matched filter explicitly including the poorly constrained pulsar distances with a grid-based method is computationally infeasible. We show that an Earth-term-matched filter constructed using only the correlated signal terms is robust, computationally viable and highly sensitive to GW signals. We further show that a simple power spectral summing technique is nearly equivalent to the Earth-term-matched filter in terms of the minimum detectable amplitude. Both of these techniques are only a factor of two less sensitive than the computationally unrealizable optimal matched filter. We also show that a pairwise matched filter, taking the pulsar distances into account, is comparable to the optimal matched filter for the single template case and comparable to the Earth-term-matched filter for many search templates. Finally, using simulated data optimal quality, we place a theoretical minimum detectable strain amplitude of h > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} from continuous GWs at frequencies on the order {approx}1/T{sub obs}.

Ellis, J. A. [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Jenet, F. A. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

346

Arc fault detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

RADIATION WAVE DETECTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

Wouters, L.F.

1960-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

Arc fault detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

Jha, K.N.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

349

Detection of gas leakage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

Thornberg, Steven (Peralta, NM); Brown, Jason (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

350

Weld failure detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

Pennell, William E. (Unity Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Sutton, Jr., Harry G. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

Wise, Arlene A. (Philadelphia, PA); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Terwilliger, Thomas C. (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

Time-frequency methods for detecting spike activity of stomach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

H.H. Sun. School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, ... Correspondence should be addressed to Professor Hun H. Sun;.

353

HI Clouds detected towards Virgo with the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey is in the process of yielding a complete HI dataset of the Virgo Cluster and its environs (Giovanelli et al. 2007, Kent et al., in preparation). Assuming a distance to Virgo of 16.7 Mpc, the minimum detectable HI mass by ALFALFA is of order 2 x 10^7 Msun. A number of the HI detections appear to have interesting properties. Some appear associated with, but offset from, low surface brightness optical counterparts; others, at larger spatial offsets, may be tidally related to optical counterparts. Yet another class includes detections which are not identifiable with any optical counterparts. We present the ALFALFA results on these objects in the Virgo region, as well as followup aperture synthesis observations obtained with the VLA.

Brian R. Kent

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

354

RFID-based human behavior modeling and anomaly detection for elderly care  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research aimed at building an intelligent system that can detect abnormal behavior for the elderly at home. Active RFID tags can be deployed at home to help collect daily movement data of the elderly who carries an RFID reader. When the reader detects ... Keywords: RFID, anomaly detection, behavior modeling, clustering, elderly care

Hui-Huang Hsu; Chien-Chen Chen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Active Sensors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Active Sensors Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Active Sensors Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Active Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Remote Sensing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Detect fault and ground movement, delineate faults, create high-resolution DEMS, quantify fault kinemaics, develop lineament maps, Geophysical Monitoring Hydrological: Can give indications about subsurface geothermal fluid flow Thermal: Dictionary.png Active Sensors: Sensors that emit their own source of energy then measure the

357

Image reduction pipeline for the detection of variable sources in highly crowded fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a reduction pipeline for CCD (charge-coupled device) images which was built to search for variable sources in highly crowded fields like the M31 bulge and to handle extensive databases due to large time series. We describe all steps of the standard reduction in detail with emphasis on the realisation of per pixel error propagation: Bias correction, treatment of bad pixels, flatfielding, and filtering of cosmic rays. The problems of conservation of PSF (point spread function) and error propagation in our image alignment procedure as well as the detection algorithm for variable sources are discussed: We build difference images via image convolution with a technique called OIS (Alard & Lupton, 1998), proceed with an automatic detection of variable sources in noise dominated images and finally apply a PSF-fitting, relative photometry to the sources found. For the WeCAPP project (Riffeser et al., 2001) we achieve 3 sigma detections for variable sources with an apparent brightness of e.g. m = 24.9 mag at their minimum and a variation of dm = 2.4 mag (or m = 21.9 mag brightness minimum and a variation of dm = 0.6 mag) on a background signal of 18.1 mag/arcsec^2 based on a 500 s exposure with 1.5 arcsec seeing at a 1.2 m telescope. The complete per pixel error propagation allows us to give accurate errors for each measurement.

Claus A. Goessl; Arno Riffeser

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method for Detecting an Element  

Using gamma ray spectrum analysis, this patented invention detects a desired element from a very small sample and by compares it to a small sample of ...

359

Methods and systems for remote detection of gases  

SciTech Connect

Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

Johnson, Timothy J

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

360

Studies of fusion reactor blankets with minimum radioactive inventory and with tritium breeding in solid lithium compounds: a preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of fusion reactor blankets with low residual activity is examined. Several designs are examined with regard to activation, tritium breeding ratio, mechanical design, tritium removal from the blanket, and thermal cycle efflciency. Using aluminum (SAP) as a structural material, it should be possible to build CTR blankets with ~10 curies/MW(e) of long-lived (half life one day or greater) residual activity (other than tritium), which is many orders of magnitude less than with Nb or stainless steel blankets. In the designs examined in this study, tritium is bred in -solid-lithium-containing materials, e.g., LiAl alloy, which have high-equilibrium tritium pressures. The tritium diffuses into either the helium-coolant stream, from which it is removed by absorption, or into the vacuum region between the first wall and plasma. Depending on processing methods and blanket parameters, the tritium blanket inventory should range from 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/ curies/ MW(e). Tritium breeding ratios range from 0.9 to 1.5 depending on blanket design, while therrnal cycle efficiency is estimated to range from 35% to well over 40%, depending on design. Several module designs are developed in which helium-coolant exit temperatures are substantially above the operating temperature limit (~400 deg C) for the aluminum (SAP) structure. (auth)

Powell, J.R.; Miles, F.T.; Aronson, A.; Winsche, W.E.

