National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for milliseconds proton emission

  1. Fine Structure Studies in Proton Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (2006). " Fine Structure in Proton Emission from 145 Tm discovered with the Novel technique of Digital Signal Processing" M. Karny, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 012502 (2003)....

  2. A direct link between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora on timescales from milliseconds to minutes: A case study at subauroral latitudes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Sawai, Kaoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ieda, Akimasa; Ebihara, Yusuke; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; et al

    2015-11-27

    A correlation was observed between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora (PA) from observations at Athabasca (L ≈ 4.3) in Canada at 9:00–9:20 UT on 7 February 2013, using an electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera and a VLF loop antenna with sampling rates of 110 Hz and 100 kHz, respectively. Pulsating aurora having a quasiperiodic variation in luminosity and a few hertz modulation was observed together with chorus emissions consisting of a group of successive rising-tone elements. The repetition period and modulation frequency of the PA are in good agreement with those of the modulated chorus. After 9:11 UT, the temporalmore » features of the aurora became aperiodic PA of indistinct modulation. Simultaneously, the rising-tone chorus turned into chorus emissions consisting of numerous rising-tone elements. The equatorial geomagnetic field inhomogeneity calculated using the Tsyganenko 2002 model shows a decreasing trend during the period. This result is consistent with nonlinear wave growth theory having a small geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, which contributes to a decrease in the threshold amplitude to trigger discrete chorus elements. As a result, these observations show a close connection between chorus emissions and PA on timescales from milliseconds for generation of discrete chorus elements on the microphysics of wave-particle interaction to minutes for the variations of the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity related with the substorm activity.« less

  3. A direct link between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora on timescales from milliseconds to minutes: A case study at subauroral latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Sawai, Kaoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ieda, Akimasa; Ebihara, Yusuke; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Katoh, Yuto; Otsuka, Yuichi; Sunagawa, Naoki; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-11-27

    A correlation was observed between chorus emissions and pulsating aurora (PA) from observations at Athabasca (L ≈ 4.3) in Canada at 9:00–9:20 UT on 7 February 2013, using an electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera and a VLF loop antenna with sampling rates of 110 Hz and 100 kHz, respectively. Pulsating aurora having a quasiperiodic variation in luminosity and a few hertz modulation was observed together with chorus emissions consisting of a group of successive rising-tone elements. The repetition period and modulation frequency of the PA are in good agreement with those of the modulated chorus. After 9:11 UT, the temporal features of the aurora became aperiodic PA of indistinct modulation. Simultaneously, the rising-tone chorus turned into chorus emissions consisting of numerous rising-tone elements. The equatorial geomagnetic field inhomogeneity calculated using the Tsyganenko 2002 model shows a decreasing trend during the period. This result is consistent with nonlinear wave growth theory having a small geomagnetic field inhomogeneity, which contributes to a decrease in the threshold amplitude to trigger discrete chorus elements. As a result, these observations show a close connection between chorus emissions and PA on timescales from milliseconds for generation of discrete chorus elements on the microphysics of wave-particle interaction to minutes for the variations of the geomagnetic field inhomogeneity related with the substorm activity.

  4. Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.; Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang; Cao, Yi; Tang, Sumin E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-04-20

    Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that (1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in 2013 June/July and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; (2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude; and (3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 s and 50-100 s, respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk, due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind, could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk, and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

  5. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  6. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. {sup 12}O resonant structure evaluated by the two-proton emission process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, T. N.; Teruya, N.; Dimarco, A.; Duarte, S. B.; Tavares, O. A. P.

    2009-07-15

    The characteristics of the {sup 12}O resonant ground state are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton decay process. The sequential and simultaneous two-proton emission decay modes have been considered in a statistical calculation of the decay energy distribution. The resonant structures of {sup 11}N have been employed as intermediate states for the sequential mode, having their parameters determined by considering the structure of single particle resonance in quantum scattering problem. The width of the {sup 12}O resonant ground state has been extracted from a best fit to the experimental data. The contributions from the different channels to the decay energy distribution have been evaluated, and width and peak location parameters of the {sup 12}O resonant ground state are compared with results of other works for the sequential and simultaneous two-proton decay modes.

  8. Proton-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton- 3 He Elastic Scattering at Low Energies and the "A y Puzzle" by Brian Michael Fisher A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2003 Approved: E. J. Ludwig, Advisor H. J. Karwowski, Reader T. B. Clegg, Reader c 2003 Brian Michael Fisher All Rights Reserved ii ABSTRACT Brian Michael Fisher:

  9. Optical emission spectroscopy of the Linac4 and superconducting proton Linac plasma generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettry, J.; Kronberger, M.; Mahner, E.; Schmitzer, C.; Sanchez, J.; Scrivens, R.; Midttun, O.; O'Neil, M.; Pereira, H.; Paoluzzi, M.; Fantz, U.; Wuenderlich, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Myllyperkioe, P.; Tarvainen, O.

    2012-02-15

    CERN's superconducting proton Linac (SPL) study investigates a 50 Hz high-energy, high-power Linac for H{sup -} ions. The SPL plasma generator is an evolution of the DESY ion source plasma generator currently operated at CERN's Linac4 test stand. The plasma generator is a step towards a particle source for the SPL, it is designed to handle 100 kW peak RF-power at a 6% duty factor. While the acquisition of an integrated hydrogen plasma optical spectrum is straightforward, the measurement of a time-resolved spectrum requires dedicated amplification schemes. The experimental setup for visible light based on photomultipliers and narrow bandwidth filters and the UV spectrometer setup are described. The H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, and H{sub {gamma}} Balmer line intensities, the Lyman band and alpha transition were measured. A parametric study of the optical emission from the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator as a function of RF-power and gas pressure is presented. The potential of optical emission spectrometry coupled to RF-power coupling measurements for on-line monitoring of short RF heated hydrogen plasma pulses is discussed.

  10. DISCOVERY OF TWO MILLISECOND PULSARS IN FERMI SOURCES WITH THE NANCAY RADIO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cognard, I.; Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.; Ferrara, E. C.; Smith, D. A.; Dumora, D.; Wolff, M. T.; Grove, J. E.; Cheung, C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Donato, D.; Ballet, J.; Desvignes, G.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of two millisecond pulsars in a search for radio pulsations at the positions of Fermi-Large Area Telescope sources with no previously known counterparts, using the Nancay Radio Telescope. The two millisecond pulsars, PSRs J2017+0603 and J2302+4442, have rotational periods of 2.896 and 5.192 ms and are both in binary systems with low-eccentricity orbits and orbital periods of 2.2 and 125.9 days, respectively, suggesting long recycling processes. Gamma-ray pulsations were subsequently detected for both objects, indicating that they power the associated Fermi sources in which they were found. The gamma-ray light curves and spectral properties are similar to those of previously detected gamma-ray millisecond pulsars. Detailed modeling of the observed radio and gamma-ray light curves shows that the gamma-ray emission seems to originate at high altitudes in their magnetospheres. Additionally, X-ray observations revealed the presence of an X-ray source at the position of PSR J2302+4442, consistent with thermal emission from a neutron star. These discoveries along with the numerous detections of radio-loud millisecond pulsars in gamma rays suggest that many Fermi sources with no known counterpart could be unknown millisecond pulsars.

  11. PROMPT HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM PROTON-DOMINATED GAMMA-RAY BURSTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We model the expected photon spectra for such 'proton-dominated' GRBs in the internal shock scenario through Monte Carlo simulations, accounting for various processes related to ...

  12. SU-E-J-247: A Simulation of X-Ray Emission with Gold Nanoparticle Irradiated by Energetic Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newpower, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the proton induced X-ray emissions in gold-water mixture materials. Methods: In this study a Monte Carlo simulation was created using the GEANT4 toolkit (version 4.9.6). The geometry in this setup includes a 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm target, a scoring sphere (radius = 10 cm) and a 65 MeV planar proton source (2 cm × 2 cm). Four concentrations of a gold-water solution were irradiated with 5×10{sup 5} incident protons at a distance of 0.5 cm perpendicular to the surface of the target. The solutions of gold-water mixture had 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.5% of gold by mass, respectively. The number of photon emitting for the target was counted in the scoring sphere for the energy range of 0-86.0 keV in 0.1 keV bins. For this study the reference physics list PhysListEmStandard was used together with the x-ray fluorescence, Auger electron and PIXE (particle induced xray emission) options enabled. The range cuts for photons and electrons were set at 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, respectively. Results: In the energy spectra of emitting X-ray fluorescence, peaks from gold K shell characteristic x-rays (68.8 and 66.9 keV) were observed. The number of counts under the peaks of Ka1 and Ka2 was found to increase with the increasing of the gold concentrations in the mixture materials. The X-ray yields (for both Ka1 and Ka2) when fitted with least-square method as a function of gold concentration demonstrate a linear dependency with R{sup 2} > 0.96. The Ka1yield per incident proton was found to be 0.0016 for 10% gold-water mixture solutions. Conclusion: This preliminary study with PIXE technique with gold nanoparticle has demonstrated potentials for its utilization in the development of range and dose verification methodology that is currently of great interest in the field of proton radiation therapy.

  13. SU-E-T-519: Emission of Secondary Particles From a PMMA Phantom During Proton Irradiation: A Simulation Study with the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A; Chen, Y; Ahmad, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton therapy exhibits several advantages over photon therapy due to depth-dose distributions from proton interactions within the target material. However, uncertainties associated with protons beam range in the patient limit the advantage of proton therapy applications. To quantify beam range, positron-emitting nuclei (PEN) and prompt gamma (PG) techniques have been developed. These techniques use de-excitation photons to describe the location of the beam in the patient. To develop a detector system for implementing the PG technique for range verification applications in proton therapy, we studied the yields, energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles emitted from a PMMA phantom. Methods: Proton pencil beams of various energies incident onto a PMMA phantom with dimensions of 5 x 5 x 50 cm3 were used for simulation with the Geant4 toolkit using the standard electromagnetic packages as well as the packages based on the binary-cascade nuclear model. The emitted secondary particles are analyzed . Results: For 160 MeV incident protons, the yields of secondary neutrons and photons per 100 incident protons were ~6 and ~15 respectively. Secondary photon energy spectrum showed several energy peaks in the range between 0 and 10 MeV. The energy peaks located between 4 and 6 MeV were attributed to originate from direct proton interactions with 12C (~ 4.4 MeV) and 16O (~ 6 MeV), respectively. Most of the escaping secondary neutrons were found to have energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Isotropic emissions were found for lower energy neutrons (<10 MeV) and photons for all energies, while higher energy neutrons were emitted predominantly in the forward direction. The yields of emitted photons and neutrons increased with the increase of incident proton energies. Conclusions: A detector system is currently being developed incorporating the yields, energy and angular distributions of secondary particles from proton interactions obtained from this study.

  14. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, K. Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in sandwiches of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The sandwiches were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  15. AN ASTEROID BELT INTERPRETATION FOR THE TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR B1937+21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, R. M.; Cordes, J. M.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K. E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-03-20

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed companions to neutron stars that include other neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and planets. We demonstrate that the correlated and apparently stochastic residual times of arrival from the millisecond pulsar B1937+21 are consistent with the signature of an asteroid belt having a total mass {approx}< 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Unlike the solar system's asteroid belt, the best fit pulsar asteroid belt extends over a wide range of radii, consistent with the absence of any shepherding companions. We suggest that any pulsar that has undergone accretion-driven spin-up and subsequently evaporated its companion may harbor orbiting asteroid mass objects. The resulting timing variations may fundamentally limit the timing precision of some of the other millisecond pulsars. Observational tests of the asteroid belt model include identifying periodicities from individual asteroids, which are difficult; testing for statistical stationarity, which becomes possible when observations are conducted over a longer observing span; and searching for reflected radio emission.

  16. TH-C-BRD-01: Analytical Computation of Prompt Gamma Ray Emission and Detection for Proton Range Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterpin, E; Vynckier, S; Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Prieels, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A prompt gamma (PG) slit camera prototype demonstrated that on-line range monitoring within 12 mm could be performed by comparing expected and measured PG detection profiles. Monte Carlo (MC) can simulate the expected PG profile but this would result in prohibitive computation time for a complete pencil beam treatment plan. We implemented a much faster method that is based on analytical processing of pre-computed MC data. Methods: The formation of the PG detection signal can be separated into: 1) production of PGs and 2) detection by the camera detectors after PG transport in geometry. For proton energies from 40 to 230 MeV, PG productions in depth were pre-computed by MC (PENH) for 12C, 14N, 16O, 31P and 40Ca. The PG production was then modeled analytically by adding the PG production for each element according to local proton energy and tissue composition.PG transport in the patient/camera geometries and the detector response were modeled by convolving the PG production profile with a transfer function. The latter is interpolated from a database of transfer functions fitted to pre-computed MC data (PENELOPE). The database was generated for a photon source in a cylindrical phantom with various radiuses and a camera placed at various positions.As a benchmark, the analytical model was compared to PENH for a water phantom, a phantom with different slabs (adipose, muscle, lung) and a thoracic CT. Results: Good agreement (within 5%) was observed between the analytical model and PENH for the PG production. Similar accuracy for detecting range shifts was also observed. Speed of around 250 ms per profile was achieved (single CPU) using a non-optimized MatLab implementation. Conclusion: We devised a fast analytical model for generating PG detection profiles. In the test cases considered in this study, similar accuracy than MC was achieved for detecting range shifts. This research is supported by IBA.

  17. TeV gamma rays from millisecond pulsars. [PSR 1937+21; PSR 1953+29; PSR 1855+09; PSR 1957+20; PSR 1516+02 A; PSR 1620-26; PSR 0021-72; PSR 1821-24; Cyg X-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, C.C.G.; Bradbury, S.M.; Brazier, K.T.S.; Carraminana, A.; Chadwick, P.M.; Dipper, N.A.; Edwards, P.J.; Lincoln, E.W.; Mannings, V.G.; McComb, T.J.L.; Orford, K.J.; Rayner, S.M.; Turver, K.E. )

    1991-04-05

    We summarize here the results of the VHE gamma ray study of millisecond pulsars made over seven years by the Durham group. In addition to reporting observations made recently with the Mark III and IV telescopes at Narrabri, Australia, we consider the application of new analysis techniques to earlier data taken using telescopes at Dugway, USA. Pulsed VHE {gamma}-rays have been detected from three of the eight millisecond pulsars observed; we compare our results with the predictions of a theory of VHE emission from millisecond pulsars.

  18. MILLISECOND PULSAR AGES: IMPLICATIONS OF BINARY EVOLUTION AND A MAXIMUM SPIN LIMIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiziltan, Buelent; Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bulent@astro.ucsc.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    In the absence of constraints from the binary companion or supernova remnant, the standard method for estimating pulsar ages is to infer an age from the rate of spin-down. While the generic spin-down age may give realistic estimates for normal pulsars, it can fail for pulsars with very short periods. Details of the spin-up process during the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase pose additional constraints on the period (P) and spin-down rates ( P-dot ) that may consequently affect the age estimate. Here, we propose a new recipe to estimate millisecond pulsar (MSP) ages that parametrically incorporates constraints arising from binary evolution and limiting physics. We show that the standard method can be improved by this approach to achieve age estimates closer to the true age while the standard spin-down age may overestimate or underestimate the age of the pulsar by more than a factor of {approx}10 in the millisecond regime. We use this approach to analyze the population on a broader scale. For instance, in order to understand the dominant energy loss mechanism after the onset of radio emission, we test for a range of plausible braking indices. We find that a braking index of n = 3 is consistent with the observed MSP population. We demonstrate the existence and quantify the potential contributions of two main sources of age corruption: the previously known 'age bias' due to secular acceleration and 'age contamination' driven by sub-Eddington progenitor accretion rates. We explicitly show that descendants of LMXBs that have accreted at very low rates ( m-dot << M-dot{sub Edd}) will exhibit ages that appear older than the age of the Galaxy. We further elaborate on this technique, the implications and potential solutions it offers regarding MSP evolution, the underlying age distribution, and the post-accretion energy loss mechanism.

  19. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  20. THREE MILLISECOND PULSARS IN FERMI LAT UNASSOCIATED BRIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Grove, J. E.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, Oe.; DeCesar, M. E.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Cheung, C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; Cognard, I.; Freire, P. C. C.; Desvignes, G.; Donato, D. E-mail: Paul.Ray@nrl.navy.mil

    2011-01-20

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and {gamma}-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind {gamma}-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby ({<=}2 kpc) MSPs. These observations, in combination with the Fermi detection of {gamma}-rays from other known radio MSPs, imply that most, if not all, radio MSPs are efficient {gamma}-ray producers. The {gamma}-ray spectra of the pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few GeV, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of {approx}10{sup 30}-10{sup 31} erg s{sup -1} are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  1. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R. E-mail: kondratiev@astron.nl E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu

    2014-08-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 3, 2.0 0.3, and ?7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior ??{sub d}??{sup ?}, where ? is the observing frequency and ? = 4.5 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array.

  2. HIGH-FIDELITY RADIO ASTRONOMICAL POLARIMETRY USING A MILLISECOND PULSAR AS A POLARIZED REFERENCE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Straten, W.

    2013-01-15

    A new method of polarimetric calibration is presented in which the instrumental response is derived from regular observations of PSR J0437-4715 based on the assumption that the mean polarized emission from this millisecond pulsar remains constant over time. The technique is applicable to any experiment in which high-fidelity polarimetry is required over long timescales; it is demonstrated by calibrating 7.2 years of high-precision timing observations of PSR J1022+1001 made at the Parkes Observatory. Application of the new technique followed by arrival time estimation using matrix template matching yields post-fit residuals with an uncertainty-weighted standard deviation of 880 ns, two times smaller than that of arrival time residuals obtained via conventional methods of calibration and arrival time estimation. The precision achieved by this experiment yields the first significant measurements of the secular variation of the projected semimajor axis, the precession of periastron, and the Shapiro delay; it also places PSR J1022+1001 among the 10 best pulsars regularly observed as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. It is shown that the timing accuracy of a large fraction of the pulsars in the PPTA is currently limited by the systematic timing error due to instrumental polarization artifacts. More importantly, long-term variations of systematic error are correlated between different pulsars, which adversely affects the primary objectives of any pulsar timing array experiment. These limitations may be overcome by adopting the techniques presented in this work, which relax the demand for instrumental polarization purity and thereby have the potential to reduce the development cost of next-generation telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  3. EXPLORING THE X-RAY AND ?-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR PSRJ17232837

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui, C. Y.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Wu, E. M. H.; Lin, L. C. C.

    2014-01-20

    We have investigated the X-ray and ?-ray properties of the redback millisecond pulsar PSRJ17232837 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Fermi. We have discovered the X-ray orbital modulation of this binary system with a minimum that coincides with the phases of radio eclipse. The X-ray emission is clearly non-thermal in nature, which can be described well by a simple power law with a photon index of ?1.2. The phase-averaged luminosity is ?9 10{sup 31} erg s{sup 1} in 0.3-10 keV, which consumes ?0.2% of the spin-down power. We have detected the ?-ray emission in 0.1-300 GeV from this system at a significance of ?6? for the first time. The ?-rays in this energy range consume ?2% of the spin-down power and can be modeled by a power law with a photon index of ?2.6. We discuss the high energy properties of the new redback in the context of an intrabinary shock model.

  4. FIVE NEW MILLISECOND PULSARS FROM A RADIO SURVEY OF 14 UNIDENTIFIED FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, M.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Hessels, J.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M.; Reynolds, J. E.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Sarkissian, J. E-mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu

    2012-03-20

    We have discovered five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a survey of 14 unidentified Fermi Large Area Telescope sources in the southern sky using the Parkes radio telescope. PSRs J0101-6422, J1514-4946, and J1902-5105 reside in binaries, while PSRs J1658-5324 and J1747-4036 are isolated. Using an ephemeris derived from timing observations of PSR J0101-6422 (P = 2.57 ms, DM = 12 pc cm{sup -3}), we have detected {gamma}-ray pulsations and measured its proper motion. Its {gamma}-ray spectrum (a power law of {Gamma} = 0.9 with a cutoff at 1.6 GeV) and efficiency are typical of other MSPs, but its radio and {gamma}-ray light curves challenge simple geometric models of emission. The high success rate of this survey-enabled by selecting {gamma}-ray sources based on their detailed spectral characteristics-and other similarly successful searches indicate that a substantial fraction of the local population of MSPs may soon be known.

  5. X-ray and γ-ray studies of the millisecond pulsar and possible X-ray binary/radio pulsar transition object PSR J1723-2837

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Esposito, Paolo; Crawford III, Fronefield; Possenti, Andrea; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Freire, Paulo

    2014-01-20

    We present X-ray observations of the 'redback' eclipsing radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) and candidate radio pulsar/X-ray binary transition object PSR J1723-2837. The X-ray emission from the system is predominantly non-thermal and exhibits pronounced variability as a function of orbital phase, with a factor of ∼2 reduction in brightness around superior conjunction. Such temporal behavior appears to be a defining characteristic of this variety of peculiar MSP binaries and is likely caused by a partial geometric occultation by the main-sequence-like companion of a shock within the binary. There is no indication of diffuse X-ray emission from a bow shock or pulsar wind nebula associated with the pulsar. We also report on a search for point source emission and γ-ray pulsations in Fermi Large Area Telescope data using a likelihood analysis and photon probability weighting. Although PSR J1723-2837 is consistent with being a γ-ray point source, due to the strong Galactic diffuse emission at its position a definitive association cannot be established. No statistically significant pulsations or modulation at the orbital period are detected. For a presumed detection, the implied γ-ray luminosity is ≲5% of its spin-down power. This indicates that PSR J1723-2837 is either one of the least efficient γ-ray producing MSPs or, if the detection is spurious, the γ-ray emission pattern is not directed toward us.

  6. Millisecond Kinetics of Nanocrystal Cation Exchange UsingMicrofluidic X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Emory M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine; Elnaggar,Mariam S.; Mathies, Richard A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-05-07

    We describe the use of a flow-focusing microfluidic reactorto measure the kinetics of theCdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchangereaction using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu XAS). The smallmicroreactor dimensions facilitate the millisecond mixing of CdSenanocrystal and Ag+ reactant solutions, and the transposition of thereaction time onto spatial coordinates enables the in situ observation ofthe millisecond reaction with mu XAS. XAS spectra show the progression ofCdSe nanocrystals to Ag2Se over the course of 100 ms without the presenceof long-lived intermediates. These results, along with supporting stoppedflow absorption experiments, suggest that this nanocrystal cationexchange reaction is highly efficient and provide insight into how thereaction progresses in individual particles. This experiment illustratesthe value and potential of in situ microfluidic X-ray synchrotrontechniques for detailed studies of the millisecond structuraltransformations of nanoparticles and other solution-phase reactions inwhich diffusive mixing initiates changes in local bond structures oroxidation states.

  7. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  8. PROTON RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a i i . : lJIiaSJ :ShUiI,,:;II. Iii II; PROTON RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY IN 29p LAWRENCE H. JAMES Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Department of Physics North Carolina State University 1989 - - .. - .. - .. Abstract James, Lawrence Hoy Proton Resonance Spectroscopy in 29 p (Under the direc- tion of Gary E. Mitchell) Proton elastic scattering on 28Si was measured with good beam energy resolution in the proton energy range Ep=1.4 to E =3.75 MeV, and proton inelastic scattering on p 28Si

  9. PSR J1903+0327: A UNIQUE MILLISECOND PULSAR WITH A MAIN-SEQUENCE COMPANION STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khargharia, Juthika; Stocke, John T.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Joshi, Bhal Chandra E-mail: john.stocke@colorado.edu E-mail: gopu.tifr@gmail.com

    2012-01-10

    PSR J1903+0327 is a millisecond pulsar with a mass of 1.67 M{sub Sun} in a highly eccentric orbit (e = 0.44) around a main-sequence star. This unique system cannot be reconciled with current observations where millisecond pulsars are generally seen to orbit white dwarfs in almost exactly circular orbits. Current theoretical models of binary and stellar formation and evolution cannot explain the high eccentricity of this system either. In this work, we present three new epochs of optical spectroscopy for the companion to PSR J1903+0327, obtained to confirm the association of the main-sequence star with the pulsar. These three new epochs, together with the two previous ones, firmly establish the high eccentricity of the companion's orbit as predicted by pulsar timing. Using all five epochs of optical data, we have provided an independent estimate of the mass ratio, R = 1.56 {+-} 0.15, as well as the systemic radial velocity of the binary, {gamma} = 42.1 {+-} 2.5 km s{sup -1}. We constrain the spectral type of the pulsar companion to lie between F5 V and G0 V (a slightly earlier type than suggested previously) by measuring the equivalent widths of two of the three Ca-triplet lines (8498 A, 8542 A) and the Paschen line at 8598 A (P14); we also broadly constrain the metallicity of the companion. Additionally, we have placed a somewhat better limit on the rotational velocity of the pulsar companion of v{sub rot}sin i {<=} 66 km s{sup -1}, which is still not sufficient to allow a test of general relativity using this system.

  10. Noncoplanarity effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Liou, M.K.; Timmermans, R.; Gibson, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    Noncoplanarity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung is investigated. Significant effects are observed for certain photon polar angles, {psi}{sub {gamma}}. Such noncoplanarity effects, not of dynamical origin, are possibly responsible for past disagreements between theory and experiment. The Harvard noncoplanar coordinate system, which avoids kinematic singularities in the cross section, is used in our calculations and is recommended for use in the analysis of experimental data. Alternative methods of presenting cross sections are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Protons - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons The BASE Facility is capable of providing fluxes of up to 1E9 protons/cm2-sec (the limit of our standard, continuously reading ion chamber dosimetry), but works best in the 1E7 to 1E8 protons/cm2-sec range. Higher levels of flux are monitored using intermittent faraday cup readings. Standard proton energies include 13.5, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 MeV, and are performed in air in Cave 4A. Energies below 10 MeV are run in vacuum in Cave 4B. Shielding materials, laser alignment tools, and

  12. Proton-Antiproton

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Dernière session du cours sur proton-antiproton du Cern Accelarator School. John Peoples, directeur de Fermilab fait un exposà suivi de questions.

  13. PSR J1723–2837: AN ECLIPSING BINARY RADIO MILLISECOND PULSAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Lyne, Andrew G.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Kaplan, David L.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea; Camilo, Fernando; Faulkner, Andrew; Manchester, Richard N.; Steeghs, Danny

    2013-10-10

    We present a study of PSR J1723–2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ∼15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 ± 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 M{sub ☉} and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30° and 41°, assuming a pulsar mass range of 1.4-2.0 M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of G for the companion and an inferred Roche-lobe-filling distance that is consistent with the distance estimated from radio dispersion. The features of PSR J1723–2837 indicate that it is likely a 'redback' system. Unlike the five other Galactic redbacks discovered to date, PSR J1723–2837 has not been detected as a γ-ray source with Fermi. This may be due to an intrinsic spin-down luminosity that is much smaller than the measured value if the unmeasured contribution from proper motion is large.

  14. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  15. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to

  16. Proton Bunching Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.B.

    2009-10-19

    Muon Colliders need intense, very short, proton bunches. The requirements are presented and a number of possible bunching systems discussed. The best solution uses a small super-conducting buncher ring with 6 bunches that are taken though separate transports and combined on the target.

  17. History of Proton Linear Accelerators

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Alvarez, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Some personal recollections are presented that relate to the author`s experience developing linear accelerators, particularly for protons. (LEW)

  18. Low Temperature Proton Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0 o C *Transport processes/motions slow down: questions re: lower conductivity,water mobility etc *Residual water will have various physical effects in different portions of the MEA questions re: durability of components 3 3 'States' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed based

  19. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-09-01

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ? the world?s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC?s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  20. THE OPTICAL COMPANION TO THE BINARY MILLISECOND PULSAR J1824-2452H IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M28

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallanca, C.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Rood, R. T.; Possenti, A.; D'Amico, N.; Freire, P. C.; Stairs, I.; Begin, S.; Ransom, S. M.

    2010-12-10

    We report on the optical identification of the companion star to the eclipsing millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J1824-2452H in the galactic globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). This star is at only 0.''2 from the nominal position of the pulsar and it shows optical variability ({approx}0.25 mag) that nicely correlates with the pulsar orbital period. It is located on the blue side of the cluster main sequence, {approx}1.5 mag fainter than the turnoff point. The observed light curve shows two distinct and asymmetric minima, suggesting that the companion star is suffering tidal distortion from the pulsar. This discovery increases the number of non-degenerate MSP companions optically identified so far in globular clusters (four out of seven), suggesting that these systems could be a common outcome of the pulsar recycling process, at least in dense environments where they can be originated by exchange interactions.

  1. The gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars and implications for the GeV excess

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hooper, Dan; Mohlabeng, Gopolang

    2016-03-29

    It has been proposed that a large population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs) could potentially account for the excess of GeV-scale gamma-rays observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. The viability of this scenario depends critically on the gamma-ray luminosity function of this source population, which determines how many MSPs Fermi should have already detected as resolved point sources. In this paper, we revisit the gamma-ray luminosity function of MSPs, without relying on uncertain distance measurements. Our determination, based on a comparison of models with the observed characteristics of the MSP population, suggests that Fermi should have already detectedmore » a significant number of sources associated with such a hypothesized Inner Galaxy population. As a result, we cannot rule out a scenario in which the MSPs residing near the Galactic Center are systematically less luminous than those present in the Galactic Plane or within globular clusters.« less

  2. Observation of Doppler broadening in β -delayed proton- γ decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwartz, S. B.; Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bowe, A.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Cooper, N.; Irvine, D.; et al

    2015-09-14

    Background: The Doppler broadening of gamma-ray peaks is due to nuclear recoil from beta-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using beta-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than A = 10. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using gamma-ray peaks from the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of P-26 was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a P-26 beta-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect gamma rays frommore » the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in beta-delayed proton-gamma decay was observed for the first time. Moreover, the Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613-keV gamma-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776-keV gamma ray de-exciting the 2720 keV Al-25 level was observed in P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay for the first time and used to determine that the center-of-mass energy of the proton emission feeding the 2720-keV level is 5.1 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV, corresponding to a Si-26 excitation energy of 13.3 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV for the proton-emitting level. Conclusions: Finally, the Doppler broadening method has been demonstrated to provide practical measurements of the energies for beta-delayed nucleon emissions populating excited states of nuclear recoils at least as heavy as A = 25.« less

  3. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, R.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the -decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of -decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the -delayed three proton emission.

  4. Proton in SRF Niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-31

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  5. Controlling proton movement: electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxidation of hydrogen by a nickel( ii ) complex containing proton relays in the second ... oxidation of hydrogen by a nickel( ii ) complex containing proton relays in the second ...

  6. Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. March 25, 2013 Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials. Los Alamos

  7. Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Radiography Of Brain Mockup Scientists examine proton radiography of brain mockup The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. March 25, 2013 Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head Proton radiograph of a high-fidelity mockup of a human head. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials. Los Alamos

  8. Proton Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Proton Energy Systems Inc Place: Wallingford, Connecticut Zip: 6492 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Develops, manufactures and sells proprietary Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)...

  9. A 24 hr global campaign to assess precision timing of the millisecond pulsar J1713+0747

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolch, T.; Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bassa, C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Janssen, G.; Kondratiev, V.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Jordan, C.; Keith, M.; Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Cognard, I.; Demorest, P. B.; Jenet, F. A.; Jones, G.; and others

    2014-10-10

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array Collaboration undertook a 24 hr global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1-24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nançay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized √N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the signal-to-noise ratio of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.

  10. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  11. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlsson, Niklas; ,

    2008-01-29

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e{sup {+-}}, {nu}{sub e}, {bar {nu}}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the {Delta}(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c{sup 2}. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a pencil beam of

  12. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  13. Understanding the proton's spin structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Myhrer; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the tremendous progress that has been towards an understanding of how the spin of the proton is distributed on its quark and gluon constituents. This is a problem that began in earnest twenty years ago with the discovery of the proton "spin crisis" by the European Muon Collaboration. The discoveries prompted by that original work have given us unprecedented insight into the amount of spin carried by polarized gluons and the orbital angular momentum of the quarks.

  14. A SHAPIRO DELAY DETECTION IN THE BINARY SYSTEM HOSTING THE MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J1910-5959A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corongiu, A.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; D'Amico, N.; Camilo, F.; Lyne, A. G.; Kramer, M.; Manchester, R. N.; Johnston, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Bailes, M.; Van Straten, W.

    2012-12-01

    PSR J1910-5959A is a binary pulsar with a helium white dwarf (HeWD) companion located about 6 arcmin from the center of the globular cluster NGC 6752. Based on 12 years of observations at the Parkes radio telescope, the relativistic Shapiro delay has been detected in this system. We obtain a companion mass M{sub C} = 0.180 {+-} 0.018 M {sub Sun} (1{sigma}) implying that the pulsar mass lies in the range 1.1 M {sub Sun} {<=} M{sub P} {<=} 1.5 M {sub Sun }. We compare our results with previous optical determinations of the companion mass and examine prospects for using this new measurement for calibrating the mass-radius relation for HeWDs and for investigating their evolution in a pulsar binary system. Finally, we examine the set of binary systems hosting a millisecond pulsar and a low-mass HeWD for which the mass of both stars has been measured. We confirm that the correlation between the companion mass and the orbital period predicted by Tauris and Savonije reproduces the observed values but find that the predicted M{sub P} -P{sub B} correlation overestimates the neutron star mass by about 0.5 M {sub Sun} in the orbital period range covered by the observations. Moreover, a few systems do not obey the observed M{sub P} -P{sub B} correlation. We discuss these results in the framework of the mechanisms that inhibit the accretion of matter by a neutron star during its evolution in a low-mass X-ray binary.

  15. SU-E-J-126: Respiratory Gating Quality Assurance: A Simple Method to Achieve Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, B; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating on/off signal and a linac beam on/off during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Although, a measurement of temporal lag is recommended by AAPM Task Group 142 for commissioning and annual quality assurance, there currently exists no published method. Here we describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to precisely measure gating lag at millisecond resolutions. Methods: A Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) gating simulator with rotating disk was modified with a resistive flex sensor (Spectra Symbol) attached to the gating box platform. A photon diode was placed at machine isocenter. Output signals of the flex sensor and diode were monitored with a multichannel oscilloscope (Tektronix™ DPO3014). Qualitative inspection of the gating window/beam on synchronicity were made by setting the linac to beam on/off at end-expiration, and the oscilloscope's temporal window to 100 ms to visually examine if the on/off timing was within the recommended 100-ms tolerance. Quantitative measurements were made by saving the signal traces and analyzing in MatLab™. The on and off of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window (e.g. 40% to 60%). Four gating cycles were measured and compared. Results: On a Varian TrueBeam™ STx linac with RPM gating software, the average difference in synchronicity at beam on and off for four cycles was 14 ms (3 to 30 ms) and 11 ms (2 to 32 ms), respectively. For a Varian Clinac™ 21EX the average difference at beam on and off was 127 ms (122 to 133 ms) and 46 ms (42 to 49 ms), respectively. The uncertainty in the synchrony difference was estimated at ±6 ms. Conclusion: This new gating QA method is easy to implement and allows for fast qualitative inspection and quantitative measurements for commissioning and TG-142 annual QA measurements.

  16. A test of the millisecond magnetar central engine model of gamma-ray bursts with swift data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: lhj@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    A rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized neutron star (magnetar) has been proposed as one possible candidate of the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We systematically analyze the Swift/XRT light curves of long GRBs detected before 2013 August, and characterize them into four categories based on how likely they may harbor a magnetar central engine: Gold, Silver, Aluminum, and Non-magnetar. We also independently analyze the data of short GRBs with a putative magnetar central engine. We then perform a statistical study of various properties of the magnetar samples and the non-magnetar sample, and investigate whether the data are consistent with the hypothesis that there exist two types of central engines. By deriving the physical parameters of the putative magnetars, we find that the observations of the Gold and Silver samples are generally consistent with the predictions of the magnetar model. For a reasonable beaming factor for long GRBs, the derived magnetar surface magnetic field B{sub p} and initial spin period P {sub 0} fall into the reasonable range. Magnetar winds in short GRBs, on the other hand, are consistent with being isotropic. No GRB in the magnetar sample has a beam-corrected total energy exceeding the maximum energy budget defined by the initial spin energy of the magnetar, while some non-magnetar GRBs do violate such a limit. With beaming correction, on average the non-magnetar sample is more energetic and luminous than the magnetar samples. Our analysis hints that millisecond magnetars are likely operating in a good fraction, but probably not all, GRBs.

  17. Tritium Sequestration in Gen IV NGNP Gas Stream via Proton Conducting Ceramic Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Fanglin Frank; Adams, Thad M.; Brinkman, Kyle; Reifsnider, Kenneth

    2011-09-30

    Several types of high-temperature proton conductors based on SrCeO3 and BaCeO3 have been systematically investigated in this project for tritium separation in NGNP applications. One obstacle for the field application is the chemical stability issues in the presence of steam and CO2 for these proton conductors. Several strategies to overcome such issues have been evaluated, including A site doping and B site co-doping method for perovskite-structured proton conductors. Novel zirconium-free proton conductors have also been developed with improved electrical conductivity and enhanced chemical stability. Novel catalytic materials for the proton-conducting separation membranes have been investigated. A tubular geometry proton-conducting membrane has been developed for the proton separation membranes. Total dose rate estimated from tritium decay (beta emission) under realistic membrane operating conditions, combined with electron irradiation experiments, indicates that proton ceramic materials possess the appropriate radiation stability for this application.

  18. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Min, Byungjun; Kwak, Jungwon; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sungyong

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  19. The Structure of the Proton

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  20. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times.

  1. Long-range azimuthal correlations in protonproton and protonnucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest partonparton cross-section of ? = 1.5 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in protonproton and protonnucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Laser generated proton beam focusing and high temperature isochoric heating of solid matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snavely, R. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Key, M. H.; Langdon, A. B.; Lasinski, B. F.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Patel, P.; Town, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Zhang, B.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J.; Chen, Z.; Izawa, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kodama, R.; Lei, A.; Tampo, M.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2007-09-15

    The results of laser-driven proton beam focusing and heating with a high energy (170 J) short pulse are reported. Thin hemispherical aluminum shells are illuminated with the Gekko petawatt laser using 1 {mu}m light at intensities of {approx}3x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} and measured heating of thin Al slabs. The heating pattern is inferred by imaging visible and extreme-ultraviolet light Planckian emission from the rear surface. When Al slabs 100 {mu}m thick were placed at distances spanning the proton focus beam waist, the highest temperatures were produced at 0.94x the hemisphere radius beyond the equatorial plane. Isochoric heating temperatures reached 81 eV in 15 {mu}m thick foils. The heating with a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of proton transport with self-consistent heating and proton stopping in hot plasma was modeled.

  3. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  4. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Jin Jung; Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui; Jung, Seunho; Kwon, Chanho

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  5. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  6. Accelerating Polarized Protons to High Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brennan, J. M.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Butler, J.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Delong, J.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.

    2007-06-13

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  7. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  8. Diffuse γ-ray emission from galactic pulsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F. E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it

    2014-11-20

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old fast-spinning neutron stars that represent the second most abundant source population discovered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). As guaranteed γ-ray emitters, they might contribute non-negligibly to the diffuse emission measured at high latitudes by Fermi-LAT (i.e., the Isotropic Diffuse γ-Ray Background (IDGRB)), which is believed to arise from the superposition of several components of galactic and extragalactic origin. Additionally, γ-ray sources also contribute to the anisotropy of the IDGRB measured on small scales by Fermi-LAT. In this manuscript we aim to assess the contribution of the unresolved counterpart of the detected MSPs population to the IDGRB and the maximal fraction of the measured anisotropy produced by this source class. To this end, we model the MSPs' spatial distribution in the Galaxy and the γ-ray emission parameters by considering observational constraints coming from the Australia Telescope National Facility pulsar catalog and the Second Fermi-LAT Catalog of γ-ray pulsars. By simulating a large number of MSP populations through a Monte Carlo simulation, we compute the average diffuse emission and the anisotropy 1σ upper limit. We find that the emission from unresolved MSPs at 2 GeV, where the peak of the spectrum is located, is at most 0.9% of the measured IDGRB above 10° in latitude. The 1σ upper limit on the angular power for unresolved MSP sources turns out to be about a factor of 60 smaller than Fermi-LAT measurements above 30°. Our results indicate that this galactic source class represents a negligible contributor to the high-latitude γ-ray sky and confirm that most of the intensity and geometrical properties of the measured diffuse emission are imputable to other extragalactic source classes (e.g., blazars, misaligned active galactic nuclei, or star-forming galaxies). Nevertheless, because MSPs are more concentrated toward the

  9. Long-range azimuthal correlations in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    We show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest partonparton cross-section of ?=1.53 mb?=1.53 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in protonproton and protonnucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung: Consequences of different on-shell-point conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yi; Liou, M. K.; Schreiber, W. M.; Gibson, B. F.

    2011-09-15

    Background: Proton-proton bremsstrahlung (pp{gamma}) is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The pp{gamma} amplitudes can be classified according to the number and location of on-shell points at which they are evaluated. Quantitative understanding of the effect on the pp{gamma} cross section of using different on-shell-point conditions is lacking, but it is essential to identifying the photon emission mechanism governing the pp{gamma} process. Method: Four different pp{gamma} amplitudes, which include four-on-shell-point amplitudes and one-on-shell-point amplitude, are generated from a realistic one-boson-exchange (ROBE) model for pp scattering. These ROBE amplitudes are used to investigate the consequence of using different on-shell-point conditions in calculating the pp{gamma} cross sections. Purpose: We verify the validity of the ROBE pp{gamma} amplitudes. We explore similarities between the four-on-shell-point ROBE and two-u-two-t special (TuTts) soft-photon pp{gamma} amplitudes and important differences with the one-on-shell-point ROBE and Low pp{gamma} amplitudes. We demonstrate that the precision Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) data can only be described by the four-on-shell-point (ROBE or TuTts) amplitude. We use the ROBE four-on-shell-point amplitude and one-on-shell-point amplitude to investigate systematically the effect of using different on-shell-point conditions to calculate the pp{gamma} cross section. Furthermore, we identify a general principle that governs the process. This general principle is also applicable to other bremsstrahlung processes involving the scattering of two identical nucleons. Results: (i) The four-on-shell-point ROBE (or TuTts) amplitude describes the high-precision KVI data much better than does the one-on-shell-point ROBE (or Low) amplitude. Although the contribution from the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton is very significant, it does not completely dominate the KVI pp{gamma} cross sections. (ii

  11. Self-sustained asymmetry of lepton-number emission: a new phenomenon during the supernova shock-accretion phase in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamborra, Irene; Raffelt, Georg G.; Hanke, Florian; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Müller, Bernhard; Marek, Andreas

    2014-09-10

    During the stalled-shock phase of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamical core-collapse simulations with energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, the lepton-number flux (ν {sub e} minus ν-bar {sub e}) emerges predominantly in one hemisphere. This novel, spherical-symmetry breaking neutrino-hydrodynamical instability is termed LESA for 'Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry'. While the individual ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} fluxes show a pronounced dipole pattern, the heavy-flavor neutrino fluxes and the overall luminosity are almost spherically symmetric. Initially, LESA seems to develop stochastically from convective fluctuations. It exists for hundreds of milliseconds or more and persists during violent shock sloshing associated with the standing accretion shock instability. The ν {sub e} minus ν-bar {sub e} flux asymmetry originates predominantly below the neutrinosphere in a region of pronounced proto-neutron star (PNS) convection, which is stronger in the hemisphere of enhanced lepton-number flux. On this side of the PNS, the mass accretion rate of lepton-rich matter is larger, amplifying the lepton-emission asymmetry, because the spherical stellar infall deflects on a dipolar deformation of the stalled shock. The increased shock radius in the hemisphere of less mass accretion and minimal lepton-number flux ( ν-bar {sub e} flux maximum) is sustained by stronger convection on this side, which is boosted by stronger neutrino heating due to 〈ϵ{sub ν-bar{sub e}}〉>〈ϵ{sub ν{sub e}}〉. Asymmetric heating thus supports the global deformation despite extremely nonstationary convective overturn behind the shock. While these different elements of the LESA phenomenon form a consistent picture, a full understanding remains elusive at present. There may be important implications for neutrino-flavor oscillations, the neutron-to-proton ratio in the neutrino-heated supernova ejecta, and neutron-star kicks, which remain to be explored.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  13. Call issued for Proton Radiography Facility proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Call issued for Proton Radiography Facility proposals Call issued for Proton Radiography Facility proposals The proposal deadline is Feb. 6 for experiments to be carried out during Fiscal Year 2016 (Oct. 1, 2015 to Sept. 30, 2016), with consideration for extensions into FY17. January 5, 2015 Amy Clarke and Seth Imhoff of Materials Technology-Metallurgy (MST-6) align a copper density calibration object for a proton radiography experiment. Amy Clarke and Seth Imhoff of Materials

  14. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-06-25

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  15. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  16. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-12-03

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  17. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  18. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, Mustafa; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the beta-decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of beta-decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the beta-delayed three proton emission.

  19. Protons Pair Up With Neutrons | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protons Pair Up With Neutrons Embargoed: Not for Release Until 2:00 p.m. Eastern Time Thursday, 29 May Contact: Kandice Carter 757-269-7263 Protons Pair Up With Neutrons NEWPORT NEWS, VA - Research performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has found that protons are about 20 times more likely to pair up with neutrons than with other protons in the nucleus. The result will be published online by the journal Science, at the Science Express website.

  20. Oorja Protonics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Protonics Inc Place: Fremont, California Zip: 94538 Product: Manufacturer of direct methanol fuel cells. Coordinates: 44.2605, -88.880509 Show Map Loading map......

  1. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R.; Payzant, Edward A.; Speakman, Scott A.; Greenblatt, Martha

    2008-08-19

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  2. Measurement of proton and anti-proton intensities in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Pordes et al.

    2003-06-04

    This paper describes the techniques used to measure the intensities of the proton (p) and anti-proton ({bar p}) beams in the Tevatron collider. The systems provide simultaneous measurements of the intensity of the 36 proton and 36 antiproton bunches and their longitudinal profiles.

  3. Photoinduced processes in protonated tryptamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.; Jouvet, C.; Dedonder-Lardeux, C.; Martrenchard, S.; Charriere, C.; Gregoire, G.; Desfrancois, C.; Schermann, J.P.; Barat, M.; Fayeton, J.A.

    2005-02-22

    The electronic excited state dynamics of protonated tryptamine ions generated by an electrospray source have been studied by means of photoinduced dissociation technique on the femtosecond time scale. The result is that the initially excited state decays very quickly within 250 fs. The photoinduced dissociation channels observed can be sorted in two groups of fragments coming from two competing primary processes on the singlet electronic surface. The first one corresponds to a hydrogen-atom loss channel that creates a tryptamine radical cation. The radical cation subsequently fragments to smaller ions. The second process is internal conversion due to the H-atom recombination on the electronic ground state. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations show that an excited {pi}{sigma}* state dissociative along the protonated amino N-H stretch crosses both the locally excited {pi}{pi}* state and the electronic ground state S{sub 0} and thus triggers the photofragmentation reactions. The two processes have equivalent quantum yields, {approx_equal}50% of the fragments coming from the H-atom loss reaction. The two primary reaction paths can clearly be distinguished by their femtosecond pump/probe dynamics recorded on the different fragmentation channels.

  4. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  5. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S.; Nair, Balakrishnan G.; Small, Troy; Heck, Brian

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  6. Commissioning of the PRIOR proton microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Varentsov, D.; Antonov, O.; Bakhmutova, A.; Barnes, C. W.; Bogdanov, A.; Danly, C. R.; Efimov, S.; Endres, M.; Fertman, A.; Golubev, A. A.; et al

    2016-02-18

    Recently, a new high energy proton microscopy facility PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research) has been designed, constructed, and successfully commissioned at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt, Germany). As a result of the experiments with 3.5–4.5 GeV proton beams delivered by the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 of GSI, 30 μm spatial and 10 ns temporal resolutions of the proton microscope have been demonstrated. A new pulsed power setup for studying properties of matter under extremes has been developed for the dynamic commissioning of the PRIOR facility. This study describes the PRIOR setup as well asmore » the results of the first static and dynamic protonradiography experiments performed at GSI.« less

  7. Masses and proton separation energies obtained from Q{sub a} and Q{sub p} measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C. R.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Brown, L. T.; Carpenter, L. F.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Penttila, H. T.; Seweryniak, D.

    2000-10-20

    For many nuclei beyond the proton drip line in the Z>72, N>82 region, both proton and a emission are energetically allowed. In the case of some proton emitters, there are {alpha}-decay chains emanating from both parent and daughter nuclei. This means that if the mass excess of one member of an {alpha}-decay chain is known, then the mass excesses for all members of both chains can be obtained. In addition, proton separation energies may be derived for nuclei in the {alpha}-decay chain of the proton emitter. The method of time- and space-correlations also allows the identification of isomeric states in these nuclei. As an example, a large number of mass excesses and proton separation energies for ground and metastable states have been derived from Q{sub a} and Q{sub p} values obtained from the proton emitters {sup 165,166,167}Ir, {sup 171}Au, {sup 177}Tl, and their daughters.

  8. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? You are ...

  9. Evidence for an anomalous quantum state of protons in nanoconfined...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of protons in nanoconfined water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence for an anomalous quantum state of protons in nanoconfined water Deep inelastic neutron ...

  10. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids ...

  11. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board ...

  12. Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proton Radiography of Magnetic Fields in a Laser Produced Plasma ...

  13. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy Everett Anderson NRELDOE Reversible Fuel Cell Workshop 19 April 2011 Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy ...

  14. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping; Min, Chul Hee; Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian; Normandin, Marc D.; Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas; El Fakhri, Georges

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  15. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariam, Fesseha G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  16. Probing the Proton's Weak Side | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing the Proton's Weak Side Probing the Proton's Weak Side Scientists know that the sun gets its shine through the actions of a little-understood fundamental force of nature called the weak force. But there's a lot that they don't know about the weak force. So for the first time, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab are trying to precisely measure the weak force's grasp on the ubiquitous proton. The weak force is one of four fundamental forces, which include

  17. Mechanism of Proton Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Voth

    2010-11-30

    The solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as NafionTM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach, combined with large scale MD simulation to help probe various PEM morphological models. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. A significant extension of the methodology to treat highly acidic (low pH) environments such as the hydrophilic domains of a PEM will be presented. Recent results for proton solvation and transport in NafionTM will be described which reveal the significant role of Grotthuss shuttling and charge defect delocalization on the excess proton solvation structures and transport properties. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will also be described.

  18. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  19. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  20. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Devine, Roderick A. B.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically written memory element utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element.

  1. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, R.F.; Clout, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given.

  2. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-11-03

    An electrically written memory element is disclosed utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element. 19 figs.

  3. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Devine, Roderick A. B.; Archer, Leo B.; Brown, George A.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    An enhancement of an electrically written memory element utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure during an anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. Device operation is enhanced by concluding this anneal step with a sudden cooling. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronics elements on the same silicon substrate.

  4. Call issued for Proton Radiography Facility proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2015 Amy Clarke and Seth Imhoff of Materials Technology-Metallurgy (MST-6) align a copper density calibration object for a proton radiography experiment. Amy Clarke and Seth...

  5. Proton Power Systems Plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems Plc Place: Starnberg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: D-82319 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: UK-based parent company of Proton Motor GmbH, which operates in Germany. The...

  6. Memory device using movement of protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Devine, Roderick A. B.

    2000-01-01

    An electrically written memory element utilizing the motion of protons within a dielectric layer surrounded by layers on either side to confine the protons within the dielectric layer with electrode means attached to the surrounding layers to change the spatial position of the protons within the dielectric layer. The device is preferably constructed as a silicon-silicon dioxide-silicon layered structure with the protons being introduced to the structure laterally through the exposed edges of the silicon dioxide layer during a high temperature anneal in an atmosphere containing hydrogen gas. The device operates at low power, is preferably nonvolatile, is radiation tolerant, and is compatible with convention silicon MOS processing for integration with other microelectronic elements on the same silicon substrate. With the addition of an optically active layer, the memory element becomes an electrically written, optically read optical memory element.

  7. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  8. Proton microscopy at GSI and FAIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Frank E; Mariam, Fesseha G; Golubev, A A; Turtikov, V I; Varentsov, D

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and facilities have been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international collaboration was formed to develop a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR (PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. These dynamic experiments will be driven with many energy sources including heavy ions, high explosives and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  9. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai

    2010-05-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  10. DISCOVERY OF PSR J1227−4853: A TRANSITION FROM A LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY TO A REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Stappers, Ben; Ray, Paul S.; Wolff, Michael; Wood, Kent S.; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Deneva, Julia; Camilo, Fernando; Johnson, Tyrel J.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees G.; Keane, Evan F.; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Harding, Alice K.

    2015-02-10

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the discovery of a 1.69 millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J1227−4853, at a dispersion measure of 43.4 pc cm{sup −3} associated with this source, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 607 MHz. This demonstrates that, post-transition, the system hosts an active radio MSP. This is the third system after PSR J1023+0038 and PSR J1824−2452I showing evidence of state switching between radio MSP and low-mass X-ray binary states. We report timing observations of PSR J1227−4853 with the GMRT and Parkes, which give a precise determination of the rotational and orbital parameters of the system. The companion mass measurement of 0.17–0.46 M{sub ⊙} suggests that this is a redback system. PSR J1227−4853 is eclipsed for about 40% of its orbit at 607 MHz with additional short-duration eclipses at all orbital phases. We also find that the pulsar is very energetic, with a spin-down luminosity of ∼10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}. We report simultaneous imaging and timing observations with the GMRT, which suggests that eclipses are caused by absorption rather than dispersion smearing or scattering.

  11. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY MEASURED PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE γ-RAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0218+4232

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yuanjie; Chen, Ding; Yang, Jun; Campbell, Robert M.; Janssen, Gemma; Stappers, Ben

    2014-02-20

    PSR J0218+4232 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) with a flux density ∼0.9 mJy at 1.4 GHz. It is very bright in the high-energy X-ray and γ-ray domains. We conducted an astrometric program using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz to measure its proper motion and parallax. A model-independent distance would also help constrain its γ-ray luminosity. We achieved a detection of signal-to-noise ratio S/N >37 for the weak pulsar in all five epochs. Using an extragalactic radio source lying 20 arcmin away from the pulsar, we estimate the pulsar's proper motion to be μ{sub α}cos δ = 5.35 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} and μ{sub δ} = –3.74 ± 0.12 mas yr{sup –1}, and a parallax of π = 0.16 ± 0.09 mas. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) proper motion has significantly improved upon the estimates from long-term pulsar timing observations. The VLBI parallax provides the first model-independent distance constraints: d=6.3{sub −2.3}{sup +8.0} kpc, with a corresponding 3σ lower-limit of d = 2.3 kpc. This is the first pulsar trigonometric parallax measurement based solely on EVN observations. Using the derived distance, we believe that PSR J0218+4232 is the most energetic γ-ray MSP known to date. The luminosity based on even our 3σ lower-limit distance is high enough to pose challenges to the conventional outer gap and slot gap models.

  12. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung calculation: Comparison with recent high-precision experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yi; Liou, M.K.; Schreiber, W.M.

    2005-08-01

    Proton-proton bremsstrahlung cross sections and analyzing powers have been calculated at 190 MeV by using a one-boson-exchange model. The results are compared with the recently published high-precision Kernfysisch-Versneller-Instituut (KVI) data. Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found.

  13. High energy emission from galaxy clusters and particle acceleration due to MHD turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Blasi, P.; Gabici, S.

    2009-04-08

    In the next years the FERMI gamma ray telescope and the Cherenkov telescopes will put very stringent constraints to models of gamma ray emission from galaxy clusters providing crucial information on relativistic particles in the inter-galactic-medium.We derive the broad band non-thermal spectrum of galaxy clusters in the context of general calculations in which relativistic particles (protons and secondary electrons due to proton-proton collisions) interact with MHD turbulence generated in the cluster volume during cluster mergers, and discuss the importance of future gamma ray observations.

  14. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L.; Jongen, Y.

    2009-03-10

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron registered system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  15. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazey, G.; et al.,

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  16. Probing the Planck Scale with Proton Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnik, Roni; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Thormeier, Marc

    2004-04-28

    We advocate the idea that proton decay may probe physics at the Planck scale instead of the GUT scale. This is possible because supersymmetric theories have dimension-5 operators that can induce proton decay at dangerous rates, even with R-parity conservation. These operators are expected to be suppressed by the same physics that explains the fermion masses and mixings. We present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in models with a string-inspired anomalous U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Protons and neutrons can decay via R-parity conserving non-renormalizable superpotential terms that are suppressed by the Planck scale and powers of the Cabibbo angle. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

  17. Structure in the Proton and the Neutron

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hofstadter, R.

    1958-06-01

    A survey of the recent work on the structures of the proton and the neutron carried out by high-energy electron-scattering methods is presented. Early work established finite size effects in the proton and led to information about the charge and magnetic density distributions in the proton. The rms size was established to be close to (0.77 plus or minus 0.10) x 10{sup -13} cm, and the density distributions of charge and anomalous magnetic moment were shown to be approximately of the same shape. The form factors could be described in terms of several alternative models given, for example, by an exponential, gaussian, hollow exponential, hollow gaussian, etc., distribution of densities. Many other shapes were excluded by the experimental data. Recent work by Bumiller and Hofstadter now fixes one among these models that is appropriate to the proton and provides an extremely good fit at all angles between energies of 200 and 650 Mev. The new evidence clearly favors the exponential model with rms radius (0.80 plus or minus 0.04) 10{sup -13} cm. Recent studies of the proton have attempted to answer the question: how closely similar are the charge and magnetic form factors? This work now shows that the distributions have the same sizes and shapes to within 10 per cent, and each distribution is given very closely by the exponential model described above with radius (0.80 plus or minus 0.04) x 10{sup -13}. Certain other similar models will be discussed. Early work on the inelastic continuum in the deuteron established that the neutron's magnetic structure was extended and not a point. It was further shown that the neutron's size was approximately the same as that of the proton. This work has recently been extended by Yearian and Hofstadter to a determination of the variation of the neutron's magnetic form factor over the range where the proton's form factor is known. The new results show: (1) the neutron is not a point, (2) the neutron's magnetic structure has a size lying

  18. Investigation of L X-ray intensity ratios in Pt induced by proton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Manpuneet; Kaur, Mandeep; Mohan, Harsh Jain, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Parjit S.; Vohra, Neelam; Sharma, Sunita

    2015-08-28

    A survey of literature on L X-ray parameters inspires us for taking up the present investigation. These parameters are useful to study atomic properties. In view of this, we report L X-ray intensity ratios for Pt, namely, L{sub ℓ} / L{sub α}, L{sub β} / L{sub α} and L{sub γ} / L{sub α} with proton collisions over the energy range 260 - 400 keV with an interval of 20 keV. The intention of research presented in this paper is to explore their energy dependence and comparison with theoretical calculations. These analyses will yield a data in the low energy region which assist in better clarity of proton induced X-ray emission phenomenon.

  19. The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane October 11, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Ram.jpg The cover ...

  20. Proton Therapy for Cancer: Current Status, Promise and Challenges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 9, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Proton Therapy for Cancer: Current Status, Promise and Challenges Dr. Dennis Mah ProCure Proton Therapy Center Colloquium...

  1. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex ...

  2. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of the wave-function along the proton transfer pathway. Right: A two-dimensional potential-energy-surface scan shows the proton transfer path in the dimer ion involving a ...

  3. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Departmen

  4. New Measurement Explores Fine Details of Proton Structure | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Measurement Explores Fine Details of Proton Structure New Measurement Explores Fine Details of Proton Structure BigCal, contained 1,744 lead glass bars The new calorimeter, ...

  5. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are...

  6. Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Place: Starnberg, Germany Zip: D-82319 Product: Proton Motor Fuel Cell has been developing and...

  7. Diesel Emission Control Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications

  8. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  9. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  10. Oct. 25 Lecture Highlights Treatment Technology of HU's Proton Therapy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute | Jefferson Lab Oct. 25 Lecture Highlights Treatment Technology of HU's Proton Therapy Institute Oct. 25 Lecture Highlights Treatment Technology of HU's Proton Therapy Institute Cynthia Keppel Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute Scientific and Technical Director, Cynthia Keppel, will present a public lecture titled "Accelerating Protons to Save Lives" on Oct. 25 at Jefferson Lab in Newport News. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Sept. 29, 2011 - Jefferson Lab's 2011 Fall Science

  11. Physics Highlight Proton radiography at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlight Proton radiography at Los Alamos National Laboratory Proton Radiography, invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory, employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials driven by high explosives. A series of proton radiographs of disks (left to right) aluminum, copper, tantalum, and tin that have been explosively shocked from below. The radiographs reveal the internal structure of the materials in these extreme conditions. For example, the aluminum

  12. COLLOQUIUM: Proton Therapy for Cancer: Current Status, Promise and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab May 25, 2016, 1:30pm to 2:45pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Proton Therapy for Cancer: Current Status, Promise and Challenges Dr. Dennis Mah ProCure Proton Therapy Center This presentation will provide a physicist's perspective on a proton therapy for cancer treatment. It will include a context of how radiation therapy fits into cancer management overall with an emphasis on the differences between proton and conventional

  13. Proton Research Earns 2008 JSA Thesis Prize | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Research Earns 2008 JSA Thesis Prize Proton Research Earns 2008 JSA Thesis Prize groundbreaking Guy Ron NEWPORT NEWS, VA, April 15, 2009 - An experiment probing the internal structure of the proton has earned Israeli scientist Guy Ron the 2008 JSA Thesis Prize. The prize is awarded annually for the best Ph.D. dissertation resulting from research performed at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. "The proton is not a point particle. It has some

  14. Proton's Weak Charge Determined for First Time | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weak Charge Determined for First Time Proton's Weak Charge Determined for First Time Q-weak at Jefferson Lab has measured the proton's weak charge Q-weak at Jefferson Lab has measured the proton's weak charge. NEWPORT NEWS, VA, Sept. 17, 2013 - Researchers have made the first experimental determination of the weak charge of the proton in research carried out at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The results, accepted for publication in

  15. Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure Proton's party pals may alter its internal structure NEWPORT NEWS, VA, November 18, 2009 - A recent experiment at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has found that a proton's nearest neighbors in the nucleus of the atom may modify the proton's internal structure. The result was published in the November 13 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. When comparing large nuclei to small nuclei, past

  16. Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Everett Anderson, PROTON ON SITE, at the NREL Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop, April 19, 2011

  17. Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: Proton Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    This success story describes Proton Energy Systems, a small business that designs and manufactures proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis sytems to produce hydrogen from water. The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program has supported much of Proton's technology development through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Awards and other non-SBIR funding.

  18. Studying the proton 'radius' puzzle with ?p elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, R.

    2013-11-07

    The disagreement between the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen and from electronic measurements is called the proton radius puzzle. The resolution of the puzzle remains unclear and appears to require new experimental results. An experiment to measure muon-proton elastic scattering is presented here.

  19. PROTON BEAM REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY AND MUON COLLIDER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-11

    Both a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider place stringent demands on the proton beam used to generate the desired beam of muons. Here we discuss the advantages and challenges of muon accelerators and the rationale behind the requirements on proton beam energy, intensity, bunch length, and repetition rate. Example proton driver configurations that have been considered in recent years are also briefly indicated.

  20. Hardness assurance for proton direct ionization-induced SEEs using a high-energy proton beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dodds, Nathaniel Anson; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Dodd, Paul E.; Doyle, Barney Lee; Trinczek, M.; Blackmore, E. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Reed, R. A.; Pellish, J. A.; et al

    2014-11-06

    The low-energy proton energy spectra of all shielded space environments have the same shape. This shape is easily reproduced in the laboratory by degrading a high-energy proton beam, producing a high-fidelity test environment. We use this test environment to dramatically simplify rate prediction for proton direct ionization effects, allowing the work to be done at high-energy proton facilities, on encapsulated parts, without knowledge of the IC design, and with little or no computer simulations required. Proton direct ionization (PDI) is predicted to significantly contribute to the total error rate under the conditions investigated. Scaling effects are discussed using data frommore » 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm SOI SRAMs. These data also show that grazing-angle protons will dominate the PDI-induced error rate due to their higher effective LET, so PDI hardness assurance methods must account for angular effects to be conservative. As a result, we show that this angular dependence can be exploited to quickly assess whether an IC is susceptible to PDI.« less

  1. SU-E-T-329: Tissue-Equivalent Phantom Materials for Neutron Dosimetry in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halg, R; Lomax, A; Clarke, S; Wieger, B; Pryser, E; Arghal, R; Pozzi, S; Bashkirov, V; Schulte, R; Schneider, U

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize tissue equivalence of phantom materials in terms of secondary neutron production and dose deposition from neutrons produced in radiation therapy phantom materials in the context of proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. Methods: In order to study the influence of material choice on neutron production in therapeutic proton beams, Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 and MCNPX-PoliMi transport codes were performed to generate the neutron fields produced by protons of 155 and 200 MeV. A simple irradiation geometry was used to investigate the effect of different materials. The proton beams were stopped in slab phantoms to study the production of secondary neutrons. The investigated materials were water, Lucite, and tissue-equivalent phantom materials (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA). Neutron energy spectra and absorbed dose by neutrons and their secondary particles were scored. In addition, simulations were performed for reference tissues (ICRP/ICRU) to assess tissue equivalence with respect to neutron generation and transport. In order to benchmark the simulation results, measurements were performed with a system developed at the University of Michigan; organic liquid scintillators were used to detect the neutron emissions from the irradiation of tissue-equivalent materials. Additionally, the MPPost code was used to calculate the scintillator response from the MCNPX-PoliMi output. Results: The simulated energy spectra and depth dose curves of the neutrons produced in different phantom materials showed similar shape. The differences of spectra and fluences between all studied materials and reference tissues were well within the achievable precision of neutron dosimetry. The shape of the simulated detector response of the liquid scintillators agreed well with measurements on the proton beamline. Conclusion: Based on Geant4 and MCNPX-PoliMi simulations, the investigated materials appear to be suitable to study the production

  2. Zooming in on a proton packed with surprises | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zooming in on a proton packed with surprises The shape of the proton can differ, depending on the angular momentum of quarks The shape of the proton can differ, depending on the angular momentum of quarks. (Gerald A. Miller/University of Washington) Zooming in on a proton packed with surprises December 3, 2003 The structure of the proton is under the microscope at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, where a

  3. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth

  4. Hard Photodisintegration of a Proton Pair

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pomerantz, Ishay; Bubis, Nathaniel; Allada, Kalyan; Beck, Arie; Beck, Sara; Berman, Barry L.; Boeglin, Werner U.; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Chirapatpimol, Khem; et al

    2010-01-08

    We present the first study of high energy photodisintegration of proton-pairs through the gamma + 3He -> p+p+n channel. Photon energies from 0.8 to 4.7 GeV were used in kinematics corresponding to a proton pair with high relative momentum and a neutron nearly at rest. An s^{-11} scaling of the cross section was observed, as predicted by the constituent counting rule. The onset of the scaling is at a higher energy and the cross section is significantly lower then for pn pair photodisintegration. For photon energies below the scaling region, the scaled cross section was found to present a strongmore » energy-dependent structure not observed in deuteron photodisintegration.« less

  5. RHIC Polarized proton performance in run-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montag,C.; Bai, M.; MacKay, W.W.; Roser, T.; Abreu, N.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.; Kayran, D.A.; Kewisch, J.; Lee, R.C.; Lin, F.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luccio, A.U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Pile, P.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Russo, T.; Satogata, T.; Schultheiss, C.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; D. Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2008-10-06

    During Run-8, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provided collisions of spin-polarized proton beams at two interaction regions. Physics data were taken with vertical orientation of the beam polarization, which in the 'Yellow' RHIC ring was significantly lower than in previous years. We present recent developments and improvements as well as the luminosity and polarization performance achieved during Run-8, and we discuss possible causes of the not as high as previously achieved polarization performance of the 'Yellow' ring.

  6. Proton form factor effects in hydrogenic atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daza, F. Garcia; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-10-21

    The proton structure corrections to the hyperfine splittings in electronic and muonic hydrogen are evaluated using the Breit potential with electromagnetic form factors. In contrast to other methods, the Breit equation with q{sup 2} dependent form factors is just an extension of the standard Breit equation which gives the hyperfine splitting Hamiltonian. Precise QED corrections are comparable to the structure corrections which therefore need to be evaluated ab initio.

  7. LOW ENERGY PROTON CAPTURE STUDY OF THE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LOW ENERGY PROTON CAPTURE STUDY OF THE 14 N(p, γ) 15 O REACTION Stephen Michael Daigle A dissertation submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Depart- ment of Physics and Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2013 Approved by: Arthur E. Champagne Gerald Cecil Jonathan Engel Reyco Henning Christian Iliadis c 2013 Stephen Michael Daigle ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ii ABSTRACT Stephen Michael

  8. Proton structure functions at small x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recent result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F2 and FL, which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F2. We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. As a result, predictions for the structure function FL are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA

  9. Proton structure functions at small x

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recentmore » result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F2 and FL, which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F2. We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. As a result, predictions for the structure function FL are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA data.« less

  10. Method of synthesis of proton conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando Henry; Einsla, Melinda Lou; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2010-06-15

    A method of producing a proton conducting material, comprising adding a pyrophosphate salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved pyrophosphate salt; adding an inorganic acid salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved inorganic acid salt; adding the dissolved inorganic acid salt to the dissolved pyrophosphate salt to produce a mixture; substantially evaporating the solvent from the mixture to produce a precipitate; and calcining the precipitate at a temperature of from about 400.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C.

  11. FFAG ACCELERATOR PROTON DRIVER FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO, A.

    2005-06-21

    This paper is the summary of a conceptual study of a Proton Driver for Neutrino Factory based on the use of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) Accelerator. The required proton energy range for an optimum neutrino production is 5 to 12 GeV. This can be accomplished with a group of three concentric rings each with 807 m circumference [1]. FFAG Accelerators [2] have the capability to accelerate charged particles over a large momentum range ({+-}30-50%) and the feature of constant bending and focusing fields. Particles can be accelerated very fast at the rate given by the accelerating field of RF cavities placed in proper locations between magnets. The performance of FFAG accelerators is to be placed between that of Super-Conducting Linear Accelerators (SCL), with which they share the fast acceleration rate, and Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS), as they allow the beam to re-circulate over fewer revolutions. Brookhaven National Laboratory is involved in the study of feasibility of FFAG Accelerators to accelerate intense beams of protons in the GeV energy range for a variety of applications the most important of which is the Upgrade of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) with a new FFAG injector [3] accelerating from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The ring would be housed in the AGS tunnel and has henceforth a circumference of 807 m.

  12. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  13. Modification for complex-particle emission probability in the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao Ron-zhi; Wu Guo-hua; Zheng Wei-han; Liu Jian-ye; Yu Chao-fan; Yu Xie

    1986-04-01

    Starting from a state density formula that distinguishes between neutrons and protons, we have derived corrections for the emission probability W/sub alphabeta/ for complex particles and the purely combinatorial probability R/sub alphabeta/. The calculated results agree well with experimental data and show clear improvement over previous calculations.

  14. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  15. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-01-13

    The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. As a result, for situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20more » to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.« less

  16. Comprehensive description of J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate + Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ψ production at low p⊥ in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p⊥ distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for ψ' production. We observe an overlap region in p⊥ where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  17. Comprehensive description of J/? production in proton-proton collisions at collider energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-11-04

    We employ a small x Color Glass Condensate (CGC)+ Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) formalism to compute J/ production at low p? in proton-proton collisions at collider energies. Very good agreement is obtained for total cross-sections, rapidity distributions and low momentum p? distributions. Similar agreement is obtained for production. We observe an overlap region in p? where our results match smoothly to those obtained in a next-to-leading order (NLO) collinearly factorized NRQCD formalism. The relative contribution of color singlet and color octet contributions can be quantified in the CGC+NRQCD framework, with the former contributing approximately 10% of the total cross-section.

  18. Search for physics beyond the standard model in final states with a lepton and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; et al

    2015-05-22

    A search for new physics in proton-proton collisions having final states with an electron or muon and missing transverse energy is presented.

  19. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  20. Plans for a proton driver at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kephart, R.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    , and will certainly have important implications for our understanding of cosmology and the evolution of the early Universe. The current Fermilab Program is an important part of the world-wide accelerator based effort to explore and understand the physics of neutrino oscillations. By early 2005, with both MINOS and MiniBooNE taking data, Fermilab will be able to answer some of the most pressing first-round questions raised by the discovery that neutrinos have mass. Fermilab's high-intensity neutrino beams are derived from 8- and 120-GeV proton beams. MiniBooNE is currently taking data using 8 GeV Protons from the Booster. The 120 GeV NuMI beam will start to operate in early 2005 using a 0.25 MW proton beam power from the Main Injector. Future neutrino programs will build on these existing facilities. New short and long baseline experiments have been proposed. There are proposals to increase the available number of protons at 8 and 120 GeV with the goal of addressing the full range of questions presented by neutrino oscillations. Key to that vision is a new intense proton source that usually is referred to as the Proton Driver.

  1. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Commercial Airplanes | Department of Energy Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes This report, prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, is an initial investigation of the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells on-board commercial aircraft. The report examines whether on-board airplane fuel cell systems are

  3. Moving Quarks Help Solve Proton Spin Puzzle | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving Quarks Help Solve Proton Spin Puzzle Moving Quarks Help Solve Proton Spin Puzzle NEWPORT NEWS, VA., Sept. 11, 2008 - New theory work at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has shown that more than half of the spin of the proton is the result of the movement of its building blocks: quarks. The result, published in the Sept. 5 issue of Physical Review Letters, agrees with recent experiments and supercomputer calculations. It was thought that the

  4. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Correctors and Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Slow extraction of protons beams from circular accelerators is currently widely used for a variety of beam-based experiments. The method has some deficiencies including limited efficiency of extraction,

  5. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets | Department of Energy Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. pemfc_econ_2006_report_final_0407.pdf (3.88 MB) More Documents &

  6. Inelastic Scattering Of Electrons By Protons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cone, A. A.; Chen, K. W.; Dunning, J. R. Jr.; Hartwig, G.; Ramsey, N. F.; Walker, J. K.; Wilson, R.

    1966-12-01

    The inelastic scattering of electrons by protons has been measured at incident electron energies up to 5 BeV/c and momentum transfers q{sup 2}=4(BeV/c){sup 2}. Excitation of known nucleon resonances at M=1238, 1512, 1688 and possibly 1920 MeV have been observed. The calculations for the resonance at M=1238 MeV have been compared with calculations by Adler based on the dispersion theory of Chew, Goldberger, Low and Nambu. The agreement is good. Qualitative models are discussed for the other resonances.

  7. Mass Evaluation for Proton Rich Nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Audi, G.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.; Kondev, F. G.

    2011-11-30

    The Atomic mass evaluation (AME) provides the reliable resource for the values related to atomic masses. Since the publication of the latest version of AME in 2003, many developments for atomic mass determination have been done and important results changed significantly our knowledge. A preliminary version of AME was released in April 2011, and an official version is foreseen to be published in early 2013. The general status of AME is presented and some specific features of AME for proton-rich nuclides are discussed.

  8. COMPACT ACCELERATOR CONCEPT FOR PROTON THERAPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2006-08-18

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is being developed as a compact flash x-ray radiography source. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be presented.

  9. High Power Superconducting Continuous Wave Linacs for Protons...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Power Superconducting Continuous Wave Linacs for Protons and Heavy-Ions Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of ...

  10. Dynamical effects in proton breakup from exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonaccorso, Angela; Kumar, Ravinder

    2012-10-20

    This contribution discusses dynamical effects in proton breakup from a weakly bound state in an exotic nucleus on a heavy target. The Coulomb interactions between the proton and the core and the proton and the target are treated to all orders, including also the full multipole expansion of the Coulomb potential. The dynamics of proton Coulomb breakup is compared to that of an equivalent neutron of larger binding energy in order to elucidate the differences with the well understood neutron breakup mechanism. A number of experimentally measurable observables such as parallel momentum distributions, proton angular distributions and total breakup cross sections can be calculated. With respect to nuclear breakup it is found that a proton behaves exactly as a neutron of larger binding energy. The extra 'effective energy' is due to the combined core-target Coulomb barrier. In Coulomb breakup we distinguish the effect of the core-target Coulomb potential (called recoil effect), with respect to which the proton behaves again as a more bound neutron, from the direct proton-target Coulomb potential. The latter gives cross sections about an order of magnitude larger than the recoil term. The two effects give rise to complicated interferences in the parallel momentum distributions. They are instead easily separable in the proton angular distributions which are therefore suggested as a very useful observable for future experimental studies.

  11. A Proton Recoil Telescope Detector for Neutron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocci, F.; Cinausero, M.; Rizzi, V.; Barbui, M.; Prete, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Lunardon, M.; Pesente, S.; Fontana, A.; Gemignian, G.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Zenoni, A.; Fabris, D.; Morando, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Viesti, G.

    2007-10-26

    A compact and versatile Proton Recoil Telescope (PRT) detector has been realized to measure neutron energy spectra in the range from few to hundred MeV. The PRT is a position sensitive detector made by: an active multilayer segmented plastic scintillator as neutron to proton converter, two silicon strip detectors for proton energy and position measurement and a final thick CsI(T1) scintillator to measure the residual proton energy. The detector has been tested with the {sup 13}C(d,n) reaction at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud using a 40 MeV deuteron beam.

  12. Polarized Proton Acceleration in AGS and RHIC (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; ACCELERATION; BEAM PRODUCTION; BROOKHAVEN RHIC; DEPOLARIZATION; GEV RANGE; POLARIZATION; POLARIZED BEAMS; PROTON BEAMS; ...

  13. Quarks Pair Up in Protons (and Neutrons) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quarks Pair Up in Protons (and Neutrons) Graph of up quarkdown quark contributions Researchers have published intriguing new observations for how the different kinds of quarks ...

  14. HAPPEx Results Hint at Strangely Magnetic Proton | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that strange quarks in the proton's quark-gluon sea contribute to at least one of ... down and strange quark contributions to the nucleon's charge and current distributions. ...

  15. Aqueous proton transfer across single-layer graphene (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proton transfer across single-layer graphene proceeds with large computed energy barriers and is thought to be unfavourable at room temperature unless nanoscale holes or dopants ...

  16. Proton transfer in nucleobases is mediated by water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khistyaev, Kirill; Golan, Amir; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Orms, Natalie; Krylov, Anna I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-29

    Water plays a central role in chemistry and biology by mediating the interactions between molecules, altering energy levels of solvated species, modifying potential energy proles along reaction coordinates, and facilitating ecient proton transport through ion channels and interfaces. This study investigates proton transfer in a model system comprising dry and microhydrated clusters of nucleobases. With mass spectrometry and tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation, we show that water shuts down ionization-induced proton transfer between nucleobases, which is very ecient in dry clusters. Instead, a new pathway opens up in which protonated nucleo bases are generated by proton transfer from the ionized water molecule and elimination of a hydroxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the shape of the potential energy prole along the proton transfer coordinate depends strongly on the character of the molecular orbital from which the electron is removed, i.e., the proton transfer from water to nucleobases is barrierless when an ionized state localized on water is accessed. The computed energetics of proton transfer is in excellent agreement with the experimental appearance energies. Possible adiabatic passage on the ground electronic state of the ionized system, while energetically accessible at lower energies, is not ecient. Thus, proton transfer is controlled electronically, by the character of the ionized state, rather than statistically, by simple energy considerations.

  17. AWAKE -- A Proton-driven Plasma Wakefield Experiment at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AWAKE -- A Proton-driven Plasma Wakefield Experiment at CERN Swapan Chattopadhyay Fermilab March 9, 2016 4:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West High energy intense proton beams such as the in the 7 TeV x 7 TeV Large Hadron Collider at CERN have sufficient energy stored per proton bunch to power and accelerate an electron beam to an energy of 600 GeV if a suitable mechanism could be found to transform all the stored proton beam energy into the electrons. A suitably designed plasma column could be such

  18. Description of the proton and neutron radiative capture reactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Description of the proton and neutron radiative capture reactions in the Gamow shell model Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Fossez, K.; Michel, N.; Poszajczak, M.; Jaganathen, ...

  19. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ring at Fermilab. The proposed method of non-resonant slow extraction of protons by bent crystals in combination with orbit fast deflectors shows great promise in...

  20. Polarization measurement of laser-accelerated protons (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polarization measurement of laser-accelerated protons We report on the ... OSTI Identifier: 22252078 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  1. Search for the Dirac Monopole with 30-bev Protons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Purcell, E.M.; Collins, G.B.; Fujii, T.; Hornbostel, J.; Turkot, F.

    1963-03-01

    A search was made at the Brookhaven alternating gradient synchrotron for magnetic monopoles produced either in collisions of 30-Bev protons with light nuclei, or produced by gamma rays secondary to these protons in the Coulomb field of protons or of carbon nuclei. In runs using 5.7 x 10{sup 15} circulating protons, no monopole-like event was found. This implies an upper limit for production in protonnucleon interactions of about 2 x 10{sup -40} cm{sup 2}. Experimental limits are also derived for the photoproduction of pole pairs. (auth)

  2. Reactive Molecular Simulations of Protonation of Water Clusters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Water Clusters and Depletion of Acidity in H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactive Molecular Simulations of Protonation of Water Clusters ...

  3. Fast timing detectors for forward protons at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrow, Michael; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The author discusses the development of high precision timing detectors for high momentum protons at the LHC, and their application in studying exclusive Higgs boson production.

  4. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Donald C.

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton QpW via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be pW = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of pW(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].

  5. Neutrino emission in the jet propagation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, D.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-07-20

    Relativistic jets are universal in long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. Before breaking out, they must propagate in the progenitor envelope along with a forward shock and a reverse shock forming at the jet head. Both electrons and protons will be accelerated by the shocks. High-energy neutrinos could be produced by these protons interacting with stellar materials and electron-radiating photons. The jet will probably be collimated, which may have a strong effect on the final neutrino flux. Under the assumption of a power-law stellar-envelope density profile ??r {sup ?} with index ?, we calculate the neutrino emission flux by these shocks for low-luminosity GRBs (LL-GRBs) and ultra-long GRBs (UL-GRBs) in different collimation regimes, using the jet propagation framework developed by Bromberg et al. We find that LL-GRBs and UL-GRBs are capable of producing detectable high-energy neutrinos up to ?PeV, from which the final neutrino spectrum can be obtained. Further, we conclude that a larger ? corresponds to greater neutrino flux at the high-energy end (?PeV) and to higher maximum neutrino energy as well. However, such differences are so small that it is not promising for us to be able to distinguish these in observations, given the energy resolution we have now.

  6. Ion/proton-conducting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2014-12-23

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors. Additional high-density and gas-tight HAP film compositions may be deposited using a two-step deposition method that includes an electrochemical deposition method followed by a hydrothermal deposition method. The two-step method uses a single hydrothermal deposition solution composition. The method may be used to deposit HAP films including but not limited to at least doped HAP films, and more particularly including carbonated HAP films. In addition, the high-density and gas-tight HAP films may be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  7. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  8. Secondary Emission Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, David Roberts

    2015-03-24

    This report describes R&D on a new type of calorimeter using secondary emission to measure the energy of radiation, particularly high energy particles.

  9. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  10. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  11. Measurements of neutron dose equivalent for a proton therapy center using uniform scanning proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Liu Yaxi; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Andries Niek; Keole, Sameer

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Neutron exposure is of concern in proton therapy, and varies with beam delivery technique, nozzle design, and treatment conditions. Uniform scanning is an emerging treatment technique in proton therapy, but neutron exposure for this technique has not been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose, H/D, under various treatment conditions for uniform scanning beams employed at our proton therapy center. Methods: Using a wide energy neutron dose equivalent detector (SWENDI-II, ThermoScientific, MA), the authors measured H/D at 50 cm lateral to the isocenter as a function of proton range, modulation width, beam scanning area, collimated field size, and snout position. They also studied the influence of other factors on neutron dose equivalent, such as aperture material, the presence of a compensator, and measurement locations. They measured H/D for various treatment sites using patient-specific treatment parameters. Finally, they compared H/D values for various beam delivery techniques at various facilities under similar conditions. Results: H/D increased rapidly with proton range and modulation width, varying from about 0.2 mSv/Gy for a 5 cm range and 2 cm modulation width beam to 2.7 mSv/Gy for a 30 cm range and 30 cm modulation width beam when 18 Multiplication-Sign 18 cm{sup 2} uniform scanning beams were used. H/D increased linearly with the beam scanning area, and decreased slowly with aperture size and snout retraction. The presence of a compensator reduced the H/D slightly compared with that without a compensator present. Aperture material and compensator material also have an influence on neutron dose equivalent, but the influence is relatively small. H/D varied from about 0.5 mSv/Gy for a brain tumor treatment to about 3.5 mSv/Gy for a pelvic case. Conclusions: This study presents H/D as a function of various treatment parameters for uniform scanning proton beams. For similar treatment

  12. Fluoroalkyl-phosphonic-acid-based proton conductors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluoroalkyl-phosphonic-acid-based proton conductors Fluoroalkyl-phosphonic-acid-based proton conductors A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. desmarteau.pdf (203.69 KB) More Documents & Publications HTMWG, May 18, 2009, Welcome! High Temperature Membrane Working Group Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation)

  13. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  14. Mass Determination of Two-Proton Radioactive Nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, Krzysztof A

    2012-01-01

    The masses of heavy two-proton emitters (45Fe, 48Ni and 54Zn) are calculated, basing on experimentally measured two-proton decay energies. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and extrapolations.

  15. Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. mcgrath.pdf (404.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Higher Temperature PEM Composite Systems for Fuel Cells Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Integration of Non-Traditional Membranes into MEAs

  16. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  17. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, C.J.

    1998-06-02

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H{sup {minus}} beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H{sup {minus}} beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H{sup {minus}} beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H{sup {minus}} beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H{sup {minus}} beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H{sup {minus}} beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser. 9 figs.

  18. A hadronic-leptonic model for the Fermi bubbles: Cosmic-rays in the galactic halo and radio emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2014-07-01

    We investigate non-thermal emission from the Fermi bubbles in a hadronic model. Cosmic-ray (CR) protons are accelerated at the forward shock of the bubbles. They interact with the background gas in the Galactic halo and create ?{sup 0}-decay gamma-rays and secondary electrons through proton-proton interaction. We follow the evolution of the CR protons and electrons by calculating their distribution functions. We find that the spectrum and the intensity profiles of ?{sup 0}-decay gamma-rays are consistent with observations. We predict that the shock front is located far ahead of the gamma-ray boundary of the Fermi bubbles. This naturally explains the fact that a clear temperature jump of thermal gas was not discovered at the gamma-ray boundary in recent Suzaku observations. We also consider re-acceleration of the background CRs in the Galactic halo at the shock front. We find that it can significantly affect the gamma-rays from the Fermi bubbles, unless the density of the background CRs is ? 10% of that in the Galactic disk. We indicate that secondary electrons alone cannot produce the observed radio emission from the Fermi bubbles. However, the radio emission from the outermost region of the bubbles can be explained if electrons are directly accelerated at the shock front with an efficiency of ?0.1% of that of protons.

  19. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  1. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  2. BEAM HALO IN PROTON LINAC BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. WANGLER; K. CRANDALL

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we review the present picture of km halo in proton linacs. Space-charge forces acting in mismatched beams have been identified as a major cause of beam-halo. We present a definition of halo based on a ratio of moments of the distribution of the beam coordinates. We find from our initial studies that for halo detined in this way, a beam can have rms emittance growth without halo growth, but halo growth is always accompanied by rms emittance growth. We describe the beam-halo experiment that is in preparation at Los Alamos, which will address questions about the beam profiles, maximum particle amplitudes, and rms emittance growth associated with the halo.

  3. Beam halo in mismatched proton beams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, Thomas P.,; Allen, C. K.; Chan, D.; Colestock, P. L. ,; Crandall, K. R.; Qiang, J.; Garnett, R. W.; Lysenko, W. P.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Schneider, J. D.; Schulze, M. E.; Sheffield, R. L.; Smith, H. V.

    2002-01-01

    Progress was made during the past decade towards a better understanding of halo formation caused by beam mismatch in high-intensity beams. To test these ideas an experiment was carried out at Los Alamos with proton beams in a 52-quadrupole focusing channel. Rms emittances and beam widths were obtained from measured beam profiles for comparison with the maximum emittance growth predictions of a free-energy model and the maximum haloamplitude predictions of a particle-core model. The experimental results are also compared with multiparticle simulations. In this paper we will present the experimental results and discuss the implications with respect to the validity of both the models and the simulations. Keywords: beam halo, emittance growth, beam profiles, simulations, space charge, mismatch

  4. Ion-/proton-conducting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Matthew; Liu, Dongxia

    2011-05-17

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors.

  5. The Quest for Spinning Glue in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-10-26

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at {radical}(s) = 200-500 GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, A{sub LL}, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at {radical}(s) = 200 GeV.

  6. Search for disappearing tracks in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-01-19

    A search is presented for long-lived charged particles that decay within the CMS detector and produce the signature of a disappearing track. Disappearing tracks are identified as those with little or no associated calorimeter energy deposits and with missing hits in the outer layers of the tracker. The search uses proton-proton collision data recorded at ?s = 8 TeV that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1. The results of the search are interpreted in the context of the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The number of observed events is in agreement with the background expectation, and limits are set on the cross section of direct electroweak chargino production in terms of the chargino mass and mean proper lifetime. At 95% confidence level, AMSB models with a chargino mass less than 260 GeV, corresponding to a mean proper lifetime of 0.2 ns, are excluded.

  7. Search for disappearing tracks in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-01-19

    A search is presented for long-lived charged particles that decay within the CMS detector and produce the signature of a disappearing track. Disappearing tracks are identified as those with little or no associated calorimeter energy deposits and with missing hits in the outer layers of the tracker. The search uses proton-proton collision data recorded at ?s = 8 TeV that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1. The results of the search are interpreted in the context of the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The number of observed events is in agreement with the background expectation, and limits aremoreset on the cross section of direct electroweak chargino production in terms of the chargino mass and mean proper lifetime. At 95% confidence level, AMSB models with a chargino mass less than 260 GeV, corresponding to a mean proper lifetime of 0.2 ns, are excluded.less

  8. Energy dependence of the ridge in high multiplicity proton-proton collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dusling, Kevin; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we demonstrate that the recent measurement of azimuthally collimated, long-range rapidity (“ridge”) correlations in √s=13 TeV proton-proton (p+p) collisions by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC are in agreement with expectations from the color glass condensate effective theory of high-energy QCD. The observation that the integrated near-side yield as a function of multiplicity is independent of collision energy is a natural consequence of the fact that multiparticle production is driven by a single semihard saturation scale in the color glass condensate framework. We argue further that the azimuthal structure of these recent ATLAS ridge measurements strongly constrainsmore » hydrodynamic interpretations of such correlations in high-multiplicity p+p collisions.« less

  9. RHIC polarized proton-proton operation at 100 GeV in Run 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoefer, V.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atoian, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K. A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; D Ottavio, T.; Drees, K. A.; Dutheil, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gu, X.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Narayan, G.; Nemesure, S.; Pile, P.; Poblaguev, A.; Ranjbar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, W. B.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; White, S.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2015-05-03

    The first part of RHIC Run 15 consisted of ten weeks of polarized proton on proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV at two interaction points. In this paper we discuss several of the upgrades to the collider complex that allowed for improved performance. The largest effort consisted in commissioning of the electron lenses, one in each ring, which are designed to compensate one of the two beam-beam interactions experienced by the proton bunches. The e-lenses raise the per bunch intensity at which luminosity becomes beam-beam limited. A new lattice was designed to create the phase advances necessary for a beam-beam compensation with the e-lens, which also has an improved off-momentum dynamic aperture relative to previous runs. In order to take advantage of the new, higher intensity limit without suffering intensity driven emittance deterioration, other features were commissioned including a continuous transverse bunch-by-bunch damper in RHIC and a double harmonic RF cature scheme in the Booster. Other high intensity protections include improvements to the abort system and the installation of masks to intercept beam lost due to abort kicker pre-fires.

  10. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  11. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-11-12

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley et al. of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li et al. from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li et al. were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping.

  12. Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. Miller *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Giner Giner Electrochemical Systems: Monjid Hamdan *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Proton Proton OnSite: Kathy Ayers *Q&A 3 DOE EERE-FCT Goals and Objectives Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost

  13. Mixed anion materials and compounds for novel proton conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poling, Steven Andrew; Nelson, Carly R.; Martin, Steve W.

    2006-09-05

    The present invention provides new amorphous or partially crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate over a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100 .degree. C. to 300.degree. C., and new uses for crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds in such proton exchange membranes. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -60 and 300.degree. C. and a relative humidity of less than about 12%..

  14. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, David C. Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full 360° rotation. In this paper the authors propose a method to overcome the problem using a dual modality reconstruction (DMR) combining the proton data with a cone-beam x-ray prior. Methods: A Catphan 600 phantom was scanned using a cone beam x-ray CT scanner. A digital replica of the phantom was created in the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and a 360° proton CT scan was simulated, storing the entrance and exit position and momentum vector of every proton. Proton CT images were reconstructed using a varying number of angles from the scan. The proton CT images were reconstructed using a constrained nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully sampled case and the 90° interval case, with the MTF = 0.5 (modulation transfer function) ranging from 5.22 to 5.65 linepairs/cm. In the 45° interval case, the MTF = 0.5 dropped to 3.91 linepairs/cm For the fully sampled DMR, the maximal root mean square (RMS) error was 0.006 in units of relative stopping power. For the limited angle cases the maximal RMS error was 0.18, an almost five-fold improvement over the cone beam CT estimate. Conclusions: Dual modality reconstruction yields the high spatial resolution of cone beam x-ray CT while maintaining the improved stopping power estimation of proton CT. In the case of limited angles, the use of prior image proton CT greatly improves the resolution and stopping power estimate, but does not fully achieve the quality of a 360

  15. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    emissions relative to petroleum. * DOE is interested in ... key role in helping the United States meet its continually ... the Average of U.S. Refineries Lower Life Cycle GHG ...

  16. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  17. National Emission Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in-growth of Rn from the decay of Th in thorium 222 230 wastes would not exceed the ... RADON EMISSIONS FROM U AND Th SOURCES 238 232 In the past, material from Mound Applied ...

  18. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, J.; Hinnefeld, J.H.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg-day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides the strongest direct detection constraint to date on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses > 20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  20. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  1. Competing decay modes of a high-spin isomer in the proton-unbound nucleus ??Ta*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, R. J.; Page, R. D.; Joss, D. T.; Uusitalo, J.; Darby, I. G.; Andgren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Gray-Jones, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppnen, A. -P.; Nyman, M.; O'Donnell, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarn, J.; Scholey, C.; Seweryniak, D.; Simpson, J.

    2015-01-01

    An isomeric state at high spin and excitation energy was recently observed in the proton-unbound nucleus 158Ta. This state was observed to decay by both ? and ? decay modes. The large spin change required to decay via ?-ray emission incurs a lifetime long enough for ? decay to compete. The ? decay has an energy of 8644(11) keV, which is among the highest observed in the region, a partial half-life of 440(70) ?s and changes the spin by 11?. In this study, additional evidence supporting the assignment of this ? decay to the high-spin isomer in 158Ta will be presented.

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  3. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joesph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-02-18

    The morphological and electrical properties of yttrium (Y) and indium (In) doped barium cerate perovskites of the form BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} (with x=0-0.3) prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors with improved chemical stability. The sinterability increased with the increase of In-doping, and the perovskite phase was found in the BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions over the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.3. The conductivities decreased (from x to x, insert quantitative values) while the tolerance to wet CO{sub 2} improved for BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} samples with an increase of In-doping.

  5. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.; Meot, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  6. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  7. Gamma-Ray Emission From Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Blandford, Roger D.; Funk, Stefan; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-10-27

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of {pi}{sup 0}-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  8. GRB 131231A: IMPLICATIONS OF THE GeV EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bin; Chen, Wei; Liang, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shao, Lang, E-mail: liangyf@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: beizhou@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2014-05-20

    GRB 131231A was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Space Gamma-ray Telescope. The high-energy gamma-ray (>100MeV) afterglow emission spectrum is F {sub ?}??{sup 0.54} {sup } {sup 0.15} in the first ?1300s after the trigger and the most energetic photon has an energy of ?62GeV, arriving at t ? 520s. With reasonable parameters of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow as well as the density of the circum-burst medium, the synchrotron radiation of electrons or protons accelerated at an external forward shock have difficulty accounting for the data. Rather, the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of the forward shock-accelerated electrons can account for both the spectrum and temporal behavior of theGeV afterglow emission. We also show that the prospect for detecting GRB 131231A-like GRBs with the Cherenkov Telescope Array is promising.

  9. Measurement of Muon Capture on the Proton (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The goal of the muCap experiment is a 1% precision measurement of the muon capture rate on the free proton, which will determine the weak pseudoscalar form factor gP to 7%. At ...

  10. Mitochondrial complex I - energy conversion by a giant proton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitochondrial complex I - energy conversion by a giant proton pump Wednesday, November 4, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Volker Zickermann, Goethe...

  11. Coupling effect on the proton optics from the electron lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.

    2010-08-01

    In this note we calculate the effect of the electron lense solenoids on the proton optics. Electron lenses (e-lenses) are to be used for head-on beam-beam compensation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Electron lenses are to be used for head-on beam-beam compensation in the polarized proton (pp) runs to compensate the large tune spread generated by the head-on proton-proton beam-beam interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The main part of an electron lens is a superconducting solenoid with a longitudinal magnetic field up to 6 T. In this report, we will estimate the e-elenses effects on the {beta} and dispersion functions with 100 GeV and 250 GeV pp run lattices. Table 1 lists some lattice and beam parameters to be used in the following study.

  12. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility ... 6th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3-8 May 2015.

  13. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed ... In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons ...

  14. Prompt proton decay in the vicinity of {sup 56}Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E. K.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L-L.; Fahlander, C.; Rietz, R. du; Torres, D. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Charity, R. J.; Chiara, C. J.; Hoel, C.; Pechenaya, O. L.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.; Ekman, J.

    2007-11-30

    A new decay mode, the so called prompt proton decay, was discovered in 1998. It has since proven to be an important decay mechanism for several neutron deficient nuclei in the A{approx}60 region. To measure with high accuracy the energies and angular distributions of these protons, a state-of-the-art charged particle detector--LuWuSiA--was developed. It was first utilized during a fusion-evaporation reaction experiment performed at Argonne National Laboratory, U.S.A. In this contribution, the characteristics of the prompt proton decay are discussed along with the special features of LuWuSiA as well as a revisit to the prompt proton decay in {sup 58}Cu.

  15. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

  16. STAR results on central exclusive production in proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybycien, Mariusz

    2015-04-10

    We present a preliminary measurement of the Central Exclusive Production of the two oppositely charged pions produced in the process pp ? pp?{sup +} ?{sup ?}, obtained with the STAR detector at RHIC at ?(s)=200 GeV. Silicon strip detectors placed in Roman Pots were used for tagging forward protons while pion pair tracks were reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber. Predictions of models based on Regge phenomenology are compared to the spectra of the kinematical variables corrected for detector acceptance and efficiency.

  17. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  18. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  19. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  20. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  1. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  2. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  3. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  4. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional

  5. Measuring the proton beam polarization from the source to RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makdisi,Y.

    2007-09-10

    Polarimeters are necessary tools for measuring the beam polarization during the acceleration process as well as a yardstick for performing spin physics experiments. In what follows, I will describe the principles of measuring the proton beam polarization and the techniques that are employed at various energies. I will present a tour of the polarimetry employed at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) polarized proton complex as it spans the full spectrum from the source to collider energies.

  6. Development of Novel Non Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for Proton

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications | Department of Energy Novel Non Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications Development of Novel Non Pt Group Metal Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 6_northeastern_mukerjee.pdf (5.24 MB) More Documents & Publications Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum

  7. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells | Department of Energy NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. pintauro.pdf (276.25 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Li-Ion Battery Anodes from

  8. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based on Heteropoly Acids | Department of Energy High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 " htwgf_fall2003.pdf (4.98 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Approaches to Immobilized

  9. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  10. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels