Sample records for millimeter wavelength cloud

  1. Development of precipitation retrievals at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths for geostationary satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    for precipitation retrieval from geostationary sensors based on mesoscale cloud modeling and radiative transfer resolution problem from a geostationary orbit. Adding the thermal infrared observations has a limited impact rain and the other hydrometeor profiles. These theoretical results are evaluated at close

  2. CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Brian [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. El Golf 40, Piso 18, Santiago (Chile); Su, Kate [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark, E-mail: mhughes@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 {mu}m and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3{sigma}) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width {approx}> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 {mu}m emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of {approx}<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

  3. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  4. ARM: Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), replaces mmcrcal and mmcrmoments datastreams following C-40 processor upgrade of 2003.09.09

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Widener, Kevin; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Johnson, Karen

    Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), replaces mmcrcal and mmcrmoments datastreams following C-40 processor upgrade of 2003.09.09

  5. Ice cloud microphysics retrievals from millimeter radar and visible optical depth using an estimation theory approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    of the planet. These effects occur as a consequence of the way cloud particles scatter and absorb radiation, 0325); 1655 Global Change: Water cycles (1836); KEYWORDS: ice water content retrieval, cirrus cloud), 4335, doi:10.1029/2002JD002693, 2003. 1. Introduction [2] Clouds profoundly affect the radiation budget

  6. Millimeter-VLBI with a Large Millimeter-Array: Future Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas P. Krichbaum

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss possibilities and improvements which could be obtained, if a phased array with a large number (N=50-100) of sub-millimeter antennas - like the planned large southern array (the former LSA, now ALMA) is used for radio-interferometry with very long baselines (VLBI) at millimeter wavelengths. We find that the inclusion of such an instrument in global VLBI network will push the sensitivity and the imaging capabilities of high resolution millimeter interferometry by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This will cause many but todate unforseeable new discoveries.

  7. The millimeter VLBI Properties of EGRET Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey C. Bower

    1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a progress report on a snapshot 86 GHz-VLBI survey of the EGRET blazars with the observatories of the CMVA. A high fraction (17/18) of the EGRET blazars were detected on the Pico Veleta-Onsala baseline with a baseline length on the order of 500 $M\\lambda$. The detection threshold on the Pico Veleta-Onsala baseline was $\\sim 0.2$ Jy. Six of these sources were not previously detected with 3-millimeter VLBI. We also present the detection of three new non-EGRET sources. The high detection rate for EGRET sources indicates that gamma-ray flux is a robust predictor of millimeter wavelength intensity. Future more sensitive high-energy gamma-ray experiments should find a larger class of objects detectable with millimeter wavelength VLBI.

  8. Millimeter wave transmissometer computer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiberg, J.D.; Widener, K.B.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A millimeter wave transmissometer has been designed and built by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington for the US Army at the Dugway Proving Grounds in Dugway, Utah. This real-time data acquisition and control system is used to test and characterize battlefield obscurants according to the transmittance of electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelengths. It is an advanced five-frequency instrumentation radar system consisting of a transceiver van and a receiver van deployed at opposite sides of a test grid. The transceiver computer systems is the successful integration of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 8350, multiple VME bus systems with Motorola M68020 processors (one for each radar frequency), an IEEE-488 instrumentation bus, and an Aptec IOC-24 I/O computer. The software development platforms are the VAX 8350 and an IBM PC/AT. A variety of compilers, cross-assemblers, microcode assemblers, and linkers were employed to facilitate development of the system software. Transmittance measurements from each radar are taken forty times per second under control of a VME based M68020.

  9. Millimeter-wave sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seoktae

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    New millimeter wave interferometric, multifunctional sensors have been studied for industrial sensing applications: displacement measurement, liquid-level gauging and velocimetry. Two types of configuration were investigated to implement the sensor...

  10. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caratti o Garatti, Alessio [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Joergensen, Jes K. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); MerIn, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA), 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian, E-mail: dpeterson@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg{sup 2} field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M{sub sun} Myr{sup -1}, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc{sup -2}. In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H{sub 2} data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H{sub 2} maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  11. The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M; Johnson, K; Jensen, M

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility baseline cloud microphysical properties (MICROBASE) value-added product (VAP). MICROBASE uses a combination of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations to estimate the vertical profiles of the primary microphysical parameters of clouds including the liquid/ice water content and liquid/ice cloud particle effective radius. MICROBASE is a baseline algorithm designed to apply to most conditions and locations using a single set of parameterizations and a simple determination of water phase based on temperature. This document provides the user of this product with guidelines to assist in determining the accuracy of the product under certain conditions. Quality control flags are designed to identify outliers and indicate instances where the retrieval assumptions may not be met. The overall methodology is described in this report through a detailed description of the input variables, algorithms, and output products.

  12. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

  13. Cloud Services Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Services Cloud Services In 2012 UCD IT Services launched an exciting new set of cloud solutions called CloudEdu, which includes cloud servers, cloud storage, cloud hosting and cloud network. The CloudEdu package includes a consultancy service in design, deployment, management and utilisation

  14. Ice cloud single-scattering property models with the full phase matrix at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 mm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    W. Dayton Street, Madison, WI 53706, United States b Texas A&M University, College Station, TX February 2014 Available online 11 March 2014 Keywords: Ice clouds Light scattering Remote sensing Radiative agreement between solar and infrared optical thicknesses. Finally, spectral results are presented

  15. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet [Terahertz Systems Laboratory (TeSLa) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  16. Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

  17. Microwave Photonic Integrated Circuits for Millimeter-Wave Wireless Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpintero, G.; Balakier, K.; Yang, Z.; Guzmán, R.C.; Corradi, A.; Jimenez, A.; Kervella, G.; Fice, M.J.; Lamponi, M.; Chitoui, M.; van Dijk, F.; Renaud, C. C.; Wonfor, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Penty, R.V.; White, I.H.; Seeds, A. J.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    -frequency applications. Integrated transmitter modules based on InP high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) millimeter-wave (MMW) monolithic integrated circuits chipsets were used in the most successful demonstration of a wireless link at 120 GHz, transmitting HD... , with a -3 dB linewidth of 250 kHz, the narrowest RF linewidth generated from a free running dual wavelength semiconductor laser [14]. An important drawback of this device structure is that it employs cleaved facets to define the cavity, which severely...

  18. Millimeter-wave active probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majidi-Ahy, Gholamreza (Sunnyvale, CA); Bloom, David M. (Portola Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A millimeter-wave active probe for use in injecting signals with frequencies above 50GHz to millimeter-wave and ultrafast devices and integrated circuits including a substrate upon which a frequency multiplier consisting of filter sections and impedance matching sections are fabricated in uniplanar transmission line format. A coaxial input and uniplanar 50 ohm transmission line couple an approximately 20 GHz input signal to a low pass filter which rolls off at approximately 25 GHz. An input impedance matching section couples the energy from the low pass filter to a pair of matched, antiparallel beam lead diodes. These diodes generate odd-numberd harmonics which are coupled out of the diodes by an output impedance matching network and bandpass filter which suppresses the fundamental and third harmonics and selects the fifth harmonic for presentation at an output.

  19. Detecting Flaring Structures in Sagittarius A* with (Sub)Millimeter VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Sheperd S. Doeleman; Avery E. Broderick; Abraham Loeb; Alan E. E. Rogers

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiwavelength monitoring observations of Sagittarius A* exhibit variability on timescales of minutes to hours, indicating emission regions localized near the event horizon. (Sub)Millimeter-wavelength VLBI is uniquely suited to probe the environment of the assumed black hole on these scales. We consider a range of orbiting hot-spot and accretion-disk models and find that periodicity in Sgr A* flares is detectable using closure quantities. Our methods are applicable to any model producing source structure changes near the black hole, including jets and magnetohydrodynamic disk instabilities, and suggest that (sub)millimeter VLBI will play a prominent role in investigating Sgr A* near the event horizon.

  20. The millimeter/sub-millimeter spectrum of the LiS radical in its 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    millimeter/sub-millimeter direct absorption methods. This radical was synthesized from lithium vapor and CS2 reactions, corrosion processes, catalysis and in stellar atmospheres [1±3]. Examining the bonding

  1. MMCR Calibration Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, D

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Calibration report for the Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar performed for the ARM Climate Research Facility by ProSensing Inc.

  2. Using Millimeter VLBI to Constrain RIAF Models of Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Avery E. Broderick; Sheperd S. Doeleman; Abraham Loeb

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent detection of Sagittarius A* at lambda = 1.3 mm on a baseline from Hawaii to Arizona demonstrates that millimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) can now spatially resolve emission from the innermost accretion flow of the Galactic center region. Here, we investigate the ability of future millimeter VLBI arrays to constrain the spin and inclination of the putative black hole and the orientation of the accretion disk major axis within the context of radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We examine the range of baseline visibility and closure amplitudes predicted by RIAF models to identify critical telescopes for determining the spin, inclination, and disk orientation of the Sgr A* black hole and accretion disk system. We find that baseline lengths near 3 gigalambda have the greatest power to distinguish amongst RIAF model parameters, and that it will be important to include new telescopes that will form north-south baselines with a range of lengths. If a RIAF model describes the emission from Sgr A*, it is likely that the orientation of the accretion disk can be determined with the addition of a Chilean telescope to the array. Some likely disk orientations predict detectable fluxes on baselines between the continental United States and even a single 10-12 m dish in Chile. The extra information provided from closure amplitudes by a four-antenna array enhances the ability of VLBI to discriminate amongst model parameters.

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  4. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  5. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  6. Millimeter wave sensor for monitoring effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Bakhtiari, Sasan (Bolingbrook, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A millimeter-wave sensor for detecting and measuring effluents from processing plants either remotely or on-site includes a high frequency signal source for transmitting frequency-modulated continuous waves in the millimeter or submillimeter range with a wide sweep capability and a computer-controlled detector for detecting a plurality of species of effluents on a real time basis. A high resolution spectrum of an effluent, or effluents, is generated by a deconvolution of the measured spectra resulting in a narrowing of the line widths by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude as compared with the pressure broadened spectra detected at atmospheric pressure for improved spectral specificity and measurement sensitivity. The sensor is particularly adapted for remote monitoring such as where access is limited or sensor cost restricts multiple sensors as well as for large area monitoring under nearly all weather conditions.

  7. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  8. Inter-network regions of the Sun at millimetre wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wedemeyer-Boehm; H. -G. Ludwig; M. Steffen; J. Leenaarts; B. Freytag

    2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuum intensity at wavelengths around 1 mm provides an excellent way to probe the solar chromosphere. Future high-resolution millimetre arrays, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), will thus produce valuable input for the ongoing controversy on the thermal structure and the dynamics of this layer. Synthetic brightness temperature maps are calculated on basis of three-dimensional radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. While the millimetre continuum at 0.3mm originates mainly from the upper photosphere, the longer wavelengths considered here map the low and middle chromosphere. The effective formation height increases generally with wavelength and also from disk-centre towards the solar limb. The average intensity contribution functions are usually rather broad and in some cases they are even double-peaked as there are contributions from hot shock waves and cool post-shock regions in the model chromosphere. Taking into account the deviations from ionisation equilibrium for hydrogen gives a less strong variation of the electron density and with it of the optical depth. The result is a narrower formation height range. The average brightness temperature increases with wavelength and towards the limb. The relative contrast depends on wavelength in the same way as the average intensity but decreases towards the limb. The dependence of the brightness temperature distribution on wavelength and disk-position can be explained with the differences in formation height and the variation of temperature fluctuations with height in the model atmospheres.

  9. Deflection microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang., C.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Lau, Y.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Swyden, T.A. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers, called deflectron amplifiers, which are based on the deflection of low voltage electron beams in a microstructure were analyzed. This concept may be applied in two ways: as microelectronic amplifiers or as bunched beam cathodes to power conventional amplifier configurations such as klystrodes and traveling wave tubes. Estimates for gain and efficiency are obtained from a circuit analysis. Particle codes are used to test the viability of the concept. Frequencies of operation are projected up to a few tens of GHz for microelectronic amplifiers and up to {approx}80 GHz for power amplifiers 29 refs., 5 figs.

  10. From Centimeter to Millimeter Wavelengths: A High Angular Resolution Study of 3C273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Krichbaum; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus

    2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We monitored 3C273 with VLBI at 15-86 GHz since 1990. We discuss component trajectories, opacity effects at the jet base, a rotating and perhaps precessing jet, and outburst-ejection relations from Gamma-ray to radio bands.

  11. A MOLECULAR LINE SURVEY OF THE EXTREME CARBON STAR CRL 3068 AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yong; Kwok, Sun; Nakashima, Jun-ichi [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)], E-mail: zhangy96@hku.hk, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk, E-mail: junichi@hku.hk

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a molecular line survey of the extreme carbon star CRL 3068. The observations were carried out with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12 m telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) at the {lambda} 2 mm and {lambda} 1.3 mm atmospheric windows. The observations cover the frequency bands from 130 to 162 GHz and 219.5 to 267.5 GHz. The typical sensitivities achieved are T{sub R} < 15 mK and T{sub R} < 7 mK for the ARO 12 m and SMT, respectively. Seventy-two individual emission features belonging to 23 molecular species and isotopologues were detected. Only three faint lines remain unidentified. The species c-C{sub 3}H, CH{sub 3}CN, SiC{sub 2}, and the isotopologues, C{sup 17}O, C{sup 18}O, HC{sup 15}N, HN{sup 13}C, C{sup 33}S, C{sup 34}S, {sup 13}CS, {sup 29}SiS, and {sup 30}SiS are detected in this object for the first time. Rotational-diagram analysis is carried out to determine the column densities and excitation temperatures. The isotopic ratios of the elements C, N, O, S, and Si have also been estimated. The results are consistent with stellar CNO processing and suggest that CRL 3068 is more carbon rich than IRC+10216 and CIT 6. It is also shown that the chemical composition in CRL 3068 is somewhat different from that in IRC+10216 with a more extensive synthesis of cyclic and long-chain molecules in CRL 3068. The results will provide valuable clues for better understanding circumstellar chemistry.

  12. The millimeter-wave properties of superconducting microstrip lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The millimeter-wave properties of superconducting microstrip lines A. VayonakisŁ, C. Luo , H of the millimeter-wave properties of superconducting thin-film microstrip transmission lines. Our exper- imental, with a temperature-independent loss tangent of 5 3 ¦0 5 ˘10 3 for our samples. INTRODUCTION Superconducting

  13. Solar science with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array - A revolutionizing new view of our Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wedemeyer, S; Brajsa, R; Barta, M; Hudson, H; Fleishman, G; Loukitcheva, M; Fleck, B; Kontar, E P; De Pontieu, B; Tiwari, S K; Kato, Y; Soler, R; Yagoubov, P; Black, J H; Antolin, P; Scullion, E; Gun'ar, S; Labrosse, N; Benz, A O; Ludwig, H -G; Hauschildt, P; Doyle, J G; Nakariakov, V M; Solanki, S K; White, S M; Ayres, T; Heinzel, P; Karlicky, M; Van Doorsselaere, T; Gary, D; Alissandrakis, C E; Nindos, A; van der Voort, L Rouppe; Shimojo, M; Zaqarashvili, T; Perez, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a new powerful tool for observing the Sun at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. These capabilities can address a broad range of fundamental scientific questions in solar physics. The radiation observed by ALMA originates mostly from the chromosphere - a complex and dynamic region between the photosphere and corona, which plays a crucial role in the transport of energy and matter and, ultimately, the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Based on first solar test observations, strategies for regular solar campaigns are currently being developed. State-of-the-art numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere and modeling of instrumental effects can help constrain and optimize future observing modes for ALMA. Here we present a short technical description of ALMA and an overview of past efforts and future possibilities for solar observations at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths. In addition, selected numerical simulatio...

  14. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  15. The Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen,W.; Jensen,M.; Genio, A. D.; Giangrande, S.; Heymsfield, A.; Heymsfield, G.; Hou, A.; Kollias, P.; Orr, B.; Rutledge, S.; Schwaller, M.; Zipser, E.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April-May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radition Measurement Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation program. The Intensive Observation Period leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall observations over land that have never before been available. Several different components of convective processes tangible to the convective parameterization problem are targeted such as, pre-convective environment and convective initiation, updraft / downdraft dynamics, condensate transport and detrainment, precipitation and cloud microphysics, influence on the environment and radiation and a detailed description of the large-scale forcing. MC3E will use a new multi-scale observing strategy with the participation of a network of distributed sensors (both passive and active). The approach is to document in 3-D not only the full spectrum of precipitation rates, but also clouds, winds and moisture in an attempt to provide a holistic view of convective clouds and their feedback with the environment. A goal is to measure cloud and precipitation transitions and environmental quantities that are important for satellite retrieval algorithms, convective parameterization in large-scale models and cloud-resolving model simulations. This will be accomplished through the deployment of several different elements that complement the existing (and soon to become available) ARM facilities: a network of radiosonde stations, NASA scanning multi-frequency/parameter radar systems at three different frequencies (Ka/Ku/S), high-altitude remote sensing and in situ aircraft, wind profilers and a network of surface disdrometers. In addition to these special MC3E instruments, there will be important new instrumentation deployed by DOE at the ARM site including: 3 networked scanning X-band radar systems, a C-band scanning radar, a dual wavelength (Ka/W) scanning cloud radar, a Doppler lidar and upgraded vertically pointing millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) and micropulse lidar (MPL).To fully describe the properties of precipitating cloud systems, both in situ and remote sensing airborne observations are necessary. The NASA GPM-funded University of North Dakota (UND) Citation will provide in situ observations of precipitation-sized particles, ice freezing nuclei and aerosol concentrations. As a complement to the UND Citation's in situ observations, the NASA ER-2 will provide a high altitude satellite simulator platform that carrying a Ka/Ku band radar and passive microwave radiometers (10-183 GHZ).

  16. Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

  17. PNNL Expert Doug McMakin Discusses Millimeter Wave Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Doug McMakin

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical Engineer Doug McMakin discusses Millimeter Wave Holographic technology, which uses non-harmful, ultrahigh-frequency radio waves to penetrate clothing to detect and identify concealed objects, as well as obtain accurate body measurements.

  18. acrf millimeter wave: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USA kimik@yonsei.ac.kr Abstract- In this paper, one linear tapered slot antenna (LTSA), backed Tentzeris, Manos 63 Horn antenna design for BAN millimeter wave on-body...

  19. Short wavelength laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Peter L. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  20. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  1. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  2. CO and IRAS detection of an intermediate-velocity cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desert, F.X.; Bazell, D.; Blitz, L. (Paris Observatoire, Meudon (France) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Maryland Univ., College Park (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the course of a radio survey of high-Galactic-latitude clouds, CO emission was detected at the position l = 210.8 deg and b = 63.1 deg with an LSR velocity of -39 km/sec. This molecular cloud constitutes the third one with an unusually large absolute velocity at these latitudes, as compared with the 5.4-km/sec cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of the high-latitude molecular clouds. The position is coincident with an H I intermediate-velocity cloud (GHL 11, Verschuur H, OLM 268) and the IR-excess cloud 306 in the list by Desert et al. (1988). This cloud is clearly detected at all four IRAS wavelengths and has warmer colors than the local ISM. 27 refs.

  3. Printed circuit board impedance matching step for microwave (millimeter wave) devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Aguirre, Jerardo; Sargis, Paul

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An impedance matching ground plane step, in conjunction with a quarter wave transformer section, in a printed circuit board provides a broadband microwave matching transition from board connectors or other elements that require thin substrates to thick substrate (>quarter wavelength) broadband microwave (millimeter wave) devices. A method of constructing microwave and other high frequency electrical circuits on a substrate of uniform thickness, where the circuit is formed of a plurality of interconnected elements of different impedances that individually require substrates of different thicknesses, by providing a substrate of uniform thickness that is a composite or multilayered substrate; and forming a pattern of intermediate ground planes or impedance matching steps interconnected by vias located under various parts of the circuit where components of different impedances are located so that each part of the circuit has a ground plane substrate thickness that is optimum while the entire circuit is formed on a substrate of uniform thickness.

  4. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  5. Millimeter and Submillimeter Survey of the R Corona Australis Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Groppi; Craig Kulesa; Christopher Walker; Christopher Martin

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a combination of data from the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO), the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12m telescope and the Arizona Radio Observatory 10m Heinrich Hertz Telescope, we have studied the most active part of the R CrA molecular cloud in multiple transitions of Carbon Monoxide, HCO$^+$ and 870\\micron continuum emission. Since R CrA is nearby (130 pc), we are able to obtain physical spatial resolution as high as 0.01pc over an area of 0.16 pc$^2$, with velocity resolution finer than 1 km/s. Mass estimates of the protostar driving the mm-wave emission derived from HCO$^+$, dust continuum emission and kinematic techniques point to a young, deeply embedded protostar of $\\sim$0.5-0.75 M$_\\odot$, with a gaseous envelope of similar mass. A molecular outflow is driven by this source that also contains at least 0.8 M$_\\odot$ of molecular gas with $\\sim$0.5 L$_\\odot$ of mechanical luminosity. HCO$^+$ lines show the kinematic signature of infall motions as well as bulk rotation. The source is most likely a Class 0 protostellar object not yet visible at near-IR wavelengths. With the combination of spatial and spectral resolution in our data set, we are able to disentangle the effects of infall, rotation and outflow towards this young object.

  6. Cloud Computing Adam Barker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Cloud Computing 1 Adam Barker #12;Overview · Introduction to Cloud computing · Enabling technologies · Di erent types of cloud: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS · Cloud terminology · Interacting with a cloud: management consoles · Launching an instance · Connecting to an instance · Running your application · Clouds

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesWavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion Materials Overview of SSL Wavelength Conversion Materials Rare-Earth Phosphors Inorganic phosphors doped with...

  8. Lecture Ch. 8 Cloud Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    clouds Middle clouds Grayish, block the sun, sometimes patchy Sharp outlines, rising, bright white1 Lecture Ch. 8 · Cloud Classification ­ Descriptive approach to clouds · Drop Growth and Precipitation Processes ­ Microphysical characterization of clouds · Complex (i.e. Real) Clouds ­ Examples

  9. An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when ? approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

  10. Digital phase tightening for improved spatial resolution in millimeter-wave imaging systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ke, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging systems using millimeter-wave frequencies allow for the possibilities of vehicular radar and concealed weapons detection. By using silicon technology, the integration of millimeter-wave circuits can reach new levels ...

  11. Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type Hexaferrite Nanopowders. Millimeter-Wave Absorption as a Quality Control Tool for M-Type Hexaferrite Nanopowders....