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium  

SciTech Connect

Active interrogation techniques provide reliable detection of highly enriched uranium (HEU) even when passive detection is difficult. We use 50-Hz pulsed beams of bremsstrahlung photons from a 10-MeV linac or 14-MeV neutrons from a neutron generator for interrogation, thus activating the HEU. Detection of neutrons between pulses is a positive indicator of the presence of fissionable material. We detect the neutrons with three neutron detector designs based on {sup 3}He tubes. This report shows examples of the responses in these three detectors, for unshielded and shielded kilogram quantities of HEU, in containers as large as cargo containers.

Moss, C. E. (Calvin E.); Hollas, C. L. (Charles L.); Myers, W. L. (William L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

Mohagheghi, Amir H. (Albuquerque, NM); Reese, Robert P. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Cascade-based community detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a directed social graph and a set of past informa- tion cascades observed over the graph, we study the novel problem of detecting modules of the graph (communities of nodes), that also explain the cascades. Our key observation is that both information ... Keywords: community detection, information cascades, social networks

Nicola Barbieri; Francesco Bonchi; Giuseppe Manco

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Nuclear Nonproliferation Program Offices > Office of Nonproliferation Research & Development > Nuclear Detonation Detection Nuclear Detonation Detection Develop, Demonstrate, and...

365

Explaining Activities as Consistent Groups of Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a method for disambiguating uncertain detections of events by seeking global explanations for activities. Given a noisy visual input, and exploiting our knowledge of the activity and its constraints, one can provide a consistent set of events ... Keywords: Activity analysis, Event recognition, Global explanations

Dima Damen; David Hogg

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Activity based surveillance video content modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper tackles the problem of surveillance video content modelling. Given a set of surveillance videos, the aims of our work are twofold: firstly a continuous video is segmented according to the activities captured in the video; secondly a model ... Keywords: Activity recognition, Dynamic Bayesian networks, Dynamic scene modelling, Surveillance video segmentation, Unusual activity detection, Video content analysis

Tao Xiang; Shaogang Gong

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Method for selecting minimum width of leaf in multileaf adjustable collimator while inhibiting passage of particle beams of radiation through sawtooth joints between collimator leaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for selecting the minimum width of individual leaves of a multileaf adjustable collimator having sawtooth top and bottom surfaces between adjacent leaves of a first stack of leaves and sawtooth end edges which are capable of intermeshing with the corresponding sawtooth end edges of leaves in a second stack of leaves of the collimator. The minimum width of individual leaves in the collimator, each having a sawtooth configuration in the surface facing another leaf in the same stack and a sawtooth end edge, is selected to comprise the sum of the penetration depth or range of the particular type of radiation comprising the beam in the particular material used for forming the leaf; plus the total path length across all the air gaps in the area of the joint at the edges between two leaves defined between lines drawn across the peaks of adjacent sawtooth edges; plus at least one half of the length or period of a single sawtooth. To accomplish this, in accordance with the method of the invention, the penetration depth of the particular type of radiation in the particular material to be used for the collimator leaf is first measured. Then the distance or gap between adjoining or abutting leaves is selected, and the ratio of this distance to the height of the sawteeth is selected. Finally the number of air gaps through which the radiation will pass between sawteeth is determined by selecting the number of sawteeth to be formed in the joint. The measurement and/or selection of these parameters will permit one to determine the minimum width of the leaf which is required to prevent passage of the beam through the sawtooth joint.

Ludewigt, Bernhard (Berkeley, CA); Bercovitz, John (Hayward, CA); Nyman, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Chu, William (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Shape of optimal active flagella  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many eukaryotic cells use the active waving motion of flexible flagella to self-propel in viscous fluids. However, the criteria governing the selection of particular flagellar waveforms among all possible shapes has proved elusive so far. To address this question, we derive computationally the optimal shape of an internally-forced periodic planar flagellum deforming as a travelling wave. The optimum is here defined as the shape leading to a given swimming speed with minimum energetic cost. To calculate the energetic cost though, we consider the irreversible internal power expanded by the molecular motors forcing the flagellum, only a portion of which ending up dissipated in the fluid. This optimisation approach allows us to derive a family of shapes depending on a single dimensionless number quantifying the relative importance of elastic to viscous effects: the Sperm number. The computed optimal shapes are found to agree with the waveforms observed on spermatozoon of marine organisms, thus suggesting that the...

Eloy, Christophe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

370

Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. J. Warmack, “Detection of mercury vapor using resonatingA surface acoustic wave mercury vapor sensor,” Ieee Trans.N. E. Selin, “Integrating mercury science and policy in the

Crosby, Jeffrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Anomaly Detection at Multiple Scales, or ADAMS, is a $35 million DARPA project designed to identify patterns and anomalies ...

Alain Sren Mikhayhu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Event detection using trigger chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new architecture for event detection from text documents. The proposed system correctly identifies the sentences that describe an event of interest, using trigger chain to extract its participants. It exploits supervised method ...

S. Sangeetha; R. S. Thakur; Michael Arock

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Validation of Polarimetric Hail Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study describes, illustrates, and validates hail detection by a simplified version of the National Severe Storms Laboratory’s fuzzy logic polarimetric hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA). The HCA uses four radar variables: ...

Pamela L. Heinselman; Alexander V. Ryzhkov

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response  

SciTech Connect

Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Active security  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce active security, a new methodology which introduces programmatic control within a novel feedback loop into the defense infrastructure. Active security implements a unified programming environment which provides interfaces ... Keywords: central management, digital forensics, network security

Ryan Hand, Michael Ton, Eric Keller

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Propagative hough voting for human activity recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hough-transform based voting has been successfully applied to both object and activity detections. However, most current Hough voting methods will suffer when insufficient training data is provided. To address this problem, we propose propagative Hough ...

