Sample records for million btu ash

  1. Accurate BTU Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

    1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

  2. BTU Accounting for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redd, R. O.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , salesmen cars, over the highway trucks, facilities startup, waste used as fuel and fuels received for storage. This is a first step in the DOE's effort to establish usage guidelines for large industrial users and, we note, it requires BTU usage data...-generated electricity, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, in-plant transportation, ore hauling, raw material storage and finished product warehousing. Categories which are excluded are corporate and divisional offices, basic research, distribution centers...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

  4. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota1Resourceloading new table Home

  5. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota1Resourceloading new table HomeYear Jan

  6. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota1Resourceloading new table HomeYear

  7. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200Decade Year-0YearThousand

  8. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess than 200Decade Year-0YearThousandYear Jan

  9. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20Year Jan Feb Mar68 4.50

  10. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20Year Jan Feb Mar68 4.50Week

  11. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20Year Jan Feb Mar68

  12. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996) inthrough 1996)Nov-14Year Jan

  13. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996) inthrough 1996)Nov-14YearYear

  14. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996) inthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

  15. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW

  16. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3

  17. Natural Gas Futures Contract 1 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment Activities Printable80 mPilotDataGlossary AWeek Of

  18. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010 2011 2012

  19. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010 2011

  20. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010 2011Decade

  1. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010

  2. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010Decade Year-0

  3. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYear Janthrough 1996)through2009 2010Decade

  4. Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. If youEIA-906 &Stocks

  5. Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved Reservesthrough 1996)

  6. Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved Reservesthrough 1996)Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 WeekYear

  7. Natural Gas Futures Contract 4 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved Reservesthrough 1996)Year-Month Week 1 Week 2DecadeYear

  8. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

  9. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  10. Ash pelletization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodall, M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash pelletization is outlined under the following topics: projects with CSX involvement; US Generating (Cedar Bay), Jacksonville, FL; Hydra-Co (Salt City Project), Solvay, NY; Virginia Power, Yorktown Plant; US Generating; Indiantown, FL; Future Projects; Development of ash disposal site;s Reuse of ash product; and Utility Survey.

  11. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  12. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  13. High btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a Grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. The proposed product, high Btu SNG would be a suitable substitute for natural gas which is widely used throughout the Upper Midwest by residential, commercial and industrial sectors. The study team consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors, Ertec Atlantic, Inc., The Institute of Gas Technology, Deloitte, Haskins and Sells and Minnegasco. Preliminary engineering and operating and financial plans for the harvesting, dewatering and gasification operations were developed. A site in Koochiching County near Margie was chosen for detailed design purposes only; it was not selected as a site for development. Environmental data and socioeconomic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential economic data were gathered and reconciled. Potential impacts - both positive and negative - were identified and assessed. The peat resource itself was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Markets for plant by-products were also assessed. In summary, the technical, economic, and environmental assessment indicates that a facility producing 80 billion Btu's per day SNG from peat is not commercially viable at this time. Minnegasco will continue its efforts into the development of peat and continue to examine other options.

  14. Property:Geothermal/CapacityBtuHr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:Docket Number JumpAnnualGenBtuYrCapacityBtuHr

  15. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  16. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePriceExpectedOtherOffshoreAnnual",2014

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+

  18. ,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and NaturalWellhead PriceNet WithdrawalsVolumeHenry

  19. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr(Percent)Babb, MT Havre,Lease

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New EnglandReservesCubicDecade2009 2010

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Liquid Composite Price (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New EnglandReservesCubicDecade2009 2010Year Jan

  2. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"for Selected6.

  3. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per+Nonassociated NaturalPrice

  4. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per+Nonassociated

  5. Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    in the United States generate 80 million tons of fly ash as a by-product each year, primarily from coal combustion [1]. Fly ash is typically disposed in landfills, but it is preferred to convert fly ashUse of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung

  6. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6/yr Operating Cost $/ton ¢/10 6 Btu Selling Price 12% DCF$/ton ¢/10 6 Btu Production (Million Tons Per Year)ash, 3.38% sulfur, 12,821 Btu/lb **15,900 Btu/lb, 1% sulfur.

  7. Property:Geothermal/AnnualGenBtuYr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid Jump to:Docket Number JumpAnnualGenBtuYr Jump to:

  8. BTU International DUK International JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP ScreeningBLMBSABTBTR NewBTU

  9. High Btu gas from peat. Existing social and economic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980, the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) submitted a proposal to the US Department of Energy entitled, A Feasibility Study - High Btu Gas from Peat. The proposed study was designed to assess the overall viability of the design, construction and operation of a commercial facility for the production of high-Btu substitute natural gas (SNG) from Minnesota peat. On September 30, 1980, Minnegasco was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy to perform the proposed study. In order to complete the study, Minnegasco assembled an experienced project team with the wide range of expertise required. In addition, the State of Minnesota agreed to participate in an advisory capacity. The items to be investigated by the project team during the feasibility study include peat harvesting, dewatering, gasification process design, economic and risk assessment, site evaluation, environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment. Ertec (The Earth Technology Corporation) was selected to conduct the site evaluation and environmental assessment portions of the feasibility study. The site evaluation was completed in March of 1981 with the submittal of the first of several reports to Minnegasco. This report describes the existing social and economic conditions of the proposed project area in northern Minnesota. The baseline data presented will be used to assess the significance of potential project impacts in subsequent phases of the feasibility study. Wherever possible, the data base was established using 1980 Bureau of Census statistics. However, where the 1980 data were not yet available, the most recent information is presented. 11 figures, 46 tables.

  10. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The least expensive way to produce gas from coal is by low Btu gasification, a process by which coal is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting it with air and steam. Low Btu gas, which is used near its point of production, eliminates...

  11. Vol. 30 no. 14 2014, pages 20912092 BIOINFORMATICS MESSAGE FROM THE ISCB doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu117

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radivojac, Predrag

    .1093/bioinformatics/btu117 Advance Access publication March 3, 2014 The automated function prediction SIG looks back

  12. Subtask 3.16 - Low-BTU Field Gas Application to Microturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren Schmidt; Benjamin Oster

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-energy gas at oil production sites presents an environmental challenge to the sites owners. Typically, the gas is managed in flares. Microturbines are an effective alternative to flaring and provide on-site electricity. Microturbines release 10 times fewer NOx emissions than flaring, on a methane fuel basis. The limited acceptable fuel range of microturbines has prevented their application to low-Btu gases. The challenge of this project was to modify a microturbine to operate on gases lower than 350 Btu/scf (the manufacturer's lower limit). The Energy & Environmental Research Center successfully operated a Capstone C30 microturbine firing gases between 100-300 Btu/scf. The microturbine operated at full power firing gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. A power derating was experienced firing gases below 200 Btu/scf. As fuel energy content decreased, NO{sub x} emissions decreased, CO emissions increased, and unburned hydrocarbons remained less than 0.2 ppm. The turbine was self-started on gases as low as 200 Btu/scf. These results are promising for oil production facilities managing low-Btu gases. The modified microturbine provides an emission solution while returning valuable electricity to the oilfield.

  13. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  14. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  15. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4 Relative2.4942

  16. "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4 Relative2.49422

  17. The Mansfield Two-Stage, Low BTU Gasification System: Report of Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, L. T.; Crowder, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the high costs of oxygen and methanation required to produce gas that can be transmitted over long distance. Standard low Btu fixed bed gasifiers have historically been plagued by three constraints; namely, the production of messy tars and oils...

  18. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  19. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  20. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moret, Bernard

    Vol. 30 ISMB 2014, pages i9­i18 BIOINFORMATICS doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu259 Evaluating synteny

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Space...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Preliminary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, By Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Preliminary" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South"...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than...

  20. Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications-fired power plants work to create cleaner skies, they'll likely fill up landfills with millions more tons.05 0.05 #12;6 Challenge: Mercury Controls One approach to reducing mercury emissions from power plants

  1. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  2. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  3. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  4. An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebeker, C. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the price gap between oil and natural gas and coal continues to widen, Monsanto has carefully searched out and examined opportunities to convert fuel use to coal. Preliminary studies indicate that the low-btu gas produced by fixed-bed, air blown...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" " ",,,"East North Central Census...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  20. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  11. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A86YI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis by JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH...

  12. Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

  13. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  14. Ash deposit workshop: Class outline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

  15. Understanding Utility Rates or How to Operate at the Lowest $/BTU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    . The lower the energy rating (KW/Ton or KW/HP or KW/BTU) the more efficient the equipment and the less demand draw on the electric power plants, thereby reducing the need to build new power plants. To encourage DSM, utilities give rebates for high...: Bob Allwein, Oklahoma Natural Gas Company. Dick Landry, Gulf States Utility. Curtis Williford, Entex Gas Company. Bret McCants, Central Power and Light Company. Frank Tanner, Southern Union. Patric Coon, West Texas utilities. ESL-IE-93...

  16. U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15 Feb-15(BTU perper

  17. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.

  18. Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  20. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  1. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the benefication of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7-2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash benefication have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550-750{degrees}C. The P{sub O{sub 2}} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

  3. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  4. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  5. ash dispersion utilizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much...

  6. LOW CARBON & 570 million GVA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrigley, Stuart

    LOW CARBON & RENEWABLES #12;£570 million GVA THE SECTOR COMPRISES 326 COMPANIES EMPLOYING 12- tor comprises 326 companies, employing approximately 12,240 people and contributing £570 million nuclear, wind, solar, geo-thermal and tidal power. The total market value of the low carbon environmental

  7. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... time when I was in need. Finally, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for support related to this research. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V1...

  8. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  9. Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

  10. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  11. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  12. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter13

  13. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter134

  14. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter1343

  15. "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter13434

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  17. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family...

  18. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2...

  19. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  20. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. High Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Part 2. Management plans for project continuation. Task 10. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this task, which was the responsibility of the Minnesota Gas Company, was to determine the needs of the project upon completion of the feasibility study and determine how to implement them most effectively. The findings of the study do not justify the construction of an 80 billion Btu/day SNG from peat plant. At the present time Minnegasco will concentrate on other issues of peat development. Other processes, other products, different scales of operation - these are the issues that Minnegasco will continue to study. 3 references.

  3. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  4. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  5. ash leachate generation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72 Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 Materials Science Websites Summary: Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 FGD-2 Alliant Energy FGD-3 WPS Pulliam Ash 12;Center for By-Products...

  6. ash quality characterization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    78 Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 Materials Science Websites Summary: Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 FGD-2 Alliant Energy FGD-3 WPS Pulliam Ash 12;Center for By-Products...

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. ash blended cement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass blends Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: , low ash partially composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC)...

  9. Development of dredged ash disposal area, Paradise fossil plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paradise Steam-Electric Plant coal-fired facility in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. This project is to construct a dredge pond near the Jacobs Creek ash pond capable of storing fly ash dredged from the ash pond. This will provide approximately 10 years of additional fly ash storage in the fly ash pond. Effluent from the dredge pond will be returned to the Jacobs Creek ash pond for discharge to Jacobs Creek. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. ashes oral biotillgaenglighet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash 1. Halima Hadiahmetovi?; D. D. Sarajevo; M. Sc; Raza Sunulahpai?; Bosnia Herzegovina 97 Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash Samples from the June 2007 Angora...

  11. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  12. Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tribal Government Utility Program Info State North Carolina Program Type SolarWind Permitting Standards Provider Ashe County Planning Department In 2007 Ashe County...

  13. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  14. ash intranasal instillation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there is no mixing of insufficiently thermally treated material with bottom ash. Good fire control Columbia University 17 Characteristics and Uses for Ash Environmental...

  15. ash deposition propensities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environments (>3.5 km), banded iron, volcanic ashes Summary diagrams available Clastic depositional environments Harbor, David 57 Ash Dump Site Manager: EHS&RM Biology and...

  16. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash,...

  17. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

  18. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masataka Mizushima

    2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

  19. Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants: Advanced Characterization and Thermodynamic Introduction to Municipal Solid Waste Incineration 2 Chapter 2 Plants Considered and Samples Collected 5 Chapter 3 Mapping of Ash Chemistry in MSWI Plants 8 Chapter 4 Advanced Characterization Methods 12 4

  20. New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels) LiquidsCoalbed MethaneFoot)

  1. North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013 Next1.878 2.358 -NA

  2. North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65 2013A4. CensusFeet)Cubic

  3. Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65per9 0 1 2 3+Foot) Year

  4. Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65per9 0ProvedExpected

  5. Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65per9Yearper

  6. Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21Year Jan

  7. Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U (Million31 22

  8. California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReserves (MillionExpectedSeparation, ProvedCubic

  9. California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReserves (MillionExpectedSeparation,

  10. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, ElectricSales (Million CubicThousandTobago063 1,064

  11. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Light-Duty(Million Cubic Feet)Cubic117.8 105.96 1,025

  12. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Light-Duty(MillionGlossaryOf Mexico NaturalCubic974 962

  13. Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197 14,197(Billion Cubic(MillionFoot)

  14. Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousand Cubic%perYear Jan

  15. Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousand Cubic%perYear JanFoot) Year Jan Feb Mar

  16. Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) in Delaware (Million3,751,360 3,740,7578 2009 20100

  17. North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (MillionNine8 2.415 -CubicYear8

  18. Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,CubicWithdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)ThousandFeet) Year JanCubic

  19. Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,CubicWithdrawals6,992 (Million CubicFoot) Decade Year-0 Year-1

  20. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  1. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  2. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  3. High-Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Task 11. Technical support. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded grant No. DE-FG01-80RA50348 to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic and environmental - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering and gasification systems); Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socioeconomic analyses); Institute of Gas Technology (for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support). This report presents the work conducted under Task II (Technical Support) by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the developer of the PEATGAS process, which was selected for the study. Task achievements are presented for: gasifier design and performance; technical support; and task management. 12 figures, 22 tables.

  4. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gge) (kg H 2 ) (million Btu) tons) Electricity (kWh) GaseousH 2 ) Thermal (million Btu) Biomass (dry tons) Electricity (2 (MtH 2 ). Thermal (million Btu, TBtu): One million British

  5. California’s Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gge) (kg H 2 ) (million Btu) tons) Electricity (kWh) GaseousH 2 ) Thermal (million Btu) Biomass (dry tons) Electricity (2 (MtH 2 ). Thermal (million Btu, TBtu): One million British

  6. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  8. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  9. Environmental aspects of the Brandywine ash site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simek, E.; Potera, G.; Schuller, R.; Herritt, M.; Wagner, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brandywine ash site, located in Prince Georges County, Maryland, is owned and operated by the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO). This site was designed specifically for the storage of the large quantities of coal ash produced at PEPCO's nearby Chalk Point Generating Station. Environmental Resources Management, Inc. (ERM), with assistance from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Tidewater Administration, conducted a study of this site for the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) to determine if ash constituents are adversely affecting the environment. Section 1 of this report is an introduction to coal ash and its physical/chemical characteristics. Section 2 describes the environment at the site and in adjacent areas. Within this setting, a description of the facility is presented as Section 3. Section 4 relies on the previous sections to point out any likely effects of the facility on the environment and to discount unlikely interactions. Key conclusions are presented in Section 5.

  10. High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume II. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first is the Executive Summary. This Volume II contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. Contents of Volume II are: introduction; project scope and objectives; commercial plant description; engineering specifications; design and construction schedules; capital cost estimates; operating cost estimates; financial analysis; and future areas for investigation. 15 figures, 17 tables.

  11. High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part B. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco), and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasibility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part B of Volume 3 contains the following contents: (1) project impact assessment which covers geological impacts, hydrology, ecological impacts, air quality and meteorology, land use, archaeology, aesthetics, acoustics, socioeconomic impacts, and peat resources; (2) impact mitigation which covers hydrology, ecology, air quality, archaeology, acoustics, and socioeconomics; (3) conclusions; and (4) appendices. 2 figures, 18 tables.

  12. High Btu gas from peat. Volume III. Part A. Environmental and socioeconomic feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant (No. DE-FG01-80RA50348) to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the current commercial viability - technical, economic, environmental, financial, and regulatory - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG). Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering, and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems), Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socio-economic analyses), IGT (for providing gasification process information, and technical and engineering support to Minnegasco) and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for providing management structural support to Minnegasco). This Final Report presents the work conducted by Ertec, Inc. under tasks 6 and 7. The study objective was to provide an initial environmental and socio-economic evaluation of the proposed facility to assess project feasbility. To accomplish this objective, detailed field studies were conducted in the areas of Hydrology, Air Quality and Socio-Economics. Less extensive surveys were conducted in the areas of Geology, Ecology, Acoustics, Land Use, Archaeology and Resource Assessment. Part A of Volume 3 contains the introduction and plant area conditions which include the following: (1) description of existing conditions-geology; (2) hydrology; (3) terrestrial and aquatic ecology; (4) meteorology; (5) land use existing conditions; (6) archaeology; (7) aesthetics-existing conditions; (8) acoustics; (9) existing socioeconomic conditions; and (10) resource assessment. 25 figures, 55 tables.

  13. High-Btu gas from peat. Feasibility study. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September, 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial, technical, economic, and environmental viability of producing 80 million Standard Cubic Feet per day (SCF/day) of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco assigned the work for this study to a project team consisting of the following organizations: Dravo Engineers and Constructors for the design, engineering and economic evaluation of peat harvesting, dewatering, and gasification systems; Ertec, Inc. for environmental and socioeconomic analyses; Institute of Gas Technology for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support; and Deloitte Haskins and Sells for management advisory support. This report presents the work performed by Dravo Engineers and Constructors to meet the requirements of: Task 1, peat harvesting; Task 2, peat dewatering; Task 3, peat gasification; Task 4, long lead items; and Task 9.1, economic analysis. The final report comprises three volumes, the first of which is this Executive Summary. Subsequent volumes include Volume II which contains all of the text of the report, and Volume III which includes all of the specifications, drawings, and appendices applicable to the project. As part of this study, a scale model of the proposed gasification facility was constructed. This model was sent to Minnegasco, and photographs of the model are included at the end of this summary.

  14. Stabilization/solidification of TSCA incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Francis, C.L.; Morgan, I.L.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilization/solidification is a well-known waste treatment technique that utilizes different additives and processes. The Phoenix Ash Technology of the Technical Innovation Development Engineering Company is such a technique that uses Cass C fly ash and mechanical pressure to make brick waste forms out of solid wastes, such as the bottom ash from the Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. One advantage of this technique is that no volume increase over the bulk volume of the bottom ash occurs. This technique should have the same high pH stabilization for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals as similar techniques. Also, consolidation of the bottom ash minimizes the potential problems of material dispersion and container corrosion. The bottom ash was spiked with {sup 99}{Tc} to test the effectiveness of the bricks as a physical barrier. The {sup 99}{Tc} leachability index measured for these bricks was 6.8, typical for the pertechnetate anion in cementitious waste forms, indicating that these bricks have accessible porosity as high as that of other cementitious waste forms, despite the mechanical compression, higher waste form density, and water resistant polymer coating.

  15. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camilleri, Josette [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Sammut, Michael [Department of Pathology, St. Luke's Hospital, G'Mangia (Malta); Montesin, Franco E. [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta)]. E-mail: franco.montesin@um.edu.mt

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes.

  16. Gigantic Ordovician volcanic ash fall in North America and Europe: Biological, tectonomagmatic, and event-stratigraphic significance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biostratigraphical, geochemical, isotopic, and paleogeographic data suggest that the Millbrig K-bentonite, one of the thickest and most widespread Ordovician volcanic ash beds in eastern North America, is the same as the so-called 'Big Bentonite' in Baltoscandia. This is the first time that the same K-bentonite has been identified in both North America and Europe, and it serves as a unique event-stratigraphic marker over a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere. This eruption produced at least 340 km[sup 3] of dense-rock-equivalent ash that was deposited in a layer up to 1-2 m thick over several million square kilometers. As much as 800 km[sup 3] of additional ash may have fallen into the Iapetus Ocean, for a total of 1,140 km[sup 3]. Trace element geochemistry shows that the ash was derived from a felsic calc-alkalic magmatic source characteristic of volcanism in a continental crust-based, destructive plate-margin setting. This is one of the largest, if not the largest, ash falls recorded in Earth's Phanerozoic stratigraphic record, but its recognizable effect on faunas and floras was minimal, and it did not result in a global extinction event. The Millbrig-Big Bentonite bed provides accurate time control for sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and paleogeographic reconstructions across plates positioned in tropical (Laurentia) and temperate (Baltica) latitudes during Middle Ordovician time.

  17. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  18. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  19. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  20. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  1. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  2. Approaches to the petrographic characterization of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhanced understanding of fly ash properties provided by petrographic analysis, a level of detail chemical analysis cannot provide, will be essential in the upgrading and utilization of fly ash produced in boilers retrofitted to meet clean air standards. Howe et al estimated that over 25% of the fly ash produced in Kentucky in 1992 would not have met the Kentucky Department of Transportation limit of 3% loss-on-ignition (LOI) for class F fly ash used as a Portland cement admixture. The conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} emission units increases fly ash carbon, hence LOI, by 150-200% rendering the fly ash unsuitable for highway construction use in concrete. The preservation of fly ash`s market share will require increased attention to the removal of excess carbon from the fly ash. In this paper, we will discuss the basic components of fly ash. An example of the petrographic analysis of fly ash from a Kentucky power plant will be used to illustrate the partitioning of fly ash components by size, as well as within the fly ash collection system.

  3. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  4. Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN, extinction, extinction risk, biodiversity,freshwater, marine, biology, coral bleaching, species area

  5. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  6. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  7. ash utilization symposium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST Report No.CBU-1996-07 July 1996 Presented and Published at the...

  8. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  9. ash solvent extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alessandro 2013-01-01 27 ASH PNEUMATIC TRANSPORT UNDER ELECTROFILTERS OF UNIT 5 THERMAL POWER PLANT TUZLA CiteSeer Summary: Ash pneumatic transport is basic on fact that at...

  10. 2007 world of coal ash conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of the conference was science, applications and sustainability. Papers are presented under the following topics: aggregates/geotechnology; agriculture; ash facility; management; CCT products; cement and concrete; chemistry and mineralogy; emerging technology; environmental; LOI/beneficiation/handling; mercury; mining and regulations and standards. The poster papers are included as well.

  11. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" "Structural and Geographic Characteristics",,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to...

  13. Properties of concrete containing wood/coal fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, D.M.; Larrimore, C.L.; Fouad, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are increasingly interested in co-firing wood with coal in existing pulverized coal units. The co-firing technology is a means of developing a relatively low-cost renewable energy resource, as well as of supporting customers and community by making energy with biomass that might otherwise have been land-filled. However, recent changes in the ASTM C618 standard for fly ash as cement replacement restrict the definition of fly ash that includes non-coal sources. As a result, wood co-firing could affect the market for the fly ash, reducing ash sales revenue, increasing ash disposal costs, and overall substantially increasing the cost of the co-firing technology. In order to address concerns about the effect of wood ash/coal ash mixtures on concrete properties, a study was conducted by University of Alabama at Birmingham, Southern Company, EPRI, and the State of Alabama. This study compared the effects on properties of concrete made with fly ash from coal and made with fly ash from co-firing up to 30% wood with coal. Fly ashes from three plants were used, with two of the ashes from actual co-firing experience and the third an artificial blend of wood and coal ash. Concrete test cylinders were made of several cement/fly ash mixes, and enough were made to allow testing periodically over a one year time period. Test measurements included workability, setting time, air content, compressive and flexural strength, rapid chloride permeability and freeze thaw. It was concluded on the basis of these tests that the wood ash content had no detrimental effect on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete.

  14. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Secretary Chu Announces $30 Million for Research Competition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Million for Research Competition to Develop Next Generation Energy Storage Technologies Secretary Chu Announces 30 Million for Research Competition to Develop Next Generation...

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    12 Million i6 Green Investment to Promote Clean Energy Innovation and Job Creation Obama Administration Announces 12 Million i6 Green Investment to Promote Clean Energy...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial Guarantee for 852 Million Loan to Support California Concentrating Solar Power Plant Department of Energy Finalizes Partial Guarantee for 852 Million Loan to Support...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Energy Savers [EERE]

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cleanup efforts in the state: Moab (108 million) - Accelerate removal of uranium mill tailings away from the Colorado River and dispose of an additional two million tons of...

  10. Department of Energy to Invest Nearly $18 Million for Advanced...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy to Invest Nearly 18 Million for Advanced Biofuels User Facility Department of Energy to Invest Nearly 18 Million for Advanced Biofuels User Facility March...

  11. Department of Energy Announces up to $12 Million in Investments...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    up to 12 Million in Investments to Support Development and Production of Drop-In Biofuels Department of Energy Announces up to 12 Million in Investments to Support...

  12. Energy Secretary Moniz Unveils More Than $55 Million to Advance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moniz Unveils More Than 55 Million to Advance Fuel Efficient Vehicle Technologies Energy Secretary Moniz Unveils More Than 55 Million to Advance Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  13. Obama Administration Launches $130 Million Building Energy Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Administration Launches 130 Million Building Energy Efficiency Effort Obama Administration Launches 130 Million Building Energy Efficiency Effort February 12, 2010 - 12:00am...

  14. Energy Department to Award $6 Million to State Partnerships to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Award 6 Million to State Partnerships to Increase Energy Efficiency Energy Department to Award 6 Million to State Partnerships to Increase Energy Efficiency September 19, 2006...

  15. DOE Awards $3 Million Contract to Oak Ridge Associated Universities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Million Contract to Oak Ridge Associated Universities for Expert Review of Yucca Mountain Work DOE Awards 3 Million Contract to Oak Ridge Associated Universities for Expert...

  16. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  17. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  18. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  19. Market assessment of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

  20. Coal ash by-product reutilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muncy, J. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States); Miller, B. [DYNA Corp., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has as part of its vision and value statement that, ``We are responsible stewards of environmental and corporate resources.`` With this moral imperative in mind, a project team was charged with initiating the Coal Pile Liner Project--installing a membrane liner under the existing coal storage pile at the Morgantown Generating Station. The existing coal yard facilities were constructed prior to the current environmental regulations, and it became necessary to upgrade the storage facilities to be environmentally friendly. The project team had two objectives in this project: (1) prevent coal pile leachate from entering the groundwater system; (2) test the viability of using coal ash by-products as an aggregate substitute for concrete applications. Both objectives were met, and two additional benefits were achieved as well: (1) the use of coal ash by-products as a coal liner produced significant cost savings to the project directly; (2) the use of coal ash by-products reduced plant operation and maintenance expenses.

  1. SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant, Amit

    : Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly-ash need to dispose fly-ash from these ponds. Fly-ash is often used as structural fill in order to dispose

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (Million CubicCubic2009 2010Decade

  3. Wyoming Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (Million CubicCubic2009

  4. Wyoming Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousand Cubic%perYearBarrels) Reserves(Million

  5. Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet) (MillionRepressuring (Million

  6. Mercury capture by distinct fly ash carbon forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Sakulpitakphon, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon was separated from the fly ash from a Kentucky power plant using density gradient centrifugation. Using a lithium heterolpolytungstate high-density media, relative concentrations of inertinite (up to 85% vol.), isotropic carbon (up to 79% vol.), and anisotropic carbon (up to 76% vol.) were isolated from the original fly ash. Mercury concentration was lowest in the parent fly ash (which contains non-carbon components); followed by inertinite, isotropic coke, mixed isotropic-anisotropic coke fraction, and, with the highest concentration, the anisotropic coke concentrate. The latter order corresponds to the increase in BET surface area of the fly ash carbons. Previous studies have demonstrated the capture of mercury by fly ash carbon. This study confirms prior work demonstrating the varying role of carbon types in the capture, implying that variability in the carbon content influences the amount of mercury retained on the fly ash.

  7. Models for Millions Department of Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Robert A.

    Models for Millions Bob Stine Department of Statistics The Wharton School, UniversityDepartment of Statistics Introduction #12;WhartonDepartment of Statistics WhartonDepartment of Statistics Statistics in the News Hot topics Big Data Business Analytics Data Science Are the authors talking about statistics

  8. Million U.S. Housing Units Total...............................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    13.2 1.3 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 Table HC9.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005 Housing Units (millions) Greater than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000...

  9. Team Surpasses 1 Million Hours Safety Milestone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NISKAYUNA, N.Y. – Vigilance and dedication to safety led the EM program’s disposition project team at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) to achieve a milestone of one million hours — over two-and-a-half-years — without injury or illness resulting in time away from work.

  10. Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herig, C.

    1999-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

  11. Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7172005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL...

  12. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  13. ash transportation distance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash 1. Halima Hadiahmetovi?; D. D. Sarajevo; M. Sc; Raza Sunulahpai?; Bosnia Herzegovina 4 Dimensional contraction via Markov transportation distance Francois...

  14. Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulloway, H. M.

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

  15. ash aqueous carbonation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon content, specific surface area Aydilek, Ahmet 3 Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* Environmental Management and Restoration Websites...

  16. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  17. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy...

  18. The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKerall, William Carlton

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

  19. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash related problems Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash related problems Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 By-Products Utilization Summary: of clean coal ash will increase. Finding practical solutions to this "ash problem" is essential...

  1. Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

  2. Cell Ashing for Trace Element Analysis: A New Approach Based on Ultraviolet/Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    : synchrotron spectromicroscopy; micro- chemical analysis; MEPHISTO; ashing; incineration; trace element. Ashing ashing is based on high-temperature incineration or on the exposure to oxygen plasma (1­ 4). We adopted

  3. ENERGY CONSERVATION: POLICY ISSUES AND END-USE SCENARIOS OF SAVINGS POTENTIAL PT.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency** Process Process BTU/Ton of MSW Input* RDSF1 - Col. 2; Col. 4 = Col. 3/11.4 Million BTU/per ton of MSWfor RDSF and 9.1 Million BTU/ton for direct combustion and

  4. Self-benchmarking Guide for Laboratory Buildings: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Site Energy Intensity (BTU/sf-yr). A Performance BenchmarkAnnual natural gas energy use (Million BTU) dE3: Annual fueloil energy use (Million BTU) dE4: Annual other fuel energy

  5. PROJECTS FROM FEDERAL REGION IX DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PART II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, C.W.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    producing 258 million Btu annually. Over a lifetimewill produce about 2.58 billion Btu. REFERENCES Case, C.W. ,will provide 8.9 million Btu of energy :::nnual or about of

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based geopolymer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

  14. IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

  15. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  16. Biological impact studies of the Faulkner ash site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klose, P.N.; Potera, G.T.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has operated the Faulkner coal ash storage facility in southern Charles County, Maryland since 1970. This site handles all the coal ash produced at the nearby Morgantown Generating Stations. Environmental Resources Management, Inc. (ERM) produced an earlier report (Simek, et al., 1983) for PPSP entitled, Environmental Aspects of the Faulkner Ash Site. That report presented a compilation of existing data and newly-generated field information on the ash site and its influence on the local environment. Several questions remained as a result of the analyses carried out for the above study. These were: (a) Are trees downgradient of the site accumulating metals associated with the ash. (b) Is Zekiah Swamp Run being affected by dissolved or precipitated metals. (c) Are invertebrates in Zekiah Swamp Run accumulating metals from the ash site. The studies described herein present data on each of the three questions. Results indicate that no adverse effects on water quality, invertebrates, or trees are occurring. Elevated levels of aluminum, cadmium, and manganese were found throughout the watershed, both above and below the ash site, but no relationship to the ash site could be established.

  17. Texas Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun1 (Million

  18. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearAdditionsLiquidsRepressuring (Million

  19. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  20. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  2. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  3. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  4. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  5. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of PNNL's work was to characterize the ash prior to calcination and to investigate the effect of calcination on product quality, representative material was obtained from LANL. Ash obtained from LANL was selected based on its similarity to that currently stored at RFETS. The plutonium-bearing ashes obtained from LANL are likely from a RFETS incinerator, but the exact origin was not identified.

  8. Better Buildings Challenge Saves $840 Million in Energy Costs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Saves 840 Million in Energy Costs, Adds New Water Savings Goal Better Buildings Challenge Saves 840 Million in Energy Costs, Adds New Water Savings Goal May 27, 2015 - 10:08am...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    more than 18 Million to Strengthen Nuclear Education at U.S. Universities and Colleges Department of Energy Announces more than 18 Million to Strengthen Nuclear Education at U.S....

  10. VOLUME & VALUE OF CATCH BY REGIONS 1970 Million Pounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .7 million; in 1969, $580.8 million. There were record packs of tuna, shrimp, and animal (pet) food. Recorded, and retail. In 1970, demand for fiShery products was strong. Both consumption and prices rose. On the average

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0 Million to Develop the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Department of Energy Announces 40 Million to Develop the Next Generation Nuclear Plant March 8, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis...

  12. Energy Department Announces Up to $7 Million to Expand Clean...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Up to 7 Million to Expand Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands Energy Department Announces Up to 7 Million to Expand Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal...

  13. Department of Energy Offers $102 Million Conditional Commitment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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  15. Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces 7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 -...

  16. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site February...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    93 Million from Recovery Act to Support Wind Energy Projects Secretary Chu Announces 93 Million from Recovery Act to Support Wind Energy Projects April 29, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis...

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    Energy Savers [EERE]

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    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  1. Kentucky Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)

  2. Kentucky Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet)Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  3. Louisiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569 02,208,9204.49 4.65 4.15

  4. Louisiana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569 02,208,9204.49 4.65 4.15Year

  5. Maryland Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68 4.61 5.60

  6. Maryland Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0 0.0 0.05.03 5.68 4.61 5.60Year Jan

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYear Jan2009 2010 2011Decade

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3Exports (NoYear Jan2009 2010

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet) PriceLiquids, Proved2009Decade

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet) PriceLiquids,

  11. Missouri Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousand CubicDecade Year-0

  12. Missouri Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)SameThousand CubicDecade

  13. Montana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03 4.83 4.53 4.34

  14. Montana Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic32,876 10,889Decade03 4.83 4.53 4.34Year Jan

  15. Colorado Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecadeDecadeYear(Million Cubic

  16. Kentucky Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) DecadeYear(Million Cubic Feet)

  17. Colorado Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008 2009 2010Decade

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet)2008 2009 2010DecadeYear

  19. Ohio Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office(BillionYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar AprProcessed (Million

  20. Oklahoma Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office(BillionYear JanYear JanYear Jan(Million Cubic Feet)

  1. Arizona Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year Jan FebRepressuring (Million

  2. Arkansas Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year% ofInputYear(Million Cubic

  3. Arkansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year% ofInputYear(Million

  4. Arkansas Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year% ofInputYear(MillionYear Jan

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 (MillionDecade

  6. Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 (MillionDecadeYear Jan Feb

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUndergroundCubicDecade Year-0Year(Million Cubic

  8. Mississippi Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of Fossil Energy,off) Shale% ofElements)(Million

  9. Montana Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) Year Jan Feb(Million Cubic Feet)

  10. Illinois Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal Consumption (Million CubicRepressuring

  11. Nebraska Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)2009 2010

  12. Nebraska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)2009

  13. Nebraska Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)2009Repressuring

  14. Nevada Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYearNADecadeand2009 2010Decade

  15. Nevada Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawals (MillionYearNADecadeand2009

  16. Nevada Natural Gas Wellhead (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803andYearWithdrawalsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun(Million

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet) (MillionRepressuring

  18. Louisiana Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Cubic Feet)FuelDecade Year-0Input (Million Cubic2009

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (NumberThousand CubicFuel Consumption (Million2008Year

  20. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  1. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  2. Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution being used for coal ash deposits. Pollutants present in the ash can contaminate water resources and soil its research on the thermo-electric plant (TEP) and associated coal ash sites at Tuzla, Bosnia

  3. Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I to the early 1950's. The Ash Pits were also used for disposal of coal ash from various buildingsFinal Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F February 5, 2004..................................................................................................2 Figure 1 - Ash Level Verification Borings

  4. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  5. Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols Leona incineration fly ash at 200 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations have been carried out ash produced by municipal waste incineration (MWI) have clearly demonstrated that MWI fly ash can

  6. Respiratory and Reproductive Characteristics of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    ) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, J. Novak, J. D. Congdon Savannah River 2002/Accepted: 29 March 2002 Abstract. Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present

  7. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  8. High-Btu gas from peat. A feasibility study. Task 9. 2. Financial risk analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1980, the US Department of Energy awarded grant No. DE-FG01-80RA50348 to the Minnesota Gas Company (Minnegasco) to evaluate the commercial viability - technical, economic, and environmental - of producing 80 million SCF/day of substitute natural gas (SNG) from peat. Minnegasco's project team for this study consisted of Dravo Engineers and Constructors (for design, engineering and economics of peat harvesting, dewatering and gasification systems); Ertec, Inc. (for environmental and socioeconomic analyses); Institute of Gas Technology (for gasification process information, and technical and engineering support) and Deloitte Haskins and Sells (for management structural support.) This final report presents the work conducted under Task 9.2 (Risk Assessment) by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the developer of the PEATGAS process selected for the study. At this time, there is little technical doubt that the PEATGAS gasifier can indeed operate. In order to assess the risks associated with the peat gasification facility, it was subdivided according to the following risk areas; (1) peat harvesting; (2) peat dewatering; (3) peat gasification; and (4) environmental. In summary, the risks associated with the peat gasification facility are manageable. Even under the extreme risk of no peat availability, the gasification facility can be operated with lignite at a slightly higher SNG price. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  9. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 S. Van Wychen and L. M. L. Laurens Technical Report NRELTP-5100-60956 December...

  10. ash impact sorbent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aircraft systems 1. Silicate parti- cles in the ash clouds can enter the engines and melt. In the past Oxford, University of First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8...

  11. altered volcanic ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    near the volcano. Major eruptions are much rarer. They can eject both ash and gases like sulfur dioxide high into the atmosphere-- 80,000 feet or more. Although much of...

  12. ash upptag av: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* Environmental Management and Restoration Websites...

  13. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  14. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  15. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  16. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  17. ash particle deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging Dutta, Prabir K. 5 Particle deposition in ventilation ducts University of California...

  18. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

  19. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  20. ash cenospheres composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Composite Material Lab., Central Gupta, Nikhil 3 Journal of Composite Materials, July 2006, Vol. 40 no. 13, 1163-1174 1163 Thermal Expansion of AluminumFly Ash...

  1. Studies of fly ash using thermal analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hanxu; Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Sisk, B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H{sub 2}O, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4} and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analysis, the reduction mechanism of CaSO{sub 4} as CaSO{sub 4} + 4H{sub 2} = CaS + 4H{sub 2}O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

  2. ash leaching methods: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in individualpyrite grains in Illinois6 coal at levels up 6 coal. The same trace metals were detected in pyrite and clay grains from Pittsburgh 8 coal. Ash Laughlin,...

  3. ash technical progress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash from the four 43 Technical Brief CiteSeer Summary: ii iiiFOREWARD The Depleted Uranium Technical Brief is designed to convey available information and knowledge about...

  4. ash corrosion resistant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    date: 02.2008 Start date of the consortium (including the Commission Services) 12;2 Handbook on treatment of coal ash disposal sites Preface 162 Nitration of Benzoapyrene...

  5. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  6. Environmental aspects of the faulkner ash site. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simek, E.M.; Hewitt, M.A.; Potera, G.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has owned and operated the Faulkner coal ash storage facility in southern Charles County, Maryland since 1970. This site was designed and is operated specifically to handle, in an environmentally sound manner, the large quantities of coal ash produced at the nearby Morgantown Generating Station. This report describes the site, its setting, and its interactions with the local environment.

  7. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  8. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

    2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

  9. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  10. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  11. c37a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) per Building (thousand dollars) per Square Foot (dollars) per Thousand Pounds (dollars) All Buildings...

  12. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture.

  13. 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

  14. Metal recovery from fly ash generated from vitrification process for MSW ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumikawa, Chiaki [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)] [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-bearing wastes have to be carefully treated because heavy metals could be leached out under uncontrolled conditions when disposed of in a landfill. Consequently, heavy metals should be principally recovered and recycled forever. From this standpoint, the author has been trying to develop a technology to recover heavy metals from toxic vitrification fly ash for recycling to smelters. After a number of laboratory-scale experiments, pilot plant tests were successfully carried out and the developed process has been proven to be commercially realized. The main features of the process are that it recovers almost 100% of the heavy metals, simultaneously separating the metals which are recovered in a lead smelter from those in a zinc smelter, and that the output of the process are only metallurgical products recyclable for smelters and the effluent water which can be released into the environment. The process is considered an ideal one for the treatment of toxic fly ash from the viewpoint of not only natural resources but also environmental conservation.

  15. Labor Department Offers $500 Million for Clean Energy Job Training...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    five grant competitions, totaling 500 million, to fund projects that prepare workers for green jobs in the energy efficiency and renewable energy industries. Four of the...

  16. Energy Department Invests $7 Million to Commercialize Fuel Cells...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    than 7 million for projects that will help bring cost-effective, advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies online faster. This investment-across four projects in Georgia,...

  17. Department of Energy Announces $64 Million in Hydrogen Research...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of over 64 million in research and development projects aimed at making hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and refueling stations available, practical and affordable for American...

  18. Secretary Chu Announces More than $155 Million for Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dayton University of Delaware University of Louisiana at Lafayette University of Michigan West Virginia University State Agencies (3.84 million total, approximately 350,000...

  19. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  20. $787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded in FY2009 by DOE Programs in Oak Ridge | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS...

  1. Energy Department Announces $10 Million for Innovative Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles Laying the Foundation for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings Daylighting Basics Energy Department Announces 10 Million for Full-Scale Wave Energy Device Testing...

  2. Energy Department Finalizes $150 Million Loan Guarantee to 1366...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for a Loan Guarantee to Support Breakthrough Solar Manufacturing Process The Reality of Solar Panels at 50% Cost Department of Energy Finalizes 197 Million Loan Guarantee to...

  3. $60 Million to Fund Projects Advancing Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SunShot initiative announces a $60 million funding opportunity (FOA) to advance concentrating solar power in the United States.

  4. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Speed Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Speed Enhanced Geothermal Systems into the Market Energy Department Announces 10 Million to Speed Enhanced Geothermal Systems into the Market February 24, 2014 - 11:46am...

  5. Energy Department Announces $3 Million to Support Clean Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Businesses and Entrepreneurs Energy Department Announces Over 12 Million to Spur Solar Energy Innovation Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced...

  6. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $15 Million for Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the full spectrum of research, development, and deployment for solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies and will leverage an additional 4 million in private sector funding....

  7. DOE to Award $100 Million for Energy Frontier Research Centers...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    to Award 100 Million for Energy Frontier Research Centers Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC...

  8. Energy Department Announces $5 Million for Residential Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunity, the Department will make 1 million available through its annual Buildings University Innovators and Leaders Development (BUILD) funding opportunity to support...

  9. Department of Energy Awards $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to 338 million in Recovery Act funding for the exploration and development of new geothermal fields and research into advanced geothermal technologies. These grants will support...

  10. Energy Department Announces $3 Million to Identify New Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy today announced 3 million to spur geothermal energy development using play fairway analysis. This technique identifies prospective geothermal resources...

  11. President Requests $842.1 Million for Fossil Energy Programs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    commercial storage. In FY 2012, NEHHOR converted to a 1 million barrel configuration of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) stored in the Northeast terminals, to meet new Northeast...

  12. ,"Sherwood, ND Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"Warroad, MN Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  14. ,"Grand Island, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  15. ,"Calais, ME Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  16. ,"Massena, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  17. ,"Waddington, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. Energy Department Announces $9 Million to Lower Costs, Increase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Costs, Increase Performance of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces 9 Million to Lower Costs, Increase Performance of Solar Energy Systems December 2, 2014 -...

  19. Small Business Innovation Research Announces $1.15 Million to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    million funding opportunity for small businesses to expand U.S. markets for geothermal electricity production or direct-use applications (not including ground source heat...

  20. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $80 Million Investment for Advanced...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of nearly 80 million under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for advanced biofuels research and fueling infrastructure that will help support the development of a clean...

  1. Secretary Chu Announces up to $62 Million for Concentrating Solar...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to 62 million over five years to research, develop, and demonstrate Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems capable of providing low-cost electrical power. This funding will...

  2. ,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

  3. Energy Department Announces $3 Million to Identify New Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy today announced 3 million to spur geothermal energy development using play fairway analysis. This technique identifies prospective...

  4. Department of Energy Offers Severstal Dearborn, LLC a $730 Million...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Finalizes a 967 Million Loan Guarantee to Support the Agua Caliente Solar Project Department of Energy Conditional Loan Guarantee Commitment to Support the...

  5. Obama Administration Announces Nearly $100 Million for Smart...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in communities across the country. Secretary Chu made the announcement while visiting a Pepco engineering and service center in Rockville, Maryland that is receiving 4.4 million...

  6. Secretary Chu Announces $620 Million for Smart Grid Demonstration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    620 Million for Smart Grid Demonstration and Energy Storage Projects: Recovery Act Funding Will Upgrade the Electrical Grid, Save Energy, and Create Jobs Secretary Chu Announces...

  7. Energy Department Announces $12 Million for Technologies to Produce...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Addthis Related Articles DOE Offers 12 Million for...

  8. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  9. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  10. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  11. Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Marla

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $/MBtu) Electric Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) kWh = kilowatthour; TWh= terawatthour; MBtu = Million Btu; MtC = Metric tons ofon heavy load. Idle Rate (Btu/h) Table 6-9. Energy Star

  12. Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs New commercially...

  13. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R. [Korean Institute for Water & Environment, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dam Safety Research Center

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

  20. Tephrochronology and Stratigraphy of Eocene and Oligocene Volcanic Ashes of East and Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heintz, Mindi

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of bulk ash and glass shards, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) of bulk ash, and electron microprobe analysis of both apatite phenocrysts and glass shards to characterize their geochemistry...

  1. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    Erratum In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical neurons highlighted. From the ASH cell body, the dendrite runs anteriorly until the tip of the head ending

  2. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash at 90days ............... 38 5-13 Stress Strain Curve of 6% CaCl2+10% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-14 Stress Strain Curve of 4% CaCl2+15% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-15 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy... (E-SEM) of Class F Fly Ash ................................................................................. 40 5-16 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (E-SEM) of Control Soil after 7 Days of Curing...

  3. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  4. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  5. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  6. Coal-ash slag attack and corrosion of refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonar, J.A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY); Kennedy, C.R.; Swaroop, R.B.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion characteristics of a variety of fused-cast refractories in contact with various coal-ash slags were investigated. A fused-cast chrome-spinel refractory exhibited excellent corrosion resistance to both acidic and basic coal-ash slags at 1500/sup 0/C, even in the absence of water cooling. The slag-refractory interaction was limited to the formation of a stable band of recrystallized hercynitic spinel. Alumina-chromia refractories were superior to alumina and magnesia-chrome refractories when exposed to acidic slags.

  7. RESEARCH NEEDS IN MINERAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION: FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND SLAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in electric power plants. It is captured by either mechanical separators, electrostatic. 2.0 Research Needs Concerning Fly Ash Utilization 2.1 CLSM Fly Ash Slurry Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), as classified by ACI Committee 229, have been produced using fly ash slurry [9

  8. Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

  9. INCO-WBC-1-509173 Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 INCO-WBC-1-509173 RECOAL Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution of coal ash disposal sites Due date of deliverable: 12.2007 Actual submission date: 02.2008 Start date of the consortium (including the Commission Services) #12;2 Handbook on treatment of coal ash disposal sites Preface

  10. TRACE ELEMENTS LEACHING FROM ORGANIC SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON FLY ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    and Se for organic soil-HCFA mixtures. Keywords: organic soil, fly ash, coal combustion products, CCPs INTRODUCTION Fly ash is a silt-size particulate collected by air pollution control systems at coal fly ashes (HCFAs) generally are disposed in landfills (Hodges and Keating 1999). However, many HCFAs

  11. Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

  12. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  15. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties.

  16. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions.

  17. Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 00.0Feet) (Million(MillionFeet)

  18. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas (Million

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet) (Million(Million

  19. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Utah (Million

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (MillionFeet) (Million(MillionCubic

  20. Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear JanThousand(Million

  1. Wisconsin Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear JanThousand(MillionDecade

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments (Million Cubic Feet)Fuel(Million

  3. Volcanic ash: What it is and how it forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.

    1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four basic eruption processes that produce volcanic ash: (1) decompression of rising magma, gas bubble growth, and fragmentation of the foamy magma in the volcanic vent (magmatic), (2) explosive mixing of magma with ground or surface water (hydrovolcanic), (3) fragmentation of country rock during rapid expansion of steam and/or hot water (phreatic), and (4) breakup of lava fragments during rapid transport from the vent. Variations in eruption style and the characteristics of volcanic ashes produced during explosive eruptions depend on many factors, including magmatic temperature, gas content, viscosity and crystal content of the magma before eruption, the ratio of magma to ground or surface water, and physical properties of the rock enclosing the vent. Volcanic ash is composed of rock and mineral fragments, and glass shards, which is less than 2 mm in diameter. Glass shard shapes and sizes depend upon size and shape of gas bubbles present within the magma immediately before eruption and the processes responsible for fragmentation of the magma. Shards range from slightly curved, thin glass plates, which were broken from large, thin-walled spherical bubble walls, to hollow needles broken from pumiceous melts containing gas bubbles stretched by magma flow within the volcanic vent. Pumice fragments make up the coarser-grained portions of the glass fraction. Particle sizes range from meters for large blocks expelled near the volcanic vent to nanometers for fine ash and aerosol droplets within well-dispersed eruption plumes. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  5. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  6. Stabilize ash using Clemson`s sintering process (Part 1 -- Phase 1 results): Mixed waste fly ash stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration of applicable Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes has produced a secondary waste stream of radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous fly ash that also requires treatment before land disposal. Unlike bottom ash, fly ash usually contains constituents making efficient stabilization difficult. For example, fly ash from the DOE Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains volatile metals, metal salts, high concentrations of zinc, and unburned organic residues. All of these constituents can effect the stabilization process. The Department of Energy, and in particular the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of EM-50, has stated the need for improved stabilization methods would accept a higher ash waste loading while meeting waste form disposal criteria. These alternative stabilization technologies should include delivery systems to minimize worker exposure and minimize secondary waste generation, while maximizing operational flexibility and radionuclide containment. Currently, the standard practice for stabilizing ash is mixing with Portland cement at room temperature. This standard practice produces a significant increase of waste material volume or has difficulty in adequately stabilizing the components in the fly ash to ensure regulatory requirements are consistently satisfied. To address these fly ash stabilization shortcomings, the MWFA, a DOE/EM-50 program, invested in the development of several fly ash stabilization alternatives, including the Clemson University sintering method.

  7. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  8. Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 3 million to 3M Company in St. Paul, Minnesota, to lower the cost of advanced fuel cell systems by developing cost-effective, durable, and highly efficient fuel cell...

  9. Energy Department Announces $2 Million to Develop Supply Chain...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    today announced up to 2 million to develop the domestic supply chain for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and study the competitiveness of U.S. hydrogen and fuel cell system...

  10. Hanford Landfill Reaches 15 Million Tons Disposed - Waste Disposal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ERDF comprises a series disposal areas called cells. Each pair of cells is 70 feet deep, 500 feet wide and 1,000 feet long at the base - large enough to hold about three million...

  11. DOE Awards $15 Million in Technical Assistance to Support Major...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy (DOE) today announced the first phase of awards, valued at 15 million, for the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative (CBI). Twenty-one companies, which will...

  12. DOE Announces Over $8 Million to Increase Use and Availability...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Announces Over 8 Million to Increase Use and Availability of Alternative Fuels WASHINGTON, DC -Today, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced 8.6...

  13. Energy Department Announces $3 Million to Lower Cost of Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Cost of Geothermal Energy and Boost U.S. Supply of Critical Materials Energy Department Announces 3 Million to Lower Cost of Geothermal Energy and Boost U.S. Supply of...

  14. Department of Energy Closes $400 Million Loan Guarantee for State...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chu announced today that a 400 million loan guarantee has been finalized for Abound Solar Manufacturing, LLC to manufacture state-of-the-art thin-film solar panels. The Abound...

  15. NNSA Provides More Than $290 Million in Small Business Contract...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Provides More Than ... NNSA Provides More Than 290 Million in Small Business Contract Obligations in FY 2012 Posted: December 18, 2012 - 11:45am In recognition of its commitment...

  16. Department of Energy Offers $90.6 Million Conditional Commitment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    invested 17.5 million in seven companies in its first round of funding -- and those companies have gone on to attract more than 1.6 billion of private financing as they...

  17. Oak Ridge: Approaching 4 Million Safe Work Hours

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workers at URS | CH2M Oak Ridge (UCOR), the prime contractor for EM’s Oak Ridge cleanup, are approaching a milestone of 4 million safe work hours without a lost time away incident.

  18. Energy Department Awards More Than $1 Million to Three States...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 - 1:12pm Addthis In support of President Obama's goal of doubling U.S. energy productivity by 2030, the Energy Department today announced new awards of more than 1 million...

  19. Department of Energy's Paducah Site Reaches Million-Hour Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a core value" attitude. "Our team adheres to the concept that we will only achieve productivity through safety," LATA Kentucky Project Manager Mark Duff said. "The million-hour...

  20. President Requests $881.6 Million for Fossil Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    President Obama's FY 2010 budget seeks $881.6 million for the Office of Fossil Energy to support improved energy security and rapid development of climate-oriented technology.

  1. President Requests $760.4 Million for Fossil Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    President Obama's FY 2011 budget seeks $760.4 million for the Office of Fossil Energy to support improved energy security and rapid development of climate-oriented technology.

  2. Secretary Chu Announces Closing of $117 Million Loan Guarantee...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Project Secretary Chu Announces Closing of 117 Million Loan Guarantee for Kahuku Wind Power Project July 27, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. --- Energy Secretary...

  3. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:22:39 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NA1160SNY2"...

  4. Obama Administration Offers $59 Million in Conditional Loan Guarantees...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    expansion of its assembly plant in Pocatello, Idaho, to produce its one megawatt wind turbine. Beacon Power, an energy storage company, has been offered 43 million to support the...

  5. Energy Department Announces $180 Million for Ambitious New Initiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secretary Steven Chu today announced the start of an ambitious initiative to capture the potential of wind energy off American coasts. As part of a planned six-year 180 million...

  6. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  7. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  8. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  9. First BTU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdfFillmore County, Minnesota:Island, NewFirmGreen

  10. BTU LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP ScreeningBLMBSABTBTR

  11. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

  12. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with Teflon bags) flue gas obtained while firing PRB coal in a 35 kW combustor. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the Hg speciation after fly ash injection. Wall effects in the combustor complicated interpretation of testing data, although a number of observations could still be made. The amount of Hg collected in the Ontario Hydro impingers was lower than anticipated, and is probably due to sorption of Hg by the fly ash. While firing PRB coal without any ash injection, the percent oxidized Hg in the gas stream was fairly high (average of 63%). The high levels of vapor phase oxidized Hg in these base line tests may be due to catalytic effects from the refractory materials in the combustor. When PRB fly ash was injected into a filtered PRB flue gas stream, the percentage of oxidized Hg in the gas stream decreased dramatically. Decreases in the percentage of oxidized Hg were also observed while injecting Blacksville fly ash, but to a lesser extent. Injecting whole Blacksville fly ash into the filtered PRB flue gas appeared to result in greater concentrations of oxidized Hg relative to the tests where whole PRB fly ash was injected. However, because the Blacksville fly ash has a relatively high surface area, this may be only a surface area effect.

  13. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

  14. The preservation potential of ash layers in the deep-sea: the example of the 1991-Pinatubo ash in the South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Andreas

    - burrowing animals re-opened their connection to the sea floor to obtain water for respiration and/or food deposited organic fluff with the underlying ash. Consequently, ash deposits thinner than 1 mm have not often of background sedimentation, the availability of benthic food on and within the sediment and pore water oxygen

  15. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  16. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.M.; Hartman, R.M.; Kort, D.; Rapues, N.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.

  17. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, R.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two recent large-scale spills of coal combustion waste have highlighted the old problem of handling the enormous quantity of solid waste produced by coal. Both spills happened at power plants run by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). In December 2008 a holding pond for coal ash collapsed at a power plant in Kingstom, Tenn., releasing coal-ash sludge onto farmland and into rivers: in January 2009 a break in a pipe removing water from a holding pond for gypsum caused a spill at Widows Creek Fossil Plant in Stevenson, Ala. The article discusses the toxic outcome of such disasters on ecosystems, quoting work by Willaim Hopkins at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and recommendations and reports of the US EPA. 2 photos.

  19. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  20. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.