  12. Low-EVM Adaptive Millimeter-Wave Transmit and Receive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Arpit Kumar

    Accurate (Low-EVM) Millimeter-wave Direct-conversion I/Qmillimeter-wave direct-conversion modulators,” MicrowaveLow-EVM, Millimeter-Wave Direct-Conversion Modulators”, IEEE

  13. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic) clouds is reviewed, with an emphasis on factors that may be expected to change in a changing climate of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  14. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic conspire to determine the statistics and cli- matology of layers of shallow (boundary layer) clouds of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  15. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models RMetS Conference 4th September 2007 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations What is the distribution of cloud lifetimes? What factors determine the lifetime of an individual

  16. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  17. Cloud Security by Max Garvey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolmach, Andrew

    Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

  18. Final Technical Report on Scaling Models of the Internal Variability of Clouds DoE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63773

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, Kristinka

    2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this proposal is to gain a better understanding of the space-time correlations of atmospheric fluctuations in clouds through application of methods from statistical physics to high resolution, continuous data sets of cloud observations available at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program archive. In this report we present the accomplishments achieved during the four year period. Starting with the most recent one, we report on two break-throughs in our research that make the fourth year of the project exceptionally successful and markedly outperforming the objectives. The first break-through is on characterization of the structure of cirrus radiative properties at large, intermediate and small, generating cells scales by applying the Fokker-Planck equation method and other methods to ARM millimeter wavelength radar observations collected at the Southern Great Plains site. The second break-through is that we show that different characterizations of the cirrus radiative properties are obtained for different synoptic scale environments. We outline a stochastic approach to investigate the internal structure of radiative properties of cirrus clouds based on empirical modeling and draw conclusions about cirrus dynamical properties in the context of the synoptic environment. Results on the structure of cirrus dynamical properties are consistent with the structure of cirrus based on aircraft in situ measurements, with results from ground-based Raman lidar, and with results from model studies. These achievements would not have been possible without the accomplishments from the previous years on a number of problems that involve application of methods of analysis such as the Fokker-Planck equation approach, Tsallis nonextensive statistical mechanics, detrended fluctuation analysis, and others. These include stochastic analysis of neutrally stratified cirrus layers, internal variability and turbulence in cirrus, dynamical model and nonextensive statistical mechanics of liquid water path fluctuations, etc.

  19. MECHANICAL VIBRATION SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING USING A MILLIMETER-WAVE DOPPLER RADAR SENSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MECHANICAL VIBRATION SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING USING A MILLIMETER-WAVE DOPPLER RADAR of structural health monitoring (SHM). In this paper, we report on a millimeter-wave Doppler radar sensor sensing, millimeter-waves, structural health monitoring. INTRODUCTION Structural health monitoring based

  20. A MILLIMETER-WAVE PERPENDICULAR COAX-TO-MICROSTRIP TRANSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A MILLIMETER-WAVE PERPENDICULAR COAX-TO- MICROSTRIP TRANSITION Matthew Morgan1 and Sander Weinreb2 transition from coaxial cable to microstrip is presented in which the coax connector is perpendicular to the substrate of the printed circuit. Such a right-angle transition has practical advantages over more common

  1. Flame Dynamics and Structure Within Sub-Millimeter Combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    provided by combusting hydro- carbon fuels has stimulated interest in recent years toward the development of micro-and mesoscale portable heat and power sources, and systems for a myriad of applications,1 and maximizing the heat output. Maintaining an optimal balance at the micro- or sub-millimeter length scale

  2. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

  3. Cloud Computing og availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Henrik Bćrbak

    Cloud Computing og availability Projekt i pĺlidelighed Henrik Lavdal - 20010210 Sřren Bardino Kaa - 20011654 Gruppe 8 19-03-2010 #12;Cloud Computing og availability Side 2 af 28 Indholdsfortegnelse as a Service (SaaS) ...................................................................9 Availability i cloud

  4. Ad hoc cloud computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGilvary, Gary Andrew

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial and private cloud providers offer virtualized resources via a set of co-located and dedicated hosts that are exclusively reserved for the purpose of offering a cloud service. While both cloud models appeal to ...

  5. Sandia Energy - Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to a wider range of wavelengths in this region. Phosphors based on divalent europium (Eu+2) are available in the green and even into the blue emission region. Photon...

  6. On Demand Surveillance Service in Vehicular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Jui-Ting

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toward Vehicular Service Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2 Open Mobile Cloud Requirement . . . . .3.1 Mobile Cloud

  7. The Near-infrared Period-luminosity Relations of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahzooni, Salma

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near-infrared (J & Ks) observations of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The goals of these observations are to better characterize the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation at these wavelengths, especially for periods below 10 days...

  8. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  9. Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics EC2 and AMIs #12;Quick-starting an EC2 instance (let's get our feet wet!) Cloud Computing #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance Quick Start · On EC2 console, we can click on Launch Instance · This will let us get up and going quickly #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance

  10. Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wavelength Harmonic Generation Ji Qiang Lawrence Berkeleyform a basis for fourth generation light source. Currently,e?ciency was proposed for generation of short wavelength

  11. ALMA Imaging of Millimeter/Submillimeter Continuum Emission in Orion KL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirota, Tomoya; Kurono, Yasutaka; Honma, Mareki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out high resolution observations with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) of continuum emission from Orion KL region. We identify 11 compact sources at ALMA band 6 (245 GHz) and band 7 (339 GHz), including Hot Core, Compact Ridge, SMA1, IRc4, IRc7, and a radio source I (Source I). Spectral energy distribution (SED) of each source is determined by using previous 3 mm continuum emission data. Physical properties such as size, mass, hydrogen number density and column density are discussed based on the dust graybody SED. Among 11 identified sources, Source I, a massive protostar candidate, is a dominant energy source in Orion KL. We extensively investigate its SED from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. The SED of Source I can be fitted with a single power-law index of 1.97 suggesting an optically thick emission. We employ the H$^{-}$ free-free emission as an opacity source of this optically thick emission. The temperature, density, and mass of the circumstellar disk associat...

  12. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  13. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    large output powers at the millimeter-wave regime has been mainly focused on power combining techniques, using Wilkinson combiners and transformer-

  14. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ?-iron oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60?GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ?-iron oxides (?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  15. Millimeter wave analysis of the dielectric properties of oil shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Scales; Michael Batzle

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural sedimentation processes give rise to fine layers in shales. If these layers alternate between organic-rich and organic-poor sediments, then the contrast in dielectric properties gives rise to an effective birefringence as the presence of hydrocarbons suppresses the dielectric constant of the host rock. We have measured these effects with a quasioptical millimeter wave setup that is rapid and noncontacting. We find that the strength of this birefringence and the overall dielectric permittivity provide two useful diagnostic of the organic content of oil shales.

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT CLOUD COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    SECURITY RESEARCH PRIVACY RISK ASSESSMENT AMC DATA FISMA CLOUD COMPUTING MOBILE DEVICES OPERATIONS application hosted in the cloud · Alaska DHHS fined $1.7M ­ Portable device stolen from vehicle · Mass Eye

  17. Higher Energy States in the CO Dimer: Millimeter-Wave Spectra and Rovibrational Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higher Energy States in the CO Dimer: Millimeter-Wave Spectra and Rovibrational Calculations Leonid, Russia Ge´ W. M. Vissers Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State UniVersity, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Ad van millimeter-wave data yielded the precise location of 33 new energy levels of A+ symmetry and 20 levels of A

  18. Millimeter wave notch filters based on ferromagnetic resonance in hexagonal barium ferrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millimeter wave notch filters based on ferromagnetic resonance in hexagonal barium ferrites Young 2009 A hexagonal ferrite-based millimeter wave notch filter was demonstrated. The filter consists of microwave Faraday rotation in ferrites by Hogan in 1952, a diverse range of microwave magnetic de- vices

  19. XSEDE Cloud Survey Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    XSEDE Cloud Survey Report David Lifka, Cornell Center for Advanced Computing Ian Foster, ANL, ANL and The University of Chicago A National Science Foundation-sponsored cloud user survey was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013 by the XSEDE Cloud Integration Investigation Team to better

  20. Research Cloud Computing Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    Research Cloud Computing Recommendations SRCPAC December 3, 2014 #12;Mandate and Membership SRCPAC convened this committee in Sept 2014 to investigate the role that cloud computing should play in our & Academic Affairs (Social Work) #12;Questions discussed · What cloud resources are available? · Which kinds

  1. Millimeter Wave Sensor For On-Line Inspection Of Thin Sheet Dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakhtiari, Sasan (Westmont, IL); Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A millimeter wave sensor is provided for non-destructive inspection of thin sheet dielectric materials. The millimeter wave sensor includes a Gunn diode oscillator (GDO) source generating a mill meter wave electromagnetic energy signal having a single frequency. A heater is coupled to the GDO source for stabilizing the single frequency. A small size antenna is coupled to the GDO source for transmitting the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal to a sample material and for receiving a reflected millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal from the sample material. Ferrite circulator isolators coupled between the GDO source and the antenna separate the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal into transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components and a detector detects change in both amplitude and phase of the transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components. A millimeter wave sensor is provided for non-destructive inspection of thin sheet dielectric materials. The millimeter wave sensor includes a Gunn diode oscillator (GDO) source generating a mill meter wave electromagnetic energy signal having a single frequency. A heater is coupled to the GDO source for stabilizing the single frequency. A small size antenna is coupled to the GDO source for transmitting the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal to a sample material and for receiving a reflected millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal from the sample material. Ferrite circulator isolators coupled between the GDO source and the antenna separate the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal into transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components and a detector detects change in both amplitude and phase of the transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components.

  2. On Storage Rings for Short Wavelength FELs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a hypothetical 144 m long storage ring optimized for FELin the Proceedings On Storage Rings for Short WavelengthLBL-28483 ESG Note-92 ON STORAGE RINGS FOR SHORT WAVELENGTH

  3. Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    UROP 2012 Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure Cloud computing and live-migration of running VM. USI participates to the development of the first European Cloud computing for a motivated student that will have a chance to improve his/her knowledge on Cloud computing, Java and/or Ruby

  4. Dynamic Cloud Resource Reservation via Cloud Brokerage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto Department of Electrical@eecg.toronto.edu, liang@utoronto.ca Abstract--Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds offer diverse pric- ing options

  5. An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

  6. Clouds up close | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions that affect clouds and thus improve climate projections. Contact Heng Xiao Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., PO Box 999 MSIN: K9-30...

  7. Finance Idol Word Cloud

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This word cloud represents the topics discussed during the Big and Small Ideas: How to Lower Solar Financing Costs breakout session at the SunShot Grand Challenge.

  8. SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation

  9. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - Far-infrared/sub-millimeter colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortese, L; Bianchi, S; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Buat, V; Clemens, M; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Davies, J I; De Looze, I; Eales, S A; Fuller, C; Hunt, L K; Madden, S; Munoz-Mateos, J; Pappalardo, C; Pierini, D; Remy-Ruyer, A; Sauvage, M; Alighieri, S di Serego; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Vaccari, M; Vlahakis, C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band-, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 micron wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique dataset to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/sub-millimeter spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8millimeter colours are inconsistent with a single modified black-body having the same dust emissivity index beta for all galaxies. In particular, either beta decreases, or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temper...

  10. Millimeter-wave GaN high electron mobility transistors and their integration with silicon electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Jinwook W. (Jinwook Will)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the great progress in performance achieved during the last few years, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) still have several important issues to be solved for millimeter-wave (30 ~ 300 GHz) applications. ...

  11. Novel millimeter wave sensor concepts for energy, environment, and national security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundaram, S. K.

    Millimeter waves are ideally suited for sensing and diagnosing materials, devices, and processes that are broadly important to energy, environment, and national security. Thermal return reflection (TRR) techniques that ...

  12. The use of chirped pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy in chemical dynamics and kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaver, Rachel Glyn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .Chirped-pulse millimeter wave (CPmmW) spectroscopy is a revolutionary technique that has taken advantage of advances in electronics to give high signal to noise broadband rotational spectra in a very short period of time ...

  13. Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy: Spectrum, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg–Rydberg transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colombo, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) technique to transitions between Rydberg states in calcium atoms. The unique feature of Rydberg–Rydberg transitions is that they have enormous electric dipole transition ...

  14. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Computing Services Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Cloud Computing...

  15. Profiling clouds' inner life | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    life Released: May 29, 2014 Subgrid modeling pinpoints cloud transformation to uncover true reflective power An accurate understanding of clouds over the ocean is important for...

  16. Nonlinear Hydromagnetic Wave Support of a Stratified Molecular Cloud II: A Parameter Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu

    2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We use numerical simulations to study the effect of nonlinear MHD waves in a stratified, self-gravitating molecular cloud that is bounded by a hot and tenuous external medium. In a previous paper, we had shown the details of a standard model and studied the effect of varying the dimensionless amplitude. In this paper, we present the results of varying two other important free parameters: beta_0, the initial ratio of gas to magnetic pressure at the cloud midplane, and the dimensionless frequency of driving. Furthermore, we present the case of a temporally random driving force. Our results demonstrate that a very important consideration for the actual level of turbulent support against gravity is the ratio of driving wavelength lambda_0 to the the size of the initial non-turbulent cloud; maximum cloud expansion is achieved when this ratio is close to unity. The best consistency with the observational correlation of magnetic field strength, turbulent line width, and density is achieved by cloud models with beta_0 approx 1. We also calculate the spatial power spectra of the turbulent clouds, and show that significant power is developed on scales larger than the scale length H_0 of the initial cloud, even if the input wavelength of turbulence lambda_0 approx H_0. The cloud stratification and resulting increase of Alfven speed toward the cloud edge allows for a transfer of energy to wavelengths significantly larger than lambda_0. This explains why the relevant time scale for turbulent dissipation is the crossing time over the cloud scale rather than the crossing time over the driving scale.

  17. Wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Darrell J. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Arlee V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A wavelength-doubling optical parametric oscillator (OPO) comprising a type II nonlinear optical medium for generating a pair of degenerate waves at twice a pump wavelength and a plurality of mirrors for rotating the polarization of one wave by 90 degrees to produce a wavelength-doubled beam with an increased output energy by coupling both of the degenerate waves out of the OPO cavity through the same output coupler following polarization rotation of one of the degenerate waves.

  18. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology Final Technical Research Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC; Woskov, Paul [MIT; Einstein, Herbert [MIT

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260oC, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be determined experimentally. New methods to encapsulate larger rock specimens must be developed and higher power intensities are needed to overcome these limitations. It was demonstrated that rock properties are affected (weakening then strengthened) by exposure to high temperatures. Since only MMW beams can economically reach rock temperatures of over 1650oC, even exceeding 3000oC, that can cause low viscosity melts or vaporization of rocks. Future encapsulated rock specimens must provide sufficiently large sizes of thermally impacted material to provide for the necessary rock strength, permeability and other analyzes required. Multiple MMW field systems, tools and methods for drilling and lining were identified. It was concluded that forcing a managed over-pressure drilling operation would overcome water influx and hot rock particulates handling problems, while simultaneously forming the conditions necessary to create a strong, sealing rock melt liner. Materials that contact hot rock surfaces were identified for further study. High power windows and gases for beam transmission under high pressures are critical paths for some of the MMW drilling systems. Straightness/ alignment can be a great benefit or a problem, especially if a MMW beam is transmitted through an existing, conventionally drilled bore.

  19. CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Rod

    to manage energy consumption across the entire information and communications technology (ICT) sector. While considers both public and private clouds, and includes energy consumption in switching and transmission to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant

  20. Toward Securing Sensor Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · 32 GB microSDHC storage 2 Image from http://hothardware.com/News/Leaked-Motorola-DROID-X-2-Daytona Computer Mini Computer External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud: micro surveys, amber alerts 4 #12;Router Router Router Router Mini Computer Mini Computer Mini Computer

  1. Fine-scale Horizontal Structure of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange,M.; Verlinde, J.; Elorante, E.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.; Shupe, M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent in situ observations in stratiform clouds suggest that mixed phase regimes, here defined as limited cloud volumes containing both liquid and solid water, are constrained to narrow layers (order 100 m) separating all-liquid and fully glaciated volumes (Hallett and Viddaurre, 2005). The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (DOE-ARM, Ackerman and Stokes, 2003) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) recently started collecting routine measurement of radar Doppler velocity power spectra from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR). Shupe et al. (2004) showed that Doppler spectra has potential to separate the contributions to the total reflectivity of the liquid and solid water in the radar volume, and thus to investigate further Hallett and Viddaurre's findings. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) was conducted along the NSA to investigate the properties of Arctic mixed phase clouds (Verlinde et al., 2006). We present surface based remote sensing data from MPACE to discuss the fine-scale structure of the mixed-phase clouds observed during this experiment.

  2. Optical sensing based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckley, Steven G. (Redmond, WA); Gharavi, Mohammadreza (Tehran, IR); Borchers; Marco (Berlin, DE)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for using Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy measurements to optically monitor gas media such as gases in gas combustion chambers.

  3. Parameterization of Infrared Absorption in Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Wang, Zhien; Platt, C.M.R.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing a new approach based on combined Raman lidar and millimeter-wave radar measurements and a parameterization of the infrared absorption coefficient {sigma}{sub a}(km{sup -1}) in terms of retrieved cloud microphysics, we derive a statistical relation between {sigma}{sub a} and cirrus cloud temperature. The relations {sigma}{sub a} = 0.3949 + 5.3886 x 10{sup -3} T + 1.526 x 10{sup -5} T{sup 2} for ambient temperature (T,{sup o}C), and {sigma}{sub a} = 0.2896 + 3.409 x 10{sup -3} T{sub m} for midcloud temperature (T{sub m}, {sup o}C), are found using a second order polynomial fit. Comparison with two {sigma}{sub a} versus T{sub m} relations obtained primarily from midlatitude cirrus using the combined lidar/infrared radiometer (LIRAD) approach reveals significant differences. However, we show that this reflects both the previous convention used in curve fitting (i. e., {sigma}{sub a} {yields} 0 at {approx} 80 C), and the types of clouds included in the datasets. Without such constraints, convergence is found in the three independent remote sensing datasets within the range of conditions considered valid for cirrus (i.e., cloud optical depth {approx} 3.0 and T{sub m} < {approx}20 C). Hence for completeness we also provide reanalyzed parameterizations for a visible extinction coefficient {sigma}{sub a} versus T{sub m} relation for midlatitude cirrus, and a data sample involving cirrus that evolved into midlevel altostratus clouds with higher optical depths.

  4. July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization/26/2633 Recent: CloudRecent: Cloud The fast growth of cloud computing Cloud file storage/synchronization services Google entries about cloud computing: 184,000,000 #12;July 2012July 2012 44/26/2644 Our CloudOur Cloud 7

  5. Millimeter-wave imaging of thermal and chemical signatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalsami, N.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) system is described for remotely mapping thermal and chemical signatures of process effluents with application to arms control and nonproliferation. Because a large amount of heat is usually dissipated in the air or waterway as a by-product of most weapons of mass destruction facilities, remote thermal mapping may be used to detect concealed or open facilities of weapons of mass destruction. We have developed a focal-plane mm-wave imaging system to investigate the potential of thermal mapping. Results of mm-wave images obtained with a 160-GHz radiometer system are presented for different target scenes simulated in the laboratory. Chemical and nuclear facilities may be identified by remotely measuring molecular signatures of airborne molecules emitted from these facilities. We have developed a filterbank radiometer to investigate the potential of passive spectral measurements. Proof of principle is presented by measuring the HDO spectral line at 80.6 GHz with a 4-channel 77-83 GHz radiometer.

  6. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  7. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  8. When Clouds become Green: the Green Open Cloud Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a new original energy-efficient Cloud infrastructure called Green Open Cloud. Keywords. Energy with the support of energy-efficient frameworks dedicated to Cloud architectures. Virtualization is a key feature of the energy-aware Cloud infras- tructure that we propose. The conclusion and future works are reviewed

  9. Semiconductor laser with multiple lasing wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of multi-terminal vertical-cavity semiconductor laser components has been developed. These multi-terminal laser components can be switched, either electrically or optically, between distinct lasing wavelengths, or can be made to lase simultaneously at multiple wavelengths.

  10. A SEARCH FOR DUST EMISSION IN THE LEO INTERGALACTIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Puget, Jeremie [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Latter, William B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schneider, Stephen [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Terzian, Yervant [Department of Astronomy/NAIC, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: bot@astro.u-strasbg.fr

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for infrared dust emission associated with the Leo cloud, a large intergalactic cloud in the M96 group. Mid-infrared and far-infrared images were obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis of these maps is done at each wavelength relative to the H I spatial distribution. We observe a probable detection at 8 {mu}m and a marginal detection at 24 {mu}m associated with the highest H I column densities in the cloud. At 70 and 160 {mu}m, upper limits on the dust emission are deduced. The level of the detection is low so that the possibility of a fortuitous cirrus clump or of an overdensity of extragalactic sources along the line of sight cannot be excluded. If this detection is confirmed, the quantities of dust inferred imply a dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic cloud up to a few times solar but no less than 1/20 solar. A confirmed detection would therefore exclude the possibility that the intergalactic cloud has a primordial origin. Instead, this large intergalactic cloud could therefore have been formed through interactions between galaxies in the group.

  11. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -term global warming. If the EIS-low cloud fraction relationship holds under global warming, it is likely that the tropical low cloud fraction change is non-negative. Climate models without significant negative low cloud fraction change suggest that the cloud...

  12. Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar 19th May 2009 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations Why Conclusions Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.1/3 #12;Why bother? Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.2/3 #12;Some

  13. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Sciences #12;Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE depends on season, cloud type CRE ­ whether clouds specifically chosen to include nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform

  14. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Declining September sea-ice extent #12;Clouds & Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE Defined CRE nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform) - Middle Clouds: Altocumulus

  15. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore »and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  16. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  17. Migrating enterprise storage applications to the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrable, Michael Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1 Cloud Providers . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.1 Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . .2.1.2 Cloud Computation . . . . . . 2.2 Enterprise Storage

  18. A developer's survey on different cloud platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doan, Dzung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Introduction Cloud computing is a computing paradigm inFor this reason, cloud computing has also been describedparallel processing. Cloud computing can be contrasted with

  19. Optical amplification at the 1. 31 wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical amplifier operating at the 1.31 [mu]m wavelength for use in such applications as telecommunications, cable television, and computer systems is described. An optical fiber or other waveguide device is doped with both Tm[sup 3+] and Pr[sup 3+] ions. When pumped by a diode laser operating at a wavelength of 785 nm, energy is transferred from the Tm[sup 3+] ions to the Pr[sup 3+] ions, causing the Pr[sup 3+] ions to amplify at a wavelength of 1.31. 1 figure.

  20. Thin Cloud Length Scales Using CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solbrig, Jeremy E.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin clouds are the most difficult cloud type to observe. The recent availability of joint cloud products from the active remote sensing instruments aboard CloudSat and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) facilitates...

  1. Apparatus for shifting the wavelength of light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulla, William H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Allen, Jr., John D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light beam is reflected back and forth between a rotating body having a retroreflection corner at opposite ends thereof and a fixed mirror to change the wavelength of the light beam by the Doppler effect.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    because of the steep drop-off in human eye sensitivity at longer wavelength) and absorption in the near-UV or blue region has been difficult to achieve. Broader-band...

  3. Millimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    three-dimensional, microfluidic, paper-based analyt- ical devices (3D-mPADs) as ``stamps'' (eMillimeter-scale contact printing of aqueous solutions using a stamp made out of paper and tape This communication describes a simple method for printing aqueous solutions with millimeter-scale patterns

  4. Power and polarization monitor development for high power millimeter-wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makino, R., E-mail: makino.ryohhei@ms.nifs.ac.jp; Kobayashi, K. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kubo, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type monitor of power and polarization states of millimeter-waves has been developed to be installed at a miter-bend, which is a part of transmission lines of millimeter-waves, for electron cyclotron resonance heating on the Large Helical Device. The monitor measures amplitudes and phase difference of the electric field of the two orthogonal polarizations which are needed for calculation of the power and polarization states of waves. The power and phase differences of two orthogonal polarizations were successfully detected simultaneously.

  5. Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Released: October 04, 2011 In a heated battle, ice crystals win the competition for cloud water vapor The mighty cloud ice...

  6. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  7. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  8. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty on cloud feedback is the primary contributor to the large spread of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) in climate models. In this study, we compare the short-term cloud feedback in climate models with observations, and evaluate...

  9. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead toelectron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead tocloud phenomena in positrons storage rings the effect of syn- chrotron radiation

  10. Secure Cloud Computing With Brokered Trusted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ·Audio ·QualComm 7201 528MHZ ·64MB Ram ·MicroSD Slow Storage ·Currently NO SIM CHIPS Monday, March 29 External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Tower

  11. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  12. Command Line Tools Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Command Line Tools Cloud Computing #12;Everybody (or nearly everybody) loves GUI. AWS Command Line of advanced features. After surviving the cloud computing class till now, Your are almost a command line guru! You need AWS command line tools, ec2-api-tools, to maximize the power of AWS cloud computing. Plugging

  13. 8, 96979729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval algorithm P. Wang et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 9697 #12;ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval

  14. 3, 33013333, 2003 Cirrus cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity J. Str and Physics Discussions Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: A comparison¨om (johan@itm.su.se) 3301 #12;ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient

  15. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  16. 5, 60136039, 2005 FRESCO cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction cloud information over deserts from SCIAMACHY O2 A-band N. Fournier 1 , P. Stammes 1 , M. de Graaf 1 , R, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  17. NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

  18. C ISOTOPE GRADIENT DERIVED FROM MILLIMETER TRANSITIONS OF CN: THE CASE FOR GALACTIC CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    THE 12 C/13 C ISOTOPE GRADIENT DERIVED FROM MILLIMETER TRANSITIONS OF CN: THE CASE FOR GALACTIC kinetic temperature, suggests that chemical fractionation and isotope-selective photodissociation both do be a result of 13 C enrichment since the formation of the solar system, as predicted by recent models. Subject

  19. Integrated Nano-to-Millimeter (In2m) Systems MEMS Safety &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center University of Maryland Article: Nano-to-Millimeter Scale Integrated Systems H. Last, M. Deeds, D. Garvick, R. Kavetsky Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division P. Sandborn, E. B. Magrab, S. K. Gupta CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center University

  20. FERRITE TUNABLE MILLIMETER WAVE PRINTED CIRCUIT FILTERS Jaroslaw Uher, Jens Bornemann*, and Fritz Arndt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bornemann, Jens

    FF-2 FERRITE TUNABLE MILLIMETER WAVE PRINTED CIRCUIT FILTERS Jaroslaw Uher, Jens Bornemann of ferrite-slab loaded waveguides. Computer optimized design data based on the rigorous modal S-matrix method resonators [1] - [3] , or ferrite slabs in resonating below-cutoff waveguides [4], ~~ii;~'~rpaper describes

  1. Combined Illumination Cylindrical Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technique for Concealed Weapon Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed for personnel surveillance applications, including the detection of concealed weapons, explosives, drugs, and other contraband material. Millimeter-waves are high-frequency radio waves in the frequency band of 30-300 GHz, and pose no health threat to humans at moderate power levels. These waves readily penetrate common clothing materials, and are reflected by the human body and by concealed items. The combined illumination cylindrical imaging concept consists of a vertical, high-resolution, millimeter-wave array of antennas which is scanned in a cylindrical manner about the person under surveillance. Using a computer, the data from this scan is mathematically reconstructed into a series of focused 3-D images of the person. After reconstruction, the images are combined into a single high-resolution three-dimensional image of the person under surveillance. This combined image is then rendered using 3-D computer graphics techniques. The combined cylindrical illumination is critical as it allows the display of information from all angles. This is necessary because millimeter-waves do not penetrate the body. Ultimately, the images displayed to the operator will be icon-based to protect the privacy of the person being screened. Novel aspects of this technique include the cylindrical scanning concept and the image reconstruction algorithm, which was developed specifically for this imaging system. An engineering prototype based on this cylindrical imaging technique has been fabricated and tested. This work has been sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  2. DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000145 Titanium Alloy Lattice Structures with Millimeter Scale Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000145 Titanium Alloy Lattice Structures with Millimeter Scale Cell Sizes­9] acoustic damping,[10,11] and impact energy absorption.[12­14] The earliest foams were made from easily cast recently proposed for the making of cellular materials from titanium coated SiC monofilaments.[35] We show

  3. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 şC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 şC.

  4. A Wideband Body-Enabled Millimeter-Wave Transceiver for Wireless Network-an-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    -A highly energy-efficient on-chip communication network is crucial for the development of future multiA Wideband Body-Enabled Millimeter-Wave Transceiver for Wireless Network-an-Chip Xinmin Yu, Suman Prasad Sah, Sujay Deb, Partha Pratim Pande, Benjamin Belzer, and Deukhyoun Heo School of Electrical

  5. Radio Wavelength Observatories within the Exploration Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lazio; R. J. Macdowall; J. Burns; L. Demaio; D. L. Jones; K. W. Weiler

    2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations at radio wavelengths address key problems in astrophysics, astrobiology, and lunar structure including the first light in the Universe (the Epoch of Reionization), the presence of magnetic fields around extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the structure of the lunar ionosphere. Moreover, achieving the performance needed to address these scientific questions demands observations at wavelengths longer than those that penetrate the Earth's ionosphere, observations in extremely "radio quiet" locations such as the Moon's far side, or both. We describe a series of lunar-based radio wavelength interferometers of increasing capability. The Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS) is an array designed to be deployed during the first lunar sorties (or even before via robotic rovers) and addressing particle acceleration and the lunar ionosphere. Future arrays would be larger, more capable, and deployed as experience is gained in working on the lunar surface.

  6. Device for wavelength-selective imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V. (Wayland, MA)

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging device captures both a visible light image and a diagnostic image, the diagnostic image corresponding to emissions from an imaging medium within the object. The visible light image (which may be color or grayscale) and the diagnostic image may be superimposed to display regions of diagnostic significance within a visible light image. A number of imaging media may be used according to an intended application for the imaging device, and an imaging medium may have wavelengths above, below, or within the visible light spectrum. The devices described herein may be advantageously packaged within a single integrated device or other solid state device, and/or employed in an integrated, single-camera medical imaging system, as well as many non-medical imaging systems that would benefit from simultaneous capture of visible-light wavelength images along with images at other wavelengths.

  7. A simple theory of cloud spreading at ranges from 1-2000 km

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples support the conclusion that cloud or plume spreading in the troposphere proceeds rapidly and rather steadily for times on the order of a day or two and to distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Subsequently, possibly after a transition to the asymptotic rate of relative diffusion, the cloud begins to develop a streaky structure under the influence of the large-scale, enstrophy-cascade range of motions. The GASP spectra indicate that the transition between these two modes of spreading begins at several hundred kilometers ad is well developed by about 1000 km, in terms of spectral wavelength. The cloud streaks and patches elongate rapidly, evidently at the exponential rate, but spread laterally more slowly, at a rate that represents the effects of the conservation of cloud area under large-scale deformation and the lateral diffusion at the asymptotic rate. Although this relative diffusion occurs at a comparatively slow rate, it is very effective in reducing cloud concentrations in combination with the rapid, large-scale cloud stretching by the 2-D, enstrophy-cascade range eddies. The LANL heavy-methane cloud data indicate that the net result is very rapid decay of cloud concentration, apparently at an exponential rate.

  8. Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    by latent heating in updrafts and cooling in downdrafts. Turbulent eddies and evaporative cooling drives, stratification of the STBL, and in some cases cloud breakup. Feedbacks between radiative cooling, precipitation- way interactions may be a key driver of aerosol concentrations over the remote oceans. Aerosol

  9. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  10. Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions to a hypothetical cloudless but other- wise identical planet, the global and annual mean effect of clouds at the top is how cloud radiative effects will change as the planet warms because of long-lived greenhouse gases

  11. 5. Wavelengths and periods of field motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlay, Christopher

    . Using a technique based on the Radon transform [2], we determined the amount of power propagating5. Wavelengths and periods of field motions 2D frequency-wavenumber (FK) power spectra were of the large scale magnetic field at the surface of the core. Here we deconstruct such a model (gufm1

  12. Electricity and short wavelength radiation generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.

    1985-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and associated apparati for use of collisions of high energy atoms and ions of He, Ne, or Ar with themselves or with high energy neutrons to produce short wavelength radiation (lambda approx. = 840-1300 A) that may be utilized to produce cathode-anode currents or photovoltaic currents.

  13. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Bingham, Philip R. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Voelkl, Edgar (Austin, TX)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  14. The Long Wavelength Array System Technical Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    (frequency) DR Dynamic Range EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility FOV Field of View G.N.D. Galactic Noise Intermediate Array with 16 antennas (core) MCS Monitor and Control System ns nanosecond RFI Radio FrequencyThe Long Wavelength Array System Technical Requirements Version: Draft #9 2007-November-19 Compiled

  15. EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas Summary This EA...

  16. CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calheiros, Rodrigo N.

    CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications Bhathiya Wickremasinghe1 , Rodrigo N. Calheiros2 , and Rajkumar Buyya1 1 The Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University

  17. CloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the radiative and water budgets of clouds are broadly referred to as indirect aerosol effects. The aerosol processes and their accumulated effects on the global scale. 2. Mission Description CloudSat is plannedCloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles

  18. We triggered a multi-wavelength observing campaign including radio observations at RATAN-600, millimeter observations at Plateau de Bure, optical photometry at sev-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    source, marked as OT. Colour composite made from V, Rc and Ic band imaging at the 1.5m OSN telescope with the 0.4m WATCHER robotic telescope in South Africa starting 65s after the Swift/BAT detec- tion

  19. Millimeter-Wavelength Forward-Model Comparisons Based on Ground-Based Radiometric Data Taken During the 1999 NSA/AO Radiometric Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625Data ShowCDevelopment ofMiller winsGases,

  20. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D.P.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Platt, S.R.; Dragovan, M. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements. 55 refs.

  1. A Catalog of HI Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kim; E. Rosolowsky; Y. Lee; Y. Kim; Y. C. Jung; M. A. Dopita; B. G. Elmegreen; K. C. Freeman; R. J. Sault; M. J. Kesteven; D. McConnell; Y. -H. Chu

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A 21 cm neutral hydrogen interferometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) combined with the Parkes multi-beam HI single-dish survey clearly shows that the HI gas is distributed in the form of clumps or clouds. The HI clouds and clumps have been identified using a thresholding method with three separate brightness temperature thresholds ($T_b$). Each catalog of HI cloud candidates shows a power law relationship between the sizes and the velocity dispersions of the clouds roughly following the Larson Law scaling $\\sigma_v \\propto R^{0.5}$, with steeper indices associated with dynamically hot regions. The clouds in each catalog have roughly constant virial parameters as a function mass suggesting that that the clouds are all in roughly the same dynamical state, but the values of the virial parameter are significantly larger than unity showing that turbulent motions dominate gravity in these clouds. The mass distribution of the clouds is a power law with differential indices between -1.6 and -2.0 for the three catalogs. In contrast, the distribution of mean surface densities is a log-normal distribution.

  2. A novel millimeter-wave beam-steering technique using a dielectric-image-line-fed grating film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a novel, broadband, low-cost technique for beam steering at millimeter-wave frequencies using a moveable grating film fed by dielectric image line. An excellent radiation pattern is maintained over wide scan angles across...

  3. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Sub-Millimeter Combustion Shaurya Prakash,*,, Roald Akberov, Damena Agonafer, Adrian D. Armijo, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cells, photovoltaic systems, and other thermal energy conversion systems present another attractive of a silicon-based millimeter scale, PEM fuel cell operating with hydrogen, methanol, or formic acid. Sens

  4. Broken and inhomogeneous cloud impact on satellite cloud particle effective radius and cloudphase retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    on the particle size distribution, height, and thermo- dynamic phase of clouds. Water and ice clouds have parameterizations is the global dis- tribution of cloud thermodynamic phase, i.e., whether a cloud is composed on satellitederived cloud particle effective radius (re) and cloud phase (CPH) for broken and overcast inhomogeneous

  5. Photoionisation loading of large Sr+ ion clouds with ultrafast pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sébastien Removille; Romain Dubessy; Quentin Glorieux; Samuel Guibal; Thomas Coudreau; Luca Guidoni; Jean-Pierre Likforman

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on photoionisation loading based on ultrafast pulses of singly-ionised strontium ions in a linear Paul trap. We take advantage of an autoionising resonance of Sr neutral atoms to form Sr+ by two-photon absorption of femtosecond pulses at a wavelength of 431nm. We compare this technique to electron-bombardment ionisation and observe several advantages of photoionisation. It actually allows the loading of a pure Sr+ ion cloud in a low radio-frequency voltage amplitude regime. In these conditions up to 4x10^4 laser-cooled Sr+ ions were trapped.

  6. WAVELENGTH CALIBRATION OF THE HAMILTON ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakhomov, Yu. V. [Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhao, G., E-mail: pakhomov@inasan.ru [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the wavelength calibration of the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. The main problem with the calibration of this spectrograph arises from the fact that thorium lines are absent in the spectrum of the presumed ThAr hollow-cathode lamp now under operation; numerous unknown strong lines, which have been identified as titanium lines, are present in the spectrum. We estimate the temperature of the lamp's gas which permits us to calculate the intensities of the lines and to select a large number of relevant Ti I and Ti II lines. The resulting titanium line list for the Lick hollow-cathode lamp is presented. The wavelength calibration using this line list was made with an accuracy of about 0.006 Ĺ.

  7. SSALMON - The Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wedemeyera, S; Brajsa, R; Barta, M; Hudson, H; Fleishman, G; Loukitcheva, M; Fleck, B; Kontar, E; De Pontieu, B; Tiwari, S; Kato, Y; Soler, R; Yagoubov, P; Black, J H; Antolin, P; Gunar, S; Labrosse, N; Benz, A O; Nindos, A; Steffen, M; Scullion, E; Doyle, J G; Zaqarashvili, T; Hanslmeier, A; Nakariakov, V M; Heinzel, P; Ayres, T; Karlicky, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON) was initiated in 2014 in connection with two ALMA development studies. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a powerful new tool, which can also observe the Sun at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The international SSALMONetwork aims at coordinating the further development of solar observing modes for ALMA and at promoting scientific opportunities for solar physics with particular focus on numerical simulations, which can provide important constraints for the observing modes and can aid the interpretation of future observations. The radiation detected by ALMA originates mostly in the solar chromosphere - a complex and dynamic layer between the photosphere and corona, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Potential targets include active regions, prominences, quiet Sun regions, flares. Here, we give a...

  8. 36th Annual International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittleman, Daniel M. [Rice University

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Major Topic List of the 2011 conference featured a category entitled “IR, millimeter-wave, and THz spectroscopy,” another entitled “Gyro-Oscillators and Amplifiers, Plasma Diagnostics,” and a third called “Free Electron Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation.” Topical areas of interest to meeting participants include millimeter-wave electronics, high-power sources, high-frequency communications systems, and terahertz sensing and imaging, all of which are prominent in the research portfolios of the DOE. The development and study of new materials, components, and systems for use in the IR, THz, and MMW regions of the spectrum are of significant interest as well. a series of technical sessions were organized on the following topics: terahertz metamaterials and plasmonics; imaging techniques and applications; graphene spectroscopy; waveguide concepts; gyrotron science and technology; ultrafast terahertz measurements; and quantum cascade lasers.

  9. Observation of Chromospheric Sunspot at Millimeter Range with the Nobeyama 45 m Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iwai, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The brightness temperature of the radio free-free emission at millimeter range is an effective tool for characterizing the vertical structure of the solar chromosphere. In this paper, we report on the first single-dish observation of a sunspot at 85 and 115 GHz with sufficient spatial resolution for resolving the sunspot umbra using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We used radio attenuation material, i.e. a solar filter, to prevent the saturation of the receivers. Considering the contamination from the plage by the side-lobes, we found that the brightness temperature of the umbra should be lower than that of the quiet region. This result is inconsistent with the preexisting atmospheric models. We also found that the brightness temperature distribution at millimeter range strongly corresponds to the ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission at 1700 {\\AA}, especially at the quiet region.

  10. Source of coherent short wavelength radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for producing coherent radiation ranging from X-rays to the far ultraviolet (i.e., 1 Kev to 10 eV) utilizing the Compton scattering effect. A photon beam from a laser is scattered on a high energy electron bunch from a pulse power linac. The short wavelength radiation produced by such scattering has sufficient intensity and spatial coherence for use in high resolution applications such as microscopy.

  11. MILLIMETER-SCALE GENETIC GRADIENTS AND COMMUNITY-LEVEL MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE IN A HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenner, Marsha W; Kunin, Victor; Raes, Jeroen; Harris, J. Kirk; Spear, John R.; Walker, Jeffrey J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Mering, Christian von; Bebout, Brad M.; Pace, Norman R.; Bork, Peer; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the extent of genetic stratification in structured microbial communities, we compared the metagenomes of 10 successive layers of a phylogenetically complex hypersaline mat from Guerrero Negro, Mexico. We found pronounced millimeter-scale genetic gradients that are consistent with the physicochemical profile of the mat. Despite these gradients, all layers displayed near identical and acid-shifted isoelectric point profiles due to a molecular convergence of amino acid usage indicating that hypersalinity enforces an overriding selective pressure on the mat community.

  12. Monolithic Millimeter-wave Distributed Amplifiers using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    Monolithic Millimeter-wave Distributed Amplifiers using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs Rajkumar Santhakumar, Yi have been designed and fabricated using AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. One of them uses a standard HEMT for the unit-gate distributed amplifier achieves a CW peak output power of 1W and a PAE of about 16% at 4GHz. Index Terms -- GaN

  13. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA); Paris, Robert D. (San Ramon, CA); Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  14. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, R.P.; Paris, R.D.; Feldman, M.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  15. A Survey on Cloud Provider Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Survey on Cloud Provider Security Measures Alex Pucher, Stratos Dimopoulos Abstract Cloud take advantage of this model already, but security and privacy concerns limit the further adoption agencies and start offering security certifications and separate tightly controlled "government" cloud

  16. Cicada: Predictive Guarantees for Cloud Network Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCurts, Katrina

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In cloud-computing systems, network-bandwidth guarantees have been shown to improve predictability of application performance and cost. Most previous work on cloud-bandwidth guarantees has assumed that cloud tenants know ...

  17. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties In?uencing Electron Cloud Phenomena,” Appl. Surf.Dissipation of the Electron Cloud,” Proc. PAC03 (Portland,is no signi?cant electron-cloud under nominal operating

  18. DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study Kristen Powers powers:................................................................................................................... 13 Calculation of Sensor Reaching Radiance Truth Values for Cloudless & Stratus Cloud Scenes and Atmospheric Database Creation for Stratus Cloud Scene & Calculation of Associated Sensor Reaching Radiance

  19. Magellan: experiences from a Science Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010. From Clusters To Clouds: xCAT 2 Is Out Of The Bag.Cost of Doing Science on the Cloud: The Montage Example. Incost of doing science on the cloud: the montage example. In

  20. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.moment. Lasts hours. Cloud Computing Just there Over the

  1. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coghlan, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.3.1 Cloud Computing Attractive Features . 4.3.2A berkeley view of cloud computing. Technical Report UCB/matching computations on cloud computing platforms and hpc

  2. Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Released: October 20, 2011 Scientists show how sunlight alters optical, chemical properties of atmospheric...

  3. Influence of Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption of NO from the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Mixed Oxide Surface. Influence of Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption of NO...

  4. 3, 44614488, 2003 Cloud particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects. On one hand, clouds reflect the incoming solar radiation and thus cool the Earth significant effect on the radiation balance (Wielicki et al, 1996; Mitchell, 1989) due to two competing-Atmosphere system. On the other hand, clouds absorb longwave thermal radiation coming from the surface and then re

  5. Circumstellar {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope ratios from millimeter observations of CN and CO: Mixing in carbon- and oxygen-rich stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milam, S. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: Stefanie.N.Milam@nasa.gov, E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: lziurys@as.arizona.edu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio toward circumstellar envelopes has been conducted at millimeter wavelengths using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The ratios were obtained for a sample of local C- and O-rich asymptotic giant branch and supergiant stars from observations of the {sup 12}C and {sup 13}C isotopologues of CO and CN, respectively. The J = 1 {yields} 0 transitions of both molecules were observed at {lambda} = 3 mm using the ARO 12 m telescope, while the J = 2 {yields} 1 lines of the two species were measured using the ARO Sub-Millimeter Telescope (SMT) at {lambda} = 1 mm. The {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios were determined from the CO data by modeling both transitions simultaneously with a circumstellar radiative transfer code, which can account for the high opacities present in the emission from this species. In the case of CN, the hyperfine structure was used to evaluate opacity effects. Ratios obtained independently from CO and CN are in good agreement. For the C-rich envelopes, the ratios fall in the range {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C {approx} 25-90, while the O-rich shells have values of 10-35. Ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C {approx} 3-14 are found for the supergiant stars, with the exception of VY CMa, where the values lie in the range 25-46. All ratios obtained in this study are {<=} 89, the solar value, suggesting that substantial carbon-13 enrichment may be currently occurring in the local interstellar medium. A qualitative model was constructed based on first and third dredge-up convective mixing that can reproduce the observed ratios. Substantial mixing of H-burning products must occur to explain the ratios in the O-rich objects, while a wide range of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C values can be generated by only a few percent mixing of He-burning ashes in the C-rich case. The {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios obtained in this study should help improve stellar yield models and contribute to the understanding of Galactic chemical evolution.

  6. Infrared and millimetre-wavelength evidence for cold accretion within a z = 2.83 Lyman-alpha blob

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel J. B. Smith; Matt J. Jarvis; Mark Lacy; Alejo Martínez-Sansigre

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses infrared and millimetre-wavelength observations of a Lyman-alpha blob discovered by Smith & Jarvis, a candidate for ionization by the cold accretion scenario discussed in Fardal et al. and Dijkstra et al. We have observed the counterpart galaxy at infrared wavelengths in deep observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope using the IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 & 8.0 micron and MIPS 24 micron bands, as well as using the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer Array at a wavelength of 1.2mm with the IRAM 30 metre telescope. These observations probe the > 95kpc Lyman-alpha halo for the presence of obscured AGN components or the presence of a violent period of star formation invoked by other models of ionisation for these mysterious objects. 24 micron observations suggest that an obscured AGN would be insufficiently luminous to ionize the halo, and that the star formation rate within the halo may be as low as <140 Msolar/yr depending on the model SED used. This is reinforced by our observations at 1.2mm using MAMBO-2, which yield an upper limit of SFR <550 Msolar/yr from our non-detection to a 3 sigma flux limit of 0.86 mJy/beam. Finding no evidence for either AGN or extensive star formation, we conclude that this halo is ionised by a cold accretion process. We derive model SEDs for the host galaxy, and use the Bruzual & Charlot and Maraston libraries to show that the galaxy is well described by composite stellar populations of total mass 3.42 +/- 0.13 x 10^11 Msolar or 4.35 +/- 0.16 x 10^11 Msolar depending on the model SEDs used.

  7. Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper Published: September 2013 (updated) Applies to: SQL Server and Windows Azure Summary: Cloud computing brings a new paradigm shift in computing in the cloud with greater scale and flexibility. Microsoft SQL Server runs very well in the cloud environment

  8. Cloud Computing An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Cloud Computing ­ An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian Infosys Technologies Limited #12;2Infosys Confidential Overview of cloud computing? Cloud computing* Computing in which dynamically scalable of cloud computing 1. On-demand self-service 2. Ubiquitous network access 3. Location independent resource

  9. IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud with IBM Security solutions Maintain visibility and control with proven security solutions for public, private and hybrid clouds Highlights Address cloud internal and external users, data, applications and workloads as they move to and from the cloud Regain

  10. 7, 1711717146, 2007 Dependence of cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17117­17146, 2007 Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud height on temperature T. Wagner et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud top height on surface temperature derived from spectrally resolved UV/vis satellite observations T

  11. Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2 Forensic Science Challenges NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Computing11 Forensic Science Challenges 12 NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Science Working Group13 Information challenges77 faced by experts when responding to incidents that have occurred in a cloud-computing ecosystem

  12. Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /W performance / Parallelism No/ Simple SQL operations 12 /26 Survey of CDM Cloud Storage: Architecture: Master#12;Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai 2 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud China Mobile National Health Care #12;9 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud

  13. 6, 43414373, 2006 Cloud-borne aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussions Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects S. J. Ghan of aerosols employ a variety of rep- resentations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol- ulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representa- tion of cloud

  14. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended

  15. Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See Paramvir Bahl Matthai Philipose argue that for computers to do more for us, we need to show the cloud what we see and embrace cloud General Terms Algorithms, Design, Human Factors, Languages, Performance, Security Keywords Camera, cloud

  16. CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES Jasmine at the Azores provided a unique, long-term record (May 2009 to December 2010) of cloud observations in a regime dominated by low-level stratiform clouds. First, a comprehensive cloud classification scheme that utilizes

  17. Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosup, Alexandru

    1 Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup Pierre (Vrije U.). Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming (Rain for the Thirsty) #12;Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming 2 Intermezzo: Tips on how

  18. Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Total cloud cover 54 68 Clear sky (frequency) 22 3 #12;Low Clouds & Solar Radiation Low clouds scatterChanges in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 1954-2008 Ryan This produces a weak net warming effect in the atmosphere, since more radiation comes in, and less goes out

  19. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey negative radiative forcing on the global scale, mainly due to the cloud cover effect. © 2013 Elsevier B

  20. A Survey of Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over Land from Surface Observations, 197196

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    of their effects on solar radiation, terrestrial radiation, and precipitation. These effects depend on cloud height, and the season of the year and time of day. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget, the "cloud to be a useful classification in studies of cloud processes (Houze 1993). The climatic effects of clouds further

  1. Estimating the Parameters of Sgr A*'s Accretion Flow Via Millimeter VLBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avery E. Broderick; Vincent L. Fish; Sheperd S. Doeleman; Abraham Loeb

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent millimeter-VLBI observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) have, for the first time, directly probed distances comparable to the horizon scale of a black hole. This provides unprecedented access to the environment immediately around the horizon of an accreting black hole. We leverage both existing spectral and polarization measurements and our present understanding of accretion theory to produce a suite of generic radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models of Sgr A*, which we then fit to these recent millimeter-VLBI observations. We find that if the accretion flow onto Sgr A* is well described by a RIAF model, the orientation and magnitude of the black hole's spin is constrained to a two-dimensional surface in the spin, inclination, position angle parameter space. For each of these we find the likeliest values and their 1-sigma & 2-sigma errors to be a=0(+0.4+0.7), inclination=50(+10+30)(-10-10) degrees, and position angle=-20(+31+107)(-16-29) degrees, when the resulting probability distribution is marginalized over the others. The most probable combination is a=0(+0.2+0.4), inclination=90(-40-50) degrees and position angle=-14(+7+11)(-7-11) degrees, though the uncertainties on these are very strongly correlated, and high probability configurations exist for a variety of inclination angles above 30 degrees and spins below 0.99. Nevertheless, this demonstrates the ability millimeter-VLBI observations, even with only a few stations, to significantly constrain the properties of Sgr A*.

  2. Mixed phase clouds, cloud electrification and remote sensing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P. (Petr); Borel, C. C. (Christoph C.); Klett, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of hypothesis trying to explain charge separation in thunderstorm clouds require presence of ice and supercooled water. Thus the existence of ice or at least mixed phase regions near cloud tops should be a necessary (but not a sufficient) condition for development of lightning. We show that multispectral satellite based instruments, like the DOE MTI (Multispectral Thermal Imager) or NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), using the near infrared and visible spectral bands are able to distinguish between water, ice and mixed phase cloud regions. An analysis of the MTI images of mixed phase clouds - with spatial resolution of about 20 m - shows regions of pure water, pure ice as well as regions of water/ice mixtures. We suggest that multispectral satellite instruments may be useful for a short time forecast of lightning probabilities.

  3. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  4. 1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP HEMT's: A Comparison with GaAs PHEMT's J. A. del Alamo and M. H. Somerville Abstract's) deliver lower output power than GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (PHEMT's) throughout most of the millimeter

  5. Cloud Computing and Validation of Expandable In Silico Livers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ropella, Glen EP; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit analysis of cloud computing versus desktop grids.as: Ropella and Hunt: Cloud computing and validation ofCloud computing and validation of expandable in silico

  6. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  7. Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Abstract: Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud computing platforms provide introduction on Cloud Computing. We propose a Virtual Cloud Pool abstraction to logically unify cloud

  8. SUBMILLIMETER POLARIZATION OF GALACTIC CLOUDS: A COMPARISON OF 350 {mu}m AND 850 {mu}m DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Matthews, Brenda C., E-mail: jvaillancourt@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: brenda.matthews@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Herzberg Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hertz and SCUBA polarimeters, working at 350 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m, respectively, have measured the polarized emission in scores of Galactic clouds. Of the clouds in each data set, 17 were mapped by both instruments with good polarization signal-to-noise ratios. We present maps of each of these 17 clouds comparing the dual-wavelength polarization amplitudes and position angles at the same spatial locations. In total number of clouds compared, this is a four-fold increase over previous work. Across the entire data set real position angle differences are seen between wavelengths. While the distribution of {phi}(850)-{phi}(350) is centered near zero (near-equal angles), 64% of data points with high polarization signal-to-noise (P {>=} 3{sigma}{sub p}) have |{phi}(850)-{phi}(350)| > 10 Degree-Sign . Of those data with small changes in position angle ({<=}10 Degree-Sign ) the median ratio of the polarization amplitudes is P(850)/P(350) = 1.7 {+-} 0.6. This value is consistent with previous work performed on smaller samples and models that require mixtures of different grain properties and polarization efficiencies. Along with the polarization data we have also compiled the intensity data at both wavelengths; we find a trend of decreasing polarization with increasing 850-to-350 {mu}m intensity ratio. All the polarization and intensity data presented here (1699 points in total) are available in electronic format.

  9. Cluster analysis of cloud properties : a method for diagnosing cloud-climate feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Neil D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    represent cloud effects on gridbox mean visible radiationclouds and the resulting effect on the balance of radiationrepresent cloud effects on grid-box-mean visible radiation

  10. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P.; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  11. Short Wavelength Seeding through Compression for Fee Electron Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tunable short wavelength free electron lasers (FELs) providereduces the laser power needed for the generation of shortbetween the laser ?eld and the electron beam inside a short

  12. Provably Good Solutions for Wavelength Assignment in Optical ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this paper, we study the minimum converter wavelength assignment problem in .... like linear programming based branch-and-bound on the assignment ...

  13. Wavelength Assignment in Multi-Fiber WDM Networks by ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this paper, we study wavelength assignment problems in multi-fiber WDM net- ... A comparison with linear programming lower bounds reveals that the bounds ...

  14. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  15. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

  16. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Crawford, M.H.

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.

  17. Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Pollution-coated particles bypass ice formation, but influence clouds Cirrus clouds are composed of...

  18. SiGe BiCMOS Topologies for Low-Voltage Millimeter-Wave Voltage Controlled Oscillators and Frequency Dividers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voinigescu, Sorin Petre

    SiGe BiCMOS Topologies for Low-Voltage Millimeter-Wave Voltage Controlled Oscillators and Frequency-mail: tod@eecg.toronto.edu Abstract -- BiCMOS topologies for mm-wave voltage- controlled oscillators operation for mm-wave applications. II. BICMOS VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR The Colpitts topology

  19. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 49, 6777, 2014 Analysis and Design of Millimeter-Wave Circularly Polarized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Communications Commission (FCC) for wireless communications and automotive radar [1­4]. The 77-GHz band has been transceivers for communication and radar systems at millimeter-wave frequencies. 1. INTRODUCTION Using on their applications. There are several frequency bands in the mm-wave range which have been approved by the Federal

  20. Systematic wavelength selection for improved multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Edward V. (2828 Georgia NE., Albuquerque, NM 87110); Robinson, Mark R. (1603 Solano NE., Albuquerque, NM 87110); Haaland, David M. (809 Richmond Dr. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for determining in a biological material one or more unknown values of at least one known characteristic (e.g. the concentration of an analyte such as glucose in blood or the concentration of one or more blood gas parameters) with a model based on a set of samples with known values of the known characteristics and a multivariate algorithm using several wavelength subsets. The method includes selecting multiple wavelength subsets, from the electromagnetic spectral region appropriate for determining the known characteristic, for use by an algorithm wherein the selection of wavelength subsets improves the model's fitness of the determination for the unknown values of the known characteristic. The selection process utilizes multivariate search methods that select both predictive and synergistic wavelengths within the range of wavelengths utilized. The fitness of the wavelength subsets is determined by the fitness function F=.function.(cost, performance). The method includes the steps of: (1) using one or more applications of a genetic algorithm to produce one or more count spectra, with multiple count spectra then combined to produce a combined count spectrum; (2) smoothing the count spectrum; (3) selecting a threshold count from a count spectrum to select these wavelength subsets which optimize the fitness function; and (4) eliminating a portion of the selected wavelength subsets. The determination of the unknown values can be made: (1) noninvasively and in vivo; (2) invasively and in vivo; or (3) in vitro.

  1. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menache, Ishai

    The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible computing resources of variable size and capabilities. We consider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous, time-varying ...

  2. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  3. Disruptive technology business models in cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krikos, Alexis Christopher

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing, a term whose origins have been in existence for more than a decade, has come into fruition due to technological capabilities and marketplace demands. Cloud computing can be defined as a scalable and flexible ...

  4. High power water load for microwave and millimeter-wave radio frequency sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA); Mizuhara, Yosuke M. (Palo Alto, CA); Schumacher, Richard V. (Sunnyvale, CA); Pendleton, Rand P. (Saratoga, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power water load for microwave and millimeter wave radio frequency sources has a front wall including an input port for the application of RF power, a cylindrical dissipation cavity lined with a dissipating material having a thickness which varies with depth, and a rear wall including a rotating reflector for the reflection of wave energy inside the cylindrical cavity. The dissipation cavity includes a water jacket for removal of heat generated by the absorptive material coating the dissipation cavity, and this absorptive material has a thickness which is greater near the front wall than near the rear wall. Waves entering the cavity reflect from the rotating reflector, impinging and reflecting multiple times on the absorptive coating of the dissipation cavity, dissipating equal amounts of power on each internal reflection.

  5. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov; Holloway, Christopher L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77?GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  6. Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.E.; Crain, A.; Curran, A.; Campbell, R.A.; Drubin, C.A.; Miccioli, W.F. [Raytheon, Tewksbury, MA (United States)] [Raytheon, Tewksbury, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If automotive intelligent cruise-control (ICC) systems are to be successful in the marketplace, they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by reduced performance during inclement weather, interrupted performance due to dropped tracks, and annoying nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by the consumer, and would likely result in the rejection of this technology in the marketplace. An all-weather automotive millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensor is described that uses a frequency-modulation coplanar-wave (FMCW) radar design capable of acquiring and tracking all obstacles in its field of view. Design tradeoffs are discussed and radar-sensor test results are presented along with the applicability of the radar to collision-warning systems.

  7. SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS P. Kollias, I. Jo, A, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers

  8. Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, David

    1 Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA NOAA/NESDIS Satellite of satellite-derived cloud-top brightness temperatures from GOES longwave infrared (channel 4) satellite data, rain, freezing rain, and sleet. The distributions of cloud-top brightness temperatures were constructed

  9. Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Editorial Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact attention has been devoted to system aspects of Cloud computing. More recently, however, the focus is shifting towards Cloud net- working and communications with evolutionary and revo- lutionary propositions

  10. Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus hygroscopic aerosols were introduced into a solid marine stratocumulus cloud (200 m thick) by burning hygroscopic flares mounted on an aircraft. The cloud microphysical response in two parallel seeding plumes

  11. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloudscale. Profiling, millimeterwavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three

  12. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    1 The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise Ali Khajeh-Hosseini, David Greenwood, James W. Smith, Ian Sommerville Cloud Computing Co-laboratory, School of Computer Science University of St Andrews, UK {akh, dsg22, jws7, ifs}@cs.st-andrews.ac.uk Abstract Cloud computing

  13. CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jimmy

    CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy: Computing in a Policy Cloud? Forthcoming in the Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 5(3). Paul T. Jaeger University of Maryland Jimmy Lin University of Maryland Justin M. Grimes University of Maryland #12;CLOUD

  14. HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    Agenda HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building 09:30h Registration 10:00h Opening Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel, HPI Potsdam 10:30h Cloud-RAID: Eine Methode zur Bereitstellung zuverlässiger Speicherressourcen in Öffentlichen Clouds Maxim Schnajkin, HPI

  15. Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Trent

    Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman Security Architecture University Park, PA, USA yus138,hvijay,tjaeger@cse.psu.edu Abstract--Cloud computing has commoditized compute paradigm, its adoption has been stymied by cloud platform's lack of trans- parency, which leaves customers

  16. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1 1 Department of Meteorology, University. INTRODUCTION In recent years Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) have become an increasingly important tool for CRM data, which allows one to investigate statistical prop- erties of the lifecycles of the "clouds

  17. From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mejias, Peter Van Roy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaventure, Olivier

    From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mej´ias, Peter Van Roy Universit´e catholique de Louvain ­ Belgium {boris.mejias|peter.vanroy}@uclouvain.be Abstract Cloud computing has many definitions with different views within industry and academia, but everybody agrees on that cloud computing is the way

  18. AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlen, Kevin W.

    AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing Safwan Mahmud Khan their computation results are ultimately delivered. To provide this data ownership privacy, the cloud's distributed-anonymity; authentication; cloud computing; in- formation security; privacy; Tor I. INTRODUCTION Revolutionary advances

  19. Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Anthony J. H.

    Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud.Simons@dcs.shef.ac.uk Abstract-- Cloud application platforms gain popularity and have the potential to alter the way service based cloud applications are developed involving utilisation of platform basic services. A platform

  20. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy and New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Pagani, L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Shenoy, S. S. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Adamson, A. J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 {mu}m for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044-0254073) is H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature ({approx}< 15 K) since formation. The ice column density N(H{sub 2}O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth {tau}{sub 9.7} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E{sub J-K} does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases.

  1. Structure and trapping of three-dimensional dust clouds in a capacitively coupled rf-discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this survey the recently found 'Coulomb balls' are discussed, which show an unusual kind of crystalline order. These three-dimensional dust clouds consisting of hundreds or thousands of micrometer-sized dust particles have a spherical shape and exist in a wide range of plasma conditions. Coulomb balls are optically highly transparent and have macroscopic dimensions of several millimeters in diameter. The clouds allow for the observation of each single particle and thus the complete reconstruction of the crystal structure by means of video microscopy techniques. The particles are arranged in distinct nested shells in which they form patterns with mostly five and six neighbors. The confinement of Coulomb balls by dielectric walls involves electric forces, surface charges, ion drag forces, and thermophoretic levitation. The thermophoretic force field is measured with tracer particles and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electric forces are derived from simulations with the two-dimensional SIGLO-2D code. It is shown the the sum of all confining forces results in a stable potential well that describes levitation and spherical confinement of the Coulomb ball.

  2. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  3. Changes in high cloud conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himebrook, Richard Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). When the effect of unknowns is added to the data (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), p, 21), the period with most high-cloud cover seems to alter- nate back and forth almost monthly, The average, global, solar radiation (Fig. 3(c), p. 21) depicts a decrease from... radiation, per cent possible sunshine, and average sky cover. The increases in high-cloud cover occurred in areas with the following characteristics: strong upper-air flow; frequent jet ' aircraft traffic; coverage of less than half the sky; late...

  4. Bolocam Survey for 1.1 mm Dust Continuum Emission in the c2d Legacy Clouds. II. Ophiuchus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. E. Young; M. L. Enoch; N. J. Evans II; J. Glenn; A. Sargent; T. Huard; J. Aguirre; S. Golwala; D. Haig; P. Harvey; G. Laurent; P. Mauskopf; J. Sayers

    2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a large-scale millimeter continuum map of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. Nearly 11 square degrees, including all of the area in the cloud with visual extinction more than 3 magnitudes, was mapped at 1.1 mm with Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). By design, the map also covers the region mapped in the infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detect 44 definite sources, and a few likely sources are also seen along a filament in the eastern streamer. The map indicates that dense cores in Ophiuchus are very clustered and often found in filaments within the cloud. Most sources are round, as measured at the half power point, but elongated when measured at lower contour levels, suggesting spherical sources lying within filaments. The masses, for an assumed dust temperature of 10 K, range from 0.24 to 3.9 solar masses, with a mean value of 0.96 solar masses. The total mass in distinct cores is 42 solar masses, 0.5 to 2% of the total cloud mass, and the total mass above 4 sigma is about 80 solar masses. The mean densities in the cores are quite high, with an average of 1.6 x 10^6 per cc, suggesting short free-fall times. The core mass distribution can be fitted with a power law with slope of 2.1 plus or minus 0.3 for M>0.5 solar masses, similar to that found in other regions, but slightly shallower than that of some determinations of the local IMF. In agreement with previous studies, our survey shows that dense cores account for a very small fraction of the cloud volume and total mass. They are nearly all confined to regions with visual extinction at least 9 mag, a lower threshold than found previously.

  5. The Envelope and Embedded Disk around the Class 0 Protostar L1157-mm: Dual-wavelength Interferometric Observations and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Tobin, John J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present dual-wavelength observations and modeling of the nearly edge-on Class 0 young stellar object L1157-mm. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, a nearly spherical structure is seen from the circumstellar envelope at the size scale of 10^2 to 10^3 AU in both 1 mm and 3 mm dust emission. Radiative transfer modeling is performed to compare data with theoretical envelope models, including a power-law envelope model and the Terebey-Shu-Cassen model. Bayesian inference is applied for parameter estimation and information criteria is used for model selection. The results prefer the power-law envelope model against the Terebey-Shu-Cassen model. In particular, for the power-law envelope model, a steep density profile with an index of ~2 is inferred. Moreover, the dust opacity spectral index (beta) is estimated to be ~0.9, implying that grain growth has started at L1157-mm. Also, the unresolved disk component is constrained to be < 40 AU in radius and < 4-25 M_Jup in mass. How...

  6. Interactive physically-based cloud simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overby, Derek Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of digital artistic media. Previous methods for modeling the growth of clouds do not account for the fluid interactions that are responsible for cloud formation in the physical atmosphere. We propose a model for simulating cloud formation based on a basic...

  7. Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS712 Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012 Meeting Times: T/Th: 9-10:15am Room: ATS 101-2pm Course Description: This class focuses on the general dynamics of cloud systems. Models of fog and other Tools / Skills Cotton, W.R., G.H. Bryan, and S.C. van den Heever, 2010: Storm and Cloud Dynamics

  8. Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 1 1 Microsoft Private Cloud A Comparative Look at Functionality, Benefits, and Economics November2012 #12;Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 2 2 Copyright Information © 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This document is provided "as-is." Information

  9. Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy Lero ­ The Irish Software Engineering.Murphy@ucd.ie Abstract. Cloud computing potentially solves some of the major challenges in the engineering of large efficient operation. This paper argues that cloud computing is an area where performance engineering must

  10. Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

  11. 6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

  12. Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Pierangela Samarati*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samarati, Pierangela

    1 Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Authors Pierangela Samarati* Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano, Italy sabrina.decapitani@unimi.it Keywords cloud security confidentiality integrity availability secure data storage and processing Summary The cloud has emerged as a successful computing paradigm

  13. Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty Primavera De Filippi, Smari McCarthy Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision of computing resources on-demand over and elasticity of costs, problems arise concerning the collection of personal information in the Cloud

  14. Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing Esa Hyyti¨a Department of Communications Abstract--We consider a dynamic offloading problem arising in the context of mobile cloud computing (MCC consider the task assignment problem arising in the context of the mobile cloud computing (MCC). In MCC

  15. CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Cliff C.

    #12;CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION WITHOUT OUTSOURCING CONTROL Paper By Laboratories Of America 2009 ACM WORKSHOP ON CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY (CCSW 2009) Presented By Talal Basaif CAP that will arise later · New directions to solve some issues #12;INTRODUCTION · Cloud computing is one of desirable

  16. Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Merwe, Kobus

    Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure Jacobus Van der Merwe, K.K. Ramakrishnan of a number of cloud computing use cases. We specifically consider cloudbursting and follow-the-sun and focus that are also network service providers. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is rapidly gaining acceptance

  17. Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures Primavera DE FILIPPI1 , Smari McCARTHY2, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland - Email: smari@gmail.com Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision they can access their data and the extent to which parties can exploit it. Keywords: Cloud Computing

  18. Cloud Seeding By: Julie Walter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    , smoke, that then are cooled because of the high altitudes. As the water or condensation nuclei cool more pushed up enough the warm air that is filled with moisture should reach an optimum cooling point-based Western Weather Consultants, whose company supplied Vail Resorts with the cloud seeding generators

  19. Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    boundary layers and wind turbine aerodynamics Siva Parameswarn, Ph.D. Professor in the Department vehicles » Wake development behind wind turbines PHYSICS Ismael Regis de Farias Jr., Ph.D. Associate in cloud environments » Intelligent data management & understanding » Automated web service composition

  20. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)] [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Millimeter Wave Sensor Technologies Track Biometrics; Detect Chemicals, Gases, and Radiation: Argonne’s millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Security threats come in many forms—airborne, radiative, gaseous, human, or infiltrative—and it can be costly and impractical to deploy a broad suite of detector technologies to identify all potential hazards in public places. Argonne’s millimeter wave (mmW) sensor technologies measure a wide range of threat materials remotely, making them well suited to many security, industrial and medical applications....

  2. A Monolithic Approach to Fabricating Low-Cost, Millimeter-Scale Multi-Axis Force Sensors for Minimally-Invasive Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Monolithic Approach to Fabricating Low-Cost, Millimeter-Scale Multi-Axis Force Sensors-manufacturing alignment and assembly. The sensor and its custom-fabricated signal conditioning circuitry fit within a 1x1x

  3. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  4. Digitized dual wavelength radar data from a Texas thunderstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radlein, Robin Ann

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIGITIZED DUAL WAVL'LENGTH RADAR DATA FROM A TEXAS THUNDERSTORM A Thesis ROBIN ANN RADLEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ol MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977... Wavelength Radar Data from a Texas Thunderstorm. (December 1977) Robin Ann Radlein~ B. S , Texas ASN University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr Vance Noyer Nulti-tilt digitized dual wavelength radar data collected during a Texas thunderstorm were...

  5. Fast quantum dot single photon source triggered at telecommunications wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley Rivoire; Sonia Buckley; Arka Majumdar; Hyochul Kim; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a quantum dot single photon source at 900 nm triggered at 300 MHz by a continuous wave telecommunications wavelength laser followed by an electro-optic modulator. The quantum dot is excited by on-chip-generated second harmonic radiation, resonantly enhanced by a GaAs photonic crystal cavity surrounding the InAs quantum dot. Our result suggests a path toward the realization of telecommunications-wavelength-compatible quantum dot single photon sources with speeds exceeding 1 GHz.

  6. Stability of Wavelengths and Spatiotemporal Intermittency in Coupled Map Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lambert; R. Lima

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In relation to spatiotemporal intermittency, as it can be observed in coupled map lattices, we study the stability of different wavelengths in competition. Introducing a two dimensional map, we compare its dynamics with the one of the whole lattice. We conclude a good agreement between the two. The reduced model also allows to introduce an order parameter which combines the diffusion parameter and the spatial wavelength under consideration.

  7. Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) of freshwater or saltwater were frozen over a Peltier cooler and the freezing and melting sequence was recorded. Saltwater was prepared in the laboratory that contained 3.5% of table salt to simulate the ocean water. The dynamics of freezing-melting was observed by measuring the millimeter wave temperature as well as the changes in the ice or water surface reflectivity and position. This was repeated using large amounts of freshwater and saltwater (800 mL) mimicking glaciers. Millimeter wave surface level fluctuations indicated as the top surface melted, the light ice below floated up indicating lower surface temperature until the ice completely melted. Our results are useful for remote sensing and tracking temperature for potentially large-scale environmental applications, e.g., global warming.

  8. Wide-open, high-resolution microwave/millimeter-wave Doppler frequency shift estimation using photonics technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Xihua; Lu, Bing; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Shao, Liyang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, wide-open, high-resolution Doppler frequency shift (DFS) estimation is essential for radar, microwave/millimeter-wave, and communication systems. Using photonics technology, an effective approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, providing a high-resolution and frequency-independent solution. In the approach consisting of two cascaded opto-electronic modulators, DFS between the transmitted microwave/ millimeter-wave signal and the received echo signal is mapped into a doubled spacing between two target optical sidebands. Subsequently, the DFS is then estimated through the spectrum analysis of a generated low-frequency electrical signal, with an improved resolution by a factor of 2. In experiments, DFSs from -90 to 90 KHz are successfully estimated for microwave/millimeter-wave signals at 10, 15, and 30 GHz, where estimation errors keep lower than +/- 5e-10 Hz. For radial velocity measurement, these results reveal a range from 0 to 900 m/s (0 to 450 m/s) and a resolution of 1e-11 m/s (5e-12 m...

  9. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud has the correct effect on surface fluxes of radiation.radiation is 200 W m –2 in clear-sky STREAMER calculations, the longwave cloud radiative effect

  10. Formation of Pillars at the Boundaries between HII Regions and Molecular Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J O; Pound, M W; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Takabe, H

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate numerically the hydrodynamic instability of an ionization front (IF) accelerating into a molecular cloud, with imposed initial perturbations of different amplitudes. When the initial amplitude is small, the imposed perturbation is completely stabilized and does not grow. When the initial perturbation amplitude is large enough, roughly the ratio of the initial amplitude to wavelength is greater than 0.02, portions of the IF temporarily separate from the molecular cloud surface, locally decreasing the ablation pressure. This causes the appearance of a large, warm HI region and triggers nonlinear dynamics of the IF. The local difference of the ablation pressure and acceleration enhances the appearance and growth of a multimode perturbation. The stabilization usually seen at the IF in the linear regimes does not work due to the mismatch of the modes of the perturbations at the cloud surface and in density in HII region above the cloud surface. Molecular pillars are observed in the late stages of the large amplitude perturbation case. The velocity gradient in the pillars is in reasonably good agreement with that observed in the Eagle Nebula. The initial perturbation is imposed in three different ways: in density, in incident photon number flux, and in the surface shape. All cases show both stabilization for a small initial perturbation and large growth of the second harmonic by increasing amplitude of the initial perturbation above a critical value.

  11. Status of SuperSpec: A Broadband, On-Chip Millimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Barry, P S; Bradford, C M; Chattopadhyay, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Hollister, M; Kovacs, A; LeDuc, H G; Mauskopf, P; McKenney, C M; Monroe, R; O'Brient, R; Padin, S; Reck, T; Swenson, L; Tucker, C E; Zmuidzinas, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SuperSpec is a novel on-chip spectrometer we are developing for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = 100 - 500), large bandwidth (~1.65:1) submillimeter and millimeter survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies. The spectrometer employs a filter bank architecture, and consists of a series of half-wave resonators formed by lithographically-patterned superconducting transmission lines. The signal power admitted by each resonator is detected by a lumped element titanium nitride (TiN) kinetic inductance detector (KID) operating at 100-200 MHz. We have tested a new prototype device that is more sensitive than previous devices, and easier to fabricate. We present a characterization of a representative R=282 channel at f = 236 GHz, including measurements of the spectrometer detection efficiency, the detector responsivity over a large range of optical loading, and the full system optical efficiency. We outline future improvements to the current system that we expect will enable construction of a photon-noise-lim...

  12. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alarcon, R; Benson, S V; Bertozzi, W; Boyce, J R; Cowan, R; Douglas, D; Evtushenko, P; Fisher, P; Ihloff, E; Kalantarians, N; Kelleher, A; Kossler, W J; Legg, R; Long, E; Milner, R G; Neil, G R; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Tennant, C; Tschalaer, C; Williams, G P; Zhang, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is ...

  13. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5072 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hughes, A. Meredith; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Department of Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kennedy, Grant [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, Bruce [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, NL-9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, {approx}10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.''6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass {approx}1 M{sub Moon} is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the 'birth ring' of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is {approx}6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations characteristic of radio-wave flares. We suggest that this central component may be dominated by dust emission from an inner planetesimal belt of mass {approx}0.01 M{sub Moon}, consistent with a lack of emission shortward of 25 {mu}m and a location {approx}<3 AU from the star. Future millimeter observations can test this assertion, as an inner dust belt should be readily separated from the central star at higher angular resolution.

  14. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  15. Determinating Timing Channels in Statistically Multiplexed Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan; Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timing side-channels represent an insidious security challenge for cloud computing, because: (a) they enable one customer to steal information from another without leaving a trail or raising alarms; (b) only the cloud provider can feasibly detect and report such attacks, but the provider's incentives are not to; and (c) known general-purpose timing channel control methods undermine statistical resource sharing efficiency, and, with it, the cloud computing business model. We propose a new cloud architecture that uses provider-enforced deterministic execution to eliminate all timing channels internal to a shared cloud domain, without limiting internal resource sharing. A prototype determinism-enforcing hypervisor demonstrates that utilizing such a cloud might be both convenient and efficient. The hypervisor enables parallel guest processes and threads to interact via familiar shared memory and file system abstractions, and runs moderately coarse-grained parallel tasks as efficiently and scalably as current nond...

  16. A new era of sub-millimeter GRB afterglow follow-ups with the Greenland Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urata, Yuji; Asada, Keiichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Ho, Paul T P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planned rapid submillimeter (submm) Gamma Ray Burst (GRBs) follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT) is presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high-altitude and dry weather porvides excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1) systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS) in the early afterglow phase, (2) characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3) detections of GRBs as a result of the explosion of first-generation stars result of GRBs at a high redshift through systematic rapid follow ups. The light curves and spectra calcul...

  17. Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud to analyze cloud vertical structure over this area by taking advantage of the first direct measurements of cloud vertical layers from the 95 GHz radar. Singlelayer, twolayer, and threelayer clouds account for 28

  18. In Proceedings of APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop, Sydney, Australia, 30th An Analysis of The Cloud Computing Security Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grundy, John

    of The Cloud Computing Security Problem Mohamed Al Morsy, John Grundy and Ingo Müller Computer Science to adopt IT without upfront investment. Despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing solution. Keywords: cloud computing; cloud computing security; cloud computing security management. I

  19. April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming #12;Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing of Cloud Computing at a seminar in MANIT and RGPV on Saturday. Inset headline: This is the right time to build a career in Cloud Computing Article: Prof. Rajkumar Buyya gave guidance to students about Cloud

  20. After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What's next?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What Publication SP 500-292: Cloud Computing Reference Architecture. This document takes the NIST definition of Cloud Computing a step further by expanding the definition into a logical representation of the cloud

  1. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    by adjusting the change in cloud radiative forcing for non-cloud22 related effects as in Soden et al. (2008 planet, the global and annual mean effect40 of clouds at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is to increase Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels3 Mark D. Zelinka Department

  2. Influence of Cloud-Top Height and Geometric Thickness on a MODIS Infrared-Based Ice Cloud Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    of the net cloud radiative forc- ing of these clouds requires a global, diurnal climatology, which can most and temporal scales. In this study, the sensitivity of an infrared-based ice cloud retrieval to effective cloud temperature is investigated, with a focus on the effects of cloud-top height and geometric thickness

  3. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui-Bo Jin; Masahiro Takeoka; Utako Takagi; Ryosuke Shimizu; Masahide Sasaki

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors.We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 $\\pm$ 1.0% (85.1 $\\pm$ 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test.Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swaping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800\\,nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  5. Interstellar Turbulence, Cloud Formation and Pressure Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni

    1998-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss HD and MHD compressible turbulence as a cloud-forming and cloud-structuring mechanism in the ISM. Results from a numerical model of the turbulent ISM at large scales suggest that the phase-like appearance of the medium, the typical values of the densities and magnetic field strengths in the intercloud medium, as well as Larson's velocity dispersion-size scaling relation in clouds may be understood as consequences of the interstellar turbulence. However, the density-size relation appears to only hold for the densest simulated clouds, there existing a large population of small, low-density clouds, which, on the other hand, are hardest to observe. We then discuss several tests and implications of a fully dynamical picture of interstellar clouds. The results imply that clouds are transient, constantly being formed, distorted and disrupted by the turbulent velocity field, with a fraction of these fluctuations undergoing gravitational collapse. Simulated line profiles and estimated cloud lifetimes are consistent with observational data. In this scenario, we suggest it is quite unlikely that quasi-hydrostatic structures on any scale can form, and that the near pressure balance between clouds and the intercloud medium is an incidental consequence of the density field driven by the turbulence and in the presence of appropriate cooling, rather than a driving or confining mechanism.

  6. Intercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    /crystal concentration also suggests the need for improved understanding of ice nucleation and its parameterizationIntercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed is presented. This case study is based on observations of a persistent mixed-phase boundary layer cloud

  7. Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space Martin this as online slack space. We conclude by discussing security improvements for mod- ern online storage services protocol. With the advent of cloud computing and the shared usage of resources, these centralized storage

  8. To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications Vinod important criteria might be the energy consumed by the applications they run. The goal of this work is to characterize under what scenarios cloud-based applications would be relatively more energy-efficient for users

  9. Aircraft Microphysical Documentation from Cloud Base to Anvils of Hailstorm Feeder Clouds in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    in Argentina DANIEL ROSENFELD The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel WILLIAM L. WOODLEY Woodley, Argentina, with a cloud-physics jet aircraft penetrating the major feeder clouds from cloud base to the 45°C. Introduction The province of Mendoza in western Argentina (32°S, 68°W), which is known worldwide for its wine

  10. Investigating the Radiative Impact Clouds Using Retrieved Properties to Classify Cloud Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    of Reading, RG6 6AL, UK Abstract. Active remote sensing allows cloud properties such as ice and liquid water remote sensing, Cloud categorization, Cloud properties, Radiative impact. PACS: 92.60. Vb. INTRODUCTION in a radiation scheme which can simulate the radiation budget and heating rates throughout the atmospheric

  11. The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective Robert L. Grossman, Matthew Greenway, Allison P. Heath, Ray Powell, Rafael D. Suarez, Walt Wells, and Kevin White University Abstract--In this paper we describe the design, and implemen- tation of the Open Science Data Cloud

  12. From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialle, Stéphane

    24/10/2011 1 From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. AlGorille Project Team An overviewGorille INRIA Project Team October 21, 2011 I Premise of Grid ComputingI Premise of Grid Computing... From Grid to private Clouds, to inter

  13. LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    , the montane forest experienced higher precipi- tation, cloud cover and leaf wetting events of longer duration for an improved understanding of clouds and their effects on cloud forest plant functioning. As summarised below (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation. In turn, this decreases plant water demand. The suppres

  14. Variations in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 19542008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    ). MSC therefore have a cooling ef- fect on climate [negative cloud radiative effect (CRE)]. Randall et in climate, affecting both radiation fluxes and latent heat fluxes, but the various cloud types affect marine. By contrast, high (cirriform) clouds are thinner and colder, so their longwave effect dominates, giving them

  15. A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS, Berkshire, United Kingdom 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of ice clouds on the earth's radiation budget for quantifying this effect, and several such models exist for boundary layer clouds, such as those of Cahalan et

  16. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs | DepartmentCloud Spatial

  17. Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage #12;2StorSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage Table of Contents The Hybrid Cloud Context for IT Managers ............................................................. 3 The Bottleneck of Managing Storage

  18. Satellite Remote Sensing of Mid-level Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Hongchun 1980-

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    algorithm is evaluated using the CALIPSO cloud phase products for single-layer, heterogeneous, and multi-layer scenes. The AIRS phase algorithm has excellent performance (>90%) in detecting ice clouds compared to the CALIPSO ice clouds. It is capable...

  19. A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh Kumar, Swarun

    This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

  20. Aneka Cloud Application Platform and Its Integration with Windows Azure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    scheduling, and energy efficient resource utilization. The Aneka Cloud Application platform, together. Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2 Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia Abstract

  1. Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Released: May 05, 2013 New study reveals particles that seed small-scale clouds over Oklahoma Air...

  2. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Zimmermann, ”LC e-Cloud Activities at CERN”, talkal. , Simulations of the Electron Cloud for Vari- ous Con?E-CLOUD BUILD-UP IN GROOVED CHAMBERS ? M. Venturini † LBNL,

  3. Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau University--The emergence of cloud computing infrastructures brings new ways to build and manage computing systems objectives. First, leveraging virtualization and cloud computing infrastruc- tures to build distributed large

  4. Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni, HP Labs, Long Down, and shared vocabularies. Keywords: Modelling, Cloud Computing, RDF, Ontology, Rules, Validation 1 Introduction There is currently a shift towards cloud computing, which changes the model of provision

  5. Consistent cloud computing storage as the basis for distributed applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James William

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Messaging in Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . .7 1.4Eucalyptus Open—Source Cloud—Computing System. In C'C&#http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Cloud-Computing/Amazons—Head—Start—

  6. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, P; Sánchez, E; Parra, F I; Bustos, A; Könies, A; Kleiber, R; Görler, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  7. Analysis of a spinning polygon wavelength swept laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bart; Kuznetsov, Mark; Goldberg, Brian D; Whitney, Peter; Flanders, Dale C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been known for quite some time that spinning polygon, and similar, swept lasers used in OCT favor the short to long wavelength sweep direction because of four wave mixing in the gain medium. Here we have reformulated the problem in the time domain and show experimentally and through numerical simulation that these lasers are pulsed. The emitted pulses modulate the gain medium refractive index to red shift the light. Instead of new wavelengths being built up slowly from spontaneous emission, each pulse hops to a longer wavelength by nonlinear means, tracking the tunable filter. This allows high speed, low noise tuning in the blue to red direction. Based on this model, we make the first coherence length calculations for a swept source.

  8. Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez-Galarza, J R; Hernan-Caballero, A; Azzollini, R; Glasse, A; Kendrew, S; Brandl, B; Lahuis, F

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the wavelength and spectral resolution characterisation of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Medium Resolution Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), to fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2014. We use data collected using the Verification Model of the instrument and develop an empirical method to calibrate properties such as wavelength range and resolving power in a portion of the spectrometer's full spectral range (5-28 microns). We test our results against optical models to verify the system requirements and combine them with a study of the fringing pattern in the instrument's detector to provide a more accurate calibration. We show that MIRI's IFU spectrometer will be able to produce spectra with a resolving power above R=2800 in the wavelength range 6.46-7.70 microns, and that the unresolved spectral lines are well fitted by a Gaussian profile.

  9. Stratus cloud structure from MM-radar transects and satellite images: scaling properties and artifact detection with semi-discrete wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Petrov, N. P. (Nikola P.); Clothiaux, E. E. (Eugene E.); Marshak, A. (Alexander)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial and/or temporal variabilities of clouds is of paramount importance for at least two in tensely researched sub-problems in global and regional climate modeling: (1) cloud-radiation interaction where correlations can trigger 3D radiative transfer effects; and (2) dynamical cloud modeling where the goal is to realistically reproduce the said correlations. We propose wavelets as a simple yet powerful way of quantifying cloud variability. More precisely, we use 'semi-discrete' wavelet transforms which, at least in the present statistical applications, have advantages over both its continuous and discrete counterparts found in the bulk of the wavelet literature. With the particular choice of normalization we adopt, the scale-dependence of the variance of the wavelet coefficients (i.e,, the wavelet energy spectrum) is always a better discriminator of transition from 'stationary' to 'nonstationary' behavior than conventional methods based on auto-correlation analysis, second-order structure function (a.k.a. the semi-variogram), or Fourier analysis. Indeed, the classic statistics go at best from monotonically scale- or wavenumber-dependent to flat at such a transition; by contrast, the wavelet spectrum changes the sign of its derivative with respect to scale. We apply 1D and 2D semi-discrete wavelet transforms to remote sensing data on cloud structure from two sources: (1) an upward-looking milli-meter cloud radar (MMCR) at DOE's climate observation site in Oklahoma deployed as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Progrm; and (2) DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), a high-resolution space-borne instrument in sunsynchronous orbit that is described in sufficient detail for our present purposes by Weber et al. (1999). For each type of data, we have at least one theoretical prediction - with empirical validation already in existence - for a power-law relation for wavelet statistics with respect to scale. This is what is expected in physical (i.e., finite scaling range) fractal phenomena. In particular, we find long-range correlations in cloud structure coming from the important nonstationary regime. More surprisingly, we also uncover artifacts the data that are traceable either to instrumental noise (in the satellite data) or to smoothing assumptions (in the MMCR data processing). Finally, we discuss the potentially damaging ramifications the smoothing artifact can have on both cloud-radiation and cloud-modeling studies using MMCR data.

  10. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  11. The Giant Molecular Cloud Environments of Infrared Dark Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Audra K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the GMC environments surrounding 10 IRDCs, based on 13CO molecular line emission from the Galactic Ring Survey. Using a range of physical scales, we measure the physical properties of the IRDCs and their surrounding molecular material extending out to radii, R, of 30pc. By comparing different methods for defining cloud boundaries and for deriving mass surface densities, Sigma, and velocity dispersions, sigma, we settled on a preferred "CE,tau,G" method of "Connected Extraction" in position-velocity space along with Gaussian fitting to opacity-corrected line profiles for velocity dispersion and mass estimation. We examine how cloud definition affects measurements of the magnitude and direction of line of sight velocity gradients and velocity dispersions, including the associated dependencies on size scale. CE,tau,G-defined IRDCs and GMCs show velocity gradient versus size relations that scale approximately as dv_0/ds~s^(-1/2) and velocity dispersion versus size relations sigma~s^(1/2), which are consi...

  12. A MILLIMETER-WAVE GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY WITH THE BICEP POLARIMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, E. M.; Keating, B. G.; Barron, D.; Kaufman, J. P. [University of California, San Diego (United States); Matsumura, T.; Dowell, C. D.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Culverhouse, T. L.; Hristov, V. V.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E. [California Institute of Technology (United States); Ade, P. [University of Wales (United Kingdom); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Office-NRAO (Chile); Battle, J. O.; Leitch, E. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (United States); Duband, L. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France); Hivon, E. F. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris (France); Holzapfel, W. L. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Kuo, C. L., E-mail: ebierman@physics.ucsd.edu [Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study inflationary cosmology and the Milky Way Galaxy's composition and magnetic field structure, Stokes I, Q, and U maps of the Galactic plane covering the Galactic longitude range 260 Degree-Sign < l < 340 Degree-Sign in three atmospheric transmission windows centered on 100, 150, and 220 GHz are presented. The maps sample an optical depth 1 {approx}< A{sub V} {approx}< 30, and are consistent with previous characterizations of the Galactic millimeter-wave frequency spectrum and the large-scale magnetic field structure permeating the interstellar medium. The polarization angles in all three bands are generally perpendicular to those measured by starlight polarimetry as expected and show changes in the structure of the Galactic magnetic field on the scale of 60 Degree-Sign . The frequency spectrum of degree-scale Galactic emission is plotted between 23 and 220 GHz (including WMAP data) and is fit to a two-component (synchrotron and dust) model showing that the higher frequency BICEP data are necessary to tightly constrain the amplitude and spectral index of Galactic dust. Polarized emission is detected over the entire region within two degrees of the Galactic plane, indicating the large-scale magnetic field is oriented parallel to the plane of the Galaxy. A trend of decreasing polarization fraction with increasing total intensity is observed, ruling out the simplest model of a constant Galactic magnetic field orientation along the line of sight in the Galactic plane. A generally increasing trend of polarization fraction with electromagnetic frequency is found, varying from 0.5%-1.5% at frequencies below 50 GHz to 2.5%-3.5% above 90 GHz. The effort to extend the capabilities of BICEP by installing 220 GHz band hardware is described along with analysis of the new band.

  13. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  14. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: Making Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMaking Clouds Outreach Home

  16. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCaptureCloud Computing Services

  17. Optimised low-loss multilayers for imaging with sub-wavelength resolution in the visible wavelength range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pastuszczak, Anna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We optimise the effective skin-depth and resolution of Ag-TiO2, Ag-SrTiO3, and Ag-GaP multilayers for imaging with sub-wavelength resolution. In terms of transmission and resolution the optimised multilayers outperform simple designs based on combined use of effective medium theory, impedance matching and Fabry-Perot resonances. For instance, an optimised Ag-GaP multilayer consisting of only 17 layers, operating at the wavelength of 490 nm and having a total thickness equal to one wavelength, combines 78% intensity transmission with a resolution of 60 nm. It is also shown that use of the effective medium theory leads to sub-optimal multilayer designs with respect to the trade-off between the skin depth and resolution already when the period of the structure is on the order of 40 nm or larger.

  18. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  19. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables unmodified mobile applications running in an application-level virtual machine to seamlessly off-load part of their execution from mobile devices onto device clones operating in a computational cloud. CloneCloud uses a combination of static analysis and dynamic profiling to optimally and automatically partition an application so that it migrates, executes in the cloud, and re-integrates computation in a fine-grained manner that makes efficient use of resources. Our evaluation shows that CloneCloud can achieve up to 21.2x s...

  20. Public Cloud B CarbonEmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Sensors, Demand Prediction Power Capping, Green Software Services such as energy-efficient scientific) Request a Cloud service 4) Allocate service 5) Request service allocation 3) Request energy efficiency information Green Offer Directory 2) Request any `Green Offer' Routers Internet Green Broker #12;Cloud

  1. The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

  2. 7, 80878111, 2007 Influence of cloud top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter, Barfus top variability from radar measurements on 3-D radiative transfer F. Richter 1 , K. Barfus 1 , F. H.richter@awi.de) 8087 #12;ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter

  3. Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maniatis, Petros

    Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services Vyas Sekar Intel Labs Petros Maniatis Intel Labs ABSTRACT Cloud computing offers users the potential to reduce operating and capital expenses cause providers to incorrectly attribute resource consumption to customers or im- plicitly bear

  4. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  5. CLOUD COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    theory and best practices, Cloud operations analytics, globally-responsive architecture, functional of Cloud infrastructures Best practices for building Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), with an emphasis-distributed, responsive web application capable of massive scale with operational performance metrics. DePaul University

  6. Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era A Microsoft Perspective November 2009 #12;The information information presented after the date of publication. This white paper is for informational purposes only. Microsoft Corp. · One Microsoft Way · Redmond, WA 98052-6399 · USA #12;Contents Cloud Computing and Privacy

  7. Infrared Excess and Molecular Clouds: A comparison of new suerveys of far-infrared and H I 21-cm emission at high galactic latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; William F. Wall; Nils Odegard

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have created a map of the large-scale infrared surface brightness in excess of that associated with the atomic interstellar medium, using region-by-region correlations between the far-infrared and 21-cm line surface brightness. Our study updates and extends a previous attempt with IRAS and Berkeley/Parkes H I surveys. The far-infrared observations used here are from DIRBE, which extends far-infrared wavelength coverage to 240 um, so that we are reliably sampling the emission of large, thermal-equilibrium grains that dominate the dust mass. The H I data are from the combined Leiden-Dwingeloo and Parkes 21-cm line surveys. Using the maps of excess infrared emission at 100, 140, and 240 um, we created an atlas and identified the coherent structures. These infrared excess clouds can be caused both by dust that is warmer than average, or by dust associated with gas other than the atomic interstellar medium. We find very few warm clouds, such as the H II region around Spica. The majority of the infrared excess clouds are colder than the average atomic interstellar medium. These clouds are peaks of column density, and their excess infrared emission is due to dust associated with molecular gas. We identify essentially all known high-latitude molecular clouds in the infrared excess maps, and further identify a sample of new clouds with similar infrared properties. The infrared excess was correlated with CO line brightness, allowing us to measure the ratio of N(H2)/W(CO) for high-latitude clouds. The atlas of infrared excess may be a useful guide to regions of relatively high column density, which might cause high extinction toward extragalactic objects at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths and confusion for cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds.

  8. The long wavelength limit of hard thermal loop effective actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F T Brandt; J Frenkel; J C Taylor

    2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a closed form expression for the long wavelength limit of the effective action for hard thermal loops in an external gravitational field. It is a function of the metric, independent of time derivatives. It is compared and contrasted with the static limit, and with the corresponding limits in an external Yang-Mills field.

  9. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect.

  10. Tunnel junction multiple wavelength light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple wavelength LED having a monolithic cascade cell structure comprising at least two p-n junctions, wherein each of said at least two p-n junctions have substantially different band gaps, and electrical connector means by which said at least two p-n junctions may be collectively energized; and wherein said diode comprises a tunnel junction or interconnect. 5 figs.

  11. Laser cooling and trapping of potassium at magic wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Safronova; U. I. Safronova; Charles W. Clark

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We carry out a systematic study of the static and dynamic polarizabilities of the potassium atom using a first-principles high-precision relativistic all-order method in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric-dipole matrix elements. Static polarizabilities of the 4s, 4p_j, 5s, 5p_j, and 3d_j states are compared with other theory and experiment where available. We use the results of the polarizability calculations to identify magic wavelengths for the 4s-np transitions for $n = 4, 5$, i.e. those wavelengths for which the two levels have the same ac Stark shifts. These facilitate state-insensitive optical cooling and trapping. The magic wavelengths for the $4s-5p$ transitions are of particular interest for attaining a quantum gas of potassium at high phase-space density. We find 20 such wavelengths in the technically interest region of 1050-1130 nm. Uncertainties of all recommended values are estimated.

  12. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Stellar Surface Convection, Line Asymmetries, and Wavelength Shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Box 43, SE­22100 Lund, Sweden Abstract. Wavelength positions of photospheric absorption lines may the sinking and cooler (darker) gas. For the Sun, the effect is around 300 m s \\Gamma1 , expected to increase), and intergranular lanes with local redshifts (sinking motion), as naturally expected in convective energy transfer

  14. Magic Wavelength for Hydrogen 1S-2S Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawasaki, Akio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magic wavelength for an optical lattice for hydrogen atoms that cancels the first order AC Stark shift of 1S-2S transition is calculated to be 513 nm. The amount of AC Stark shift $ \\Delta E = -1.19$ kHz/(10kW/cm$^2$) and the slope $d\\Delta E/d \

  15. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Garrett, Henry E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  16. Cloud-integrated Storage What & Why 2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Cloud-integrated Storage ­ What & Why #12;2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage Overview..........................................................................................................3 Enterprise-class storage platform

  17. Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOE NationalCommitteeof3

  18. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  19. Magnetic Fields in Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of magnetic field strengths imply that molecular cloud fragments are individually close to being in a magnetically critical state, even though both magnetic field and column density measurements range over two orders of magnitude. The turbulent pressure also approximately balances the self-gravitational pressure. These results together mean that the one-dimensional velocity dispersion $\\sigv$ is proportional to the mean \\Alf speed of a cloud $\\va$. Global models of MHD turbulence in a molecular cloud show that this correlation is naturally satisfied for a range of different driving strengths of the turbulence. For example, an increase of turbulent driving causes a cloud expansion which also increases $\\va$. Clouds are in a time averaged balance but exhibit large oscillatory motions, particularly in their outer rarefied regions. We also discuss models of gravitational fragmentation in a sheet-like region in which turbulence has already dissipated, including the effects of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction. Clouds with near-critical mass-to-flux ratios lead to subsonic infall within cores, consistent with some recent observations of motions in starless cores. Conversely, significantly supercritical clouds are expected to produce extended supersonic infall.

  20. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  1. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Ho, Cheng,

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  3. Securely Managing Cryptographic Keys used within a Cloud Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Co-tenancy, Distributed Management Cryptography essential to secure cloud operations Use of sound;Page 3 Cloud Service Provider (CSP) - Models Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (Saa CSP know who I am? How is my connection to cloud components protected? Administration Who

  4. Proximity Graphs for Defining Surfaces over Point Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    over Point Clouds Gabriel Zachmann University of Bonn Germany Jan Klein University of Paderborn Germany

  5. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  6. CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

  7. Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing Jing Deng Scott C.-H. Huang Yunghsiang S, Taipei, 106 Taiwan. § Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA. Abstract-- Cloud computing of scientific computation in cloud computing. We investigate a cloud selection strategy to decompose the matrix

  8. How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity Anh-Dung Nguyen, Patrick S--In this paper, we address a important and still unanswered question in mobile cloud computing "how mobility the resilience of mobile cloud computing services. Keywords--Mobile cloud computing, mobility, quality of service

  9. IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners Cloud computing is a key part of driving greater alignment between business and IT. IBM Service Management and Cloud Computing to the IBM technical community. IBM Cloud Computing Business Partner Technical Enablement Offering

  10. Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

  11. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.

  12. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, W.A.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.

  13. Semiconductor light source with electrically tunable emission wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belenky, Gregory (Port Jefferson, NY); Bruno, John D. (Bowie, MD); Kisin, Mikhail V. (Centereach, NY); Luryi, Serge (Setauket, NY); Shterengas, Leon (Centereach, NY); Suchalkin, Sergey (Centereach, NY); Tober, Richard L. (Elkridge, MD)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor light source comprises a substrate, lower and upper claddings, a waveguide region with imbedded active area, and electrical contacts to provide voltage necessary for the wavelength tuning. The active region includes single or several heterojunction periods sandwiched between charge accumulation layers. Each of the active region periods comprises higher and lower affinity semiconductor layers with type-II band alignment. The charge carrier accumulation in the charge accumulation layers results in electric field build-up and leads to the formation of generally triangular electron and hole potential wells in the higher and lower affinity layers. Nonequillibrium carriers can be created in the active region by means of electrical injection or optical pumping. The ground state energy in the triangular wells and the radiation wavelength can be tuned by changing the voltage drop across the active region.

  14. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  15. Wavelength-resonant surface-emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schaus, Christian F. (Albuquerque, NM); Osinski, Marek A. (Albuquerque, NM); McInerney, John G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Raja, M. Yasin A. (Albuquerque, NM); Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wavelength resonant semiconductor gain medium is disclosed. The essential feature of this medium is a multiplicity of quantum-well gain regions separated by semiconductor spacer regions of higher bandgap. Each period of this medium consisting of one quantum-well region and the adjacent spacer region is chosen such that the total width is equal to an integral multiple of 1/2 the wavelength in the medium of the radiation with which the medium is interacting. Optical, electron-beam and electrical injection pumping of the medium is disclosed. This medium may be used as a laser medium for single devices or arrays either with or without reflectors, which may be either semiconductor or external.

  16. Star Formation Activity in the Long, Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G53.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Davis, Christopher J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present star formation activity in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G53.2, a remarkable IRDC located at Galactic coordinates $(l,b)\\sim(53^{\\circ}.2,\\,0^{\\circ}.0)$ based on the census of young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRDC G53.2 was previously identified as several IRDCs in mid-IR images, but it is in fact a long ($\\gtrsim$45 pc) cloud, well consistent with a CO cloud at $v\\sim23$ \\kms\\ (or at $d\\sim$1.7 kpc). We present a point-source catalog of IRDC G53.2 that contains $\\sim$370 sources from our photometry of the {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 \\um\\ data and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Catalog. The classification of the identified sources based on their spectral index and control field analysis to remove field star contamination reveals that IRDC G53.2 is an active star-forming region with $\\sim$300 YSO candidates. We compare the YSO classification based on spectral index, mid-IR colors, and the wavelength range used, which results in consistent classification, except for flat-s...

  17. Time-Multiplexed Measurements of Nonclassical Light at Telecom Wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Harder; C. Silberhorn; J. Rehacek; Z. Hradil; L. Motka; B. Stoklasa; L. L. Sanchez-Soto

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental reconstruction of the statistical properties of an ultrafast pulsed type-II parametric down conversion source in a periodically poled KTP waveguide at telecom wavelengths, with almost perfect photon-number correlations. We used a photon-number-resolving time-multiplexed detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of avalanche photodiodes. By resorting to a germane data-pattern tomography, we assess the properties of the nonclassical light states states with unprecedented precision.

  18. Nanoantenna enhancement for telecom-wavelength superconducting single photon detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heath, Robert M; Drysdale, Timothy D; Miki, Shigehito; Giannini, Vincenzo; Maier, Stefan A; Hadfield, Robert H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are rapidly emerging as a key infrared photon-counting technology. Two front-side-coupled silver dipole nanoantennas, simulated to have resonances at 1480 nm and 1525 nm, were fabricated in a two-step process. An enhancement of 50% to 130% in the system detection efficiency was observed when illuminating the antennas. This offers a pathway to increasing absorption into superconducting nanowires, creating larger active areas, and achieving more efficient detection at longer wavelengths.

  19. Upconverting device for enhanced recogntion of certain wavelengths of light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kross, Brian; McKIsson, John (Jack) E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An upconverting device for enhanced recognition of selected wavelengths is provided. The device comprises a transparent light transmitter in combination with a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles. The device may a lens in eyewear or alternatively a transparent panel such as a window in an instrument or machine. In use the upconverting device is positioned between a light source and the eye(s) of the user of the upconverting device.

  20. The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.; Young, S.A. [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia)] [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia); Carswell, A.I.; Pal, S.R. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada)] [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); McCormick, M.P.; Winker, D.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); DelGuasta, M.; Stefanutti, L. [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy)] [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy); Eberhard, W.L.; Hardesty, M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others] [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) was initiated to obtain statistics on cloud-base height, extinction, optical depth, cloud brokenness, and surface fluxes. Two observational phases have taken place, in October-December 1989 and April-July 1991, with intensive 30-day periods selected within the two time intervals. Data are being archived at NASA Langley Research Center, and, once there, are readily available to the international scientific community. 43 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud of United States Government (USG) secure and effective adoption of the Cloud Computing2 model to reduce costs and improve services. The working document describes the NIST Cloud Computing program efforts

  2. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part II: Attribution to the Nature of Cloud Changes3 Mark D-103 Livermore, CA 94551 E-mail: zelinka1@llnl.gov 1 #12;ABSTRACT7 Cloud radiative kernels

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky: Formation Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Daniel

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky federation, virtual machine, game theory. 1 INTRODUCTION CLOUDS are large-scale distributed computing sys (VM) instances. Cloud computing systems' ability to provide on de- mand access to always-on computing

  4. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  5. Fluid dynamic issues in continuous wave short wavelength chemical lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikatarian, R.R.; Jumper, E.J.; Woolhiser, C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses fluid dynamic issues of concern in the design and development of Continuous Wave (CW) Short Wavelength Chemical Lasers (SWCLs). Short Wavelength Chemical Laser technology is in its research stage and SWCL concepts are in their evolving mode. Researchers are presently addressing candidate chemical systems and activation concepts. Since these lasers will be flowing systems, it is necessary to discuss both the probable fluid dynamics issues, because of the inherent complexities fluid dynamicist can support this activity. In addition to addressing the SWCL fluid dynamic issues, this paper will review past fluid dynamic activities in high energy lasers and discuss additional research still required. This paper will also address the various levels of fluid dynamic modeling and how these models can be applied in studying the fluid dynamics of Short Wavelength Chemical Lasers. Where it is felt that specific fluid methodologies are not available, but are required in order to conduct specific analyses, they will be defined. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  7. Pre-Cloud Aerosol, Cloud Droplet Concentration, and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign First Quarter 2010 ASR Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Lee, Y-N; Sedlacek, AJ; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this, the first of a series of Program Metric Reports, we (1) describe archived data from the DOE G-1 aircraft, (2) illustrate several relations between sub-cloud aerosol, CCN, and cloud droplets pertinent to determining the effects of pollutant sources on cloud properties, and (3) post to the data archive an Excel spreadsheet that contains cloud and corresponding sub-cloud data.

  8. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  9. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  10. Uranus at equinox: Cloud morphology and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sromovsky, Lawrence; Hammel, Heidi; Ahue, William; de Pater, Imke; Rages, Kathy; Showalter, Mark; van Dam, Marcos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the 7 December 2007 equinox of Uranus approached, ring and atmosphere observers produced a substantial collection of observations using the 10-m Keck telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. Those spanning the period from 7 June 2007 through 9 September 2007 we used to identify and track cloud features, determine atmospheric motions, characterize cloud morphology and dynamics, and define changes in atmospheric band structure. We confirmed the existence of the suspected northern hemisphere prograde jet, locating its peak near 58 N, and extended wind speed measurements to 73 N. For 28 cloud features we obtained extremely high wind-speed accuracy through extended tracking times. The new results confirm a small N-S asymmetry in the zonal wind profile, and the lack of any change in the southern hemisphere between 1986 (near solstice) and 2007 (near equinox) suggests that the asymmetry may be permanent rather than seasonally reversing. In the 2007 images we found two prominent groups of discrete cloud features ...

  11. Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computer Science Division Start Date: Apr 9 2015 - 11:00am BuildingRoom: Building 240Room 4301 Location: Argonne...

  12. Factors shaping the future of Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Steven (Steven Douglas)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many different forces are currently shaping the future of the Cloud Computing Market. End user demand and end user investment in existing technology are important drivers. Vendor innovation and competitive strategy are ...

  13. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  14. HPC CLOUD APPLIED TO LATTICE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; Nishimura, Hiroshi; James, Susan; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As Cloud services gain in popularity for enterprise use, vendors are now turning their focus towards providing cloud services suitable for scientific computing. Recently, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) introduced the new Cluster Compute Instances (CCI), a new instance type specifically designed for High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. At Berkeley Lab, the physicists at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been running Lattice Optimization on a local cluster, but the queue wait time and the flexibility to request compute resources when needed are not ideal for rapid development work. To explore alternatives, for the first time we investigate running the Lattice Optimization application on Amazon's new CCI to demonstrate the feasibility and trade-offs of using public cloud services for science.

  15. Exploiting weather forecast data for cloud detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackie, Shona

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate, fast detection of clouds in satellite imagery has many applications, for example Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate studies of both the atmosphere and of the Earth’s surface temperature. Most ...

  16. Aircraft induced cirrus cloud First year report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    and coagulation. A resulting size distribution of ice crystals is deemed indicative of contrail cirrus cloud model operates, simulating the life cycle of aerosol and ice particles: nucleation, condensation

  17. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  18. The arc cloud complex: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Loren

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ARC CLOUD COMPLEX: A CASE STUDY A Thesis by ROBERT LOREN MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject...: Meteorology THE ARC CLOUD COMPLEX; A CASE STUDY A Thesis by ROBERT LOREN MILLER Approved as to style and content by: Kenneth C. Brundidge (Chairman of Committee) Walter K. Henry (Member) Marshall ~ Mcparland (Member) James R. Scog s (Head...

  19. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  20. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Cloud-Based Software: A U.S. Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology:  Can  Cloud  Computing  Enable  Carbon  environment/resources/Can_Cloud_Computing_Enable_Carbon_AbatTechnology:  Can  Cloud  Computing  Enable  Carbon  

  1. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of titanium dioxide, TiO2 , M. Hermanns, S. Brnken, H.S.P. Mller, T.F. Giesen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giesen, Thomas

    Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of titanium dioxide, TiO2 P. Kania 1 , M. Hermanns, S. Brünken, H to experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy Keywords: Titanium dioxide Transition metal Interstellar The cosmic abundance of titanium is relatively high ([Ti]/ [H] % 9 Â 10Ŕ8 ) [1] compared to other transition

  2. Effects of Laser Energy and Wavelength on the Analysis of LiFePO4...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Energy and Wavelength on the Analysis of LiFePO4 Using Laser Assisted Atom Probe Tomography. Effects of Laser Energy and Wavelength on the Analysis of LiFePO4 Using Laser...

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "Â?no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  4. Use of Dynamical Undulator Mechanism to Produce Short Wavelength Radiation in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Baryshevsky; K. G. Batrakov

    2002-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    VFEL lasing in system with dynamical undulator is described. In this system radiation of long wavelength creates the undulator for lasing on shorter wavelength. Two diffraction gratings with different spatial periods form VFEL resonator. The grating with longer period pumps the resonator with long wavelength radiation to provide necessary amplitude of undulator field. The grating with shorter period makes mode selection for short wavelength radiation. Lasing of such a system in terahertz frequency range is discussed.

  5. Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

  6. Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    of radiometers at an ice station frozen into the drifting ice pack of the Arctic Ocean. The NASA/FIRE Arctic- dependent water contents and hydrometeor sizes for all-ice and all-liquid clouds. For the spring and early summer period, all-ice cloud retrievals showed a mean particle diameter of about 60 m and ice water

  7. X-1 ROEBELING ET AL.: SEVIRI & AVHRR CLOUD PROPERTY RETRIEVALS Cloud property retrievals for climate monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Generation (METEOSAT-8) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic a consistent and high quality dataset of SEVIRI and AVHRR retrieved cloud properties for climate research studies. Clouds strongly modulate the energy balance of the Earth and its atmosphere through

  8. JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS surface. In 1997-1998, a large multi-agency effort made the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA with the ice pack in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas for one year. Surface-based remote sensors generated

  9. CloudCmp: Shopping for a Cloud Made Easy Ang Li Xiaowei Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ming

    benchmarking results on three representative cloud providers. These results show that the performance and costs interfaces, and benchmarks the performance and costs of these services. It then expresses an applicationCmp and highlight the main technical chal- lenges. CloudCmp includes a set of benchmarking tools that compare

  10. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

  11. The Radiative, Cloud, and Thermodynamic Properties of the Major Tropical Western Pacific Cloud Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakob, Christian

    's surface. Other effects include the release and consumption of latent heat related to phase changes in the tropical western Pacific (TWP). A cluster analysis is applied to 2 yr of daytime-only data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to identify four major cloud regimes in the TWP region

  12. Isolating signatures of major cloud-cloud collisions using position-velocity diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haworth, T J; Fukui, Y; Torii, K; Dale, J E; Shima, K; Takahira, K; Habe, A; Hasegawa, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisions between giant molecular clouds are a potential mechanism for triggering the formation of massive stars, or even super star clusters. The trouble is identifying this process observationally and distinguishing it from other mechanisms. We produce synthetic position-velocity diagrams from models of: cloud-cloud collisions, non-interacting clouds along the line of sight, clouds with internal radiative feedback and a more complex cloud evolving in a galactic disc, to try and identify unique signatures of collision. We find that a broad bridge feature connecting two intensity peaks, spatially correlated but separated in velocity, is a signature of a high velocity cloud-cloud collision. We show that the broad bridge feature is resilient to the effects of radiative feedback, at least to around 2.5Myr after the formation of the first massive (ionising) star. However for a head on 10km/s collision we find that this will only be observable from 20-30 per cent of viewing angles. Such broad-bridge features have...

  13. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  14. Sub-wavelength position measurements with running wave driving fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Evers; S. Qamar

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme for sub-wavelength position measurements of quantum particles is discussed, which operates with running-wave laser fields as opposed to standing wave fields proposed in previous setups. The position is encoded in the phase of the applied fields rather than in the spatially modulated intensity of a standing wave. Therefore, disadvantages of standing wave schemes such as cases where the atom remains undetected since it is at a node of the standing wave field are avoided. Reversing the directions of parts of the driving laser fields allows to switch between different magnification levels, and thus to optimize the localization.

  15. Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously present increases. The reduction of LIDT does not occur when the 2 pulses are temporally separated. This paper will also present dual wavelength LIDT results of commercial dichroic beam-combining optics simultaneously exposed with laser light at 1054nm/2.5ns and 532nm/7ns.

  16. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F., E-mail: cfk23@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  17. First observations of short wavelength coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at BC3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First observations of short wavelength coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at BC3 Christopher-FLA) short wavelength CSR at BC3 11th December 2007 1 / 26 #12;Outline 1 Motivation CSR at BC3 End Christopher Behrens (DESY-FLA) short wavelength CSR at BC3 11th December 2007 2 / 26 #12

  18. New rest wavelength determinations for 7 mid-infrared fine structure lines by ISO-SWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Feuchtgruber; D. Lutz; D. A. Beintema

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of the planetary nebulae NGC6302, NGC6543 and NGC7027 by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have been used to determine rest wavelengths of spectral lines. We report on improved accuracies for wavelengths of 7 mid-infrared ionic fine structure lines.

  19. 86 GHz Very Long Baseline Polarimetry of 3C273 and 3C279 with the Coordinated Millimeter VLBI Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanne M. Attridge

    2001-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    86 GHz Very Long Baseline Polarimetry probes magnetic field structures within the cores of Active Galactic Nuclei at higher angular resolutions and a spectral octave higher than previously achievable. Observations of 3C273 and 3C279 taken in April 2000 with the Coordinated Millimeter VLBI Array have resulted in the first total intensity (Stokes I) and linear polarization VLBI images reported of any source at 86 GHz. These results reveal the 86 GHz electric vector position angles within the jets of 3C273 and 3C279 to be orthogonal to each other, and the core of 3C273 to be unpolarized. If this lack of polarization is due to Faraday depolarization alone, the dispersion in rotation measure is >=90000 rad/m^2 for the core of 3C273.

  20. Remote sensing of heart rate and patterns of respiration on a stationary subject using 94 GHz millimeter wave interferometry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhelson, I. V.; Bakhtiari, S.; Elmer, T. W.; Sahakian, A. V. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Northwestern University)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using continuous wave, 94-GHz millimeter-wave interferometry, a signal representing chest wall motion can be obtained that contains both the heart rate and respiration patterns of a human subject. These components have to be separated from each other in the received signal. Our method was to use the quadrature and in-phase components of the signal, after removing the mean of each, to find the phase, unwrap it, and convert it to a displacement measurement. Using this, the power spectrum was examined for peaks, which corresponded to the heart rate and respiration rate. The displacement waveform of the chest was also analyzed for discrete heartbeats using a novel wavelet decomposition technique.

  1. Heilougjiang adopts measures to strengthen land management-each square millimeter of land is utterly cherished and rationally used

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan Peiquan; Liu, Y.

    1983-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on how a Chinese province with a large area of land and a small population has adopted a series of measures to strengthen land management, to stop the illegal occupying of land, and to protect land resources. Investigations of land resources and of the state of land use, as well as soil surveys, have been launched in order to determine the rights of land ownership and use. Many counties and cities have experimented with dividing farm areas into districts and comprehensive land planning, established land files, trained key personnel in land management skills, and have launched scientific land research. Illegal occupation, waste and destruction of land have risen with the increase in population and construction. Per capita cultivated acreage has declined to 4.1 mu. An effort has been made to reach the people in urban and rural areas with this message: ''Cherish every square millimeter of land utterly and use it rationally''.

  2. Dependence of Turing pattern wavelength on diffusion rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Q. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)); Li, R.; Li, G. (Department of Chemistry, The Tsinghua University, Beijing 10008 (China)); Swinney, H.L. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1995-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The relation between the diffusion coefficient of reactants and the wavelength of Turing patterns is examined in experiments on the chlorite--iodide--malonic acid (CIMA) reaction in gel media. The diffusion coefficients in polyacrylamide and agarose gels are varied by varying the gel densities. The diffusion coefficient [ital D] of NaCl is found to vary from 0.5[times]10[sup [minus]5] to 1.8[times]10[sup [minus]5] cm[sup 2]/s for the gel conditions considered. The CIMA reactants are assumed to have diffusion coefficients that are directly proportional to that of NaCl. The wavelength [lambda] of the observed hexagonal patterns (0.13--0.28 mm) varies in accord with the predicted relation for Turing patterns, [lambda][similar to][ital D][sup 1/2]. Moreover, the predicted relationship to a characteristic period of oscillation [tau], [lambda]=(2[pi][tau][ital D])[sup 1/2], is supported by measurements of [tau] just beyond a Hopf bifurcation in a stirred flow reactor.

  3. Triggered star formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Elmegreen; J. Palous; Kenji Bekki

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. We discuss how tidal interaction between the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the Galaxy triggers galaxy-wide star formation in the Clouds for the last ? 0.2 Gyr based on our chemodynamical simulations on the Clouds. Our simulations demonstrate that the tidal interaction induces the formation of asymmetric spiral arms with high gas densities and consequently triggers star formation within the arms in the LMC. Star formation rate in the present LMC is significantly enhanced just above the eastern edge of the LMC’s stellar bar owing to the tidal interaction. The location of the enhanced star formation is very similar to the observed location of 30 Doradus, which suggests that the formation of 30 Doradus is closely associated with the last Magellanic collision about 0.2 Gyr ago. The tidal interaction can dramatically compress gas initially within the outer part of the SMC so that new stars can be formed from the gas to become intergalactic young stars in the inter-Cloud region (e.g., the Magellanic Bridge). The metallicity distribution function of the newly formed stars in the Magellanic Bridge has a peak of [Fe/H] ? ?0.8, which is significantly lower than the stellar metallicity of the SMC.

  4. Study of Electron Cloud for MEIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Ahmed, J.D. Dolph, G.A. Krafft, T. Satogata, B.C. Yunn

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab has been envisioned as a future high energy particle accelerator beyond the 12 GeV upgrade of the existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Synchrotron radiation from the closely spaced proton bunches in MEIC can generate photoelectrons inside the vacuum chamber and cause secondary emission due to multipacting in the presence of beam's electric field. This phenomenon can lead to fast build up of electron density, known as electron cloud effect - resulting into beam instability coupled to multi-bunches in addition to a single bunch. For MEIC, the estimated threshold value of the electron-cloud density is approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3}. In this paper, we would like to report the self-consistent simulation studies of electron cloud formation for MEIC. The code has been benchmarked against the published data of electron cloud effects observed in LHC. Our first simulations predict increase of electron clouds with the increase of repetition rate. The detailed simulations are under progress and will be reported.

  5. Cloud Business Models and Sustainability: Impacts for businesses and e-Research Accepted by "Software Sustainability" Workshops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Mathematica. This leads to development of Cloud Sustainability Framework (CSF), which measures cloud business

  6. FINAL REPORT FOR THE DOE/ARM PROJECT TITLED Representation of the Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Ice Clouds in SCMs and GCMs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, David L.

    2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The broad goal of this research is to improve climate prediction through better representation of cirrus cloud microphysical and radiative properties in global climate models (GCMs). Clouds still represent the greatest source of uncertainty in climate prediction, and the representation of ice clouds is considerably more challenging than liquid water clouds. While about 40% of cloud condensate may be in the form of ice by some estimates, there have been no credible means of representing the ice particle size distribution and mass removal rates from ice clouds in GCMs. Both factors introduce large uncertainties regarding the global net flux, the latter factor alone producing a change of 10 W/m2 in the global net flux due to plausible changes in effective ice particle fallspeed. In addition, the radiative properties of ice crystals themselves are in question. This research provides GCMs with a credible means of representing the full (bimodal) ice particle size distribution (PSD) in ice clouds, including estimates of the small crystal (D < 65 microns) mode of the PSD. It also provides realistic estimates of mass sedimentation rates from ice clouds, which have a strong impact on their ice contents and radiative properties. This can be done through proper analysis of ice cloud microphysical data from ARM and other field campaigns. In addition, this research tests the ice cloud radiation treatment developed under two previous ARM projects by comparing it against laboratory measurements of ice cloud extinction efficiency and by comparing it with explicit theoretical calculations of ice crystal optical properties. The outcome of this project includes two PSD schemes for ice clouds; one appropriate for mid-latitude cirrus clouds and another for tropical anvil cirrus. Cloud temperature and ice water content (IWC) are the inputs for these PSD schemes, which are based on numerous PSD observations. The temperature dependence of the small crystal mode of the PSD for tropical anvils is opposite to that of mid-latitude cirrus, and this results in very different radiative properties for these two types of cirrus at temperatures less than about 50 C for a given ice water path. In addition, the representative PSD fall velocity is strongly influenced by the small crystal mode, and for temperatures less than 52 C, this fall velocity for mid-latitude cirrus is 2-8 times greater than for tropical anvil cirrus. Finally, the treatment of ice cloud optical properties was found to agree with laboratory measurements and exact theory within 15% for any given wavelength, PSD and ice particle shape. This treatment is analytical, formulated in terms of the PSD and ice particle shape properties. It thus provides the means for explicitly coupling the ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and can treat any combination of ice particle shape. It is very inexpensive regarding computer time. When these three deliverables were incorporated into the GCM at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) under another project, it was found that the sunlight reflected and the amount of upwelling heat absorbed by cirrus clouds depended strongly on the PSD scheme used (i.e. mid-latitude or tropical anvil). This was largely due to the fall velocities associated with the two PSD schemes, although the PSD shape was also important.

  7. Electron Cloud observation in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rumolo, G; Baglin, V; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Baudrenghien, P; Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P; Claudet, S; De Maria, R; Esteban-Muller, J; Favier, M; Hansen, C; Höfle, W; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Lanza, G; Li, K S B; Maury Cuna, G H I; Métral, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Roncarolo, F; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E N; Steinhagen, R J; Tavian, L J; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zimmermann, F; Iriso, U; Dominguez, O; Koukovini-Platia, E; Mounet, N; Zannini, C; Bhat, C M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of LHC with bunch trains at different spacings has revealed the formation of an electron cloud inside the machine. The main observations of electron cloud build up are the pressure rise measured at the vacuum gauges in the warm regions, as well as the increase of the beam screen temperature in the cold regions due to an additional heat load. The effects of the electron cloud were also visible as instability and emittance growth affecting the last bunches of longer trains, which could be improved running with higher chromaticity or larger transverse emittances. A summary of the 2010 and 2011 observations and measurements and a comparison with models will be presented. The efficiency of scrubbing to improve the machine running performance will be briefly discussed.

  8. High-velocity clouds: a diverse phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Wakker

    2001-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution the current state of knowledge about the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) is summarized. Recent progress has shown that the HVCs are a diverse phenomenon. The intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) are likely to be part of a Galactic Fountain. The Magellanic Stream is a tidal remnant. HVC complex C (possibly complexes A and GCN) are low-metallicity clouds near the Galaxy; they could be remnants of the formation of the Galaxy or old tidal streams extracted from nearby dwarf galaxies. Having a substantial number of HI HVCs dispersed throughout the Local Group seems incompatible with the observed HI mass function of galaxies. Finally, FUSE finds high-velocity OVI, some of which is clearly associated with HI HVCs, but some which is not.

  9. Towards the Next Generation of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muńoz, Francesc

    Towards the Next Generation of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms Javier Esparza-Peidro, Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms Javier Esparza-Peidro, Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco´i Institut Universitari Mixt

  10. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  11. Cloud computing and its implications for organizational design and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farahani Rad, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has been at the center of attention for a while now. This attention is directed towards different aspects of this concept which concern different stakeholders from IT companies to cloud adopters to simple ...

  12. The study of cirrus clouds using airborne and satellite data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Kerry Glynne

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    (AVIRIS) and the Moderate-resolution Infrared Spectroradiometer (MODIS), scientists now have an unprecedented ability to study cirrus clouds. To aid in the understanding of such clouds, a significant study of cirrus radiative properties has been undertaken...

  13. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  14. arctic cloud experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-level Arctic clouds in cold seasons and have a significant impact on the surface energy budget. However, the treatment of mixed-phase clouds in most current climate models...

  15. Cloud computing adoption model for governments and large enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Hrishikesh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud Computing has held organizations across the globe spell bound with its promise. As it moves from being a buzz word and hype into adoption, organizations are faced with question of how to best adopt cloud. Existing ...

  16. Cloud computing : implications for enterprise software vendors (ESV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Leonard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'Cloud computing', is a broad concept and in general is a term used for internet-based computing resources that are in an unspecified remote location or locations and that are flexible and fungible. Clouds provide a wide ...

  17. Transition to cloud computing in healthcare information systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Haiying, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a study on the adoption of cloud computing in healthcare information technology industry. It provides a guideline for people who are trying to bring cloud computing into healthcare information systems through ...

  18. A Survey on Approaches for Interoperability and Portability of Cloud Computing Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrakis, Euripides G.M.

    A Survey on Approaches for Interoperability and Portability of Cloud Computing Services Kostas.sotiriadis, petrakis}@intelligence.tuc.gr Keywords: Cloud computing, cloud interoperability, cloud portability Abstract: Over the recent years, the rapid development of Cloud Computing has driven to a large market of cloud

  19. TGRS-2010-00092.R1 1 Abstract--Cloud properties were retrieved by applying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    cover (~59%) is divided equally between liquid and ice clouds. Global mean cloud effective heights , respectively, for liquid clouds and 8.3 km, 12.7, 52.2 µm, and 230 gm-2 for ice clouds. Cloud droplet effective radiation processes requires determination of cloud property distributions and the radiation budget

  20. 2012 MELLANOX TECHNOLOGIES 1 The Interconnect is the Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Assaf

    IT costs from CAPEX to OPEX IT Efficiency and Business Agility Hybrid Cloud Compute and Storage Resource

  1. Information Security Management System for Microsoft's Cloud Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Information Security Management System for Microsoft's Cloud Infrastructure Online Services ......................................................................................................................................................................................1 Information Security Management System.......................................................................................................................7 Information Security Management Forum

  2. Intrinsic Shapes of Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. E. Jones; Shantanu Basu; John Dubinski

    2001-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We conduct an analysis of the shapes of molecular cloud cores using recently compiled catalogs of observed axis ratios of individual cores mapped in ammonia or through optical selection. We apply both analytical and statistical techniques to deproject the observed axis ratios in order to determine the true distribution of cloud core shapes. We find that neither pure oblate nor pure prolate cores can account for the observed distribution of core shapes. Intrinsically triaxial cores produce distributions which agree with observations. The best-fit triaxial distribution contains cores which are more nearly oblate than prolate.

  3. Young stars and clouds in Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Straizys; V. Laugalys

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Star formation in the Local spiral arm in the direction of the Galactic longitudes 132--158 deg is reviewed. Recent star-forming activity in this Milky Way direction is evidenced by the presence here of the Cam OB1 association and dense dust and molecular clouds containing H$\\alpha$ emission stars, young irregular variables and infrared stellar objects. The clouds of the Local arm concentrate in two layers at 150-300 pc and at about 900 pc from the Sun. The Perseus arm objects in this direction are at a distance of about 2 kpc.

  4. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  5. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  6. THE ALGOL TRIPLE SYSTEM SPATIALLY RESOLVED AT OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. J. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Obs. Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hummel, C. A. [European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Boboltz, D. A.; Ojha, R. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20392 (United States); Shaffer, D. B. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tycner, C. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Richards, M. T., E-mail: bzavala@nofs.navy.mi, E-mail: djh@nofs.navy.mi, E-mail: chummel@eso.or, E-mail: dboboltz@usno.navy.mi, E-mail: rojha@usno.navy.mi, E-mail: shaffer@alumni.caltech.ed, E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.ed, E-mail: mrichards@astro.psu.ed [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Interacting binaries typically have separations in the milliarcsecond regime, and hence it has been challenging to resolve them at any wavelength. However, recent advances in optical interferometry have improved our ability to discern the components in these systems and have now enabled the direct determination of physical parameters. We used the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer to produce for the first time images resolving all three components in the well-known Algol triple system. Specifically, we have separated the tertiary component from the binary and simultaneously resolved the eclipsing binary pair, which represents the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary in the sky. We present revised orbital elements for the triple system, and we have rectified the 180{sup 0} ambiguity in the position angle of Algol C. Our directly determined magnitude differences and masses for this triple star system are consistent with earlier light curve modeling results.

  7. Modeling, Characterizing, and Enhancing User Experience in Cloud Mobile Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Modeling, Characterizing, and Enhancing User Experience in Cloud Mobile Rendering Yao Liu, Shaoxuan of California, San Diego {yal019, shaoxuan, dey}@ece.ucsd.edu Abstract--Cloud Mobile Rendering (CMR), where compute intensive rendering is performed on cloud servers instead of on mobile devices, can be a promising

  8. Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm Mark Carlson, SNIA TC and Sun Chair, SNIA Cloud Storage TWG CMU SDI Lecture ­ 12th November 2009 #12;Insert tutorial title in footer © 2009 Storage Networking Industry Association.All Rights Reserved. Abstract ! Cloud Storage is a new business

  9. A Survey of Mobile Cloud Computing Applications: Perspectives and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    operating systems, configure computation environment, and develop software. The cloud provides a powerful from the marriage of powerful yet affordable mobile devices and cloud computing. In this paper we in the cloud. So users simply use the applications without concerning system configuration prob- lems

  10. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  11. 8, 42674308, 2008 3-D retrieval of cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 4267­4308, 2008 3-D retrieval of cloud particle profiles T. Zinner et al. Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Remote sensing of cloud sides of deep convection: towards a three-dimensional retrieval of cloud particle size profiles T. Zinner 1,2 , A. Marshak 1 , S

  12. CLOUD COVER REPORTING BIAS AT MAJOR AIRPORTS Richard Perez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    CLOUD COVER REPORTING BIAS AT MAJOR AIRPORTS Richard Perez Joshua A. Bonaventura-Sparagna & Marek Kmiecik ASRC, SUNY, Albany, NY Ray George & David Renné NREL, Golden, CO ABSTRACT Cloud cover has been generated all or in part from cloud cover measurements [1,2]. This paper presents evidence

  13. Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure Background Cloud Computing with minimal management effort. Examples of modern cloud computing solutions include (but are not limited to is an emerging computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its

  14. Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Ming Li, Shucheng Yu, Ning,ncao,wjlou}@ece.wpi.edu Dept. of CS, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, email: sxyu1@ualr.edu Abstract--In cloud computing In recent years, cloud computing is gaining much mo- mentum in the IT industry. Especially, we have seen

  15. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimkin, Nahum

    Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache Microsoft Research New England The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible com- puting resources of variable size and capabilities. We con- sider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous

  16. Special Publication 500-293 US Government Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume I Release 1.0 (Draft) High-Priority Requirements to Further USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption Lee Badger Sokol, Jin Tong, Fred Whiteside and Dawn Leaf NIST Cloud Computing Program Information Technology

  17. Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Jin Li, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, Ning Cao}@ece.wpi.edu Abstract--As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized in Cloud Computing as it greatly affects system usability, rendering user searching experiences very

  18. Special Publication 500-293 US Government Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume II and Dawn Leaf NIST Cloud Computing Program Information Technology Laboratory #12;This page left Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume II Release 1.0 (Draft

  19. Coordination of Cloud Computing and Smart Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Coordination of Cloud Computing and Smart Power Grids Amir-Hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon.mohsenian.rad, alberto.leongarcia}@utoronto.ca Abstract--The emergence of cloud computing has established a trend towards increasing the load at locations where they are built. However, data centers and cloud computing also provide

  20. Controlling Data in the Cloud: Outsourcing Computation without Outsourcing Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling Data in the Cloud: Outsourcing Computation without Outsourcing Control Richard Chow.fujitsu.com ABSTRACT Cloud computing is clearly one of today's most enticing technology areas due, at least in part, there are significant, persistent concerns about cloud computing that are impeding momentum and will eventually

  1. Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik Research Team OASIS INRIA.huet@inria.fr Abstract -- With the increasing demand and benefits of cloud computing infrastructure, real time computing can be performed on cloud infrastructure. A real time system can take advantage of intensive computing

  2. Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing Cong Wang, Student Member, IEEE lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage, dependable distributed storage, error localization, data dynamics, cloud computing. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION SEVERAL

  3. Introduction to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Introduction to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing Rajkumar Buyya Welcome to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing (TCC). It is my privilege and honor to serve as the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of TCC. I would like to thank the IEEE and the world-wide Cloud Computing community for giving me

  4. Efficient and Secure Data Storage Operations for Mobile Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient and Secure Data Storage Operations for Mobile Cloud Computing Zhibin Zhou and Dijiang Huang {zhibin.zhou,dijiang}@asu.edu Arizona State University Abstract--Cloud computing is a promising. With the development of wireless access technologies, cloud computing is expected to expand to mobile environments

  5. An Approach for Security Evaluation and Analysis in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Approach for Security Evaluation and Analysis in Cloud Computing T. Probst1,2 , E. Alata1,3 , M for security evaluation and analysis in cloud computing environments. The objective is to provide an automated way to evaluate the efficiency of security mechanisms aiming at protecting the cloud computing

  6. Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling Center for Research in Extreme Scale an alternative paradigm for bringing Clouds more closely aligned to Science, Technology, Engineering Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling 1. Introduction Even as HPC is transiting the pan

  7. Summertime Arctic Clouds observed during SHEBA Paquita Zuidema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    understanding the underlying cloud processes (that impact the cloud optical depth). With the goal in mind consistently southerly and warm.The ice melt rate was directly measured to be 2.3-2.5 cm/day from gauges). The responsive surface melting during July suggests not only a high Sun angle,but also low cloud optical depths

  8. CLOUD DROPLET NUCLEATION AND ITS CONNECTION TO AEROSOL PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the uncertainty of the indirect effect arises from incomplete ability to describe changes in cloud properties. Keywords - Climate. aerosols. clouds, radiation INTRODUcnON In recent years awareness has increased of enhancement of scanering of radiation by aerosols in clear (cloud-free) air; a portion of the scattered

  9. be explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: selected cases from FIRE ACE. Jbe explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration enables us to separate the effects of the cloud LWP and cloud droplet number

  10. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  11. Cluster analysis of cloud properties : a method for diagnosing cloud-climate feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Neil D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to temperature. Thus a k-means clustering algorithm is usedto group cloud regimes. K-means is also an effective toollays out a method whereby a k-means clustering algorithm is

  12. Separating real and apparent effects of cloud, humidity, and dynamics on aerosol optical thickness near cloud edges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    have reported correlations between AOT and cloud cover, pointing to potential cloud contamination of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. It was found that aerosol humidification effects can explain about one fourth of the correlation between the cloud cover and AOT. New particle genesis

  13. Argonne's Magellan Cloud Computing Research Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), discusses the Department of Energy's new $32-million Magellan project, which designed to test how cloud computing can be used for scientific research. More information: http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091014a.html

  14. Workshop on Distributed Cloud Computing Dresden, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    DCC 2013 Workshop on Distributed Cloud Computing Dresden, Germany December 9-12, 2013 (Submission Pan Hui, HKUST, Hong Kong Wolfgang Kellerer, TU Munich, Germany Ruben Montero, Uni Complutense de Waterloo, Canada Marco Canini, T-Labs & TU Berlin, Germany Paolo Costa, MSR & Imperial College, UK Xiaoming

  15. Laser transmissionbackscattering through inhomogeneous cirrus clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takano, Yoshihide

    of the transmission and backscattering of high-energy laser beams. The 2D extinction-coefficient and mean effective of cirrus clouds by use of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board National Oceanic and backscattering of high-energy laser beams in realistic atmospheres. The results of laser direct transmission

  16. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,; Coghlan, Susan; Yelick, Katherine

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), was to investigate the potential role of cloud computing in addressing the computing needs for the DOE Office of Science (SC), particularly related to serving the needs of mid- range computing and future data-intensive computing workloads. A set of research questions was formed to probe various aspects of cloud computing from performance, usability, and cost. To address these questions, a distributed testbed infrastructure was deployed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The testbed was designed to be flexible and capable enough to explore a variety of computing models and hardware design points in order to understand the impact for various scientific applications. During the project, the testbed also served as a valuable resource to application scientists. Applications from a diverse set of projects such as MG-RAST (a metagenomics analysis server), the Joint Genome Institute, the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), were used by the Magellan project for benchmarking within the cloud, but the project teams were also able to accomplish important production science utilizing the Magellan cloud resources.

  17. The Pion Cloud: Insights into Hadron Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. W. Thomas

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern nuclear theory presents a fascinating study in contrasting approaches to the structure of hadrons and nuclei. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of the pion cloud. As this discussion really begins with Yukawa, it is entirely appropriate that this invited lecture at the Yukawa Institute in Kyoto should deal with the issue.

  18. Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications · One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. · Available since 2002 · Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs · Price is Approximately $70

  19. Deep Near Infrared Observations of the X-ray Emitting Class 0 Protostar Candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi; G. Chartas; M. Goto; N. Kobayashi; H. Terada; A. T. Tokunaga

    2002-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtained near infrared (NIR) imaging with the Subaru Telescope of the class 0 protostar candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3, two of which were discovered to have X-ray emission by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We found strong evidence for the class~0 nature of the X-ray sources. First, our deep K-band image shows no emission brighter than 19.6 mag from both of these X-ray sources. Since class I protostars or class II T Tauri stars should be easily detected in the NIR with this sensitivity, the lack of K-band detection suggests that they are likely much more obscured than class I protostars. Second, our H2 v=1-0 S(1) image shows a bubble-like feature from one of the X-ray class 0 protostar candidates, which reinforces the idea that this is a class 0 protostar. We also discuss the nature of nine NIR sources found in our deep image based on their colors, spatial coincidence with millimeter cores, and the properties of their X-ray counterparts.

  20. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  1. Properties of High-Redshift Lyman Alpha Clouds II. Statistical Properties of the Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Press; George B. Rybicki

    1993-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Curve of growth analysis, applied to the Lyman series absorption ratios deduced in our previous paper, yields a measurement of the logarithmic slope of distribution of \\Lya\\ clouds in column density $N$. The observed exponential distribution of the clouds' equivalent widths $W$ is then shown to require a broad distribution of velocity parameters $b$, extending up to 80 km s$^{-1}$. We show how the exponential itself emerges in a natural way. An absolute normalization for the differential distribution of cloud numbers in $z$, $N$, and $b$ is obtained. By detailed analysis of absorption fluctuations along the line of sight we are able to put upper limits on the cloud-cloud correlation function $\\xi$ on several megaparsec length scales. We show that observed $b$ values, if thermal, are incompatible, in several different ways, with the hypothesis of equilibrium heating and ionization by a background UV flux. Either a significant component of $b$ is due to bulk motion (which we argue against on several grounds), or else the clouds are out of equilibrium, and hotter than is implied by their ionization state, a situation which could be indicative of recent adiabatic collapse.

  2. A Novel Passive Millimeter Imager for Broad-Area Search - Final Report on Project PL09-NPMI-PD07 (PNNL-55180)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Harris, Robert V.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Knopik, Clint D.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Mendoza, Albert; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research and development efforts toward a novel passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) electromagnetic imaging device for broad-area search. It addresses the technical challenge of detecting anomalies that occupy a small fraction of a pixel. The purpose of the imager is to pinpoint suspicious locations for cuing subsequent higher-resolution imaging. The technical basis for the approach is to exploit thermal and polarization anomalies that distinguish man-made features from natural features.

  3. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalir, Hamed, E-mail: dalir.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Koyama, Fumio [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Photonics Integration System Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-22 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8503 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850?nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55?dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 ?m long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  4. Retrieval of Cloud Phase Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spangenberg, D.; Minnis, P.; Shupe, M.; Uttal, T.; Poellot, M.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving climate model predictions over Earth's polar regions requires a comprehensive knowledge of polar cloud microphysics. Over the Arctic, there is minimal contrast between the clouds and background snow surface, making it difficult to detect clouds and retrieve their phase from space. Snow and ice cover, temperature inversions, and the predominance of mixed-phase clouds make it even more difficult to determine cloud phase. Also, since determining cloud phase is the first step toward analyzing cloud optical depth, particle size, and water content, it is vital that the phase be correct in order to obtain accurate microphysical and bulk properties. Changes in these cloud properties will, in turn, affect the Arctic climate since clouds are expected to play a critical role in the sea ice albedo feedback. In this paper, the IR trispectral technique (IRTST) is used as a starting point for a WV and 11-{micro}m brightness temperature (T11) parameterization (WVT11P) of cloud phase using MODIS data. In addition to its ability to detect mixed-phase clouds, the WVT11P also has the capability to identify thin cirrus clouds overlying mixed or liquid phase clouds (multiphase ice). Results from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MODIS phase model (AMPHM) are compared to the surface-based cloud phase retrievals over the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site and to in-situ data taken from University of North Dakota Citation (CIT) aircraft which flew during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE). It will be shown that the IRTST and WVT11P combined to form the AMPHM can achieve a relative high accuracy of phase discrimination compared to the surface-based retrievals. Since it only uses MODIS WV and IR channels, the AMPHM is robust in the sense that it can be applied to daytime, twilight, and nighttime scenes with no discontinuities in the output phase.

  5. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST AND STELLAR EMISSION OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aniano, Gonzalo [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Bot, Caroline [Universite de Strasbourg, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Carlson, Lynn Redding; Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Galametz, Maud [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale [AIM, CEA/Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gordon, Karl; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Li, Aigen, E-mail: rskibba@ucsd.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the emission by dust and stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, a pair of low-metallicity nearby galaxies, as traced by their spatially resolved spectral energy distributions. This project combines Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE far-infrared photometry with other data at infrared and optical wavelengths (the data were obtained as part of the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution survey; PI: M. Meixner). We build maps of dust, stellar luminosity, and mass of both Magellanic Clouds, and analyze the spatial distribution of dust/stellar luminosity and mass ratios. These ratios vary considerably throughout the galaxies, generally between the range 0.01 {<=} L{sub dust}/L{sub *} {<=} 0.6 and 10{sup -4} {<=} M{sub dust}/M{sub *} {<=} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. We observe that the dust/stellar ratios depend on the interstellar medium environment, such as the distance from currently or previously star-forming regions, and on the intensity of the interstellar radiation field. In addition, we construct star formation rate (SFR) maps, and find that the SFR is correlated with the dust/stellar luminosity and dust temperature in both galaxies, demonstrating the relation between star formation, dust emission, and heating, though these correlations exhibit substantial scatter.

  6. The Infrared Cloud Monitor for the MAGNUM Robotic Telescope at Haleakala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Suganuma; Y. Kobayashi; N. Okada; Y. Yoshii; T. Minezaki; T. Aoki; K. Enya; H. Tomita; S. Koshida

    2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the most successful infrared cloud monitor for a robotic telescope. This system was originally developed for the MAGNUM 2-m telescope, which has been achieving unmanned and automated monitoring observation of active galactic nuclei at Haleakala on the Hawaiian island of Maui since 2001. Using a thermal imager and two aspherical mirrors, it at once sees almost the whole sky at a wavelength of $\\lambda\\sim 10\\mu{\\rm m}$. Its outdoor part is weather-proof and is totally maintenance-free. The images obtained every one or two minutes are analysed immediately into several ranks of weather condition, from which our automated observing system not only decides to open or close the dome, but also selects what types of observations should be done. The whole-sky data accumulated over four years show that 50$-$60 % of all nights are photometric, and about 75 % are observable with respect to cloud condition at Haleakala. Many copies of this system are now used all over the world such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Atacama in Chile, and Okayama and Kiso in Japan.

  7. Acoustic clouds: standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina L. Benone; Luis C. B. Crispino; Carlos Herdeiro; Eugen Radu

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  8. Acoustic clouds: standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benone, Carolina L; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  9. Development of in situ, at-wavelength metrology for soft x-ray nano-focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. We describe here details of the metrology beamline endstation, the at-wavelength tests, and an original alignment method that have already allowed us to precisely set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a FWHM focused spot size of ~;;120 nm, at 1-nm soft x-ray wavelength.

  10. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs. - Competitive pricing structure, which will make high-volume usage of simulation services affordable. - Availability and affordability of high quality power simulators, which presently only large corporate clients can afford, will level the playing field in developing regional energy policies, determining prudent cost recovery mechanisms and assuring just and reasonable rates to consumers. - Users that presently do not have the resources to internally maintain modeling capabilities will now be able to run simulations. This will invite more players into the industry, ultimately leading to more transparent and liquid power markets.

  11. A CubeSat for Calibrating Ground-Based and Sub-Orbital Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters (CalSat)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bradley R; Drysdale, Timothy D; Kalman, Andrew; Fujikawa, Steve; Keating, Brian; Kaufman, Jon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a low-cost, open-access, CubeSat-based calibration instrument that is designed to support ground-based and sub-orbital experiments searching for various polarization signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All modern CMB polarization experiments require a robust calibration program that will allow the effects of instrument-induced signals to be mitigated during data analysis. A bright, compact, and linearly polarized astrophysical source with polarization properties known to adequate precision does not exist. Therefore, we designed a space-based millimeter-wave calibration instrument, called CalSat, to serve as an open-access calibrator, and this paper describes the results of our design study. The calibration source on board CalSat is composed of five "tones" with one each at 47.1, 80.0, 140, 249 and 309 GHz. The five tones we chose are well matched to (i) the observation windows in the atmospheric transmittance spectra, (ii) the spectral bands commonly used in polarimeters by the CMB c...

  12. Magic wavelengths for the $5s-18s$ transition in rubidium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Goldschmidt; D. G. Norris; S. B. Koller; R. Wyllie; R. C. Brown; J. V. Porto; U. I. Safronova; M. S. Safronova

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic wavelengths, for which there is no differential ac Stark shift for the ground and excited state of the atom, allow trapping of excited Rydberg atoms without broadening the optical transition. This is an important tool for implementing quantum gates and other quantum information protocols with Rydberg atoms, and reliable theoretical methods to find such magic wavelengths are thus extremely useful. We use a high-precision all-order method to calculate magic wavelengths for the $5s-18s$ transition of rubidium, and compare the calculation to experiment by measuring the light shift for atoms held in an optical dipole trap at a range of wavelengths near a calculated magic value.

  13. A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Montanez, Paul; Delor, James; Bergmann, Uwe [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States); Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive hard x-ray spectrometer with high-energy resolution and large solid angle collection is described. The instrument is specifically designed for time-resolved applications of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) at X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. It also simplifies resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) studies of the whole 2d RIXS plane. The spectrometer is based on the Von Hamos geometry. This dispersive setup enables an XES or XRS spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode, overcoming the scanning needs of the Rowland circle spectrometers. In conjunction with the XFEL temporal profile and high-flux, it is a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of time-dependent systems. Photo-induced processes and fast catalytic reaction kinetics, ranging from femtoseconds to milliseconds, will be resolvable in a wide array of systems circumventing radiation damage.

  14. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Dobbs, Matt; Bissonnette, Eric; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250 mK and 4 K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The signal bandwidth of 0.050Hz-100 Hz places extreme requirements on stability and requires powerful filtering techniques to recover the sky-signal from the MHz carriers.

  15. Multi-wavelength identification of high-energy sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mignani, R P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of most of the ~300 high-energy gamma-ray sources discovered by the EGRET instrument aboard the Gamma-ray Observatory (GRO) between 1991 and 1999 is one of the greatest enigmas in high-energy astrophysics. While about half of the extragalactic sources have been optically identified with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), only a meagre 10% of the galactic sources have a reliable identification. This low success rate has mainly to be ascribed to the local crowding of potential optical counterparts and to the large gamma-ray error boxes (of the order of one degree in radius) which prevented a straightforward optical identification. Indeed, a multi-wavelength identification strategy, based on a systematic coverage of the gamma-ray error boxes, has been the only do-able approach. The situation is now greatly improving thanks to the observations performed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which, thanks to the LAT instrument, provides a factor of 50 improvement in sensitivity and a factor of 10 improvemen...

  16. At-wavelength Optical Metrology Development at the ALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-focusing and brightness preservation for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 100 nrad. While the accuracy of fabrication and ex situ metrology of x-ray mirrors has improved over time, beamline in situ performance of the optics is often limited by application specific factors such as x-ray beam heat loading, temperature drift, alignment, vibration, etc. In the present work, we discuss the recent results from the Advanced Light Source developing high accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad accuracy surface slope measurements with reflecting x-ray optics. The techniques will ultimately allow closed-loop feedback systems to be implemented for x-ray nano-focusing. In addition, we present a dedicated metrology beamline endstation, applicable to a wide range of in situ metrology and test experiments. The design and performance of a bendable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror with active temperature stabilization will also be presented. The mirror is currently used to study, refine, and optimize in situ mirror alignment, bending and metrology methods essential for nano-focusing application.

  17. Wavelength-encoded optical psychrometer for relative humidity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanini, Roberto [Department of Industrial Chemistry and Materials Engineering, University of Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article an optical psychrometer, in which temperature measurements are performed by means of two fiber Bragg grating sensors used as dry-bulb and wet-bulb thermometers, is introduced. The adopted design exploits both the high accuracy of psychrometric-based relative humidity measurements with acknowledged advantages of wavelength-encoded fiber optic sensing. Important metrological issues that have been addressed in the experimental work include calibration of the fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors, evaluation of response time, sensitivity, hysteresis, linearity, and accuracy. The calibration results give confidence that, with the current experimental setup, measurement of temperature can be done with an uncertainty of {+-}0.2 deg. C and a resolution of 0.1 deg. C. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also presented in the article to investigate the effects produced by different sources of error on the combined standard uncertainty u{sub c}(U) of the relative humidity measurement, which has been estimated to be roughly within {+-}2% in the range close to saturation.

  18. LES Simulations of Roll Clouds Observed During Mixed- Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, S.D.; Harrington, J.Y.; Prenni, A.; DeMott, P.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Roll clouds, and associated roll convection, are fairly common features of the atmospheric boundary layer. While these organized cumuliform clouds are found over many regions of the planet, they are quite ubiquitous near the edge of the polar ice sheets. In particular, during periods of off-ice flow, when cold polar air flows from the ice pack over the relatively warm ocean water, strong boundary layer convection develops along with frequent rolls. According to Bruemmer and Pohlman (2000), most of the total cloud cover in the Arctic is due to roll clouds. In an effort to examine the influences of mixed-phase microphysics on the boundary layer evolution of roll clouds during off-ice flow, Olsson and Harrington (2000) used a 2D mesoscale model coupled to a bulk microphysical scheme (see Section 2). Their results showed that mixed-phase clouds produced more shallow boundary layers with weaker turbulence than liquid-phase cases. Furthermore, their results showed that because of th e reduced turbulent drag on the atmosphere in the mixed-phase case, regions of mesoscale divergence in the marginal ice-zone were significantly affected. A follow-up 2D study (Harrington and Olsson 2001) showed that the reduced turbulent intensity in mixed-phase cases was due to precipitation. Ice precipitation caused downdraft stabilization which fed back and caused a reduction in the surface heat fluxes. In this work, we extend the work of Olsson and Harrington (2000) and Harrington and Olsson (2001) by examining the impacts of ice microphysics on roll convection. We will present results that illustrate how microphysics alters roll cloud structure and dynamics.

  19. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K), but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  20. A FIRST LOOK AT THE AURIGA-CALIFORNIA GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD WITH HERSCHEL AND THE CSO: CENSUS OF THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND THE DENSE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Fallscheer, Cassandra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Andre, Philippe; Koenyves, Vera [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)] [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peterson, Dawn E., E-mail: pmh@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: Cassandra.Fallscheer@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: adam.ginsburg@colorado.edu, E-mail: sterebe@calstatela.edu, E-mail: pandre@cea.fr, E-mail: vera.konyves@cea.fr, E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: James.DiFrancesco@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Brenda.Matthews@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: dpeterson@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have mapped the Auriga/California molecular cloud with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras and the Bolocam 1.1 mm camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the eventual goal of quantifying the star formation and cloud structure in this giant molecular cloud (GMC) that is comparable in size and mass to the Orion GMC, but which appears to be forming far fewer stars. We have tabulated 60 compact 70/160 {mu}m sources that are likely pre-main-sequence objects and correlated those with Spitzer and WISE mid-IR sources. At 1.1 mm, we find 18 cold, compact sources and discuss their properties. The most important result from this part of our study is that we find a modest number of additional compact young objects beyond those identified at shorter wavelengths with Spitzer. We also describe the dust column density and temperature structure derived from our photometric maps. The column density peaks at a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (N {sub H2}) and is distributed in a clear filamentary structure along which nearly all of the pre-main-sequence objects are found. We compare the young stellar object surface density to the gas column density and find a strong nonlinear correlation between them. The dust temperature in the densest parts of the filaments drops to {approx}10 K from values {approx}14-15 K in the low-density parts of the cloud. We also derive the cumulative mass fraction and probability density function of material in the cloud, which we compare with similar data on other star-forming clouds.

  1. Nonlinear Hydromagnetic Wave Support of a Stratified Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kudoh; S. Basu

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform numerical simulations of nonlinear MHD waves in a gravitationally stratified molecular cloud that is bounded by a hot and tenuous external medium. We study the relation between the strength of the turbulence and various global properties of a molecular cloud, within a 1.5-dimensional approximation. Under the influence of a driving source of Alfvenic disturbances, the cloud is lifted up by the pressure of MHD waves and reaches a steady-state characterized by oscillations about a new time-averaged equilibrium state. The nonlinear effect results in the generation of longitudinal motions and many shock waves; however, the wave kinetic energy remains predominantly in transverse, rather than longitudinal, motions. There is an approximate equipartition of energy between the transverse velocity and fluctuating magnetic field (aspredicted by small-amplitude theory) in the region of the stratified cloud which contains most of the mass; however, this relation breaks down in the outer regions, particularly near the cloud surface, where the motions have a standing-wave character. This means that the Chandrasekhar-Fermi formula applied to molecular clouds must be significantly modified in such regions. Models of an ensemble of clouds show that, for various strengths of the input energy, the velocity dispersion in the cloud $\\sigma \\propto Z^{0.5}$, where $Z$ is a characteristic size of the cloud.Furthermore, $\\sigma$ is always comparable to the mean Alfven velocity of the cloud, consistent with observational results.

  2. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earth’s atmosphere and influence the Earth’s energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  3. Dust Emission from the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schnee; J. Li; A. A. Goodman; A. I. Sargent

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Using far-infrared emission maps taken by IRAS and Spitzer and a near-infrared extinction map derived from 2MASS data, we have made dust temperature and column density maps of the Perseus molecular cloud. We show that the emission from transiently heated very small grains and the big grain dust emissivity vary as a function of extinction and dust temperature, with higher dust emissivities for colder grains. This variable emissivity can not be explained by temperature gradients along the line of sight or by noise in the emission maps, but is consistent with grain growth in the higher density and lower temperature regions. By accounting for the variations in the dust emissivity and VSG emission, we are able to map the temperature and column density of a nearby molecular cloud with better accuracy than has previously been possible.

  4. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  5. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  6. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  7. Traversable wormholes in a string cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Richarte; Claudio Simeone

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in a string cloud background in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. The amount of exotic matter required for the construction, the traversability and the stability under radial perturbations, are analyzed as functions of the parameters of the model. Besides, in the Appendices a non perturbative approach to the dynamics and a possible extension of the analysis to a related model are briefly discussed.

  8. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

  9. How Common are the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lulu; Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a probabilistic approach to the problem of counting dwarf satellites around host galaxies in databases with limited redshift information. This technique is used to investigate the occurrence of satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds around hosts with properties similar to the Milky Way in the object catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our analysis uses data from SDSS Data Release 7, selecting candidate Milky-Way-like hosts from the spectroscopic catalog and candidate analogs of the Magellanic Clouds from the photometric catalog. Our principal result is the probability for a Milky-Way-like galaxy to host N{sub sat} close satellites with luminosities similar to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that 81 percent of galaxies like the Milky Way have no such satellites within a radius of 150 kpc, 11 percent have one, and only 3.5 percent of hosts have two. The probabilities are robust to changes in host and satellite selection criteria, background-estimation technique, and survey depth. These results demonstrate that the Milky Way has significantly more satellites than a typical galaxy of its luminosity; this fact is useful for understanding the larger cosmological context of our home galaxy.

  10. Embracing the Cloud for Better Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Lagesse, Brent J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of cyber security is inextricably tied to the future of computing. Organizational needs and economic factors will drive computing outcomes. Cyber security researchers and practitioners must recognize the path of computing evolution and position themselves to influence the process to incorporate security as an inherent property. The best way to predict future computing trends is to look at recent developments and their motivations. Organizations are moving towards outsourcing their data storage, computation, and even user desktop environments. This trend toward cloud computing has a direct impact on cyber security: rather than securing user machines, preventing malware access, and managing removable media, a cloud-based security scheme must focus on enabling secure communication with remote systems. This change in approach will have profound implications for cyber security research efforts. In this work, we highlight existing and emerging technologies and the limitations of cloud computing systems. We then discuss the cyber security efforts that would support these applications. Finally, we discuss the implications of these computing architecture changes, in particular with respect to malware and social engineering.

  11. A complex network approach to cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travieso, Gonzalo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has become an important means to speed up computing. One problem influencing heavily the performance of such systems is the choice of nodes as servers responsible for executing the users' tasks. In this article we report how complex networks can be used to model such a problem. More specifically, we investigate the performance of the processing respectively to cloud systems underlain by Erdos-Renyi and Barabasi-Albert topology containing two servers. Cloud networks involving two communities not necessarily of the same size are also considered in our analysis. The performance of each configuration is quantified in terms of two indices: the cost of communication between the user and the nearest server, and the balance of the distribution of tasks between the two servers. Regarding the latter index, the ER topology provides better performance than the BA case for smaller average degrees and opposite behavior for larger average degrees. With respect to the cost, smaller values are found in the BA ...

  12. Outflow Driven Turbulence in Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan J. Carroll; Adam Frank; Eric G. Blackman; Andrew J. Cunningham; Alice C. Quillen

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we explore the relationship between protostellar outflows and turbulence in molecular clouds. Using 3-D numerical simulations we focus on the hydrodynamics of multiple outflows interacting within a parsec scale volume. We explore the extent to which transient outflows injecting directed energy and momentum into a sub-volume of a molecular cloud can be converted into random turbulent motions. We show that turbulence can readily be sustained by these interactions and show that it is possible to broadly characterize an effective driving scale of the outflows. We compare the velocity spectrum obtained in our studies to that of isotropically forced hydrodynamic turbulence finding that in outflow driven turbulence a power law is indeed achieved. However we find a steeper spectrum (beta ~ 3) is obtained in outflow driven turbulence models than in isotropically forced simulations (beta ~ 2). We discuss possible physical mechanisms responsible for these results as well and their implications for turbulence in molecular clouds where outflows will act in concert with other processes such as gravitational collapse.

  13. Constraint Satisfaction in Optical Routing for Passive Wavelength-Routed Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ). Latin Routers are attractive for optical network design because of their fault-tolerance and low costConstraint Satisfaction in Optical Routing for Passive Wavelength-Routed Networks Dhritiman of lightpaths in an optical network, which employs a passive wavelength routing device called a Latin Router (LR

  14. Dynamic Non-Continuous Single Slot Advance Reservation over Wavelength Routed Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic Non-Continuous Single Slot Advance Reservation over Wavelength Routed Networks Bharath H) requests in all- optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. We propose a two-phase novel signaling in the network by reducing the average number of lightpath switches significantly and greatly

  15. Dry friction between laser-patterned surfaces: Role of alignment, structural wavelength and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    1 Dry friction between laser-patterned surfaces: Role of alignment, structural wavelength.gachot@mx.uni-saarland.de Abstract The ability to tune friction by tailoring surface topographies at micron length scales friction between laser-textured surfaces. Line-like laser patterns with varying structural wavelengths

  16. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometera)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy more »wavelength calibration.« less

  17. 832 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 25, No. 11 / June 1, 2000 Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    832 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 25, No. 11 / June 1, 2000 Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange January 21, 2000 We present a theoretical analysis for simultaneous optical wavelength interchange and isolation of a pair of collinear input optical signals by use of two concurrent difference

  18. Wavelength attack on practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Chun Ma; Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Lin-Mei Liang

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the wavelength attack on a practical continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system with a heterodyne protocol, in which the transmittance of beam splitters at Bob's station is wavelength-dependent. Our strategy is proposed independent of but analogous to that of Huang et al. [arXiv: 1206.6550v1 [quant-ph

  19. Multi-Wavelength Image Space: Another Grid-Enabled Science Roy Williams 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deelman, Ewa

    the wavelengths. In this paper, we consider a new paradigm for mining knowledge from the images of the sky surveys multi- wavelength images. To see sky images in the same pixel space, they must be projected will describe both scientific goals, and also how grid computing can open this new field. The term multi

  20. Multi-Wavelength Image Space: Another Grid-Enabled Science Roy Williams1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roy

    paradigm for mining knowledge from the images of the sky surveys: by federating the images directly We describe a new Grid-enabled branch of astronomy: multi-wavelength images. To see sky images-wavelength image. We will describe both scientific goals, and also how grid computing can open this new field