Gang Yu; Junsong Yuan; Zicheng Liu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

378

Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We use thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California. The identification of such anomalies in a known geothermal area serves as an incentive to apply similar markers and techniques to areas of unknown geothermal potential. We carried out field measurements concurrently with the collection of ASTER images. The field

379

Photofission-Based, Nuclear Material Detection: Technology Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Advanced Research and Applications Corporation (ARACOR) [Sunnyvale, California] performed a photonuclear technology demonstration for shielded nuclear material detection during August 21–22, 2002, at the LANL TA-18 facility. The demonstration used the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment Technique (PPAT) that focused on the application of a photofission-based, nuclear material detection method as a viable complement to the ARACOR Eagle inspection platform. The Eagle is a mobile and fully operational truck and cargo inspection system that uses a 6-MeV electron accelerator to perform real-time radiography. This imaging is performed using an approved “radiation-safe” or “cabinet safe” operation relative to the operators, inspectors, and any stowaways within the inspected vehicles. While the PPAT has been primarily developed for active interrogation, its neutron detection system also maintains a complete and effective passive detection capability.

Jones, James Litton; Yoon, Woo Yong; Haskell, Kevin James; Norman, Daren Reeve; Moss, C. E.; Goulding, C. A.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.; Franco, Ed

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Active and passive mode calibration of the Combined Thermal Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) system  

SciTech Connect

The Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) non-destructive assay (NDA) system was designed to assay transuranic waste by employing an induced active neutron interrogation and/or a spontaneous passive neutron measurement. This is the second of two papers, and focuses on the passive mode, relating the net double neutron coincidence measurement to the plutonium mass via the calibration constant. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) calibration standards were used and the results verified with NIST-traceable verification standards. Performance demonstration program (PDP) 'empty' 208-L matrix drum was used for the calibration. The experimentally derived calibration constant was found to be 0.0735 {+-} 0.0059 g {sup 240}Pu effective per unit response. Using this calibration constant, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria was satisfied with five minute waste assays in the range from 3 to 177g Pu. CTEN also participated in the PDP Cycle 8A blind assay with organic sludge and metal matrices and passed the criteria for accuracy and precision in both assay modes. The WIPP and EPA audit was completed March 1, 2002 and full certification is awaiting the closeout of one finding during the audit. With the successful closeout of the audit, the CTEN system will have shown that it can provide very fast assays (five minutes or less) of waste in the range from the minimum detection limit (about 2 mg Pu) to 177 g Pu.

Veilleux, J. M. (John M.)

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Theory of evidence for face detection and tracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with face detection and tracking by computer vision for multimedia applications. Contrary to current techniques that are based on huge learning databases and complex algorithms to get generic face models (e.g., active appearance models), ... Keywords: Cautious rule, Computer vision, Face tracking, LUX colour space, Particle filter, Transferable belief model

Francis Faux; Franck Luthon

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Long-Range Neutron Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m{sup 2}) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the {sup 3}He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10{sup 5} n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10{sup 5} n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph.

AJ Peurrung; DC Stromswold; RR Hansen; PL Reeder; DS Barnett

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

383

Study of minimum-bias-trigger events at \\Sqrt s = 0.2-0.9 TeV with magnetic and calorimetric analysis at the CERN proton-antiproton collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of minimum-bias-trigger events at \\Sqrt s = 0.2-0.9 TeV with magnetic and calorimetric analysis at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

Ceradini, F

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Edge Detection Algorithm for SST Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm to detect fronts in satellite-derived sea surface temperature fields is presented. Although edge detection is the main focus, the problem of cloud detection is also addressed since unidentified clouds can lead to erroneous edge ...

Jean-François Cayula; Peter Cornillon

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Detecting Climate Signals: Some Bayesian Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach to detecting forced climate signals in a dataset is presented. First, the detection algorithm derived is shown to be capable of uniquely identifying several signals optimally. Other detection techniques are shown to be ...

Stephen S. Leroy

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

Annala, W.C.

1986-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Passive Neutron Detection in Ports for Homeland Security Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The smuggling of special nuclear material (SNM) has long been a concern. In April 2009, President Obama declared that a terrorist acquiring a nuclear weapon was the most immediate threat to global security. The Second Line of Defense (SLD) initiative was stood up by the National Nuclear Security Administration to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across international borders and maritime shipping. The SLD initiative does not provide for the detection of SNM being carried on small, personal watercraft. Previous work examined the possibility of using active neutron detectors to induce fission in SNM and detect the response. This thesis examines the possibility of detecting SNM using passive 3He neutron detectors. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulations were run to determine the best detector configuration. Detecting sources at increasing depths, detecting moving sources and the effects of waves were also simulated in MCNP. Comparisons with experimental measurements showed that detectors parallel to the surface of water were best at detecting neutron sources below the surface. Additionally, stacking detectors and placing a cadmium sheet between the polyethylene blocks resulted in a greater ability to determine the height of a source by taking the ratio of count rates in the lower and upper detectors. Using this configuration, a source of strength 3.39 x 10^5 n/s could be detected to a depth of 12.00 in below the water surface. Count rates in the presence of waves did not average out to count rates taken above a flat plane of water. Detectors closer to the water performed worse than above a flat plane while detectors placed higher recorded more counts than above a flat plane. Moving sources were also simulated; sources under water, 3.00 ft from the detectors, and moving at 5.8 kts could be detected above background.

Pedicini, Eowyn E

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Standoff Detection of Chemicals Using Rydberg Fingerprint ...  

applied for non-intrusive detection of combustion intermediates. The technique can be applied to detection of chemical vapors as well as residues on ...

391

Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Detection Science Chemistry for Measurement and Detection Science Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national...

392

For Radiation Detection Systems – Specific Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The test procedures outlined within this TTOP will cover radiation detection instruments used for gamma-ray and neutron detection as well as ...

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

393

Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Research and Development > Nuclear Detonation Detection Nuclear Detonation Detection NNSA builds the nation's operational sensors that monitor the entire planet from space to...

394

Vehicle Detection by Sensor Network Nodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

frequency. Table 4.2: ? and ? Ground truth (# of vehicles)truth (# of vehicles) Detection result (# of vehicles) Tabletruth ( of vehicles) Detection result ( of vehicles) Table

Ding, Jiagen; Cheung, Sing-Yiu; Tan, Chin-woo; Varaiya, Pravin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Design Method for the Heating/Cooling Coil in the AHU Based on Fuzzy Logic - Part Two: Design of the Minimum Heat-Exchanging Unit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considering a heating/cooling coil with adjustable heat-exchange area, an unequal type is put forward in this paper. Aiming at the application of such heat exchanger in an air-handling unit, restriction conditions are given for the minimum heat-exchanging unit in accordance with the requirement of control precision of indoor temperature and humidity. The structure adjustable heat exchanger improved the hydraulic adjusting characteristics of existing air handling units in the respective structure, and overcame the problems of existing air-handling units such as a narrow hydraulic adjusting range due to the rapid-opening performance of the continuous motor-driven value. As a result, such kind of heat exchanger is extremely suitable to fuzzy control.

Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Catalyst activator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

McAdon, Mark H. (Midland, MI); Nickias, Peter N. (Midland, MI); Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Schwartz, David J. (Lake Jackson, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Nondestructive detection and measurement of hydrogen embrittlement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nondestructive system and method for the determination of the presence and extent of hydrogen embrittlement in metals, alloys, and other crystalline structures subject thereto. Positron annihilation characteristics of the positron-electron annihilation within the tested material provide unique energy distribution curves for each type of material tested at each respective stage of hydrogen embrittlement. Gamma radiation resulting from such annihilation events is detected and statistically summarized by appropriate instrumentation to reveal the variations of electron activity within the tested material caused by hydrogen embrittlement therein. Such data from controlled tests provides a direct indication of the relative stages of hydrogen embrittlement in the form of unique energy distribution curves which may be utilized as calibration curves for future comparison with field tests to give on-site indication of progressive stages of hydrogen embrittlement.

Alex, Franklin (Layton, UT); Byrne, Joseph Gerald (Salt Lake City, UT)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.  

SciTech Connect

Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A. (University Texas Medical Branch); Neerathilingam, Muniasamy (University Texas Medical Branch); Ansari, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Volk, David (University Texas Medical Branch); Sarkar, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Alam, Mary Kathleen

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Recognition driven page orientation detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In document image recognition, orientation detection of the scanned page is necessary for the following procedures to work correctly as they assume that the text is well oriented. Several methods have been proposed, but most of them rely on heuristics ... Keywords: document image processing, image orientation analysis, optical character recognition

Yves Rangoni; Faisal Shafait; Joost Van Beusekom; Thomas M. Breuel

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Anomalous change detection in imagery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A distribution-based anomaly detection platform is described that identifies a non-flat background that is specified in terms of the distribution of the data. A resampling approach is also disclosed employing scrambled resampling of the original data with one class specified by the data and the other by the explicit distribution, and solving using binary classification.

Theiler, James P. (Los Alamos, NM); Perkins, Simon J. (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray?scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age

A. González S.; J. L. Acosta P.; M. Sandoval M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images  

SciTech Connect

Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Detection, diagnosis, and prognosis in geothermal well technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For successful and safe operation of a geothermal well, the condition of the casing and cement must be accurately determined. Measurements on casing wall thickness, corrosion damage, holes, cracks, splits, etc., are needed to assess casing integrity. Cement bond logs are needed to detect channels or water pockets in cement behind pipe and to determine the state of the cement bond to the pipe and formation. Instrumentation for making such measurements is limited by the temperature capabilities (<175/sup 0/C) of existing logging equipment developed for the oil and gas industry. The instruments that are needed for geothermal casing and cementing inspection are reviewed; the principle deficiencies in their high temperature use are identified; and Sandia's upgrade research program on multi-arm caliper and acoustic cement bond logging tool is described. The key electronic section in a multi-arm caliper will consist of 275/sup 0/C circuits. In an acoustic cement bond logging tool, a simple circuit with possibilities of using commercially available components for high temperature operation is being developed. These new tools will be field tested for operation at a minimum temperature of 275/sup 0/C and pressure of 7000 psi for up to 1000 hours.

Veneruso, A.F.; Chang, H.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

An optimal leakage detection strategy for underground pipelines using magnetic induction-based sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is difficult to detect small leakages in underground pipelines with high accuracy and low-energy cost due to the inaccessible underground environments. To this end, the Magnetic Induction (MI)-based wireless sensor network for underground pipeline ... Keywords: deployment and activation of sensors, energy consumption, estimation accuracy, leakage detection and localization, underground pipelines

Xin Tan, Zhi Sun

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip and method for simultaneously detecting multiple redox labels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip for detecting multiple redox-active labels simultaneously using a matrix coding scheme and to a method of selectively labeling analytes for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple label-analyte conjugates after electrophoretic or chromatographic separation.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Singhal, Pankaj (Berkeley, CA); Xie, Jin (Walnut Creek, CA); Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Automated Precipitation Detection and Typing in Winter: A Two-Year Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation detection and typing estimates from four sensors are evaluated using standard operational meteorological observations as a reference. All are active remote sensors radiating into a measurement volume near the sensor, and measuring ...

B. E. Sheppard; P. I. Joe

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Layered security architecture for masquerade attack detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Masquerade attack refers to an attack that uses a fake identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. Automatic discovery of masqueraders is sometimes undertaken by detecting significant ... Keywords: anomaly detection, intrusion detection system, masquerade detection, user profiling

Hamed Saljooghinejad; Wilson Naik Bhukya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Metal Detectives: New Book Details Titanic Investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal Detectives: New Book Details Titanic Investigation. For Immediate Release: April 15, 2008. ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Graph Analytical Approach for Topic Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic detection with large and noisy data collections such as social media must address both scalability and accuracy challenges. KeyGraph is an efficient method that improves on current solutions by considering keyword cooccurrence. We show that KeyGraph ... Keywords: KeyGraph-based Topic Detection, Topic detection, community detection, network analysis

Hassan Sayyadi, Louiqa Raschid

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Fake iris detection by using purkinje image  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fake iris detection is to detect and defeat a fake (forgery) iris image input. To solve the problems of previous researches on fake iris detection, we propose the new method of detecting fake iris attack based on the Purkinje image. Especially, we calculated ...

Eui Chul Lee; Kang Ryoung Park; Jaihie Kim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Acoustic Inspection Devices: Detecting the Undetectable  

Acoustic Inspection Devices: Detecting the Undetectable Emerging homeland security threats and increasingly sophisticated adversaries have heightened ...

413

Human activities recognition using depth images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new method to classify human activities by leveraging on the cues available from depth images alone. Towards this end, we propose a descriptor which couples depth and spatial information of the segmented body to describe a human pose. Unique ... Keywords: depth image segmentation, human activity detection

Raj Gupta; Alex Yong-Sang Chia; Deepu Rajan

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

MINIMUM DISSATISFACTION PERSONNEL SCHEDULING D ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

clean up the front of dq0 while (dq0.size()>1) and (dq0.getSecond().tearly

415

Analytical Thresholds: Determination of Minimum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Different color channels behave differently – if possible, determine ATs for each color • ATs derived from methods based ...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

416

Minimum Requirements for NIST Webcast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some organizations have firewalls preventing streaming flash content from ... Windows XP (Internet Explorer or Firefox) • Windows Vista (Internet ...

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

417

Finding minimum representative pattern sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frequent pattern mining often produces an enormous number of frequent patterns, which imposes a great challenge on understanding and further analysis of the generated patterns. This calls for finding a small number of representative patterns to best ... Keywords: frequent pattern summarization, representative patterns

Guimei Liu; Haojun Zhang; Limsoon Wong

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Chemical Activation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Activation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Adsorption Milton R. Smith, Jr., 1 Edward W. Bittner, 1 Wei Shi, 1, 2 J. Karl Johnson, 1, 2 and Bradley C....

419

Cost-Sensitive top-down/bottom-up inference for multiscale activity recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses a new problem, that of multiscale activity recognition. Our goal is to detect and localize a wide range of activities, including individual actions and group activities, which may simultaneously co-occur in high-resolution video. ...

Mohamed R. Amer; Dan Xie; Mingtian Zhao; Sinisa Todorovic; Song-Chun Zhu

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas, utilizing a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component, and an electrochemical sensor responsive to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Findlay, Jr., Melvin W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Detection of a concealed object  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA)

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

Detection of malicious computer executables  

SciTech Connect

A method of detecting malicious binary executable files is accomplished by inputting a binary executable file; converting the binary executable file to byte hexadecimal text strings; calculating the frequency of each byte pattern in the byte hexadecimal text strings; selecting characteristic byte pattern frequencies as discriminating features; classifying the discriminating features as malicious or benign; labeling the binary executable file as malicious or benign; and outputting the labeled malicious or benign binary executable file.

Cai, Dongming M. (Los Alamos, NM); Gokhale, Maya (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

Compensated intruder-detection systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN); Miller, William R. (Andersonville, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Compensated intruder-detection systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is an improvement to an intruder-detection system of the kind where intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium whose conductance varies with certain climatic conditions. The improved system includes means coupled to the medium for converting the intruder-induced signals received therefrom to a first electrical signal. Means also are provided for generating a reference signal proportional to the climate-induced changes in the signal-conductance of the medium. Means are provided for generating, from the first electrical signal and the reference signal, an electrical output signal which is unaffected by the changes in signal-conductance. Means are provided to give warning when the output signal exceeds a selected value. In another aspect, the invention is a method for operating an intruder-detection system of the kind wherein an intrusion-generated signal transmitted through a detection medium is converted to a first electrical signal. The first electrical signal contains variations resulting from climate-induced changes in the medium. The method of the invention comprises generating an electrical reference signal proportional to the climate-induced changes in the medium; conditioning the first signal with the reference signal to produce an electrical output signal which is unaffected by the climate-induced changes in the medium; and impressing the resulting output signal across an alarm circuit to actuate the same when the output signal exceeds a selected value.

McNeilly, D.R.; Miller, W.R.

1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

427

Strategies To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based On Monitoring and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based On Monitoring and To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based On Monitoring and Analysis Of CO2 In The Near-Surface Environment Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Strategies To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based On Monitoring and Analysis Of CO2 In The Near-Surface Environment Details Activities (5) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse

428

HANFORD'S SIMULATED LOW ACTIVITY WASTE CAST STONE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

Kim, Y.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities December 2013 image The Global Carbon Project (GCP) released its Global Carbon Atlas at http://www.globalcarbonatlas.org. CDIAC is an important contributor to the GCP. The Atlas was released at the Warsaw Climate Change Conference in November 2013, and it had more than 24,000 unique visits from 164 countries in the first week after release. One CDIAC data set was updated online: Andres RJ, Boden TA, Marland G (2013) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude, 1950-2010. ORNL/CDIAC, electronic database. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.MonthlyIsomass.2013. November 2013 image The number of stations in CDIAC's DayRec: An Interface for Exploring U.S. Record-Maximum/Minimum Daily Temperatures has more than

430

Public Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

publicactivities_header.jpg publicactivities_header.jpg Public Activities Citizens are encouraged to learn about the Department of Energy's programs through a variety of activities that are open to the public. Our goal is to educate citizens and seek their meaningful involvement. If you are visiting the area, the American Museum of Science and Energy in Oak Ridge is the best starting point for exhibits and information about DOE programs in science, environmental management, nuclear fuel supply, and national security. Tours are conducted of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12 National Security Complex and East Tennessee Technology Park during the summer months departing from the Museum. For those with more specific interests in our programs, each month we publish a calendar of public involvement activities, which identifies announcements, comment periods and public meetings of potential interest. Our Environmental Management Program has a Site Specific Advisory Board composed of area citizens who meet the second Wednesday of each month.

431

Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)  

SciTech Connect

Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.

Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Charged Jets in Minimum Bias p-Pb Collisions at sqrt(s) = 5.02 TeV with ALICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly energetic jets are sensitive probes for the kinematics and the topology of nuclear collisions. Jets are produced in an early stage of the collision from hard-scattered partons, which fragment into a spray of charged and neutral particles. The measurement of jet spectra in p-Pb collisions provides an important way to quantify the effects of cold nuclear matter on jet production, fragmentation and hadronization. This is possible because the hot, dense medium produced in Pb-Pb collisions is not expected to form. Proton-Lead collisions also provide an important constraint for the nuclear parton density functions. The exact evaluation of the background from the underlying event is an important ingredient to correct the measured jet spectra. The system size in p-Pb collisions is much smaller than in Pb-Pb so that the methods for background estimation need to be refined. The analysis reported here is performed on p-Pb data taken at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV by the ALICE detector at the LHC in the beginning of 2013. The focus of our analysis lies on the minimum bias charged jet spectra and their comparison to the spectra from pp collisions. For this analysis various estimates for the background and its fluctuations have been tested in p-Pb and PYTHIA simulations.

Rüdiger Haake; for the ALICE collaboration

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Fire suppression and detection equipment  

SciTech Connect

Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

E.E. Bates [HSB Professional Loss Control, Lexington, KY (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Pulsed helium ionization detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

436

Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens  

SciTech Connect

Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

McBride, Mary (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Birch, James M. (Albany, CA)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

Activity report  

SciTech Connect

This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

Yu, S W

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Wire detecting apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Detecting unknown network attacks using language models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a method for network intrusion detection based on language models such as n-grams and words. Our method proceeds by extracting these models from TCP connection payloads and applying unsupervised anomaly detection. The essential part ...

Konrad Rieck; Pavel Laskov

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Multiple signal fault detection using fuzzy logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe a multiple Signal Fault Detection system that employs fuzzy logic at two levels of detection: signal segment fault and signal fault. The system involves signal segmentation, feature extraction and fuzzy logic based segment ...

Yi Lu Murphey; Jacob Crossman; ZhiHang Chen

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Email shape analysis for spam botnet detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Botnets have become the major sources of spamming, which generates massive unwanted traffic on networks. An effective detection mechanism can greatly mitigate the problem. In this paper, we present a novel botnet detection mechanism based on the email ...

Paul Sroufe; Santi Phithakkitnukoon; Ram Dantu; João Cangussu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Motion detection in complex and dynamic backgrounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the detection of moving objects, background subtraction methods are widely used. In case the background changes, we need to update the background in real-time for the reliable detection of foreground objects. An adaptive Gaussian mixture model (GMM) ...

Daeyong Park; Junbeom Kim; Jaemin Kim; Seongwon Cho; Sun-Tae Chung

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

On the Detection of the Free Neutrino  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

1953-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

444

Available Technologies: Remote NMR/MRI Detection  

Low field encoding : High field detection = better sensitivity. APPLICATIONS: Enhanced sensitivity expands the uses of nuclear magnetic resonance ...

445

Chemically-Functionalized Microcantilevers for Detection of ...  

Chemically-Functionalized Microcantilevers for Detection of Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Material Note: The technology described above is an ...

446

Detection & Diagnostic Systems Multimedia - Argonne National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multimedia Multimedia Nuclear Systems Analysis Engineering Analysis Nonproliferation and National Security Detection & Diagnostic Systems Engineering Development & Applications...

447

Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation ...  

Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; Energy ... Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for ...

448

Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Lighting and Detection Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Symposium D: Bulk Metallic Glasses and Nanomaterials. Presentation Title, Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Lighting and Detection Applications.

449

Method and Apparatus for Detecting Neutrons - Available ...  

Summary. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a unique detection capability with the ability to identify thermal neutrons, which ...

450

Batteryless Chemical Detection - Energy Innovation Portal  

Ultrasensitive detection of low-concentration gas leaks (pipeline protection) Military, particularly on the battlefield (chemical and biological ...

451

Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrogen Flammability, Detection, and Fire Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Flammability, Detection, and Fire Safety. ... The physical properties of hydrogen differ from those for hydrocarbon fuels. ...

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Nicholas G. Paulter, Program Manager, Detection ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... weapon detection, through-wall surveillance, traffic control devices, imaging for security and emergency response applications, biometrics for ...

2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

454

Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

455

Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

456

Statistical Fingerprinting for Malware Detection and ...  

necessarily cause a statistical deviation from the baseline that can be detected (a "symptom" of the infection). Further, ...

457

Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

458

DETECTION OF A LOW-ECCENTRICITY AND SUPER-MASSIVE PLANET TO THE SUBGIANT HD 38801  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the detection of a large mass planet orbiting around the K0 metal-rich subgiant HD38801 (V = 8.26) by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Subaru Telescope and the Keck Telescope. The star has a mass of 1.36 M{sub sun} and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.26. The RV variations are consistent with a circular orbit with a period of 696.0 days and a velocity semiamplitude of 200.0 m s{sup -1}, which yield a minimum mass for the companion of 10.7 M{sub JUP} and a semimajor axis of 1.71 AU. Such super-massive objects with very low eccentricities and periods of hundreds of days are uncommon among the ensemble of known exoplanets.

Harakawa, Hiroki; Ida, Shigeru; Hori, Yasunori [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Sato, Bun'ei [Global Edge Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S6-6 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Omiya, Masashi [Department of Physics, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Johnson, John A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Toyota, Eri, E-mail: harakawa@geo.titech.ac.j [Kobe Science Museum, 7-7-6 Minatojima-Nakamachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0046 (Japan)

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

459

Detecting intrusions in encrypted control traffic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of a lack of attack signatures and different forms of attacks, signature-based network intrusion detection systems currently provide insufficient protection for industrial control traffic. A combination of two anomaly detection approaches found ... Keywords: industrial control systems, intrusion detection, smart grids

Maarten Hoeve

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

A data-driven detection optimization framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the large amount of data to be processed by visual applications aiming at extracting high-level understanding of the scene, low-level methods such as object detection are required to have not only high accuracy but also low computational cost ... Keywords: Human detection, Object detection, Partial least squares, Regression models

William Robson Schwartz; Victor Hugo Cunha De Melo; Helio Pedrini; Larry S. Davis

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Integrating software specifications into intrusion detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There exist a number of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) that detect computer attacks based on some defined attack scenarios. The attack scenarios or security requirements in some of these IDSs are specified in attack specification languages that are ... Keywords: Attack scenarios, Intrusion detection, Software specification languages, State machines

Mohammad Zulkernine; Mathews Graves; Muhammad Umair Ahmed Khan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Survey of Outlier Detection Methodologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Outlier detection has been used for centuries to detect and, where appropriate, remove anomalous observations from data. Outliers arise due to mechanical faults, changes in system behaviour, fraudulent behaviour, human error, instrument error or simply ... Keywords: anomaly, detection, deviation, noise, novelty, outlier, recognition

Victoria Hodge; Jim Austin

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Laboratory Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

464

Detection device for high explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by electrostatically attracting the target chemical to an aromatic compound coating on an optical fiber. Attaching the target chemical to the coated fiber reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Von Wandruszka, Ray M. (Moscow, ID); Reagen, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Sequential detection of web defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

Eichel, Paul H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Cedar Crest, NM); Stalker, K. Terry (Albuquerque, NM); Yee, Amy A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Excitation optimization for damage detection  

SciTech Connect

A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

An arc fault detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

Jha, Kamal N.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Explosives detection system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

469

Ionization detection system for aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

Jacobs, Martin E. (Chillicothe, OH)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Spectral analysis method for detecting an element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

471

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

472

Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

473

DNA Activity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA Activity DNA Activity Name: Sara Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is DNA an anion or a cation? I thought since it was negatively charged it was an anion but mt teacher in class today said it was a cation because negatively charged molecules logically migrate to the positively charged plate of the cathode, ie molecules that migrate towards a cathode are cations. Where is the error in my logic or there error in my logic? Replies: DNA is negatively charged due to the phosphate ions present in the ribose-phosphate backbone. It moves towards the positive pole during electrophoresis. The definition kation/anion is confusing because: 1. a cation moves to the cathode 2. the cathode is negative, thus 3. a cation is positive DNA is an anion. The confusion is that a cathode is negative, but a cation is positively charged. For that reason these terms are not generally used in this context.

474

Solar Magnetic Feature Detection and Tracking for Space Weather Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an automated system for detecting, tracking, and cataloging emerging active regions throughout their evolution and decay using SOHO Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) magnetograms. The SolarMonitor Active Region Tracking (SMART) algorithm relies on consecutive image differencing to remove both quiet-Sun and transient magnetic features, and region-growing techniques to group flux concentrations into classifiable features. We determine magnetic properties such as region size, total flux, flux imbalance, flux emergence rate, Schrijver's R-value, R* (a modified version of R), and Falconer's measurement of non-potentiality. A persistence algorithm is used to associate developed active regions with emerging flux regions in previous measurements, and to track regions beyond the limb through multiple solar rotations. We find that the total number and area of magnetic regions on disk vary with the sunspot cycle. While sunspot numbers are a proxy to the solar magnetic field, SMART offers a direct diagnos...

Higgins, Paul A; McAteer, R T James; Bloomfield, D Shaun; 10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.024

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Active Reflection Absorption for a Three Dimensional Multidirectional Wave Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to implement an accurate system that allows for absorption of reflected waves impinging to a wave maker (Active Reflection Absorption), it was required to apply a method to estimate properly the direction of arrival of the waves that does it in the fastest way possible. Our wavemaker control system has been prepared to handle an algorithm provided by Bosch-Rexroth where the wave angle estimation is practically locked to a very narrow frequency band (spatial gain-mixer). The system was evaluated with physical tests in a 3D wave basin for different conditions of reflected waves arriving with an angle to the wavemaker front, and acceptable performance has been found for the 3D ARA mode. However, for certain conditions over-compensation or sub-compensation can develop resulting in a poor absorption. This is mainly related to not being able to determine accurately the direction from which the reflected waves travel towards the wavemaker. The present work employed concepts found in the areas of antenna array signal processing and signal propagation, which were applied to this problem. This approach coupled naturally with our wavemaker system since it was prepared with 48 gages that can be employed in an array antenna fashion. A program was codified from an algorithm found in literature to calculate the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the reflected waves. The focus for the testing of this program was with regular waves. The tests were conducted to validate the program with different angles of incidence and show that for regular waves the program was able to detect accurately the DOA of these in as few as 5 snapshots, with a minimum of 7 gages used as the antenna input. With data obtained directly from the control system of our wavemaker using regular waves, the program was able to determine the DOA. The computational burden of the algorithm is not significant in the case of regular waves. A modification of the program is required to analyze the DOA of reflected irregular waves, which could increase the computational burden. Actual implementation of this program to our control system depends on cooperation with Bosch-Rexroth.

Cruz Castro, Oscar

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Former Worker Program - Early Lung Cancer Detection Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Former Worker Program (FWP) Former Worker Program (FWP) Home Covered Sites/Populations › Construction Worker Screening Projects › Production Worker Screening Projects › Supplemental Screening Program › Beryllium Vendor Screening Program Upcoming Events Program Implementation Outreach Medical Screening - Conventional Medical Screening - Early Lung Cancer Detection Communicating Results Protecting Participant Information Sharing De-identified Data Chronic Beryllium Disease Awareness Joint Outreach Task Group (JOTG) Worker Testimonials Contact Us FWP Scientific Publications FWP Documents Related Links Office of Health and Safety Home Page HSS Logo Early Lung Cancer Detection Program Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) Since 2000, DOE has made screening for occupational lung cancer with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans available to workers at high risk for lung cancer. Because former workers undertook essential activities to fulfill the Department's mission, many of them were at risk for lung cancer. Through the FWP, DOE initiated the Early Lung Cancer Detection (ELCD) program using low-dose helical CT scans to detect lung cancers at an earlier, more treatable stage. Lung cancer results in about 160,000 deaths in the U.S. every year. The most common causes of lung cancer are long-term exposures to tobacco smoke and residential radon emissions, but occupational hazards, such as asbestos and ionizing radiation, also cause or contribute to the disease.

477

Incipient Crack Detection in Composite Wind Turbine Blades  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents some analysis results for incipient crack detection in a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading to failure. The blade was manufactured to standard specifications, and it underwent harmonic excitation at its first resonance using a hydraulically-actuated excitation system until reaching catastrophic failure. This work investigates the ability of an ultrasonic guided wave approach to detect incipient damage prior to the surfacing of a visible, catastrophic crack. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, which were used in an active, pitchcatch mode with guided waves over a range of excitation frequencies. The performance results in detecting incipient crack formation in the fiberglass skin of the blade is assessed over the range of frequencies in order to determine the point at which the incipient crack became detectable. Higher excitation frequencies provide consistent results for paths along the rotor blade's carbon fiber spar cap, but performance falls off with increasing excitation frequencies for paths off of the spar cap. Lower excitation frequencies provide more consistent performance across all sensor paths.

Taylor, Stuart G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Mijin [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jeong, Hyomi [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Jang, Jae Kyeong [Chonbuk National University, Korea; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam National University, Korea; Farinholt, Kevin [Commonwealth Center for Advanced Manufacturing, VA; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Chonbuk National University, Korea

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

478

PSA Bounce and Biochemical Failure After Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Study of 820 Patients With a Minimum of 3 Years of Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine clinical or dosimetric factors associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce, as well as an association between a PSA bounce and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), in patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A variety of clinical and treatment factors were examined in 820 patients who had a minimum of 3 years of PSA follow-up with T1-T2cN0M0 prostate cancer. Four different PSA threshold values were used for defining a PSA bounce: a PSA rise of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL. Results: A PSA bounce of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL was noted in 247 patients (30.1%), 161 (19.6%), 105 (12.8%), and 78 (9.5%), respectively. The median time to the first PSA rise was 17.4, 16.25, 16.23, and 15.71 months, respectively, vs. 34.35 months for a biochemical failure (p < 0.0001). A PSA rise of {>=}0.2 ng/mL was the only definition for which there was a significant difference in bRFS between bounce and non-bounce patients. The 5-year bRFS rate of patients having a PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 was 97.7% vs. 91% for those who did not have a PSA bounce (p = 0.0011). On univariate analysis for biochemical failure, age, risk group, and PSAs per year had a statistically significant correlation with PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, age and PSAs per year remained statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0456, respectively). Conclusions: A bounce definition of a rise {>=}0.2 ng/mL is a reliable definition among several other definitions. The time to first PSA rise is the most valuable factor for distinguishing between a bounce and biochemical failure.

Caloglu, Murat, E-mail: caloglumurat@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne (Turkey); Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James [Glickman Urologic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew [Department of Urology, Kaiser Permanente-Ohio, Parma, OH (United States); Magi-Galuzzi, Christina [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Klein, Eric A. [Glickman Urologic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Radiation Detection Materials and Systems | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Detection Materials and Systems SHARE Radiation Detection Materials and Systems ORNL's Nuclear Material Detection and Characterization programs are at the forefront of...

480

Distributed Optical Sensor for CO2 Leak Detection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Sensor for CO Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection Opportunity Research is active on the technology "Distributed Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection," for which a Patent Application has been filed. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The availability of fossil fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, there are concerns over the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations is a promising technology to reduce the impact of CO

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "minimum detectable activity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery As A Geothermal Exploration Tool Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery As A Geothermal Exploration Tool Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Unavailable Author(s): C. Kratt, M. Coolbaugh, Wendy Calvin Published: GRC, 2006 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Multispectral Imaging At Rhodes Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2006) Multispectral Imaging At Teels Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2006) Rhodes Marsh Geothermal Area Teels Marsh Geothermal Area Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Remote_Detection_Of_Quaternary_Borate_Deposits_With_Aster_Satellite_Imagery_As_A_Geothermal_Exploration_Tool&oldid=389959

482

Detecting sub-mJy sources with the EVN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some microquasars are permanently bright radio sources while others are faint but produce powerful radio outbursts. Most of the X-ray binaries (XRB) however are very faint or undetected in the radio regime. The European VLBI Network (EVN) recently introduced the Mark5 recording system which allows data rates of up to 1 Gbit/s. This increases the sensitivity of the array significantly. We briefly describe recent developments in the EVN in terms of reliability of the network and also data quality. We demonstrate the power of the EVN in detecting sub-mJy radio sources with modest integration times (order of hours). This high sensitivity capability will permit the study of variable Galactic sources at milliarcsecond resolution. An estimate is given for the lowest detectable mass of hypothetical intermediate-mass black holes (IMBH) in nearby galaxies, provided these are located in radio-jet systems analogous to microquasars and active galactic nuclei.

Zsolt Paragi; Michael A. Garrett; Andrew D. Biggs

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

484

Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Automated Methods for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides ''live vs. dead'' capabilities. However, sensitivity of the method will need to be improved for RNA analysis to replace PCR.

Straub, Tim M.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Quinonez-Diaz, Maria D.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Active pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active pixel sensor array, APS-1, has been fabricated for the purpose of scientific x-ray detection. This thesis presents the results of testing the device. Alternate design architectures are explored. Recommendations ...

Cohen, Matthew (Matthew L.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Autonomous detection, navigation, and propulsion for satellites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the increasing number of satellites and space debris in all orbits the need for individual satellites to be able to autonomously detect and determine… (more)

Badger, Stanley

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Nucleotide Sequences for the Detection of Salmonella ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Nucleotide Sequences for the Detection of Salmonella. Battelle Number(s): ...

489

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR TURBOMACHINERY SURGE DETECTION ...  

A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine ...