National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for million units refrigerators

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Characteristics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" "Structural and ...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950 ...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water ...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, ... to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2009" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,14.4,5.2,13.5...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, ...","Own","Rent","Own","Rent","Own","Rent" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,76.5,37.1,63....

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry" "Water Heating",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid","M...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... to 119,999","120,000 or More" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,23.7,27.5,21....

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing ... (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More Members" "Water Heating",,"1 Member","2 Members","3 ...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters ...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of central air conditioning equipment for another housing unit also ...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created by ...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of heating equipment for another housing unit also includes the use of ...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Use of central air conditioning equipment for another housing unit also ...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,..."Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to ... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,..."Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to ... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million ... Midwest",,,..."IA, MN, ND, SD" "Water Heating",,,,"IL","MI","WI","IN, ...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million ... MD, WV",,,,"AL, KY, MS",,,"AR, LA, OK" "Water Heating",,,,"VA","GA","FL",,"NC, ...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million ... Northeast",,,"CT, ME, NH, RI, VT" "Water Heating",,,,"MA",,,"NY","PA","NJ" "Total ...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million ... WY",,,,"Total Pacific",,"AK, HI, OR, WA" "Water Heating",,,,,"CO",,,"AZ","NM, NV",,"CA" ...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Cooking includes fuels used by the major cooking equipment (ovens, cooktops, ...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... central air conditioning equipment for a business or farm building as well as another ... for Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With" ...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... central air conditioning equipment for a business or farm building as well as another ... ,,"RSEs for Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Energy Star is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... the use of the heating equipment for a business or farm building as well as another ... for Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With" ...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... the use of the heating equipment for a business or farm building as well as another ... ,,"RSEs for Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Central Air" ... unit 3Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 4Energy ...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",37.1,13.7,10.9,6,3.2,1.6,0.6,1.1,10.1 "Payment Method for Energy Bills" "All Paid by ... their primary housing unit without payment of rent. 4Participation in assistance ...

  11. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950 ...

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Units" ,,"UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Living ... ,,"RSEs for UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"RSEs for Housing Units (millions)" ...

  13. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ... Housing Unit" ,"RSEs for Housing Units ","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ...

  14. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  15. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  17. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  18. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  19. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  20. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  1. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by UrbanRural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Water Heating ...

  2. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Units" ,,"UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Space ... ,,"RSEs for UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"RSEs for Housing Units " "Space ...

  3. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC5.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to ...

  4. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Water Heating Characteristics",,"Detached","Atta...

  5. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Attached 2 to 4 Units Table HC2.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Type of Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Home Electronics Usage Indicators Detached Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units Attached 2 to 4 Units Table HC2.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Type of

  6. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filters | Department of Energy Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters This presentation discusses the TRU temperature profile. deer08_bruenke.pdf (213.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units Engine-External

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Owner/Renter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Detached",,"Attached",,"2 to 4 Units",,"5 or More Units",,"Mobile Homes"

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,"5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Appliances",,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19.1,6.9 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,," Detached"," Attached"," 2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Air Conditioning" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19.1,6.9 "Air Conditioning Equipment"

  10. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 79,999","80,000 or More" "Living Space Characteristics" "Total",111.1,26.7,28.8,2...

  11. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Living Space Characteristics" "Total",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" ...

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 5,499 HDD","Less than 4,000 HDD" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More Members" "Appliances",,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members" "Total Homes",113.6,31.3,35.8,18.1,15.7,12.7 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)"

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold/","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry/" "Appliances",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid","Marine" "Total Homes",113.6,38.8,35.4,14.1,19.1,6.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)"

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)","Census Region" "Appliances",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total Homes",113.6,20.8,25.9,42.1,24.8 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)" "Use a Stove",102.3,19.2,23.9,38.2,20.9

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Appliances in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,,,,,"Pacific Census Division" ,,,,"Mountain North Sub-Division",,,"Mountain South Sub-Division" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Total Mountain North",,,"Total Mountain South" ,,"Total West","Total Mountain",,,"ID, MT, UT,

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Appliances in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East South Central Census Division",,,"West South Central Census Division" ,,,,,,,,,"Total East South Central",,,"Total West South Central" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,"Total South Atlantic" ,,"Total South",,,,,"DC, DE, MD,

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Appliances in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census Division",,,,,"West North Central Census Division" ,,,"Total East North Central",,,,,"Total West North Central" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Total Midwest",,,,," IN, OH",,,"IA, MN, ND, SD"

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,,,,,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 to $99,999","$100,000 to $119,999","$120,000 or More" "Appliances" "Total

  20. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  1. Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit for Refrigerated Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing fuel-cell powered Transport Refrigeration Units for Reefer Trucks. It describes the progress that has been made by Nuvera and Plug Power as they develop and ultimately demonstrate this technology in real world application.

  2. " Million U.S. Housing Units,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,..."Below Poverty Line2" "Structural and Geographic ... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  3. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing ... to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2005" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  4. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. ... Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  5. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 79,999","80,000 or More" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  6. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,72.1,7.6,7.8,16.7,6.9 "Do Not

  7. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Lighting Usage Indicators",,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,72.1,7.6,7.8,16.7,6.9 "Indoor Lights

  8. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Basements" "Basement in Single-Family Homes" "and Apartments in 2-4 Unit ... "Attics" "Attic in Single-Family Homes and" "Apartments in 2-4 Unit ...

  9. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions) ","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Appliances Usage Indicators",,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,72.1,7.6,7.8,16.7,6.9 "Cooking

  10. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total U.S.",111.1,72.1,7.6,7.8,16.7,6.9 "Cooking

  11. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    than 4,000 HDD",22.8,11.4,3.1,4.4,3.9 "Type of Housing Unit" "Single-Family Detached",72.1,24.3,12.9,17,17.8 "Single-Family Attached",7.6,4.7,1.2,1.5,"Q" "Apartments in 2-4 Unit ...

  13. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit",15.2,7.8,1,1.2,3.3,1.9 "For Two Housing Units",0.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6,"N" "Heat Pump",9.2,7.4,0.3,"Q",0.7,0.5 "Portable Electric Heater",1.6,0.8,"Q","Q","Q",0.3 "Other ...

  14. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit",15.2,0.3,1.2,2,4.6,7.1 "For Two Housing Units",0.9,"N","Q","Q","Q",0.5 "Heat Pump",9.2,"Q",0.4,2.7,1.8,4.2 "Portable Electric Heater",1.6,"N","Q","Q",0.6,0.7 "Other ...

  15. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit",15.2,4.4,3.8,2.6,2.4,1.9 "For Two Housing Units",0.9,0.4,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Heat Pump",9.2,2.2,3.6,1.5,1.2,0.7 "Portable Electric Heater",1.6,0.4,0.3,0.3,"Q",0.3 "Other ...

  16. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon deer08bruenke.pdf More Documents & Publications Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration ...

  17. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Rural",22.3,3.7,4.8,5,5,3.9 "Type of Housing Unit" "Single-Family Detached",72.1,8.1,16.6,16.4,15.5,15.5 "Single-Family Attached",7.6,0.8,2,2.5,1.6,0.7 "Apartments in 2-4 ...

  18. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...5.2,4.4,4.4,2.6,1.5,2.3,3,6 "For Two Housing Units",0.9,0.3,0.4,"Q","Q","N","Q",0.4 "Heat Pump",9.2,1.2,2.2,2,1.3,2.4,0.6,1.9 "Portable Electric Heater",1.6,0.7,0.6,"Q","N","Q",0.4...

  19. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Indoor Lights Turned On During Summer" "Number of Lights Turned

  20. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Lighting Usage Indicators",,"City","Town","Surburbs","Rural" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Indoor Lights Turned On During Summer" "Number of Lights Turned On" "Between 1 and 4 Hours per

  1. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total U.S.",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  2. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC8.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"City","Town","Suburbs","Rural" "Total U.S.",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,46.2,18.8,22.5,22.1

  3. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  4. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950 to 1959","1960 to 1969","1970 to 1979","1980 to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2005" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,14.7,7.4,12.5,12.5,18.9,18.6,17.3,9.2

  5. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Space Heating Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,0.3,0.3,"Q",0.2,0.2

  6. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000 HDD" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Greater than 7,000 HDD","5,500 to 7,000 HDD","4,000 to 5,499 HDD","Less than 4,000 HDD" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total",111.1,10.9,26.1,27.3,24,22.8 "Indoor Lights

  7. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000 HDD" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Greater than 7,000 HDD","5,500 to 7,000 HDD","4,000 to 5,499 HDD","Less than 4,000 HDD" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total U.S.",111.1,10.9,26.1,27.3,24,22.8

  8. Next-Generation Rooftop Unit Doubles Efficiency, Uses Lower-GWP Refrigerant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Trane Commercial Systems and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have attained 25% greater performance out of a baseline commercial rooftop air-conditioning unit (RTU) by improving the mechanical system design and switching to a lower-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant.

  9. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  10. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  11. Sandia tops $6.5 million in United Way donations | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    tops 6.5 million in United Way donations | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  12. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling ...

  13. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:54 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NUKMMCF"...

  14. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:55 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NUKMMCF"...

  15. Sabine Pass, LA Exports to United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Sabine Pass, LA Exports to United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,862 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Exports by Point of Exit Sabine Pass, LA Liquefied

  16. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0 3,391 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Exports by Point of Exit U.S. Liquefied Natural

  17. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S. Housing Units........................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units........................................ 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Heating Equipment........................... 1.2 Q Q N 0.3 0.8 Have Space Heating Equipment............................. 109.8 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.7 22.0 Use Space Heating Equipment.............................. 109.1 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.2 21.7 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.......................... 0.8 N N Q 0.5 Q Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet)

  18. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  19. The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, J B

    1995-07-01

    The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

  20. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  1. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to United Arab Emirates (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  3. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  4. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  5. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  6. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  8. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The EM program at Savannah River Site (SRS) has built two more low-level salt waste disposal units ahead of schedule and under budget. This work is essential to the mission of cleaning and closing the site's underground waste tanks.

  9. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers | Department of Energy Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers March 1, 2016 - 6:20pm Addthis DOE settled enforcement actions against Utility Refrigerator, True Manufacturing, and Victory Refrigeration for distributing commercial refrigeration equipment in the United States that do not meet applicable energy conservation standards. As a part of the

  10. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As a part of the settlement, Victory Refrigeration paid a civil penalty of 1,600 after manufacturing and distributing 8 units of commercial refrigerator-freezer model RFS-1D-S1-EW...

  11. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  12. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  13. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Air Conditioning Characteristics"

  14. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC7.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total

  15. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Have Space Heating Equipment But Do " "Not Use It",2.4,"Q","Q","Q","N","N","N","N","N" "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"N","N","N","N","N","N","N","N" ...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    But Do " "Not Use It",2.4,1.6,0.1,"Q","Q","N",0.1,0.1,"Q",1.5,1.4,"Q" "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.8,"Q","N","N","N","Q","Q","N",0.8,0.3,0.5 "Main Heating ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Have Space Heating Equipment But Do " "Not Use It",2.4,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N","Q","N","Q","N" "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N","Q","N","Q","N",...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...2,0.2,0.1,0.1,1.7,0.5,0.6,0.6 "Only A Few Times When Needed",19.6,2.7,0.6,0.3,0.3,2.2,0.6,...2.2,0.5,0.2,0.3,1.7,1,0.5,0.2 "Only A Few Times When Needed",13.9,5.9,2.1,1,1,3.8,2.4,0.9,...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...10.1,3.3,1.7,0.8,0.9,1.7,1,0.7,6.7,5,1.8 "Plasma",9.7,2.4,0.6,0.3,0.1,0.2,0.4,0.2,0.1,1.7,...,1.7,0.8,0.3,0.4,0.9,0.6,0.4,3.7,2.8,0.9 "Plasma",3.8,0.9,0.2,0.1,"Q","Q",0.1,0.1,"Q",0.7,...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,10.4,16,7.5,7,5.1 "Plasma",9.7,1.6,3,1.9,1.8,1.6 ... "LCD",25.4,4,8.7,5.2,4.4,3.1 "Plasma",3.8,0.6,1.2,0.6,0.7,0.8 ...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,8.8,2.2,1,1.2,6.6,3.2,1.9,1.6 "Plasma",9.7,1.7,0.4,0.2,0.2,1.3,0.5,0.4,0.3 ... "LCD",25.4,5,1.2,0.5,0.7,3.8,1.8,1.1,0.9 "Plasma",3.8,0.7,0.2,0.1,0.1,0.5,0.2,0.2,"Q" ...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...2.9,27.8,3.2,1.7,1,0.7,2.4,1.1,6,1.7,0.4 "Plasma",9.7,7.1,2.6,6.1,0.6,0.4,0.2,0.1,0.5,0.2,...17.1,1.8,1.1,0.4,0.4,0.8,0.6,2.2,0.8,0.2 "Plasma",3.8,2.7,1.1,2.4,0.3,0.1,0.1,"Q",0.2,"Q",...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,31,2.8,3,7.1,2.1 "Plasma",9.7,6.7,0.6,0.7,1.5,0.3 ... "LCD",25.4,18.9,1.5,1.2,2.8,1 "Plasma",3.8,2.7,0.2,0.2,0.6,"Q" ...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,1.4,2.7,1.3,2.2,2.9,1.1,1.8,4.7,3.3,1.4 "Plasma",9.7,3.7,2,0.3,0.2,0.6,0.3,0.5,0.4,0.2,0....,0.9,1.6,0.8,1.1,1.6,0.5,1.1,2.8,1.9,0.9 "Plasma",3.8,1.5,0.7,0.1,0.1,0.2,"Q","Q",0.1,"Q",...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,6.5,9.9,9,6.6,4.7,2.8,6.5,4.7 "Plasma",9.7,1.3,1.8,1.9,1.3,1,0.6,1.8,1 ...CD",25.4,2.9,4.8,4.5,3.7,2.9,1.8,4.7,2.2 "Plasma",3.8,0.4,0.7,0.8,0.5,0.4,0.3,0.8,0.3 ...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,5.5,1.6,5.2,5,7.5,6.6,7.4,7.2 "Plasma",9.7,1,0.5,1,1.1,1.2,1.6,1.5,1.9 ...CD",25.4,2.4,0.9,2.7,2.8,3.9,3.6,4.2,4.8 "Plasma",3.8,0.4,0.2,0.5,0.4,0.4,0.6,0.5,0.9 ...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,15.6,14.9,5.7,7.3,2.4 "Plasma",9.7,3,3.1,1.4,1.7,0.6 ... "LCD",25.4,8.1,8.4,3.2,4.3,1.3 "Plasma",3.8,1,1.2,0.6,0.8,0.2 ...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "LCD",46,8.8,10.4,16.7,10.1 "Plasma",9.7,1.7,2,3.7,2.4 "Projection",5,0.6,0.9... "LCD",25.4,5,5.4,9.6,5.3 "Plasma",3.8,0.7,0.7,1.5,0.9 ...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,46,10.4,7,1.7,1.4,0.9,3,3.4,0.9,1.6,0.8 "Plasma",9.7,2,1.4,0.5,0.4,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.2,0.3,0....,5.4,3.6,1.1,0.7,0.4,1.4,1.7,0.6,0.8,0.4 "Plasma",3.8,0.7,0.5,0.2,"Q","Q",0.2,0.2,0.1,0.1,...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Solar",1.2,1.1,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Electricity End Uses2" "(more than one may apply)" "Space ... that use these fuels. However, Consumption and Expenditures estimates only ...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Solar",1.2,0.5,0.1,0.3,0.3,0.1 "Electricity End Uses3" "(more than one may apply)" "Space ... that use these fuels. However, Consumption and Expenditures estimates only ...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Solar",1.2,0.2,0.2,0.3,0.5 "Electricity End Uses2" "(more than one may apply)" "Space ... that use these fuels. However, Consumption and Expenditures estimates only ...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Solar",1.2,0.2,0.6,0.2,0.1,0.1 "Electricity End Uses2" "(more than one may apply)" "Space ... that use these fuels. However, Consumption and Expenditures estimates only ...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....5,1.2,1.3,0.7,2.3,2.4,0.7,1.1,0.6 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,11.6,7.9,2.4...,0.3,0.3,0.2,0.3,0.7,0.2,0.3,0.2 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Access",32.5,15.8,1.8,3.7,7.3,3.9 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,36.4,3.2,3.5... than 8",7.9,6.4,0.4,0.3,0.6,0.3 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....5,5.5,1.2,0.6,0.6,4.3,2.1,1.7,0.5 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,9.6,2.9,1.3,...,1.4,0.4,0.2,0.3,0.9,0.3,0.3,0.3 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Access",32.5,5.5,7.9,13.1,6 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,9.6,11.6,18.... "More than 8",7.9,1.4,1.7,2.8,2 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,1.9,1,1.8,2.6,0.9,1.7,4.2,2.5,1.7 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,18.5,10.4,1....,0.3,0.3,0.5,0.2,0.3,0.8,0.5,0.2 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Access",32.5,14.5,9,3.7,2.5,2.8 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,8.7,16.5,10,... than 8",7.9,0.4,1.3,1.6,2.3,2.4 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....1,1,0.5,0.4,1.1,0.6,0.5,3.9,2.9,1 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,12.1,3.7,1.9...,0.2,0.2,0.2,0.1,0.1,1.4,0.9,0.5 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...13,2.9,0.8,1,0.3,3.4,0.5,6.8,2.9,1 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,37.6,14.3,32...,0.2,0.2,"Q",0.3,"Q",0.5,0.2,"Q" "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...32.5,4.4,2,4.4,4.4,5.7,5.2,3.8,2.6 "Have Wireless Internet Access" "Yes",51.9,6.5,2,5.4,5....,0.9,0.3,0.9,0.8,1.2,1.2,1.4,1.3 "Device Charging Pattern" "Always Plugged ...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....9,0.5,1,0.3,0.8,1.3,1,0.3 "Full Bathrooms" ...Q",0.3,"Q",0.2,"Q","Q","Q" "Part",5.5,0.8,0.7,0.2,"Q","N",0.... "Some of the Time",36,12.4,6.7,1,1.1,1.4,1.2,...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Q","Q","Q","Q","Q",0.1,"Q" "Full Bathrooms" ....3,0.2,0.2,"N","N","N","N" "Part",5.5,5,0.5,4.7,0.3,0.2,0.1,... "Some of the Time",36,24.2,11.8,19.6,3.1,1.3,...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Homes",6.9,1.6,2.4,0.8,2,0.2 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,7.7,4.5,0.8,0.6,0.... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Homes",6.9,0.5,1.1,3.9,1.4 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,5.6,4.6,2.4,1.9 ... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...",0.3,"Q","Q",0.5,0.2,0.2,0.1 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,4.6,3.5,1,0.8,0.5,... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...5,0.1,"Q","Q",0.4,0.1,0.3,"Q" "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,5.6,1.8,1,0.8,3.8,... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...omes",6.9,1.9,2.1,1.2,0.8,0.9 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,4.8,4.5,2,1.8,1.4 ... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,2.9,0.8,0... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,3.7,2.9,0... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,6.7,10.1,... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,7.2,3.4,0... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,5,3.9,2.9... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,3.1,0.9,0... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line3" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,5.4,5.6,2... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,2.9,3.7,7... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,6.9,0.9,2... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Income Relative to Poverty Line2" "Below 100 Percent",16.9,2.4,1,2.1... the number of households below the poverty line, the annual household income and ...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Central Air" ... 3Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 4Energy ...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Central Air" ... 3Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 4Energy ...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Main Heating Equipment3" ... 3Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 4Housing ...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Main Heating Equipment3" ... 3Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 4Housing ...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Routine Service or Maintenance" "Performed on Main Heating Equipment4" ... 4Only includes routine service or maintenance performed in the last year. 5Housing ...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air Conditioning",94,40.5,21.2,2.8,3.4,6.7,3.2,5.1,6.9,2.4,4.5,12.4,8.2,4.1 "Water Heating",47.1,27.3,16.1,1.8,1.8,6.2,2.2,4.2,5,1.8,3.1,6.2,4,2.3 "Cooking",71.2,31.7,17.9,2....

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air Conditioning",94,65.8,28.3,54.6,6.5,3.4,2.2,1.1,5.1,2,13.2,4.7,1.2 "Water Heating",47.1,30.8,16.4,23.9,3.6,1.3,1.1,0.3,3,1,7.7,4.2,1 "Cooking",71.2,48.4,22.8,40.8,5....

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...3,1.3,0.6,0.7,2.9,1,1.5,0.4 "Air Conditioning",94,16.5,3.9,1.9,2,12.6,5.3,4.4,2.9 "Water Heating",47.1,5.1,1.4,0.5,0.9,3.7,1.2,2.1,0.4 "Cooking",71.2,10.1,3.6,1.4,2.3,6.5,2.3,3.2,1 ...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air Conditioning",94,22.4,15,4.3,3.1,1.8,5.9,7.4,2.3,3.4,1.7 "Water Heating",47.1,7.6,4.8,0.7,0.8,0.7,2.7,2.8,1,1.4,0.4 "Cooking",71.2,15.4,9.7,1.6,1.9,1.6,4.7...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air Conditioning",94,14.6,5.7,2.4,0.9,1.4,3.3,2.1,1.2,8.9,6.9,2.1 "Water Heating",47.1,7,2.5,0.9,0.3,0.6,1.6,1.2,0.4,4.5,1.4,3.1 "Cooking",71.2,13.9,5.1,3,1.4,1.6,2...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...5,3.6,2.5,1.5,3.1,3.5 "Air Conditioning",94,18.3,22.3,17.9,11.9,8.1,5.1,10.4,12.8 "Water Heating",47.1,11.4,12.8,8.9,5.6,3.2,1.7,3.5,8.2 "Cooking",71.2,14.2,17.1,13.4,9.2,6,3.5,7.7...

  12. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R. ); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

  13. Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) to pay a $12,080 civil penalty after finding Bu Sung had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 64 units of noncompliant commercial refrigerator basic model ESGR3.

  14. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  15. Refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

  16. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  17. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  18. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. Refrigerant recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, A.W.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in a refrigerant recovery apparatus of the type having inlet means for connecting to a refrigerant air system to withdraw refrigerant from the system, expansion means for converting refrigerant received from the system in liquid phase to a gaseous refrigerant, a compressor having a suction chamber with a suction inlet for receiving and pressurizing the gaseous refrigerant, the compressor having a housing containing oil for lubricating the compressor, a condenser for receiving the pressurized gaseous refrigerant and condensing it to liquid refrigerant, and a storage chamber for storing the liquid refrigerant. The improvement comprises in combination: oil separator means mounted exterior of the housing to one end of an inlet line, which has another end connected to the suction inlet of the compressor for receiving the flow of refrigerant from the refrigerated air system for separating out oil mixed with the refrigerant being received from the refrigerated air system prior to the refrigerant entering the suction inlet of the compressor; and the oil separator means being mounted at a lower elevation than the suction inlet of the compressor, the inlet line being unrestricted for allowing refrigerant flow to the compressor and oil from the compressor for draining oil in the housing of the compressor above the suction inlet back through the inlet line into the oil separator means when the compressor is not operating.

  20. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport ... More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits RYPOS - ...

  1. Energy Department Announces $13 Million to Strengthen Local Solar Markets and Spur Solar Deployment Across the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced $13 million in funding to help communities across the country reduce market and policy barriers to solar deployment and recognize communities for taking the initiative to go solar.

  2. Single Packaged Vertical Units | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    standards. File Single Packaged Vertical Units -- v2.0 More Documents & Publications Room Air Conditioners Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

  3. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  4. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system.
    Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers ...

  5. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  7. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review | Department of Energy Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating

  8. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review CRADA PARTNER General Electric P.I: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov R&D Staff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Aug 1 st , 2013 (FY14) Planned end date: Sept 30 th , 2016 Key Milestones 1. Determine requirements for refrigeration circuit seals and hydraulics; 31-March-2014 2. Develop breadboard refrigerator-freezer design; Achieve target goals with breadboard design;

  9. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Brian Fricke

  10. Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural, and institutional buildings. 

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  12. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  13. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  14. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  15. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  16. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  17. Evaluating alternative refrigerants for high ambient temperature environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Montreal Protocol, developing countries have started the phase out schedule of the ozone depleting substances, including HCFC refrigerants, in 2015 and expect them to reach 35% reduction in 2020. This commitment to the start the phase out of HCFC refrigerants, especially R-22, in developing countries is seen as an opportunity to introduce lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants. Furthermore, this paper summarizes an investigation into the performance of lower GWP refrigerants in high ambient temperature environments, experienced in some of the developed countries, in mini-split air conditioning units.

  18. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    compression cycle and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the use of high-global-warming-potential refrigerants. Refrigeration technologies based on MCE are...

  19. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. ... materials would further improve the competitiveness of magnetic refrigeration technology. ...

  20. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Electrochemical compressor research unit designed to test component properties. (Image: William

  1. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  2. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  3. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  4. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 ...

  5. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  6. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  7. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  8. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  9. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  10. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  11. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M.

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  13. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  14. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  15. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  16. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  17. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  18. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  19. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  20. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Johnson, Tim; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  1. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Measurements of the efficiency and refrigeration power of pulse-tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S.; Radebaugh, R.

    1986-09-01

    Pulse-tube or thermoacoustic refrigerators have the potential for high reliability since they require only one moving part - an oscillating piston or diaphragm at room temperature. If a tube is closed at one end and connected to a pressure-wave generator at the open end, and if the phase angle between mass flow and pressure is shifted from 90/sup 0/, then refrigeration occurs at the open end. The shift in phase angle can be realized by thermal relaxation between the gas and the tube walls or by an orifice at the closed end. A low temperature of 60 K using helium gas in a one-stage orifice pulse tube has been achieved at NBS. The report describes the first measurements of the efficiency, refrigeration power, and refrigeration power per unit mass flow, for three pulse-tube refrigerators. Three tube sizes, differing in length and diameter, were studied over a frequency range of 3 to 11.5 Hz. Cooling efficiencies as high as 90% of the Carnot efficiency were obtained when compressor and regenerator losses are neglected.

  3. Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep; Zha, Shitong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient

  5. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  6. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  7. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  8. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  9. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  10. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator Freezer 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review PI: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory CRADA PARTNER General Electric Appliances 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August 1, 2013 (FY 2014) Planned end date: January, 31, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Evaluation of MCM microchannels through collaboration with GEA (6/30/2016) 2. Improve the regenerator structure (9/30/2016) 3. Final optimization and testing and drafting the final report

  11. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL. ORNL will evaluate systems and components to identify the potential benefit from these refrigerants. Current low-GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce ...

  12. Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

  13. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ORNL and Hillphoenix, found solutions to both challenges-the refrigerant leakage and high-global warming potential refrigerants-by using CO2 as the refrigerant and confining it to ...

  14. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  15. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  16. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  17. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Integration and Collaboration Project Integration: * ASHRAE MTG on low GWP refrigerant research * AHRI AREP testing * International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) working ...

  18. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION SECTION FOR ASHRAE STANDARD 152.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2001-09-07

    In a recent draft report titled ''Impacts of Refrigerant Line Length on System Efficiency in Residential Heating and Cooling Systems Using Refrigerant Distribution,'' (Andrews 2000) some baseline calculations were performed to estimate various impacts on system efficiency of long refrigerant distribution lines. Refrigerant distribution refers to ''mini-splits'' and other types of space beating and cooling equipment that utilize refrigerant lines, rather than ducts or pipes, to transport heat and cooling effect from the outdoor unit to the building spaces where this heat or cooling is used. Five factors affecting efficiency were studied in each of the space conditioning modes (heating and cooling) for a total of ten factors in all. Temperature changes and pressure drops in each of the two refrigerant lines accounted for four of the factors, with the remaining one being elevation of the indoor unit relative to the outdoor unit. Of these factors, pressure drops in the suction line in cooling showed by far the largest effect. This report builds on these baseline calculations to develop a possible algorithm for a refrigerant distribution section of ASHRAE Standard 152. It is based on the approximate treatment of the previous report, and is therefore subject to error that might be corrected using a more detailed analysis, possibly including computer modeling and field testing. However, because the calculated efficiency impacts are generally small (a few percent being typical) it may be that the approximate treatment is sufficient. That question is left open for discussion. The purpose of this report is not to advocate the adoption of the methodology developed, but rather to present it as an option that could either be adopted as-is or used as a starting point for further analysis. It is assumed that the reader has available and is familiar with ASHRAE Standard 152P and with the previous analysis referred to above.

  20. Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)",,,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or

  1. Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.

    2003-06-24

    The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires

  2. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  3. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  4. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  5. Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit Provides Environmentally...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Challenge Success Story MOTOR SYSTEM UPGRADES SMOOTH THE WAY TO SAVINGS OF 700,000 ... equipment reliability * Improved process control "We have had no mechanical failures since ...

  6. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  7. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  8. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators You've seen them. You may even decorate with them. The ubiquitous "sticker-uppers" that cover your refrigerator, helping to keep your

  9. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  10. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Stewart, W.F.

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.