National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for military speci ficat

  1. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OF CONTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OF CONTRACT 1 OTATI OEP AE 2. AMENDMENT/MODIFICATION NO. 3. EFFECTIEDT 4. REOUISITION/PURCHASE REQ. NO. 5. PROJECT NO. (If applicable) 166 See Block 16C 6- ISSUED BY CODE 100603 7. ADMINISTERED BY If lother than Item 6) CODE 100603 Office of River Protection Office of River Protection U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Office of River Protection P.O. Box 450 P.O. Box 450 Richland WA 99352 MS: H6-60 Richland WA 99352 B. NAME

  2. military

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Military Academic Collaborations http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdefenseprogramsmilitaryacademiccollaborations

  3. military

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Military Academic Collaborations http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdefenseprogramsmilitaryacademiccollaborations

  4. Massachusetts Military Reservation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Military Reservation Jump to: navigation, search Name Massachusetts Military Reservation Facility Massachusetts Military Reservation Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind...

  5. Military Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The articles generally provide insight about present business opportunities for third-party-owned renewable electricity projects at military installations. It should be noted that ...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Integrated Military Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Capabilities Facilities Projects Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Integrated Military Systems Missile Air Defense Demonstrates advanced technologies, delivers responsive technical solutions in anticipation of Missile Defense mission needs, and facilitates the integration and sustainment of operational capabilities across the broad Missile Defense mission Missile Air Defense Strike Systems & Aerospace Technologies Provides

  7. Military

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Information Milestones Archive science, information, progress image Web-enabled Milestones Chart Achievements Home Milestones Honors and Recognition Accelerating Access Charts OSTI accelerates knowledge discovery, speeding the advancement of science. FY 2009 November 2009 - Beta ScienceEducation.gov Launched September 2009 - .EDUconnections Launched June 2009 - OSTI YouTube Channel Established February 2009 - Fed R&D Project Summaries Expanded FY 2008 November 2008 -

  8. military | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    military CNS employees greet Honor Air veterans Y-12 Deputy Site Manager Gene Sievers, left, and ProForce's Neal Wolfenbarger pose for photo at McGhee Tyson Airport in Knoxville, TN, as Wolfenbarger waits on his uncle to return from Washington, D.C. Veterans Day is important to all Americans, but it carries an even more elevated meaning to those... Pantex honors veterans The Pantex Plant honored veterans at its recent annual ceremony to commemorate Armed Forces Day. Members of the Pantex Fire

  9. military academic programs | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    military academic programs Site Information Kansas City National Security Campus (NSC), located in Kansas City, Mo., is the principal nonnuclear production site within the nuclear weapons complex, responsible for manufacturing and procuring nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons, including electronic, mechanical, and engineered... Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program This program places military academy cadets/midshipmen in tours of duty within science, technology, engineering, national

  10. RecruitMilitary | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RecruitMilitary June 23, 2016 11:00AM to 3:00PM EDT FedEx Field, Landover, MD

  11. NNSA Launches New Military Academic Collaborations | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Launches New Military Academic Collaborations Press Release Mar 9, 2010 WASHINGTON, ... our effort to recruit the next generation of nuclear security professionals," said Brig. ...

  12. Wind Industry Training for Our Military Veterans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is taking steps to leverage the skill sets of our military veterans in support of the wind energy industry.

  13. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration for Sustainable Military Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2011-05-05

    This presentation discusses electric vehicle grid integration for sustainable military installations. Fort Carson Military Reservation in Colorado Springs is used as a case study.

  14. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals May 30-31, 2013 Image of a speaker at ...

  15. Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference November 4, 2015 9:00AM EST to...

  16. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference This presentation by DOE's ...

  17. Tribal and Military Leaders Come Together to Talk Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 3031 in Phoenix, Arizona. ... Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 30-31 in Phoenix, Arizona. ...

  18. Military Academic Collaborations | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Programs Military Academic Collaborations The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Programs offers a suite of activities to enhance collaboration between NNSA's eight sites and the U.S. Military/Service Academies. These programs are administered at NNSA and executed at NNSA sites, including the labs, production facilities and the Nevada National Security Site. At each location, leading-edge research and development is carried out on key national security technologies

  19. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  20. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-02-24

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  1. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-03-13

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  2. RecruitMilitary Job Fair | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RecruitMilitary Job Fair RecruitMilitary Job Fair June 2, 2016 11:00AM to 3:00PM EDT Takoma, WA Website Contact Ed Agodoa

  3. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  4. Environmental challenges facing military base closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

  5. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M; Morgart, Ruth E

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  6. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  7. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals May 30-31, 2013 Image of a speaker at the forum. Chandler, Arizona Wild Horse Pass Hotel and Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 30-31, 2013, in Chandler, Arizona. The forum provided information for western

  8. Report: U.S. Military Accelerates Deployment of Clean Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is accelerating across military installations operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, according to a report released January 16 by The Pew Charitable Trusts. 'Power...

  9. Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii Place: Honolulu, HI Website: www.fcnavyhawaii.com References: Solar Technical Assistance Provided to Forest...

  10. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Samuel Booth, John Barnett, Kari Burman, Josh Hambrick and Robert Westby Technical Report NREL...

  11. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel ...

  12. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

  13. Russian military in the year 2000. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlmail, J.F.; Jaworski, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    Through the use of content analysis, this paper attempts to paint a picture of the Russian military in the year 2000 and its impact on the US national security strategy. The research begins by defining the origin of Russian national security policy and how that translates into military policy and doctrine. A framework for evaluating Russian military doctrines is provided with a chronology of the military reform process and the related doctrinal reforms that has its birth in the 1987 announcement of a defensive-defense. Following from the doctrinal variant framework the new strategic missions of the 1992 draft military doctrine are presented with an analysis that shows they are a clear departure from the past and truly represent a defensive-defense type doctrine. Additionally, a comparison is made with the current military reform ongoing in Russia with the historical precedent of the Russian military reform of 1924-25. A rough outline of the separate branches of the Russian military both present and future is provided based on the ongoing trends in the reform process. This thumbnail sketch of the Russian military then assists in the analysis and conclusion that even after a possible 50% cutback in US military spending, in the year 2000 the Russian military will not pose a threat to US national security. The major caveat to this conclusion is in the realm of nuclear weapons and this issue is therefore discussed in some length....Former Soviet Union, Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE), European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Strategy.

  14. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  15. A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.

  16. Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitive Species Sensitive Species By avoiding or minimizing the impact of Laboratory activities on sensitive species, LANL can potentially reduce the possibility of these species being upgraded to federal protection. February 2, 2015 sensitive species The bald eagle is one of our sensitive species. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Sensitive species are plants and animals that are protected at the state

  17. Military Base Off-taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Military Base Off-taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs by the National ...

  18. Military students access top R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs Military Academic Collaborations The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Programs offers a suite of activities to enhance collaboration between NNSA's eight sites and the U.S. Military/Service Academies. These programs are administered at NNSA and executed at NNSA sites, including the labs, production facilities and the Nevada National Security Site. At each location, leading-edge research and development is carried out on key national security technologies

  19. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LEVERAGING TRIBAL RENEWABLE RESOURCES TO SUPPORT MILITARY ENERGY GOALS May 30-31, 2013 WILD HORSE PASS HOTEL AND CASINO 5040 Wild Horse Pass Blvd. Chandler, Arizona The seventh in a series of planned U.S. DOE Office of Indian Energy-sponsored strategic energy development forums, this Tribal Leader Forum is designed to provide information for western U.S. tribal leaders and military leaders on the renewable energy resource development potential on tribal lands, and the opportunities for

  20. Excellence in Energy Awards: Military Academies Leading by Example |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Excellence in Energy Awards: Military Academies Leading by Example Excellence in Energy Awards: Military Academies Leading by Example May 15, 2014 - 9:55am Addthis Federal Energy Management Program Director Dr. Timothy Unruh (fourth from left) with Air Force Academy staff and students. The Air Force Academy team won a DOE Excellence in Energy Award for their microgrid design that featured two biomass-fired combined heat & power facilities, fuel cells, and a complex

  1. Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program This program places military academy cadets/midshipmen in tours of duty within science, technology, engineering, national security, and relevant fields at any of the NNSA sites. Participants will expand their understanding of the NNSA National Security Enterprise and Department of Defense programs while working closely with nationally recognized staff and researchers on national security research and production. Tours of duty to run a

  2. Endangered Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endangered Species Protecting our Endangered Species The Endangered Species Act requires that endangered species be protected at the individual level. February 2, 2015 Adult Mexican Spotted Owl Adult Mexican Spotted Owl recorded in 2010. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email The Habitat Management Plan details how threatened and endangered species and their habitats are managed at LANL. Endangered species on

  3. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  4. Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Laboratory data and modeling results are presented on a military auxiliary power unit engine that has a peak efficiency of 35.3% at an output shaft power of 25 kW. PDF icon p-26_sykes.pdf More Documents & Publications Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors Predicted Impact of Idling Reduction Options for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks: A Comparison of Full-Fuel-Cycle Emissions, Energy Use, and Proximity to

  5. Swords into plowshares: Military geology and national security projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    Military geology and national security projects are often comparable, achieving their rai-son d`etre in support of national goals, military operations, and/or systems-all for vital national interests. The application of Geoscience to these ends, especially engineering geology, has occurred from pole to pole and included every conceivable environment and natural condition. In the conduct of such projects, the Geosciences have advanced, and vice versa. Desert trafficability, most notably regarding playa surfaces, is both temporary and variable and not a persistent condition as some early authors believed. Playas in Australia, Iran, and the US show that saline efflorescence is removed following surface water dissolution and subsequent deflation, resulting in very hard crusts. Magadiite, a hydrous sodium silicate and possible precursor of bedded chert, was first discovered in North America at Alkali Lake, OR, during a military project. Pleistocene Lake Trinity, a small and mostly buried evaporate basin in the northern Jornada del Muerto, NM, was discovered during exploratory drilling in support of a military test program.

  6. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  7. Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.

    2012-05-01

    Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  8. Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaugher, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked controversy over the proper US role in the Gulf. In this book Thomas L. McNaugher offers a military strategy for the Gulf that seeks to balance the risks of overinvolvement against the risks of neglect. The author, a research associate in the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies program, believes that the United States must cultivate the traditional security mechanisms of the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and he encourages cooperation with allies like Great Britain and France that historically have been involved in Gulf security. He argues that the United States should focus on protecting the Gulf states from external attack and on deterring further Soviet encroachment in the region, leaving internal security largely to the states themselves. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to 90%) from (typically lower than) those based on the extractive techniques. However, the ORS techniques were useful in providing non-intrusive real-time measurements of gaseous species in the exhaust plume, which warrants further development. The results obtained in this program validate sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile PM aircraft emissions as described in the SAE AIR-6037.

  10. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  11. Buy Back Needed to Add Military Time for Retirement By Catherine Ferguson

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buy Back Needed to Add Military Time for Retirement By Catherine Ferguson Defense Finance and Accounting Service WASHINGTON, March 3, 1997 - Waiting until the last moment before thinking about retirement might end up costing some civilian federal employees more than stress. Civilian employees with prior military service may not have as many years of federal service for retirement as they thought. Before military time can be applied toward civil service retirement, in most cases the employee has

  12. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Jobs | Department of Energy Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs February 13, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs WASHINGTON -- Today, the first class of Marine trainees at Camp Pendleton will graduate from the Energy Department's solar job

  13. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning In 2008, DoD and DOE defined a joint initiative to address military energy use by identifying specific actions to reduce energy demand and increase use of renewable energy on DoD installations. PDF icon 48876.pdf More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy

  14. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military Energy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Fuels Conference | Department of Energy 0 Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference This presentation by DOE's Sunita Satyapal was given at the Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference in March 2010. PDF icon Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Overview: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2011

  15. Unproven screening devices threaten the lives of police and military.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Dale W.

    2010-07-01

    In a world plagued with improvised explosive devices, drugs and dangerous people, the desire to field technology to protect our police and military is providing a fertile market for the proliferation of protection technologies that range from the unproven to the disproven. The market place is currently being flooded with detection equipment making inflated and inaccurate marketing claims of high reliably, high detection probabilities, and ease of operation - all while offering detection capabilities at safe distances. The manufacturers of these devices have found a willing global marketplace, which includes some of the most dangerous places in the world. Despite a wealth of contradictory performance and testing data available on the Internet, sales of these devices remain brisk and profitable. Rather than enhancing the security of police and military personnel, the reliance on these unproven and disproven devices is creating a sense of false security that is actually lowering the safety of front-line forces in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper addresses the development and distribution history of some of these devices and describes the testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, and other reputable testing agencies that illustrate the real danger in using this kind of unproven technology.

  16. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  17. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  18. Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bents, E.R.

    1995-05-01

    The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

  19. Corrosion investigation of coatings for surface protection of military hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, N.; Vasanth, K.L.

    1996-10-01

    A product improvement program (PIP) for the surface finish of some steel military hardware has been recently initiated by the Navy. Presently the metal cleaning methods, interior and exterior surface finishes and corrosion protection requirements for such hardware are specified in MIL-P-18948. The coated hardware are stored in a warehouse structure for long durations. Because these storage places are not environmentally controlled (that is, no temperature or humidity control) the corrosion protection has not been adequate. The exterior surfaces of the hardware are coated with a corrosion inhibiting alkyd primer coating (TT-P-664) or a rust inhibiting lacquer primer coating (MIL-P-11414) to a thickness of 0.4 to 0.6 mils. The exterior color paint, (MIL-E-52891 or MIL-P11195), is applied to a thickness of 1.5 mils. The investigation of various coatings to replace the present system is an ongoing effort. The coatings have been examined from a corrosion protection vantage point and results have been correlated. The coatings were evaluated by exposing them to natural marine atmosphere and seawater wetdown tests. The coatings were also exposed to a 5.0% sodium chloride solution in a laboratory environmental salt fog chamber for 500 hours. Selected coatings were examined using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from field tests, salt fog, and EIS measurements are discussed.

  20. Energy efficiency in military housing: Monitoring to support revitalization guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is working with the US Army, the US Air Force, and the US Department of Energy to develop a guidebook to be used by architectural and engineering firms in the design phases of military family housing revitalization projects. The purpose of the guidebook is to ensure that energy efficiency is properly addressed in revitalization projects. Monitoring space-heating and cooling energy used in houses both before and after they are revitalized is necessary in order to assess the amount of energy saved by the revitalization process. Three different methods of conducting monitoring experiments are discussed, as well as the methods of data analysis to be used. Houses will be monitored individually using standard gas and electric meters to obtain heating and cooling data for the houses. The authors recommend conducting monitoring programs at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, and Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, because of their project schedules and potential for savings. They do not recommend doing any monitoring at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, because of the relatively small savings that they expect revitalization to accomplish there. They do not recommend seeking out alternative sites for monitoring because of the time required to become familiar with the installation and also because revitalization schedules at alternative sites may be no better than those at the sites they inspected.

  1. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  2. EA-1606: Proposed Use of Savannah River Site Lands for Military Training, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security to use the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina, for military training purposes.

  3. Report: U.S. Military Accelerates Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deployment of clean energy technologies is accelerating across military installations operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, according to a report released by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

  4. EM Discusses Job Opportunities with 140 Military Veterans at Hiring Event

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM recruiters discussed career opportunities with about 140 military veterans during a recent hiring event held by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  5. EM Employee Serves Military in Afghanistan, Manages $5.8 Billion Army Task Order

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BAGRAM AIRFIELD, Afghanistan – EM employee James Hawkins is currently serving the U.S. military in Afghanistan, where he is administering a $5.8 billion task order for the Army.

  6. Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    H.R. 4837, The Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005, was signed into law on October 13, 2004. The Act provides for construction to support the operations of the U.S. Armed Forces and for military family housing. It also provides funds to help citizens in Florida and elsewhere in the aftermath of multiple hurricanes and other natural disasters. In addition, it authorizes construction of an Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

  7. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H.; Jain, R.

    2009-08-15

    Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.

  8. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  9. Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain January 26, 2015 - 1:15am Addthis Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en route to view the Manifa Oil Field. | Photo by Kathryn Grant, Energy Department. Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en

  10. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the first class of Marine trainees at Camp Pendleton will graduate from the Energy Departments solar job training pilot program, which is aimed at preparing service members for careers in the solar industry as solar photovoltaic system installers, sales representatives, system inspectors, and other solar-related opportunities. Camp Pendleton is one of three military bases partnering with the Departments SunShot Initiative to train 200 transitioning military service members during the pilot period for employment opportunities in the rapidly growing U.S. solar energy industry. Training courses will also begin at Fort Carson and Naval Station Norfolk this spring.

  11. ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships January 31, 2013 - 1:06pm Addthis Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus speaks to attendees at the 2011 Energy Innovation Summit in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus speaks to attendees at the 2011 Energy Innovation Summit in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo. Alexa McClanahan

  12. A system architecture for long duration free floating flight for military applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epley, L.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Accessibility is today's space frontier. Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging an sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is endless but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about potential vulnerability. Military commanders want space assets more accessible and under direct local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Buoyant vehicles, free floating in the middle stratosphere could provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a verity of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric wind modeling and materials combined with ever-improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The fundamental question is whether a free floating balloon, used in a pseudo-satellite role, has value in a military system. Flight tests are ongoing under NASA sponsorship. Following these tests NASA intends to use the vehicles for research in the Antarctic. The concept is being reviewed by other agencies interested in stratospheric research. We believe that LDFFF systems have applications in areas of communications, surveillance and other traditional satellite missions. Dialogue with the broader community of space users is needed to expand the applications. This report reviews the status of the recent flight tests and presents an overview of the concept of Long Duration Free Floating Flight for military applications. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of Navy, on September 19, 2014, to announce awards for three commercial-scale biorefinery projects that will help meet the transportation needs of the U.S. military and private sector.

  14. California Endangered Species Act Species List | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Endangered Species Act Species List Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: California Endangered Species Act...

  15. Military Base Off-Taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nangle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper surveys DOD installations that could have an increased potential interest in the purchase of energy from renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Identification of likely purchasers of renewable energy is a first step in the energy project development process, and this paper aims to identify likely electricity customers that tribal commercial-scale projects could serve. This white paper builds on a geospatial analysis completed in November 2012 identifying 53 reservations within 10 miles of military bases (DOE 2012). This analysis builds on those findings by further refining the list of potential opportunity sites to 15 reservations (Table ES-1), based on five additional factors: 1) The potential renewable resources required to meet the installation energy loads; 2) Proximity to transmission lines; 3) Military installation energy demand; 4) State electricity prices; 5) Local policy and regulatory environment.

  16. ANUDISflM-37 SMART BRIDGE: A TOOL FOR ESTIMATING THE MILITARY LOAD CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANUDISflM-37 SMART BRIDGE: A TOOL FOR ESTIMATING THE MILITARY LOAD CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES USING VARYING LEVELS OF INFORMATION Decision and Information Sciences Division Argonne National Laboratory Operated by The University of Chicago, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, for the United States Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory, with facilities in the states of Illinois and Idaho, is owned by the United States Government, and operated by the University of

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Evaluating Military Bases and Fleet Readiness for Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Through the AVTA, Idaho National Laboratory also does fleet and other analysis to evaluate readiness for plug-in electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles. The following reports describe analysis studies Idaho National Laboratory conducted for the military to evaluate readiness for plug-in electric vehicles.

  18. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  19. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  20. Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turbiville, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

  1. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  2. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 6 report: The potential impacts of a worst-case military conflict on world petroleum availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.; Das, S.; Leiby, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    A major Middle East and European military confrontation would cause an extremely large disruption in the supply of oil worldwide. There would be imbalances between oil supply and demand. These imbalances can only be solved by rationing and by military actions to ensure an adequate flow of crude oil and products. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V. ); Truett, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems' data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  4. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V.; Truett, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems` data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  5. EO 13112: Invasive Species | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 13112: Invasive Species EO 13112: Invasive Species Establishment of the Invasive Species Council PDF icon EO 13112: Invasive Species More Documents & Publications EO 13089 -- ...

  6. FWS - Candidate Species List under the Endangered Species Act...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    what a candidate species is under Section 4 of the Endangered Species Act. Author U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Published U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011 DOI Not Provided...

  7. Automation and optimization of the design parameters in tactical military pipeline systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frick, R.M.

    1988-12-01

    Tactical military petroleum pipeline systems will play a vital role in any future conflict due to an increased consumption of petroleum products by our combined Armed Forces. The tactical pipeline must be rapidly constructed and highly mobile to keep pace with the constantly changing battle zone. Currently, the design of these pipeline system is time consuming and inefficient, which may cause shortages of fuel and pipeline components at the front lines. Therefore, a need for a computer program that will both automate and optimize the pipeline design process is quite apparent. These design needs are satisfied by developing a software package using Advance Basic (IBM DOS) programming language and made to run on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The program affords the user the options of either finding the optimum pump station locations for a proposed pipeline or calculating the maximum operating pressures for an existing pipeline. By automating the design procedure, a field engineer can vary the pipeline length, diameter, roughness, viscosity, gravity, flow rate, pump station pressure, or terrain profile and see how it affects the other parameters in just a few seconds. The design process was optimized by implementing a weighting scheme based on the volume percent of each fuel in the pipeline at any given time.

  8. Final report for LDRD project 11-0783 : directed robots for increased military manpower effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Wagner, John S.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Morrow, James Dan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this LDRD is to develop technology allowing warfighters to provide high-level commands to their unmanned assets, freeing them to command a group of them or commit the bulk of their attention elsewhere. To this end, a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) was developed, incorporating novel and uniquely capable feature creation and reinforcement learning algorithms. BECCA was demonstrated on both a mobile manipulator platform and on a seven degree of freedom serial link robot arm. Existing military ground robots are almost universally teleoperated and occupy the complete attention of an operator. They may remove a soldier from harm's way, but they do not necessarily reduce manpower requirements. Current research efforts to solve the problem of autonomous operation in an unstructured, dynamic environment fall short of the desired performance. In order to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicle (UV) operators, we proposed to develop robots that can be 'directed' rather than remote-controlled. They are instructed and trained by human operators, rather than driven. The technical approach is modeled closely on psychological and neuroscientific models of human learning. Two Sandia-developed models are utilized in this effort: the Sandia Cognitive Framework (SCF), a cognitive psychology-based model of human processes, and BECCA, a psychophysical-based model of learning, motor control, and conceptualization. Together, these models span the functional space from perceptuo-motor abilities, to high-level motivational and attentional processes.

  9. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of activity in August of 2000.

  10. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  11. ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out Initial Results Save Nearly $11 Million in Energy Costs at 84 U.S. Military Bases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON - The United States Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the initial results of energy cost reduction by 84 military bases that have shifted away from traditional lighting to...

  12. Departments of Energy and Defense Launch ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out- the Military Challenge Campaign to Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CAMP LEJEUNE, NC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman on Earth Day launched a joint Department of Energy (DOE) and Defense campaign to challenge military bases nationwide to change their...

  13. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  14. BLM Sensitive Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BLM Sensitive Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBLMSensitiveSpecies&oldid612378...

  15. RESULTS OF RADIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS TAKEN NEAR JUNCTION OF HIGHWAY 3I AND MILITARY ROAD IN NIAGARA FALLSI NEI{ YOR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    7At a z'/a tlYr'/ ORNL/RASA-85/ 42 RESULTS OF RADIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS TAKEN NEAR JUNCTION OF HIGHWAY 3I AND MILITARY ROAD IN NIAGARA FALLSI NEI{ YOR Accesr to thc inlormalion in thlt rcport is limitcd to tho!. indacatod on the di3tribution lilt and to oopartmont ot Encrgy lnd Oeplrtmcnt of Enorgy Contracton vd' This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U nited States Government. N€ither the U nited States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their

  16. Solar technical assistance provided to Forest City military communities in Hawaii for incorporation of 20-30 MW of solar energy generation to power family housing for US Navy personnel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominick, Jeff; Merrigan, Tim; Boudra, Will; Miller, Ryan; Cisneros, Gabriela; Rosenthal, Andrew L.; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2010-06-01

    In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.

  17. Advanced development of rotary stratified charge 750 and 1500 HP military multi-fuel engines at Curtiss-Wright

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1982, two and four rotor naturally aspirated Stratified Charge Rotary Combustion engines were under development for the U.S. Marine Corps. These engines are described and highlights of work conducted under the government ''Advanced Development'' contracts are discussed. The basic direct injected and spark ignited stratified charge technology was defined during 1973-1976 for automotive engine applications. It was then demonstrated that the unthrottled naturally aspirated Rotary could match indirect injected diesel fuel consumption, without regard to fuel cetane or octane rating. This same technology was scaled from the 60''/sup 3//rotor automotive engine module to the 350''/sup 3//rotor military engine size. In addition, parallel company-sponsored research efforts were undertaken to explore growth directions. Tests showed significant thermal efficiency improvement at lean air-fuel ratios. When turbocharged, high exhaust energy recovery of this ported engine provided induction airflow sufficient for increased output plus excess for operation at the lean mixture strengths of best combustion efficiency. With additive improvements in mechanical efficiency accruing to higher BMEP operation, the potential for fuel economy in the same range as direct injected diesels was demonstrated. These lightweight, compact, multi-fuel engines are believed to open new possiblities for lightweight, reliable, highly mobile and agile military fighting vehicles of the future.

  18. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Burress, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  19. Invasive, Nonnative Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleInvasive,NonnativeSpecies&oldid647789" Feedback Contact needs updating...

  20. Special Status Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSpecialStatusSpecies&oldid647804" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  1. Threatened and Endangered Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Threatened and Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThreatenedandEndangeredSpecies&oldid612178...

  2. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the...

  3. Endangered Species Act and Section 7 Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  4. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or casecontrol studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.

  5. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case–control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease.« less

  6. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  7. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  8. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  9. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  10. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at the Areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East - 12445

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiselev, Sergey M.; Shandala, Nataliya K.; Titov, Alexey V.; Seregin, Vladimir A.; Akhromeev, Sergey V.; Lucyanec, Anatoly I.; Glinsky, Mark L.; Glagolev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    After termination of operation at the serviced facilities of the nuclear fleet of the former Soviet Union, the Military Technical Base in Sysoeva Bay has been reorganized to the site for SNF and RW temporary storage (STS). The main activities of STS are receipt, storage and transmission to radioactive waste reprocessing. Establishment of the RW management regional centre in the Far-Eastern region at the STS in Sysoeva Bay implies intensification of SNF and RW management in this region that can result in increasing ecological load to the adjacent areas and settlements. Regulatory supervision of the radiation safety at the areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East is one of the regulatory functions of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA of Russia). To regulate SNF an RW management and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring system is arranged. For this purpose, wide range of environmental media examinations at the Sysoeva Bay STS was performed by Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre - a technical support organization of FMBA of Russia in collaboration with the Federal State Geological Enterprise 'Hydrospecgeology' (Federal Agency for Entrails). Regulation during the RW and SNF management is continuous process, which the FMBA of Russia implements in close cooperation with other Russian responsible authorities - the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' and Federal Agency for Entrails. The Environmental radiation monitoring findings served as a basis for the associated databank arrangement. The radio ecological monitoring system was arranged at the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main stages. Some new data on the radiation situation at the facilities will appear in future and the prognostic assessment will become more precise. The mentioned natural, practical and theoretical works is a base for the development of the set of regulatory documents to assure radiation protection and safety of workers, public and environment, as well as development of documents to regulate SNF and RW management at the STS facilities. (authors)

  11. Genomic definition of species. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.

    1992-06-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.

  12. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  13. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering

  14. Endangered Species Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. It is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Commerce Department's National Marine Fisheries Service...

  15. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  16. Recruit Military Job Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location:FedEx Field, Landover, MD 20785POC: DOECorporateRecruitmentWebsite: https://events.recruitmilitary.com/ 

  17. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Department of Defense Military Bases and Department of Energy Facilities for Siting a Small Modular Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poore III, Willis P; Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of US Department of Defense (DOD) military base sites and DOE sites for possible powering with an SMR; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for several sample sites. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is demonstrate the capability to characterize specific DOD and DOE sites to identify any particular issues associated with powering the sites with an SMR using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  18. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  19. OpenEI Community - endangered species

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    http:en.openei.orgcommunityblogidaho-meeting-2comments endangered species Fauna Fish and Wildlife Flora FWS Section 12 Section 7 Wed, 05 Sep 2012 04:36:43 +0000 Kyoung 488...

  20. endangered species | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contributor 4 September, 2012 - 21:36 Idaho Meeting 2 endangered species Fauna Fish and Wildlife Flora FWS Section 12 Section 7 The second Idaho GRR meeting was held today...

  1. Aquatic Species Program (ASP): Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, E. E.

    2008-02-01

    Presentation on lessons learned from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Aquatic Species Program 1978-1996 microalgae R&D activities, presented at the 2008 AFOSR Workshop in Washington, D.C.

  2. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  3. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  4. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  5. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Solicitations There is no open solicitation at this time. You can look for other federal assistance grants by visiting www.grants.gov off site link

    New Solicitations National Laser Users' Facility Grant Program New Solicitations There is no open solicitation at this time. You can look for other federal assistance grants by visiting www.grants.gov

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a

  6. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  7. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buell, Carol Robin; Childs, Kevin L

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or “clearing house” for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  8. Species interactions differ in their genetic robustness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chubiz, Lon M.; Granger, Brian R.; Segre, Daniel; Harcombe, William R.

    2015-04-14

    Conflict and cooperation between bacterial species drive the composition and function of microbial communities. Stability of these emergent properties will be influenced by the degree to which species' interactions are robust to genetic perturbations. We use genome-scale metabolic modeling to computationally analyze the impact of genetic changes when Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica compete, or cooperate. We systematically knocked out in silico each reaction in the metabolic network of E. coli to construct all 2583 mutant stoichiometric models. Then, using a recently developed multi-scale computational framework, we simulated the growth of each mutant E. coli in the presence of S.more » enterica. The type of interaction between species was set by modulating the initial metabolites present in the environment. We found that the community was most robust to genetic perturbations when the organisms were cooperating. Species ratios were more stable in the cooperative community, and community biomass had equal variance in the two contexts. Additionally, the number of mutations that have a substantial effect is lower when the species cooperate than when they are competing. In contrast, when mutations were added to the S. enterica network the system was more robust when the bacteria were competing. These results highlight the utility of connecting metabolic mechanisms and studies of ecological stability. Cooperation and conflict alter the connection between genetic changes and properties that emerge at higher levels of biological organization.« less

  9. Candidate and Special Status Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCandidateandSpecialStatusSpecies&oldid612384" Feedback Contact needs...

  10. USFWS Endangered Species Act and Section 7 Regulations and Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  11. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clouthier, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  12. Species interactions differ in their genetic robustness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubiz, Lon M.; Granger, Brian R.; Segre, Daniel; Harcombe, William R.

    2015-04-14

    Conflict and cooperation between bacterial species drive the composition and function of microbial communities. Stability of these emergent properties will be influenced by the degree to which species' interactions are robust to genetic perturbations. We use genome-scale metabolic modeling to computationally analyze the impact of genetic changes when Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica compete, or cooperate. We systematically knocked out in silico each reaction in the metabolic network of E. coli to construct all 2583 mutant stoichiometric models. Then, using a recently developed multi-scale computational framework, we simulated the growth of each mutant E. coli in the presence of S. enterica. The type of interaction between species was set by modulating the initial metabolites present in the environment. We found that the community was most robust to genetic perturbations when the organisms were cooperating. Species ratios were more stable in the cooperative community, and community biomass had equal variance in the two contexts. Additionally, the number of mutations that have a substantial effect is lower when the species cooperate than when they are competing. In contrast, when mutations were added to the S. enterica network the system was more robust when the bacteria were competing. These results highlight the utility of connecting metabolic mechanisms and studies of ecological stability. Cooperation and conflict alter the connection between genetic changes and properties that emerge at higher levels of biological organization.

  13. Current generation by minority species heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1980-07-01

    It is proposed that electric currents be generated from the preferential heating of ions traveling in one direction but with no net momentum injected into the system. This can be accomplished with, for example, traveling waves in a two-ion-species plasma. The current can be generated efficiently enough for the scheme to be of interest in maintaining steady-state toroidal currents in a reactor.

  14. Microsoft Word - sensitive-species-table.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Sensitive Species Occurring or Potentially Occurring at LANL Scientific Name Common Name Protected Status 1 Potential to Occur 2 Gila pandora Rio Grande Chub NMS Moderate Falco peregrinus anatum American Peregrine Falcon NMT, FSOC High Falco peregrinus tundrius Arctic Peregrine Falcon NMT, FSOC Moderate Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald Eagle NMT, S1 High Cynanthus latirostris magicus Broad-billed Hummingbird NMT Low Accipiter gentilis Northern Goshawk NMS, FSOC High Lanius ludovicianus

  15. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M. ); Sprague, S. )

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  16. Indirect Gas Species Monitoring Using Tunable Diode Lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A.; Saucedo, Victor M.

    2005-02-22

    A method for indirect gas species monitoring based on measurements of selected gas species is disclosed. In situ absorption measurements of combustion species are used for process control and optimization. The gas species accessible by near or mid-IR techniques are limited to species that absorb in this spectral region. The absorption strength is selected to be strong enough for the required sensitivity and is selected to be isolated from neighboring absorption transitions. By coupling the gas measurement with a software sensor gas, species not accessible from the near or mid-IR absorption measurement can be predicted.

  17. NMS 17-2-41 Endangered Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMS 17-2-41 Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 17-2-41 Endangered SpeciesLegal Abstract This...

  18. Utah Sensitive Species List Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Species List Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Sensitive Species List Webpage Abstract Provides access to Utah Sensitive...

  19. EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) PDF icon EO 13112: Invasive Species More Documents & Publications EO 13089 -- Coral Reef Protection EA-2006: Draft Environmental Assessment Memorandum of Understanding, Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds

  20. Extension of the JCZ product species database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.; McGee, B.C.

    1998-09-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium states for energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. Product species are characterized by r{sup *}, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/{kappa}, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) database describing 750 gases listed in the JANNAF tables and were obtained by using literature values of the Lennard-Jones potential, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values to an empirical EOS. Detonation velocities predicted with the JCZS database for a wide variety of explosives are in good agreement with data. Improved predictions of low density explosives is attributed to a better description of molecular interactions at intermediate pressures.

  1. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  2. PHASE II CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE USNS BRIDGE (T AOE 10), MILITARY SEALIFT FLEET SUPPORT COMMAND, NAVAL STATION, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA DCN 5180-SR-01-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NICK A. ALTIC

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 T?hoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ships air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  3. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Julian; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species traits when assessing corridor utility.

  4. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signatures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Across Species Using Selective Signatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual

  5. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signatures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect across Species Using Selective Signatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual

  6. Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two Component Signal Transduction in Desulfovibrio Species The environmentally relevant Desulfovibrio species are sulfate-reducing bacteria that are of interest in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated water. Among these, the genome of D. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a large number of two component systems consisting of 72 putative response regulators

  7. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Lubricant Formulation and Consumption ...

  8. Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties ...

  9. Washington Priority Habitats and Species on the Web | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Habitats and Species (PHS) in Washington State. PHS is a source of best available science that can inform local planning activities, development projects, conservation...

  10. FERC Hydropower Licensing and Endangered Species - A Guide for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FERC Hydropower Licensing and Endangered Species - A Guide for Applicants, Contractors, and Staff Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Permitting...

  11. Hydropower Licensing and Endangered Species A Guide for Applicants...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydropower Licensing and Endangered Species A Guide for Applicants, Contractors, and Staff Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Hydropower...

  12. Oregon State Endangered Species List | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Web Site: Oregon State Endangered Species List Author Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Published State of Oregon, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  13. Washington State Species of Concern Lists | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Site: Washington State Species of Concern Lists Author Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife Published State of Washington, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  14. BLM - Western BLM Bird Species of Conservation Concern List ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BLM - Western BLM Bird Species of Conservation Concern List Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Checklist: BLM -...

  15. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  16. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  17. Method and device for identifying different species of honeybees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, Howard T.; Buchanan, Michael E.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A method and device have been provided for distinguishing Africanized honeybees from European honeybees. The method is based on the discovery of a distinct difference in the acoustical signatures of these two species of honeybees in flight. The European honeybee signature has a fundamental power peak in the 210 to 240 Hz range while the Africanized honeybee signature has a fundamental power peak in the 260 to 290 Hz range. The acoustic signal produced by honeybees is analyzed by means of a detecting device to quickly determine the honeybee species through the detection of the presence of frequencies in one of these distinct ranges. The device includes a microphone for acoustical signal detection which feeds the detected signal into a frequency analyzer which is designed to detect the presence of either of the known fundamental wingbeat frequencies unique to the acoustical signatures of these species as an indication of the identity of the species and indicate the species identity on a readout device.

  18. Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, J S; Park, H S; Amendt, A; Divol, L; Kugland, N L; Rozmus, W; Glenzer, S H

    2012-05-01

    Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH{sub 2} foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2{omega} probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.06 in species fraction.

  19. Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Parks, II, James E; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2004-10-01

    Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

  20. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Pentilla, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivuranta, Kari; Roberg-Perez, Kevin

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  2. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of sites versus occasions).

  3. Use of a fiber optic probe for organic species determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic probe for remotely detecting the presence and concentration organic species in aqueous solutions. The probe includes a cylindrical housing with an organic species indicator, preferably diaminonaphthyl sulfonic acid adsorbed in a silica gel (DANS-modified gel), contained in the probe's distal end. The probe admits aqueous solutions to the probe interior for mixing within the DANS-modified gel. An optical fiber transmits light through the DANS-modified gel while the indicator reacts with organic species present in the solution, thereby shifting the location of the fluorescent peak. The altered light is reflected to a receiving fiber that carries the light to a spectrophotometer or other analysis device.

  4. 31 TAC 65.176 - Endangered Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    65.176 - Endangered SpeciesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2009 Legal Citation 31 TAC 65.176 (2009) DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  5. Title 16 USC Chapter 35 - Endangered Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 16 USC Chapter 35 - Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 16 USC Chapter 35 - Endangered...

  6. TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife Code Endangered Species | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife Code Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: TPWC 68 - Parks and Wildlife...

  7. WAC - 232-12-014 Wildlife Classified as Endangered Species |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 232-12-014 Wildlife Classified as Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 232-12-014...

  8. Calculate Gas Phase Transport Properties of Pure Species and Mixtures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-10-20

    DRFM is a set of routines and data bases used to calculate gas phase transport properties of pure species and mixtures. The program(s) may stand alone or may be used as part of a larger simulation.

  9. United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Endangered Species...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Endangered Species Act of 1973Legal Abstract This page links to...

  10. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray ...

  11. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution ...

  12. Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. No abstract prepared. Authors: Molina, Alejandro ; Shaddix, Christopher R. ; Sickafoose, Shane M. ;

  13. An Investigation of the Ionic Conductivity and Species Crossover of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithiated Nafion 117 in Nonaqueous Electrolytes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect An Investigation of the Ionic Conductivity and Species Crossover of Lithiated Nafion 117 in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Investigation of the Ionic Conductivity and Species Crossover of Lithiated Nafion 117 in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Authors: Su, Liang ; Darling, Robert M ; Gallagher, Kevin G. ; Xie, Wei ; Thelen, Jacob ; Cheng, Kevin ; Badel, Andres ; Barton, John L.

  14. An Investigation of the Ionic Conductivity and Species Crossover of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithiated Nafion 117 in Nonaqueous Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 9, 2015, Research Highlights An Investigation of the Ionic Conductivity and Species Crossover of Lithiated Nafion 117 in Nonaqueous Electrolytes (a) SAXS of Li-N117 in different solvents. (b) Mass transfer resistance of the active species across the membrane. (c ) The performance of Li-N117 compared to the performance metric. (d) Minimum required selectivity as a function of the maximum energy

  15. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  16. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenberg, Kari M.

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as threatened by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as sensitive and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between bat diversity and month of the year. Future studies will be implemented based on these findings.

  17. Use of a fiber optic probe for organic species determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-12-10

    A fiber optic probe is described for remotely detecting the presence and concentration organic species in aqueous solutions. The probe includes a cylindrical housing with an organic species indicator, preferably diaminonaphthyl sulfonic acid adsorbed in a silica gel (DANS-modified gel), contained in the probe`s distal end. The probe admits aqueous solutions to the probe interior for mixing within the DANS-modified gel. An optical fiber transmits light through the DANS-modified gel while the indicator reacts with organic species present in the solution, thereby shifting the location of the fluorescent peak. The altered light is reflected to a receiving fiber that carries the light to a spectrophotometer or other analysis device. 5 figs.

  18. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  19. Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species GRID

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    BLTMS-GRID is a FORTRAN code developed to facilitate specifications of a finite-element grid for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission code called Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS). BLTMS-GRID is an open-source code. It functions under a DOS window.

  20. Breach, Leach, and Transport-Multiple Species UNCERT

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    BLTPLOT_UNCERT is a FORTRAN code developed to facilitate plotting of 2-D concentration data for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission code called Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS). BLTPLOT_UNCERT is open-source code. It functions under a DOS window.

  1. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Govind, Niranjan; Walter, Eric D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Devaraj, Arun; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Karim, Ayman M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-01-01

    Ability to predict the solubility and stability of lithium polysulfide is vital in realizing longer lasting lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein we report a combined computational and experimental spectroscopic analysis to understand the dissolution mechanism of lithium polysulfide species in an aprotic solvent medium. Multinuclear NMR and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) analysis reveals that the lithium exchange between polysulfide species and solvent molecule constitutes the first step in the dissolution process. Lithium exchange leads to de-lithiated polysulfide ions which subsequently forms highly reactive free radicals through disproportion reaction. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility.

  2. DOE/EIA-0193/P PRELIMINARY CONSERVATION TABLES FROM THE NATIONAL...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to determine what additions and modi fications should be made for REGS. A transportation panel consisting of a subset of the NIECS sample began in June 1979. Participating...

  3. Surface species produced in the radiolysis of zirconia nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrasco-Flores, Eduardo A.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2007-12-21

    Modifications to water-zirconia nanoparticle interfaces induced by {gamma} irradiation have been examined using diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT), Raman scattering, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Spectroscopy with in situ heating was used to probe variations in the dissociatively bound chemisorbed water on the zirconia nanoparticles following evaporation of the physisorbed water. DRIFT spectra show that the bridged Zr-OH-Zr species decreases relative to the terminal Zr-OH species upon irradiation. No variation is observed with Raman scattering, indicating that the zirconia morphology is unchanged. EPR measurements suggest the possible formation of the superoxide ion, presumably by modification of the surface OH groups. Trapped electrons and interstitial H atoms are also observed by EPR.

  4. Multiple Species of Bacteria Convert Elemental Mercury to Toxic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methylmercury | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Multiple Species of Bacteria Convert Elemental Mercury to Toxic Methylmercury Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy

  5. Breach, Leach and Transport-Multiple Species WIN

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-12-01

    BLTMSIN-WIN is a Windows-based preprocessor for the Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS) code developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for performance assessment analyses of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It is based, in part, on the preprocessor that the NRC developed, BLTMSIN. The code is written in Fortran and compiled with the Lahey Fortran compiler.

  6. Aquatic Species Program review: proceedings of principal investigators meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species Program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant culture technologies. The emphasis of the program is on developing a mass culture technology for cultivating oil-yielding microalgae in the American southwest. A technical and economic analysis indicated that such a concept would be feasible if (1) lipid yields from microalgae are improved, (2) there is sufficient saline water for large-scale development, and (3) microalgal lipids can be economically converted to conventional fuels. It was determined that fuels from microalgal lipids presented better options than converting the microalgal biomass to either alcohols or methane. All lipids can potentially be catalytically converted to gasoline, or the fatty acids can be converted to substitute diesel fuels. The Southwest has the necessary low, flat, underutilized lands, and carbon dioxide is available from either natural deposits or flue gas from industrial plants. The amount of saline water available will probably determine how much fuel can be produced from aquatic species, and this question should be answered during 1985. The largest constraint of this technology is the economical production of an oil-rich microalgal feedstock. The agenda for the review was divided into four sections: species selection and characterization, applied physiological studies, outdoor mass cultivation, and systems design and analysis. Papers from these presentations are included in these proceedings. Program advances were reported in the areas of species collection and selection, modulated light physiology, mass culture yields, harvesting of microalgae, mass culture facility design and analysis, and assessments on fuel options from microalgae. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Energetics of Multiple-Ion Species Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumayer, P; Berger, R; Callahan, D; Divol, L; Froula, D; London, R; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N; Michel, P; Ross, J S; Sorce, C; Widmann, K; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-05

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes in multiple-ion species plasmas has been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Gas-filled hohlraums with densities of xe22/cc are heated to Te=3keV and backscattered laser light is measured by a suite of absolutely calibrated backscatter diagnostics. Ion Landau damping is increased by adding hydrogen to the CO2/CF4 gas fill. We find that the backscatter from stimulated Brillouin scattering is reduced is monotonically reduced with increasing damping, demonstrating that Landau damping is the controlling damping mechanism in ICF relevant high-electron temperature plasmas. The reduction in backscatter is accompanied by a comparable increase in both transmission of a probe beam and an increased hohlraum radiation temperature, showing that multiple-ion species plasmas improve the overall hohlraum energetics/performance. Comparison of the experimental data to linear gain calculations as well as detailed full-scale 3D laser-plasma interaction simulations show quantitative agreement. Our findings confirm the importance of Landau damping in controlling backscatter from high-electron temperature hohlraum plasmas and have lead to the inclusion of multi-ion species plasmas in the hohlraum point design for upcoming ignition campaigns at the National Ignition Facility.

  8. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  9. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  10. Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, Roberto E. Muoz, Vctor; Araneda, Jaime; Moya, Pablo S.; Vias, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.

  11. Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid ? fibrillation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: ? A?(140) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ? A?(140) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ? We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of A?(140) fibril formation. ? At high A?(140) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ? Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid ? (A?) (140) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor A?(140) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleationpolymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. A?(140) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

  12. Separation of distinct photoexcitation species in femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bing

    2016-02-03

    Femtosecond transient absorption microscopy is a novel chemical imaging capability with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Although several powerful data analysis approaches have been developed and successfully applied to separate distinct chemical species in such images, the application of such analysis to distinguish different photoexcited species is rare. In this paper, we demonstrate a combined approach based on phasor and linear decomposition analysis on a microscopic level that allows us to separate the contributions of both the excitons and free charge carriers in the observed transient absorption response of a composite organometallic lead halide perovskite film. We found spatialmore » regions where the transient absorption response was predominately a result of excitons and others where it was predominately due to charge carriers, and regions consisting of signals from both contributors. Lastly, quantitative decomposition of the transient absorption response curves further enabled us to reveal the relative contribution of each photoexcitation to the measured response at spatially resolved locations in the film.« less

  13. Chromium accumulation in three species of central Florida centrarchids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, K.R. |

    1995-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are required in Central Florida when land is developed to treat the resulting stormwater. The St. Johns River Water Management District, the agency that regulates stormwater discharges in Central Florida, frequently approves plans that create habitat for fish and wildlife by planting desirable wetland and aquatic vegetation in the littoral zones of stormwater ponds to compensate for the loss of wetlands. The various species of fish that inhabit stormwater ponds serve as a food source to wildlife, especially wading birds. The objective of this study was to determine if fish that live in stormwater treatment ponds in Orlando, Florida contained significant concentrations of chromium. In order to determine if there were differences in chromium concentrations in fish with different foraging strategies, three species of sunfish (Centrarchidae) with substantially different foraging strategies were selected for this study: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a predator; redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), a bottom feeder; and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), an omnivore. Many researchers have shown that large quantities of chromium are found in urban runoff. Chromium sources are largely associates with the operation of motor vehicles. Several investigators have determined that chromium from urban runoff concentrates in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Sediments represent the most concentrated physical pool of metals in aquatic environments, and they are ingested by many types of aquatic organisms. Most fish are capable of accumulating heavy metals from their diet and from water through their gills. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Abundance, diversity, and resource use in an assemblage of Conus species in Enewetak lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, A.J.

    1980-10-01

    Eight species of the gastropod genus Conus co-occur in sand substrate and an adjacent meadow of Halimeda stuposa in Enewetak lagoon, an unusually diverse assemblage for this type of habitat. Population density is high, and large species predominate; they represent all major feeding groups in the genus: predators on polychaetes, enteropneusts, gastropods, and fishes. Although the two most common Conus species eat primarily the same prey species, they mainly take prey of different sizes in different microhabitats. The results suggest that sufficient microhabitat heterogeneity and prey diversity exist to permit spatial segregation and specialization on different prey resources by the different Conus species present. Between-species dissimilarity in resource use thus agrees with previous observations on more diverse Conus assemblages of subtidal coral reef platforms. Prey species diversity is inversely related to body size, confirming and extending a previously identified pattern among Conus species that prey on sedentary polychaetes.

  15. Apparatus and method for polarizing polarizable nuclear species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hersman, F. William; Leuschner, Mark; Carberry, Jeannette

    2005-09-27

    The present invention is a polarizing process involving a number of steps. The first step requires moving a flowing mixture of gas, the gas at least containing a polarizable nuclear species and vapor of at least one alkali metal, with a transport velocity that is not negligible when compared with the natural velocity of diffusive transport. The second step is propagating laser light in a direction, preferably at least partially through a polarizing cell. The next step is directing the flowing gas along a direction generally opposite to the direction of laser light propagating. The next step is containing the flowing gas mixture in the polarizing cell. The final step is immersing the polarizing cell in a magnetic field. These steps can be initiated in any order, although the flowing gas, the propagating laser and the magnetic field immersion must be concurrently active for polarization to occur.

  16. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuster, Stephen [Penn State University] [Penn State University

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  17. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Shuster, Stephen [Penn State University

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  18. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  19. Establishment and growth of experimental grass species mixtures on coal mine sites reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H.

    2005-05-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that coal mine sites in the United States be reclaimed to establish vegetative cover that is diverse, native, and capable of plant succession. However, there is a question as to whether vegetation established on coal mine sites reclaimed with biosolids is diverse and capable of plant succession. The influx of nutrients with the addition of biosolids leads to long-term dominance by early-successional species, most notably grasses, and consequently, a low establishment of woody and volunteer species. Additionally, many grass species commonly planted in reclamation have aggressive growth habits that lead to their dominance in coal mine plant communities. The establishment and growth of selected grass mixes was evaluated to determine whether alternative grass mixes would be less competitive with woody and volunteer species as compared to commonly used grass mixes. Percent vegetative cover, species richness, and the survival of direct-seeded woody species were assessed for each treatment grass mixture. It was found that Poa compress and a mixture of P. compress, Panicum virgatum, and Trifolium repens provided adequate coverage while still allowing the highest species richness and survival of woody species. Use of these species mixtures in coal mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States would likely lead to establishment of a more species-rich plant community with a greater woody species component while still providing erosion control and site protection.

  20. Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loge, Gary W.

    1999-01-01

    Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a plasma containing the species after a sufficient time period has elapsed after the generation of the plasma and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample.

  1. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D.

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  2. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  3. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  4. Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, Tomasz A.

    2014-05-14

    Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed.

  5. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14,609 9,851 14,653 10,324 8,436 2,400 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 14,049 9,344 14,362 9,408 8,434 2,400 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 767 693 574 174 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut...

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    43,728 243,242 246,243 142,696 146,356 220,601 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 71,878 63,847 74,030 44,821 42,646 50,277 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 5,915 5,174 6,420 3,359 2,775...

  7. RecruitMilitary | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 26, 2016 11:00AM to 3:00PM EDT Paul Brown Stadium, Cincinnati, OH

  8. ARPA-E University- Strategic Military Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar will provide an inside look at how one ARPA-E project team, led by Primus Power, formed a strategic partnership with a major defense contractor to demonstrate its innovative energy storage system. Don’t miss the chance to learn more about Primus Power’s innovative EnergyPod and how the company has worked with Raytheon to advance the technology.

  9. EM Field Office Manager Receives Military Honor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco receives the Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve (ESGR) Seven Seals Award in June at a ESGR recognition event in Carlsbad, N.M.

  10. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; NUCLEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONTAINERS; MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required...

  11. EM Helps Military Families in Need

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LAS VEGAS – Six families from Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas recently received nearly $4,000 in donations — funds that helped provide a welcome relief during the holidays.

  12. Military and Reservist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act Career, Seniority, Pay, and Benefits information December 20, 2005 Payment of Health Benefit Expenses for Reservists ...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating Military Bases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  14. Collaborative Military Vehicle Design | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research: Holiday Shopping & Electric Vehicles IMG0475 Innovation 247: We're Always Open primusenginefeaturedimage3 GE Innovation and Manufacturing in Europe ...

  15. Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loge, Gary W. (304 Cheryl Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1998-01-01

    Method for determining the concentration of atomic species in gases and solids. Measurement of at least two emission intensities from a species in a sample that is excited by incident laser radiation. Which generates a plasma therein after a sufficient time period has elapsed and during a second time period, permits an instantaneous temperature to be established within the sample. The concentration of the atomic species to be determined is then derived from the known emission intensity of a predetermined concentration of that species in the sample at the measured temperature, a quantity which is measured prior to the determination of the unknown concentration, and the actual measured emission from the unknown species, or by this latter emission and the emission intensity of a species having known concentration within the sample such as nitrogen for gaseous air samples.

  16. Effect of collision parameters in electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulick, R.; Goswami, K. S. [Center of Plasma Physics, Institute for plasma Research, Sonapur, Guwahati 782402 (India)] [Center of Plasma Physics, Institute for plasma Research, Sonapur, Guwahati 782402 (India); Mahanta, M. K. [Department of Physics, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati 781016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati 781016 (India)

    2013-09-15

    The effect of ion neutral collision is shown for two species of positive ions in electronegative plasma. The ion neutral collision is modeled using power law of collision cross section. It is a usual case for processing plasma to have two species of positive ions and hence we attempt to study the dynamics of the two species of ions inside the collisional sheath of electronegative plasma.

  17. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, Steve L. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Chung-Hsuan (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The tarpon and ladyfish are popular gamefishes. Adults spawn offshore. Larval and juvenile stages inhabit coastal marshes and mangroves. Both species are thermophilic (preferring warm water), euryhaline (tolerant of a wide range of salinity), and are capable of surviving at low oxygen concentrations. Wetlands destruction and degradation negatively affect these species by reducing nursery areas. 3 figs.

  19. Proportional counter device for detecting electronegative species in an air sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-03-08

    Apparatus for detecting an electronegative species comprises an analysis chamber, an inlet communicating with the analysis chamber for admitting a sample containing the electronegative species and an ionizable component, a radioactive source within the analysis chamber for emitting radioactive energy for ionizing a component of the sample, a proportional electron detector within the analysis chamber for detecting electrons emitted from the ionized component, and a circuit for measuring the electrons and determining the presence of the electronegative species by detecting a reduction in the number of available electrons due to capture of electrons by the electronegative species. 2 figures.

  20. NEPA and the Endangered Species Act: Complementary approaches or regulatory excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salk, M.S.; McCold, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, provides a broad mandate requiring protection of human health and the natural environmental, while the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, has a much narrower mandate. NEPA's purpose is to prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere{hor ellipsis},'' while the ESA's is to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved'' and a a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species{hor ellipsis}'' NEPA's current role in improving the quality of decision making by federal agencies with respect to environmental matters is a matter of some debate. This paper discusses several ways in which NEPA provides protection for rare species beyond that provided by the ESA including public involvement, consideration of rare plant species, consideration of species which are not federally listed, consideration of incremental actions of federal agencies, and discussion of alternative means to accomplish the goal of a projected action. 3 refs.

  1. Vesicle-based method and apparatus for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davalos, Rafael V.; Ellis, Christopher R. B.

    2008-03-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

  2. Vesicle-based method for collecting, manipulating, and chemically processing trace macromolecular species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davalos, Rafael V.; Ellis, Christopher R. B.

    2010-08-17

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for inserting one or several chemical or biological species into phospholipid containers that are controlled within a microfluidic network, wherein individual containers are tracked and manipulated by electric fields and wherein the contained species may be chemically processed.

  3. Aquatic Species Program Review: Proceedings of the March 1983 Principal Investigators Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  4. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a matrix species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous non-matrix species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 12 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  5. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  6. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 requires that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered (T&E) species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) staff have performed appropriate assessments of potential impacts to threatened or endangered species, and consulted with appropriate agencies with regard to protection of such species in authorizing the construction, operation, and relicensing of nuclear power generating facilities. However, the assessments and consultations concerning many facilities were performed during the 1970's or early 1980's, and have not been re-evaluated in detail or updated since those initial evaluations. A review of potential Endangered Species Act issues at licensed nuclear power facilities was completed in 1997. In that review 484 different ESA-listed species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the 75 facility sites that were examined. An update of the previous T&E species evaluation at this time is desired because, during the intervening 6 years: nearly 200 species have been added to the ESA list, critical habitats have been designated for many of the listed species, and significantly more information is available online, allowing for more efficient high-level evaluations of potential species presence near sites and the potential operation impacts. The updated evaluation included searching the NRC's ADAMS database to find any documents related to T&E species take, consultations, and evaluations of potential effects of operation on T&E species. This search recovered a total of approximately 100 documents from 13 sites. Sites that were in the relicensing or decommissioning processes were excluded from the ADAMS search. In general the ADAMS search did not reveal any serious deficiencies or compliance problems. The most notable finds were reports of takes of green sea turtles at Diablo Canyon. While these events were reported to both the NRC and to NOAA Fisheries, no record of interaction between the two federal agencies was found. Species potentially present at each site were determined via querying the Geographical, Environmental, and Siting Information System (GEn&SIS) database developed for the NRC by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results of these queries were compared against the 1997 review, and in the cases of sites that were in the relicensing process, with the results of those site specific evaluations. A total of 452 T&E species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the operating commercial nuclear power generating plants. Information about each of these species was gathered to support an assessment of the probability of occurrence at each of the reactor sites. Based on the assessments of which species are potentially affected at each site, and the information gathered through the ADAMS search, each site was assigned a priority value for follow-up evaluations. The priority listing did not include any sites that had entered the relicensing process, those where the licensee has indicated that they intend to enter the relicensing process before the end of 2005, or those that have entered the decommissioning process. Of the 39 remaining sites, those that were identified as the highest priority for follow-on evaluations are: Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, Crystal River, Harris, and Vogtle, followed by South Texas, Palo Verde, Salem, and Cooper.

  7. Method of molecular specie alteration by nonresonant laser induced dielectric breakdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ronn, Avigdor M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation of a molecular specie by itself or in the presence of a secondary material at a pressure above a threshold value for the particular system by a laser of predetermined minimum power and having a frequency displaced from an absorption line of the specie causes severance of the weakest bond and a yield of products containing at least one dissociative fragment from said specie. A Rogowski type TEA CO.sub.2 --N.sub.2 --He laser has been used successfully on a wide variety of molecular species. Solid, liquid and gaseous end products have been obtained depending upon the starting materials. When solids have been produced they are in the form of microfine particles or microfine aggregates. A neodymium glass laser has also been used successfully.

  8. Tritons and tritides as the solute and diffusing species in ceramic tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Intragranular diffusion of tritium is an inherent participant in the process of releasing tritium from lithium-containing ceramics that are used to breed tritium in a fusion reactor. The nature of this transport is reviewed in terms of the understanding established for the mechanism of hydrogen migration in other oxides, namely, that the diffusing species is the proton and that it moves from oxide ion to oxide ion, thereby giving rise to apparent hydroxide migration. Analogously, the triton, transiently bonded to successive oxides and forming successive tritoxides, is taken to be the dominant migrating species in ceramic breeders. In addition, tritide becomes a significant participant at low oxygen activity. The relationship of tritons and tritides as the migrating species to the observed release of both reduced and oxidized forms can be understood in terms of the thermodynamic conditions that prevail. Mechanisms exist that can be proposed to rationalize the participation of these species.

  9. NMAC 19.33.6 List of Endangered and Threatened Species | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract This regulation provides a list of threatened and endangered species in New Mexico. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2000 Legal Citation NMAC 19.33.6 DOI Not...

  10. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  11. SELECTING SPECIES FOR MARINE ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES AROUND AMCHITKA: PLANNING FOR DIVERSE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Monitoring and Assessment (2006) 123: 371-391 DOI: 10.1007/~10661-006-9203-2 @ Springer 2006 SELECTING SPECIES FOR MARINE ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES AROUND AMCHITKA: PLANNING FOR DIVERSE GOALS AND INTERESTS JOANNA BURGER*, MICHAEL GOCHFELD and STEPHEN JEWETT Rutgers University ('author for correspondence, e-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu) (Received 27 October 2005; accepted 16 January 2006) Abstract. Considerable attention has been devoted to selecting bioindicator species as part of moni-

  12. Oxidation state of cross-over manganese species on the graphite electrode

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of lithium-ion cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Oxidation state of cross-over manganese species on the graphite electrode of lithium-ion cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation state of cross-over manganese species on the graphite electrode of lithium-ion cells Authors: Gowda, Sanketh R. ; Gallagher, Kevin G. ; Croy, J. R. ; Bettge, Martin ; Thackeray, Michael ; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1161339 DOE Contract Number:

  13. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  14. Long-term successional forest dynamics: species and community responses to climatic variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardol, Paul; Todd Jr, Donald E; Hanson, Paul J; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Question: Are tree dynamics sensitive to climatic variability, and do tree species differ in their responses to climatic variability? Hence, is vulnerability of forest communities to climatic variability depending on stand composition? Location: Mixed young forest at Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, East-Tennessee, USA. Methods: Using a long-term data set (1967-2006), we analyzed temporal forest dynamics at the tree and species level, and we analyzed community dynamics for forest stands that different in their initial species composition (i.e., Chestnut Oak, Oak-Hickory, Pine, and Yellow poplar stands). Using summer drought and growing season temperature as defined climate drivers, we evaluated relationships between forest dynamics and climate across levels of organization. Results: Over the 4-decade studied period, forest communities underwent successional change and substantially increased their biomass. Variation in summer drought and growing season temperature contributed to temporal biomass dynamics for some tree species, but not for others. Stand-level responses to climatic variability were shown to be related to responses of specific component species; however, not for Pine stands. Pinus echinata, the dominant species in stands initially identified as Pine stands, decreased over time due to periodical outbreaks of the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). The outbreaks on Walker Branch could not be directly related to climatic conditions. Conclusions: Our results imply that vulnerability of developing forests to predicted climate conditions is stand-type dependent, and hence, is a function of species composition. Autogenic successional processes (or insect outbreaks) were found to prevail over climatic variability in determining long-term forest dynamics for stands dominated by sensitive species, emphasizing the importance of studying interactions between forest succession and climate change.

  15. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying photovoltaics (PV) systems on a superfund site located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.17/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Massachusetts, such as the solar renewable energy credits. According to calculations, MMR can place 8 MW of ballast-weighted, ground-mounted PV systems on the crowns of the three landfill caps and the borrow pit with the PV modules tilted at 30 degrees.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim E.; Wunschel, David S.; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martinez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-03

    IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

  18. A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Song, Yujiang; Pereira, Eulalia F.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2008-05-20

    A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  19. Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G.; Tharp, M Lynn; Fogel, Jonah

    2009-02-01

    Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

  20. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  1. High Throughput Ambient Mass Spectrometric Approach to Species Identification and Classification from Chemical Fingerprint Signatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Espinoza, Edgard O.; Cody, Robert B.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Christensen, Earl D.; Moore, Hannah E.; Maleknia, Simin; Drijhout, Falko P.

    2015-07-09

    A high throughput method for species identification and classification through chemometric processing of direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry-derived fingerprint signatures has been developed. The method entails introduction of samples to the open air space between the DART ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet, with the entire observed mass spectral fingerprint subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering processing. Moreover, a range of both polar and non-polar chemotypes are instantaneously detected. The result is identification and species level classification based on the entire DART-MS spectrum. In this paper, we illustrate how the method can be used to: (1) distinguishmore » between endangered woods regulated by the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) treaty; (2) assess the origin and by extension the properties of biodiesel feedstocks; (3) determine insect species from analysis of puparial casings; (4) distinguish between psychoactive plants products; and (5) differentiate between Eucalyptus species. An advantage of the hierarchical clustering approach to processing of the DART-MS derived fingerprint is that it shows both similarities and differences between species based on their chemotypes. Furthermore, full knowledge of the identities of the constituents contained within the small molecule profile of analyzed samples is not required.« less

  2. High Throughput Ambient Mass Spectrometric Approach to Species Identification and Classification from Chemical Fingerprint Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Espinoza, Edgard O.; Cody, Robert B.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Christensen, Earl D.; Moore, Hannah E.; Maleknia, Simin; Drijhout, Falko P.

    2015-07-09

    A high throughput method for species identification and classification through chemometric processing of direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry-derived fingerprint signatures has been developed. The method entails introduction of samples to the open air space between the DART ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet, with the entire observed mass spectral fingerprint subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering processing. Moreover, a range of both polar and non-polar chemotypes are instantaneously detected. The result is identification and species level classification based on the entire DART-MS spectrum. In this paper, we illustrate how the method can be used to: (1) distinguish between endangered woods regulated by the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) treaty; (2) assess the origin and by extension the properties of biodiesel feedstocks; (3) determine insect species from analysis of puparial casings; (4) distinguish between psychoactive plants products; and (5) differentiate between Eucalyptus species. An advantage of the hierarchical clustering approach to processing of the DART-MS derived fingerprint is that it shows both similarities and differences between species based on their chemotypes. Furthermore, full knowledge of the identities of the constituents contained within the small molecule profile of analyzed samples is not required.

  3. Endangered Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Owl The Mexican spotted owl is the only subspecies of spotted owl recognized in New Mexico and generally inhabits mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests in mountains and...

  4. Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bird habitats during the nesting season to information on where certain types of bats can be found, the document includes guidance to help LANL project managers conduct...

  5. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  6. System and method for generating current by selective minority species heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1983-01-01

    A system for the generation of toroidal current in a plasma which is prepared in a toroidal magnetic field. The system utilizes the injection of low-frequency waves into the plasma by means of phased antenna arrays or phased waveguide arrays. The plasma is prepared with a minority ion species of different charge state and different gyrofrequency from the majority ion species. The wave frequency and wave phasing are chosen such that the wave energy is absorbed preferentially by minority species ions traveling in one toroidal direction. The absorption of energy in this manner produces a toroidal electric current even when the injected waves themselves do not have substantial toroidal momentum. This current can be continuously maintained at modest cost in power and may be used to confine the plasma. The system can operate efficiently on fusion grade tokamak plasmas.

  7. Valid flow combinations for stable sheath in a magnetized multiple ion species plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Devendra; Kaw, Predhiman K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Theoretical study is done of the entry criterion for the plasma flow into the electrostatic boundary layer, or sheath, forming in a magnetized multiple ion species plasma. Finding valid entry velocity combinations in a magnetized set up requires a magnetized equivalent of the generalized Bohm criterion. A magnetized generalized entry criterion is obtained with the scale length distribution in a region of validity for the stable solutions. The analysis finds that the valid entry flow velocity combinations with distinct values of individual ion species can correspond to a unique system phase velocity. Magnetization effects govern the region of validity whose boundaries collapse to the unmagnetized sheath criterion in the limit of normal incidence, independent of the strength of the magnetic field. Considerably smaller entry velocities, in comparison to the unmagnetized system sound velocity, are recovered for the species in appropriate regime of magnetization in the cases of oblique incidences.

  8. Quantitative degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy: Probes for molecular species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrow, R.; Rakestraw, D.; Paul, P.; Lucht, R.; Danehy, P.; Friedman-Hill, E.; Germann, G.

    1993-12-01

    Resonant degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) is currently the subject of intensive investigation as a sensitive diagnostic tool for molecular species. DFWM has the advantage of generating a coherent (beam-like) signal which results in null-background detection and provides excellent immunity to background-light interference. Since multiple one-photon resonances are involved in the signal generation process, the DFWM technique can allow sensitive detection of molecules via electronic, vibrational or rotational transitions. These properties combine to make DFWM a widely applicable diagnostic technique for the probing of molecular species. The authors are conducting fundamental and applied investigations of DFWM for quantitative measurements of trace species in reacting gases. During the past year, efforts have been focussed in two areas: (1) understanding the effects of collisional processes on the DFWM signal generation process, and (2) exploring the applicability of infrared DFWM to detect polyatomic molecules via rovibrational transitions.

  9. A shock tube study of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with combustion species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, N.; Koffend, J.B.

    1993-12-01

    To extend the semi-empirical techniques of Benson and coworkers, and to extend the database of reliable high temperature measurements of OH radicals with hydrocarbons and other fuels and their decomposition products, the authors undertook a research program with both experimental and computational tasks. The experimental goal was to design a procedure for measuring, at combustion temperatures, the reaction rate coefficients of OH radicals with fuels and other species of importance in combustion or propulsion systems. The computational effort was intended to refine the semi-empirical transition-state-theory procedures for extrapolating rate coefficients of reactions of OH with combustion species of interest, for predicting rate coefficients for species not studied in the laboratory, and to examine the ability of the theory to predict rate coefficients for different pathways in the case the reagent possessed more than one nonequivalent H atoms.

  10. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be valuableadvancements for the field of comparative genomics.

  11. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  12. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of such policies and programs.

  13. Revision of species inventory checklists for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, N.T. )

    1990-10-01

    This report revises and updates the 1974 report by W. C. Martin and W. L. Wagner, Biological Survey of Kirtland Air Force Base (East). The biological communities of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) are described with respect to the Biome classification system of Brown (1982), and a standardized system of habitat types is proposed based on biome and soil type. The potential occurrence of state or federally endangered species is discussed. No species listed as endangered or threatened is known to occur on KAFB, although five are identified as potentially occurring. Updated lists of amphibians, reptiles, breeding birds, mammals, and plants are presented. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950{degree}C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800{degree} to 950{degree}C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na{sub 2}O, NaCl, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820{degree}. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 {mu}m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  15. Identifying low-coverage surface species on noble metal nanoparticles by DNP-NMR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Perras, Frdric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Schwartz, Thomas J.; Dumesic, James A.; Shanks, Brent H.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    DNP-NMR spectroscopy has been applied to enhance the signal for organic molecules adsorbed on ?-Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticles. In addition, by offering >2500-fold time savings, the technique enabled the observation of 13C-13C cross-peaks for low coverage species, which were assigned to products from oxidative degradation of methionine adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface.

  16. Equation of state for high explosives detonation products with explicit polar and ionic species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S; Glaesemann, K R; Fried, L E

    2006-06-28

    We introduce a new thermodynamic theory for detonation products that includes polar and ionic species. The new formalism extends the domain of validity of the previously developed EXP6 equation of state library and opens the possibility of new applications. We illustrate the scope of the new approach on PETN detonation properties and water ionization models.

  17. Method of analysis of polymerizable monomeric species in a complex mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E

    2014-03-18

    Method of selective quantitation of a polymerizable monomeric species in a well spacer fluid, said method comprising the steps of adding at least one solvent having a refractive index of less than about 1.33 to a sample of the complex mixture to produce a solvent phase, and measuring the refractive index of the solvent phase.

  18. Tritons and tritides as the solute and diffusing species in ceramic tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

    1988-06-01

    Intragranular diffusion of tritium is one component of the overall process for tritium release from lithium-containing ceramics that may be used to breed tritium in a fusion reactor. The nature of this transport is reviewed in terms of the understanding established for the mechanism of hydrogen migration in other oxides. In this mechanism, the diffusing species is the proton, which moves from oxide ion to oxide ion, thereby giving rise to apparent hydroxide migration. Analogously, at high oxygen activity, the tritio, transiently bonded to successive oxides and forming successive tritoxides, is taken to be the dominant migrating species in ceramic breeders. In addition, tritide is a significant participant in tritium release at low oxygen activity. The relationship of tritons and tritides as the migration species to the observed release of both reduced and oxidized forms of tritium can be understood in terms of the thermodynamic conditions that prevail. Mechanisms are proposed to rationalize the participation of these species. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  20. Coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy system for point temperature and major species concentration measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    1993-10-01

    The Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy system (CARS) has been developed as a laser-based, advanced, combustion-diagnostic technique to measure temperature and major species concentration. Principles of operation, description of the system and its capabilities, and operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

  1. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  2. New Model Examines Cumulative Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Sensitive Species

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Argonne National Laboratory recently developed the prototype of a spatially explicit individual-based model for examining the cumulative impacts of wind energy development on populations and habitats of the greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)—an important wildlife species that has been affected by energy development in the western United States.

  3. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the ????rst time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  4. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R. [Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States); Collins, W. [Dept. of the Army, Fort Ord, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  5. Diffusion and Adsorption of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-02-07

    Atomistic simulations were performed to study the diffusion and adsorption of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} and of some of its constituent species, i.e., UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, in feldspar nano-sized fractures. Feldspar is important to uranium remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site as it has been found in recent studies to host contaminants within its intragrain fractures. In addition, uranyl carbonate species are known to dominate U(VI) speciation in conditions relevant to the Hanford site. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the presence of the feldspar surface diminishes the diffusion coefficients of all the species considered in this work and that the diffusion coefficients do not reach their bulk aqueous solution values in the center of a 2.5 nm fracture. Moreover, the MD simulations showed that the rate of decrease in the diffusion coefficients with decreasing distance from the surface is greater for larger adsorbing species. Free energy profiles of the same species adsorbing on the feldspar surface revealed a large exothermic free energy of adsorption for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, which are able to adsorb to the surface with their uranium atom directly bonded to a surface hydroxyl oxygen, whereas adsorption of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}, which attach to the surface via hydrogen bonding from a surface hydroxyl group to a carbonate oxygen, was calculated to be either only slightly exothermic or endothermic.

  6. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  7. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal species in the same photobioreactor system should be similar at light limited growth conditions based on photon flux. It is how the algae 'allocate' this energy captured that will vary: Data will be presented that shows that Botryococcus invests greater energy in oil production than Chlorella under these growth conditions. In essence, the Chlorella can grow 'fast and lean' or can be slowed to grow 'slow and fat'. The overall energy potential between the Chlorella and Botryococcus, then, becomes much more equivalent on a per-photon basis. This work will indicate an interesting relationship between two very different algae species, in terms of growth rate, lipid content and composition, and energy efficiency of the overall process. The presentation will indicate that in light-limited growth, it cannot be assumed that either rapid growth rate or lipid production rate can be used as stand-alone indicators of which species-lipid relationships will truly be more effective in algae-to-fuels scenarios.

  8. Species specific identification of spore-producing microbes using the gene sequence of small acid-soluble spore coat proteins for amplification based diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinney, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers for the detection of certain Bacillus species, such as Bacillus anthracis. The primers specifically amplify only DNA found in the target species and can distinguish closely related species. Species-specific PCR primers for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus globigii and Clostridium perfringens are disclosed. The primers are directed to unique sequences within sasp (small acid soluble protein) genes.

  9. Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, David Charles; Hathcock, Charles Dean

    2015-11-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Management Plan (HMP) fulfills a commitment made to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Mitigation Action Plan” (DOE 1996). The HMP received concurrence from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1999 (USFWS consultation numbers 2-22-98-I-336 and 2-22-95-I-108). This 2015 update retains the management guidelines from the 1999 HMP for listed species, updates some descriptive information, and adds the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) and Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) which were federally listed in 2014 (Keller 2015: USFWS consultation number 02ENNM00- 2015-I-0538).

  10. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinojosa, H.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  11. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-01-14

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  12. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2015-01-14

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, asmore » predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.« less

  14. Liquid metal ion source and alloy for ion emission of multiple ionic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Wysocki, Joseph A.; Storms, Edmund K.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Behrens, Robert G.; Swanson, Lynwood W.; Bell, Anthony E.

    1987-06-02

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy for the simultaneous ion evaporation of arsenic and boron, arsenic and phosphorus, or arsenic, boron and phosphorus. The ionic species to be evaporated are contained in palladium-arsenic-boron and palladium-arsenic-boron-phosphorus alloys. The ion source, including an emitter means such as a needle emitter and a source means such as U-shaped heater element, is preferably constructed of rhenium and tungsten, both of which are readily fabricated. The ion sources emit continuous beams of ions having sufficiently high currents of the desired species to be useful in ion implantation of semiconductor wafers for preparing integrated circuit devices. The sources are stable in operation, experience little corrosion during operation, and have long operating lifetimes.

  15. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  16. Ion Thermal Decoupling and Species Separation in Shock-Driven Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A,; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Wilks, S.; Delettrez, J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous reduction of the fusion yields by 50% and anomalous scaling of the burn-averaged ion temperatures with the ion-species fraction has been observed for the first time in DHe3-filled shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions. Two ion kinetic mechanisms are used to explain the anomalous observations: thermal decoupling of the D and He3 populations and diffusive species separation. The observed insensitivity of ion temperature to a varying deuterium fraction is shown to be a signature of ion thermal decoupling in shock-heated plasmas. The burn-averaged deuterium fraction calculated from the experimental data demonstrates a reduction in the average core deuterium density, as predicted by simulations that use a diffusion model. Accounting for each of these effects in simulations reproduces the observed yield trends.

  17. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of suchmore » policies and programs.« less

  18. Identifying low-coverage surface species on supported noble metal nanoparticle catalysts by DNP-NMR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Schwartz, Thomas J.; Dumesic, James A.; Shanks, Brent H.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    DNP-NMR spectroscopy has been applied to enhance the signal for organic molecules adsorbed on γ-Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticles. In addition, by offering >2500-fold time savings, the technique enabled the observation of 13C-13C cross-peaks for low coverage species, which were assigned to products from oxidative degradation of methionine adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface.

  19. Identifying low-coverage surface species on supported noble metal nanoparticle catalysts by DNP-NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Perras, Frdric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Schwartz, Thomas J.; Dumesic, James A.; Shanks, Brent H.; Pruski, Marek

    2015-11-20

    DNP-NMR spectroscopy has been applied to enhance the signal for organic molecules adsorbed on ?-Al2O3-supported Pd nanoparticles. In addition, by offering >2500-fold time savings, the technique enabled the observation of 13C-13C cross-peaks for low coverage species, which were assigned to products from oxidative degradation of methionine adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface.

  20. Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial Species Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAn ORNL researcher developed a method for producing furfuryl alcohol (FA) through bioprocessing using a thermophilic microorganism. This organism has been shown to be highly resistant to the toxic effects of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and can propagate in the presence of over 48 g/L (500

  1. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  2. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  3. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  4. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  5. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_sappok.pdf More Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on

  6. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  7. Imaging Hindered Rotations of Alkoxy Species on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Rousseau, Roger J.; Gong, Jinlong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2009-12-16

    We present the first study of the rotational dynamics of organic species on any oxide surface. Specifically, variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and dispersion-corrected density functional theory are used to study the alkyl chain conformational disorder and dynamics of 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-octoxy on rutile TiO2(110). Initially, the geminate pairs of the octoxy and bridging hydroxyl species are created via octanol dissociation on bridging-oxygen (Ob) vacancy defects. The STM images provide time averaged snapshots of octoxy species rotating among multiple energetically nearly-degenerate configurations accessible at a given temperature. In the calculations we find that the underlying corrugated potential energy surface is a result of the interplay between attractive Van der Waals dispersion forces leading to weak attractive C...Ti and repulsive C...Ob interactions which lead to large barriers of 50-70kJmol-1 for the rotation of the octoxy alkyl chains across the Ob rows. In the presence of the germinal hydroxyl groups we find that the relative populations of the various conformations as well as the rotational barriers are perturbed by the presence of geminate hydroxyl due to additional C...hydroxyl repulsions.

  8. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spence, David; Lykke, Keith

    1998-01-01

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H.sup.+, D.sup.+, O.sup.+, N.sup.+, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H.sub.2 O, D.sub.2 O, O.sub.2, and SF.sub.6, among others, with the most effective being water (H.sub.2 O) and deuterated water (D.sub.2 O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H.sup.+) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D.sup.+). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H.sub.2.sup.+,H.sub.3.sup.+ and D.sub.2.sup.+, D.sub.3.sup.+, into the desired ion species, H.sup.+ and D.sup.+, respectively.

  9. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1998-08-04

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O) and deuterated water (D{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H{sup +}) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D{sup +}). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +}, into the desired ion species, H{sup +} and D{sup +}, respectively. 4 figs.

  10. Mechanisms of pyrite oxidation to non-slagging species. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akan-Etuk, A.E.J.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    This document is the tenth quarterly status report on a project that is concerned with enhancing the transformation of iron pyrite to non-slagging species during staged, low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (P.C.) combustion. The research project is intended to advance PETC`s efforts to improve the technical understanding of the high-temperature chemical and physical processes involved in the utilization of coal. The work focuses on the mechanistic description and rate quantification of the effects of fuel properties and combustion environment on the oxidation of iron pyrite to form the non-slagging species magnetite. During this report period numerical encoding of a pyrite combustion model was embarked upon. The effort was intended to lead to predictive capabilities with respect to pyrite composition during pulverized coal firing. Many subroutines were written of a FORTRAN computer program to track the fate of a pyrite particle by integrating time-dependent differential equations for species, momentum, and energy conservation. Inputs to the program include fuel-related properties such as particle size and composition, as well as properties of the reactor environment such as oxygen level, temperature, gas velocity, and a set of initial and final positions.

  11. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  12. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  13. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Baron, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1995-08-01

    Historically, ecological risk assessment at CERCLA sites [such as the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)], has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source operable unit. Consequently the species that are generally considered are those with home ranges small enough such that multiple individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the contaminated site. This approach is adequate for sites with single, discrete areas of contamination that only provide habitat for species with limited requirements. This approach is not adequate however for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. Because wide-ranging wildlife species may travel between and use multiple contaminated sites they may be exposed to and be at risk from contaminants from multiple locations. Use of a particular contaminated site by wide-ranging species will be dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat available at that site. Therefore to adequately evaluate risks to wide-ranging species at the ORR-wide scale, the use of multiple contaminated sites must be weighted by the amount of suitable habitat on OUs. This reservation-wide ecological risk assessment is intended to identify which endpoints are significantly at risk; which contaminants are responsible for this risk; and which OUs significantly contribute to risk.

  14. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  15. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-02

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ≤ 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size.more » From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.« less

  16. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-02

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 13 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ? 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size. From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.

  17. Study of radicals, clusters and transition state species by anion photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Free radicals, elemental and van der Waals clusters and transition state species for bimolecular chemical reactions are investigated using anion photoelectron spectroscopy. Several low-lying electronic states of ozone have been identified via photoelectron spectroscopy of O{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. A characterization of these states is important to models for atmospheric ozone reaction kinetics. The fluoroformyloxyl radical, FCO{sub 2}, has been investigated, providing vibrational frequencies and energies for two electronic states. The technique has also been employed to make the first direct observation and characterization of the NNO{sub 2} molecule. Several electronic states are observed for this species which is believed to play a role as a reactive intermediate in the N + NO{sub 2} reaction. The experimental results for all three of these radicals are supplemented by ab initio investigations of their molecular properties. The clusters investigations include studies of elemental carbon clusters (C{sub 2}{sup {minus}} {minus} C{sub 11}{sup {minus}}), and van der Waals clusters (X{sup {minus}}(CO{sub 2}){sub n}, X = I, Br, Cl; n {le} 13 and I{sup {minus}} (N{sub 2}O){sub n=1--11}). Primarily linear clusters are observed for the smaller carbon clusters, while the spectra of the larger clusters contain contribution from cyclic anion photodetachment. Very interesting ion-solvent interactions are observed in the X{sup {minus}}(CO{sub 2})n clusters. The transition state regions for several bimolecular chemical reactions have also been investigated by photodetachment of a negative ion precursor possessing a geometry similar to that of the transition state species. These spectra show features which are assigned to motions of the unstable neutral complex existing between reactants and products.

  18. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant response of species to climate change, but our experiments suggest that other processes may act in some species that reduce the likelihood of geographic range change. In the first part of our DOE grant (ending 2008) we argued that the process of local adaptation of populations within a species range, followed by climatic changes that occur too quickly for adaptive evolution, is an underappreciated mechanism by which climate change could affect biodiversity. When this process acts, species ranges may not shift readily toward the poles, slowing the rate of species and biome change. To test this claim, we performed an experiment comparing core and peripheral populations in a series of field observations, translocation experiments, and genetic analyses. The papers in Appendix A were generated from 2005-2008 funding. In the second part of the DOE grant (ending 2011) we studied which traits promote population differentiation and local adaptation by building genomic resources for our study species and using these resources to reveal differences in gene expression in peripheral and core populations. The papers in Appendix B were generated from 2008-2011 funding. This work was pursued with two butterfly species that have contrasting life history traits (body size and resource specialization) and occupy a common ecosystem and a latitudinal range. These species enabled us to test the following hypotheses using a single phylogenetic group.

  19. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Cytotoxicity of InP/ZnS quantum dots related to reactive oxygen species generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibli, H.; Carlini, L.; Park, S.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as a presumably less hazardous alternative to cadmium-based particles, but their cytotoxicity has not been well examined. Although their constituent elements are of very low toxicity to cells in culture, they nonetheless exhibit phototoxicity related to generation of reactive oxygen species by excited electrons and/or holes interacting with water and molecular oxygen. Using spin-trap electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and reporter assays, we find a considerable amount of superoxide and a small amount of hydroxyl radical formed under visible illumination of biocompatible InP QDs with a single ZnS shell, comparable to what is seen with CdTe. A double thickness shell reduces the reactive oxygen species concentration approximately two-fold. Survival assays in five cell lines correspondingly indicate a distinct reduction in toxicity with the double-shell InP QDs. Toxicity varies significantly across cell lines according to the efficiency of uptake, being overall significantly less than what is seen with CdTe or CdSe/ZnS. This indicates that InP QDs are a useful alternative to cadmium-containing QDs, while remaining capable of electron-transfer processes that may be undesirable or which may be exploited for photosensitization applications.

  1. An analytic expression for the sheath criterion in magnetized plasmas with multi-charged ion species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2015-04-15

    The generalized Bohm criterion in magnetized multi-component plasmas consisting of multi-charged positive and negative ion species and electrons is analytically investigated by using the hydrodynamic model. It is assumed that the electrons and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with different temperatures and the positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely. Our results show that the positive and negative ion temperatures, the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the charge number of positive and negative ions strongly affect the Bohm criterion in these multi-component plasmas. To determine the validity of our derived generalized Bohm criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition and it is shown that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when entrance velocity of ion into the sheath satisfies the obtained Bohm criterion. Also, as a practical application of the obtained Bohm criterion, effects of the ionic temperature and concentration as well as magnetic field on the behavior of the charged particle density distributions and so the sheath thickness of a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons and singly charged positive and negative ion species are studied numerically.

  2. The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R.J.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

  3. Trace species detection: Spectroscopy and molecular energy transfer at high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring the concentration of trace species such as atomic and molecular free radicals is essential in forming predictive models of combustion processes. LIF-based techniques have the necessary sensitivity for concentration and temperature measurements but have limited accuracy due to collisional quenching in combustion applications. The goal of this program is to use spectroscopic and kinetic measurements to quantify nonradiative and collisional effects on LIF signals and to develop new background-free alternatives to LIF. The authors have measured the natural linewidth of several OH A-X (3,0) rotational transitions to determine predissociation lifetimes in the upper state, which were presumed to be short compared to quenching lifetimes, and as a result, quantitative predictions about the applicability of predissociation fluorescence methods at high pressures are made. The authors are investigating collisional energy transfer in the A-state of NO. Quenching rates which enable direct corrections to NO LIF quantum yields at high temperature were calculations. These quenching rates are now being used in studies of turbulence/chemistry interactions. The authors have measured the electric dipole moment {mu} of excited-state NO using Stark quantum-beat spectroscopy. {mu} is an essential input to a harpoon model which predicts quenching efficiencies for NO (A) by a variety of combustion-related species. The authors are developing new coherent multiphoton techniques for measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration in laboratory flames to avoid the quenching problems associated with previous multiphoton LIF schemes.

  4. Consequences of stand age and species functional trait changes on ecosystem water use of forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewers, Brent; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mackay, D. Scott

    2011-07-22

    We tested whether using stomatal conductance could capture the dynamic in transpiration with forest age. To do this we by answered the question If we chose a reference stomatal conductance from one stand age of the entire chronosequence to put into a model, would modeled transpiration be biased from the other ages? with a resounding yes. We found that obtaining the right stomatal conductance was crucial for accurate models in two different chronosequences. This strongly suggests that stomatal conductance is the appropriate integrator of inter- and intra-species change in tree transpiration with forest age. If we had tried to use a single reference canopy stomatal conductance, it would not have been able to capture the variability in transpiration with stand age despite the suggestion that hydraulic limitation was consistently acting on the trees; the situation is even more complex in many boreal systems, where a transition to nonstomatal bryophytes may occur over the course of succession. Because we used a biophysical approach, even if our and other researchers chronosequences do not fit the assumptions, the results are still useful. Further, our synthesis of sap flux based estimates of tree transpiration showing a large dynamic suggest that our approach to modeling is crucial in the face of anthropogenic changes to forest age structure. We have now provided the framework for a mechanistically rigorous yet simple approach based on simple tree hydraulics to measuring and modeling stand transpiration with changing forest age and/or species composition.

  5. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  6. Thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides with interlayers of hydroxide and peroxide species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Lybeck, Jenni; Chan, Ting-Shan; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Tewari, Girish C.; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-12-15

    Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, the parent m=0 phases exhibit divergent chemical features but are less understood than the more common m>0 members of the series. Here we synthesize Sr-for-Ca substituted [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} zero phases up to x=0.2 through low-temperature hydrothermal conversion of precursor powders of the m=1 misfit system, [Co(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}. In the zero-phase [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} system, as the Sr content x increases the lattice expands anisotropically along the c axis such that the ab-plane dimension and the misfit parameter q remain essentially constant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} rock-salt block and together with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and low-temperature resistivity and thermopower measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO{sub 2} block. The higher electrical conductivity of the Sr-substituted phases is explained as a consequence of increased carrier mobility. - Graphical abstract: Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, the parent zero (m=0) phases exhibit divergent chemical features. For [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} rock-salt block and together with thermogravimetric and low-temperature transport-property measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO{sub 2} block. - Highlights: Parent m=0 [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} misfit-layer oxides exhibit divergent chemical features. [(Ca,Sr){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} is found to contain both peroxide and hydroxide species. Hydrothermal synthesis yields [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} samples up to x=0.2. With increasing x, the c axis expands but the misfit parameter q remains constant. Co valence remains intact, but peroxide and hydroxide contents may be affected.

  7. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  8. Fiber optic apparatus for detecting molecular species by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.; Sharma, S.K.

    1988-11-01

    Optrode apparatus for detecting constituents of a fluid medium includes an optical fiber having a metal coating on at least a portion of a light transmissive core. The metal is one, such as silver, gold or copper, which enhances emission of Raman signal frequencies by molecules adsorbed on the surface of the coating when monochromatic probe light of a different frequency is scattered by such molecules and the metal coating is sufficiently thin to transmit light between the absorbed molecules and the core of the fiber. Probe light is directed into one end of the fiber and a detector analyzes light emitted from the fiber for Raman frequencies that identify one or more particular molecular species. In one form, the optrode may function as a working electrode of an electrochemical cell while also serving to detect the products of oxidation or reduction reactions which occur at the electrode surface. 6 figs.

  9. Fiber optic apparatus for detecting molecular species by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.; Sharma, S.K.

    1987-11-30

    Optrode apparatus for detecting constituents of a fluid medium includes an optical fiber having a metal coating on at least a portion of a light transmissive core. The metal is one, such as silver, gold or copper, which enhances emission of Raman signal frequencies by molecules adsorbed on the surface of the coating when monochromatic probe light of a different frequency is scattered by such molecules and the metal coating is sufficiently thin to transmit light between the adsorbed molecules and the core of the fiber. Probe light is directed into one end of the fiber and a detector analyzes light emitted from the fiber for Raman frequencies that identify one or more particular molecular species. In one form, the optrode may function as a working electrode of an electrochemical cell while also serving to detect the products of oxidation or reduction reactions which occur at the electrode surface. 6 figs.

  10. The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur-782 402, Guwahati, Assam (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428, Gujarat (India); Kar, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428, Gujarat (India); Goswami, K. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur-782 402, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2012-10-15

    The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

  11. Simultaneous π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atomsmore » simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.« less

  12. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  13. Ion Species and Charge States of Vacuum Arc Plasma with Gas Feed and Longitudinal Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-06-23

    The evolution of copper ion species and charge state distributions is measured for a long vacuum arc discharge plasma operated in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of several 10 mT and working gas (Ar). It was found that changing the cathode-anode distance within 20 cm as well as increasing the gas pressure did not affect the arc burning voltage and power dissipation by much. In contrast, burning voltage and power dissipation were greatly increased as the magnetic field was increased. The longer the discharge gap the greater was the fraction of gaseous ions and the lower the fraction of metal ions, while the mean ion charge state was reduced. It is argued that the results are affected by charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization.

  14. Measurements of the Ion Species of Cathodic Arc Plasma in an Axial Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2010-10-19

    Metal and gas ion species and their charge state distributions were measured for pulsed copper cathodic arcs in argon background gas in the presence of an axial magnetic field. It was found that changing the cathode position relative to anode and ion extraction system as well as increasing the gas pressure did not much affect the arc burning voltage and the related power dissipation. However, the burning voltage and power dissipation greatly increased as the magnetic field strength was increased. The fraction of metal ions and the mean ion charge state were reduced as the discharge length was increased. The observations can be explained by the combination of charge exchange collisions and electron impact ionization. They confirm that previously published data on characteristic material-dependent charge state distributions (e.g., Anders and Yushkov, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, pp. 4824-4832, 2002) are not universal but valid for high vacuum conditions and the specifics of the applied magnetic fields.

  15. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  16. Studies of ground-state dynamics in isolated species by ionization-detected stimulated Raman techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    First, the author aims to develop methods of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy for application in studies of sparse samples. Second, the author wishes to apply such methods to structural and dynamical studies of species (molecules, complexes, and clusters) in supersonic molecular beams. In the past year, the author has made progress in several areas. The first pertains to the application of mass-selective ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies (IDSRS) to the size-specific vibrational spectroscopy of solute-solvent{sub n} clusters. The second involves the application of IDSRS methods to studies of jet-cooled benzene clusters. The third pertains to the use of IDSRS methods in the study of intermolecular vibrational transitions in van der Waals complexes.

  17. Parameterizing correlations between hydrometeor species in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Fan, Jiwen; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2011-08-16

    Mixed-phase Arctic clouds, like other clouds, contain small-scale variability in hydrometeor fields, such as cloud water or snow mixing ratio. This variability may be worth parameterizing in coarse-resolution numerical models. In particular, for modeling processes such as accretion and aggregation, it would be useful to parameterize subgrid correlations among hydrometeor species. However, one difficulty is that there exist many hydrometeor species and many microphysical processes, leading to complexity and computational expense.Existing lower and upper bounds (inequalities) on linear correlation coefficients provide useful guidance, but these bounds are too loose to serve directly as a method to predict subgrid correlations. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative method that is based on a blend of theory and empiricism. The method begins with the spherical parameterization framework of Pinheiro and Bates (1996), which expresses the correlation matrix in terms of its Cholesky factorization. The values of the elements of the Cholesky matrix are parameterized here using a cosine row-wise formula that is inspired by the aforementioned bounds on correlations. The method has three advantages: 1) the computational expense is tolerable; 2) the correlations are, by construction, guaranteed to be consistent with each other; and 3) the methodology is fairly general and hence may be applicable to other problems. The method is tested non-interactively using simulations of three Arctic mixed-phase cloud cases from two different field experiments: the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). Benchmark simulations are performed using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model that includes a bin microphysical scheme. The correlations estimated by the new method satisfactorily approximate the correlations produced by the LES.

  18. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Performing the Analysis Once the data concerning a bridge and its spans have been entered, the user can elect to analyze each span. Once the user selects the analysis option, SMART ...

  19. ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out - The Military Challenge Campaign...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is not only committed to excellence when deployed around the world, but excellence here at home as well. And so it's fitting that we're making this announcement here on Earth Day. ...

  20. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration for Sustainable Military Installatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... match vehicles with grid needs while ensuring mobility 14 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Miles Remaining for Each Vehicle Analyzed day of week Medium Duty ...

  1. Military Officers Association of America (MOAA) Job Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location: The Washington Convention CenterPOC: Recruitment@hq.doe.govWebsite: www.moaa.org/careerfairs/

  2. Large-area metallic photonic lattices for military applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    In this project we developed photonic crystal modeling capability and fabrication technology that is scaleable to large area. An intelligent optimization code was developed to find the optimal structure for the desired spectral response. In terms of fabrication, an exhaustive survey of fabrication techniques that would meet the large area requirement was reduced to Deep X-ray Lithography (DXRL) and nano-imprint. Using DXRL, we fabricated a gold logpile photonic crystal in the <100> plane. For the nano-imprint technique, we fabricated a cubic array of gold squares. These two examples also represent two classes of metallic photonic crystal topologies, the connected network and cermet arrangement.

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Thomas Reitz, Air Force Research Laboratory, at the DOD-DOE Aircraft Petroleum Use Reduction Workshop, September 30, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  4. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... or process disclosed, or represents that its use wodd not infringe privateIy owned rights. ... of the calculations made, and reduces the likelihood of arithmetic and other human errors. ...

  5. An Overview of Industry-Military Cooperation in the Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  6. An overview of industry-military cooperation in the development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  7. Available 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NATIONAL DEFENSE; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIONS; SHOCK WAVES; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; ACCIDENTS; SAFETY; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; BLAST EFFECTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; BUILDINGS; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVES;...

  8. Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    for you by talking to the points of contact listed for the sites of interest to you. Once you and the site coordinator have committed to your participation in the program, the...

  9. Savannah River Site hosts military interns | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The site also develops and deploys technologies to support radiological and chemical cleanup activities following 40 years of producing materials used for nuclear weapons, ...

  10. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

  11. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to reduce energy demand and increase use of renewable energy on DoD installations. PDF icon 48876.pdf More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy...

  12. Solar energy integrated at Hawaiian military housing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    center, as well as for thousands of new, solar-powered homes that will be constructed, complete with solar water heaters and, in the near future, solar photovoltaic panels. ...

  13. Ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Neal A.; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Parker, Eric Paul; Resnick, Paul James; Okandan, Murat; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2007-11-01

    Acoustic sensing systems are critical elements in detection of sniper events. The microphones developed in this project enable unique sensing systems that benefit significantly from the enhanced sensitivity and extremely compact foot-print. Surface and bulk micromachining technologies developed at Sandia have allowed the design, fabrication and characterization of these unique sensors. We have demonstrated sensitivity that is only available in 1/2 inch to 1 inch studio reference microphones--with our devices that have only 1 to 2mm diameter membranes in a volume less than 1cm{sup 3}.

  14. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rapidly, and demand for highly skilled solar workers is on the rise," said Minh Le, director, SunShot Initiative. "This new solar energy job training program will help our...

  15. DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility Energy 49% 32% 8% 7% 3% 1% 0% Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil Coal Steam LPG Other Test Bed Focus 4 Smart Secure Installation Energy Management * Microgrids * Energy ...

  16. Recovery of precious metals from military electronic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundiler, I.H.; Lutz, J.D.; Neiswander, P.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components from dismantled weapons components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminium and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non- hazardous waste.

  17. Energy Efficiency Upgrades Help Retired Military Officers Save...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    single-family cottages. | Photo courtesy of CPS Energy. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? ...

  18. Tribal and Military Leaders Come Together to Talk Renewable Energy |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Tribal Utility Formation in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory Ken Johnston Acting Tribal Affairs Manager BPA TRIBAL AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT JULY 2015 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 2 The Basics  BPA markets power from 31 Federal dams, the Columbia Generating Station Nuclear Plant, and several small non- Federal power plants  About 80% of the power BPA sells is hydroelectric  BPA accounts for about

  19. Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Veterans Day salute to the Department of Defense for their heroic efforts when it comes to saving electrons.

  20. The Anopheles punctulatus complex: DNA probes for identifying the Australian species using isotopic, chromogenic, and chemiluminescence detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, L.; Cooper, R.D.; Burkot, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Isotopic and enzyme-labeled species-specific DNA probes were made for the three known members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex of mosquitoes in Australia (Anopheles farauti Nos. 1, 2, and 3). Species-specific probes were selected by screening total genomic libraries made from the DNA of individual species with 32P-labeled DNA of homologous and heterologous mosquito species. The 32P-labeled probes for A. farauti Nos. 1 and 2 can detect less than 0.2 ng of DNA while the 32P-labeled probe for A. farauti No. 3 has a sensitivity of 1.25 ng of DNA. Probes were then enzyme labeled for chromogenic and chemiluminescence detection and compared to isotopic detection using 32P-labeled probes. Sequences of the probe repeat regions are presented. Species identifications can be made from dot blots or squashes of freshly killed mosquitoes or mosquitoes stored frozen, dried, and held at room temperature or fixed in isopropanol or ethanol with isotopic, chromogenic, or chemiluminescence detection systems. The use of nonisotopic detection systems will enable laboratories with minimal facilities to identify important regional vectors.

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novelmore » predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.« less

  2. Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

  3. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

    1986-01-10

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  4. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  5. Collisionless inter-species energy transfer and turbulent heating in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Diamond, P. H.

    2012-08-15

    We reconsider the classic problems of calculating 'turbulent heating' and collisionless inter-species transfer of energy in drift wave turbulence. These issues are of interest for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER, where collisionless energy transfer from electrons to ions is likely to be significant. From the wave Poynting theorem at steady state, a volume integral over an annulus r{sub 1}=-S{sub r}|{sub r{sub 1}{sup r{sub 2}}}{ne}0. Here S{sub r} is the wave energy density flux in the radial direction. Thus, a wave energy flux differential across an annular region indeed gives rise to a net heating, in contrast to previous predictions. This heating is related to the Reynolds work by the zonal flow, since S{sub r} is directly linked to the zonal flow drive. In addition to net heating, there is inter-species heat transfer. For collisionless electron drift waves, the total turbulent energy source for collisionless heat transfer is due to quasilinear electron cooling. Subsequent quasilinear ion heating occurs through linear ion Landau damping. In addition, perpendicular heating via ion polarization currents contributes to ion heating. Since at steady state, Reynolds work of the turbulence on the zonal flow must balance zonal flow frictional damping ({approx}{nu}{sub ii}{sup 2}{approx}|(e{phi}(tilde sign)/T)|{sup 4}), it is no surprise that zonal flow friction appears as an important channel for ion heating. This process of energy transfer via zonal flow has not previously been accounted for in analyses of energy transfer. As an application, we compare the rate of turbulent energy transfer in a low collisionality plasma with the rate of the energy transfer by collisions. The result shows that the collisionless turbulent energy transfer is a significant energy coupling process for ITER plasma.

  6. Fluid bed gasification Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier plasma converter process. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  7. Angular ion species distribution in droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza S.

    2015-01-21

    The angular distribution of the ion species generated from a laser irradiated droplet target is measured. The employed instrument was an electrostatic energy analyzer with differential pumping. Singly and doubly charged ions were detected at an argon ambient gas pressure of 2 × 10{sup −2} mbar. The amount of Sn{sup +} and Sn{sup 2+} and their kinetic energy is measured from 45° to 120° from the laser axis. Sn{sup +} expands approximately isotropically, and Sn{sup 2+} expansion is peaked towards the incoming laser radiation. The singly charged ion kinetic energy is close to constant over the measurement range, while it decreases by around 30% for Sn{sup 2+}. A calibrated model of the ion expansion that includes recombinations correctly predicts the mean ion charge distribution. The model is able to qualitatively estimate the influence of the laser wavelength on the mean ion charge distribution. The results show a more pronounced isotropic distribution for shorter wavelengths, and a more forward-peaked distribution for longer wavelengths. The ion charge distribution expected without the ambient gas is estimated through the measured ion kinetic energy. The presence of the ambient gas results in a decrease of the mean ion charge state and a decrease in angular anisotropy.

  8. Fiber optic apparatus for detecting molecular species by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, Stanley M.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    1988-01-01

    Optrode apparatus for detecting constituents of a fluid medium includes an optical fiber (13, 13a to 13e) having a metal coating (22, 22a to 22e) on at least a portion of a light transmissive core (17, 17a to 17d). The metal is one, such as silver, gold or copper, which enhances emission of Raman signal frequencies by molecules adsorbed on the surface of the coating when monochromatic probe light of a different frequency is scattered by such molecules and the metal coating is sufficiently thin to transmit light between the absorbed molecules and the core of the fiber. Probe light is directed into one end of the fiber and a detector (16, 16d, 16e) analyzes light emitted from the fiber for Raman frequencies that identify one or more particular molecular species. In one form, the optrode (13e) may function as a working electrode of an electrochemical cell (53) while also serving to detect the products of oxidation or reduction reactions which occur at the electrode surface.

  9. The multi-species Farley-Buneman instability in the solar chromosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, Chad A.; Dimant, Yakov S.; Oppenheim, Meers M.; Fontenla, Juan M.

    2014-03-10

    Empirical models of the solar chromosphere show intense electron heating immediately above its temperature minimum. Mechanisms such as resistive dissipation and shock waves appear insufficient to account for the persistence and uniformity of this heating as inferred from both UV lines and continuum measurements. This paper further develops the theory of the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) which could contribute substantially to this heating. It expands upon the single-ion theory presented by Fontenla by developing a multiple-ion-species approach that better models the diverse, metal-dominated ion plasma of the solar chromosphere. This analysis generates a linear dispersion relationship that predicts the critical electron drift velocity needed to trigger the instability. Using careful estimates of collision frequencies and a one-dimensional, semi-empirical model of the chromosphere, this new theory predicts that the instability may be triggered by velocities as low as 4 km s{sup -1}, well below the neutral acoustic speed. In the Earth's ionosphere, the FBI occurs frequently in situations where the instability trigger speed significantly exceeds the neutral acoustic speed. From this, we expect neutral flows rising from the photosphere to have enough energy to easily create electric fields and electron Hall drifts with sufficient amplitude to make the FBI common in the chromosphere. If so, this process will provide a mechanism to convert neutral flow and turbulence energy into electron thermal energy in the quiet Sun.

  10. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  11. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  12. EVAPORATION OF GRAIN-SURFACE SPECIES BY SHOCK WAVES IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aota, Takuhiro; Aikawa, Yuri; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of young protostellar objects detected warm SO emission, which could be associated with a forming protostellar disk. In order to investigate if such warm gas can be produced by accretion shock onto the forming disk, we calculate the sputtering and thermal desorption of various grain-surface species in one-dimensional shock waves. We find that thermal desorption is much more efficient than the sputtering in the post-shock region. While H{sub 2}O can be thermally desorbed, if the accretion velocity is larger than 8 km s{sup 1} with the pre-shock gas number density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3}, SO is desorbed if the accretion velocity ?2 km s{sup 1} and ?4 km s{sup 1}, with the pre-shock density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3} and 10{sup 8} cm{sup 3}, respectively. We also find that the column density of hydrogen nuclei in warm post-shock gas is N {sub warm} ? 10{sup 21} cm{sup 2}.

  13. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  14. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbates storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  15. Modeling Species Inhibition and Competitive Adsorption in Urea-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Lee, Jong H.

    2012-04-16

    Although the urea-SCR technology exhibits high NOx reduction efficiency over a wide range of temperatures among the lean NOx reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. Urea-SCR catalysts exhibit poor NOx reduction performance at low temperature operating conditions (T < 150 C). We postulate that the poor performance is either due to NH3 storage inhibition by species like hydrocarbons or due to competitive adsorption between NH3 and other adsorbates such as H2O and hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream. In this paper we attempt to develop one-dimensional models to characterize inhibition and competitive adsorption in Fe-zeolite based urea-SCR catalysts based on bench reactor experiments. We further use the competitive adsorption (CA) model to develop a standard SCR model based on previously identified kinetics. Simulation results indicate that the CA model predicts catalyst outlet NO and NH3 concentrations with minimal root mean square error.

  16. The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, James B.; Catlow, Stanley A.

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method is required to distinguish between the pertechnetate and non-pertechnetate forms of technetium; currently, the methods available only report the total technetium present in a sample. The overall objective of this effort is to develop a method for routinely analyzing Hanford tank waste for technetium in the pertechnetate and the non-pertechnetate forms. A phased approach will be deployed to accomplish this objective: Phase I Comparison of existing technetium analysis methods with modification; Phase II Demonstration of modified methods using non-pertechnetate spiked simulants; and, Phase III Demonstration of chosen method on Hanford tank sample containing non-pertechnetate. This report describes the Phase I work, providing a comparison of Aliquat 336 and TEVA(R)1 in the removal of pertechnetate and discussing the subsequent analysis for technetium in both alkaline and acidic environments without oxidation. The effort was executed under LAB-PLN-13-00004, The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks Phase I.

  17. Study of the photochemically generated of oxygen species by fullerene photosensitized CoS{sub 2} nanocompounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhu, Lei; Ullah, Kefayat; Ye, Shu; Sun, Qian; Jang, Won Kweon; Oh, Won-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Reactive oxygen species was detected through oxidation reaction from DPCI to DPCO. Generated reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radicals can be analysis by DPCI degradation. C{sub 60} has good effect during the photo-degradation processes. Photocatalytic activity attributed to photo-absorption effect by C{sub 60} and cooperative effect of CoS{sub 2}. - Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substance in natural water environment and can completely destroy various organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, CoS{sub 2} and CoS{sub 2}fullerene were irradiated by visible light respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species were detected through the oxidation reaction from 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). In comparison with the separate effects of CoS{sub 2} and fullerene nanoparticles, the photochemically effect of the fullerene photosensitized CoS{sub 2} composites is increased significantly due to the synergetic effect between the fullerene and the CoS{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  18. Time-resolved synchrotron diffraction and theoretical studies of very short-lived photo-induced molecular species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppens, Philip; Benedict, Jason; Messerschmidt, Marc; Novozhilova, Irina; Graber, Tim; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Vorontsov, Ivan; Scheins, Stephan; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2010-03-04

    Definitive experimental results on the geometry of fleeting species are at the time of writing still limited to monochromatic data collection, but methods for modifications of the polychromatic Laue data to increase their accuracy and their suitability for pump-probe experiments have been implemented and are reviewed. In the monochromatic experiments summarized, excited-state conversion percentages are small when neat crystals are used, but are higher when photoactive species are embedded in an inert framework in supramolecular crystals. With polychromatic techniques and increasing source brightness, smaller samples down to tenths of a micrometre or less can be used, increasing homogeneity of exposure and the fractional population of the excited species. Experiments described include a series of transition metal complexes and a fully organic example involving excimer formation. In the final section, experimental findings are compared with those from theoretical calculations on the isolated species. Qualitative agreement is generally obtained, but the theoretical results are strongly dependent on the details of the calculation, indicating the need for further systematic analysis.

  19. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  20. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novel predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.

  2. Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1T), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Tr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abt, Birte; Goker, Markus; Scheuner, Carmen; Han, Cliff; Lu, Megan; Misra, Monica; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jeffries, Cynthia; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bac- terium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1T, was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of in- terest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clos- tridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassi- fication of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional ge- nomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1T with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Environmental Effects of Sediment Transport Alteration and Impacts on Protected Species: Edgartown Tidal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Stephen B.; Schlezinger, David, Ph.D; Cowles, Geoff, Ph.D; Hughes, Patricia; Samimy; Roland, I.; and Terray, E, Ph.D.

    2012-12-29

    The Islands of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket are separated from the Massachusetts mainland by Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds; water between the two islands flows through Muskeget Channel. The towns of Edgartown (on Martha’s Vineyard) and Nantucket recognize that they are vulnerable to power supply interruptions due to their position at the end of the power grid, and due to sea level rise and other consequences of climate change. The tidal energy flowing through Muskeget Channel has been identified by the Electric Power Research Institute as the strongest tidal resource in Massachusetts waters. The Town of Edgartown proposes to develop an initial 5 MW (nameplate) tidal energy project in Muskeget Channel. The project will consist of 14 tidal turbines with 13 providing electricity to Edgartown and one operated by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth for research and development. Each turbine will be 90 feet long and 50 feet high. The electricity will be brought to shore by a submarine cable buried 8 feet below the seabed surface which will landfall in Edgartown either on Chappaquiddack or at Katama. Muskeget Channel is located between Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. Its depth ranges between 40 and 160 feet in the deepest portion. It has strong currents where water is transferred between Nantucket Sound and the Atlantic Ocean continental shelf to the south. This makes it a treacherous passage for navigation. Current users of the channel are commercial and recreational fishing, and cruising boats. The US Coast Guard has indicated that the largest vessel passing through the channel is a commercial scallop dragger with a draft of about 10 feet. The tidal resource in the channel has been measured by the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth and the peak velocity flow is approximately 5 knots. The technology proposed is the helical Gorlov-type turbine positioned with a horizontal axis that is positively buoyant in the water column and held down by anchors. This is the same technology proposed by Ocean Renewable Power Company in the Western Passage and Cobscook Bay near Eastport Maine. The blades rotate in two directions capturing the tides energy both during flood and ebb tides. The turbines will be anchored to the bottom and suspended in the water column. Initial depth of the turbines is expected to be about 25 feet below the surface to avoid impacting navigation while also capturing the strongest currents. The Town of Edgartown was initially granted a Preliminary Permit by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on March 1, 2008, and has recently received a second permit valid through August 2014. The Preliminary Permit gives Edgartown the exclusive right to apply for a power generation license for power generated from the hydrokinetic energy in the water flowing in this area. Edgartown filed a Draft Pilot License Application with FERC on February 1, 2010 and an Expanded Environmental Notification Form with the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Office at the same time. It expects to file a Final License Application in late 2013. Harris Miller Miller & Hanson (HMMH) of Burlington Massachusetts is acting as the Project Manager for the Town of Edgartown and collaborating with other partners of the project including the University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth's Marine Renewable Energy Center and the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center. HMMH was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's Advanced Water Program to conduct marine science and hydrokinetic site-specific environmental studies for projects actively seeking a FERC License. HMMH, on behalf of the Town, is managing this comprehensive study of the marine environment in Muskeget Channel and potential impacts of the tidal project on indicator species and habitats. The University of Massachusetts School of Marine Science and Technology (SMAST) conducted oceanographic studies of tidal currents, tide level, benthic habitat, and potential for biofouling and foundation scouring. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, cooperating with SMAST, developed an oceanographic model to predict changes in sediment transport as a result of the proposed tidal energy project. Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies prepared background material on protected species - including whales, seals, and sea turtles - in the project area and implemented an initial tagging program to record location specific information on seals and sea turtles. HMMH communicated research plans and findings with local stakeholder groups, state and federal resource agency staff, and the ocean power industry. The information is being used to prepare environmental permit applications and obtain approvals for project construction.

  4. Numerical investigation of the ion temperature effect in magnetized plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A. K.; Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur-782 402, Guwahati, Kamrup (M) (India); Kar, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2012-01-15

    The effect of ion temperature, magnitude of magnetic field and its orientation on a magnetized plasma sheath consisting of electrons and two species of positive ions are investigated. Using three-fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the dimensionless equations are obtained and solved numerically. It is found that with the increase of the ion temperature and magnetic field strength there is a significant change in ion densities and energies in the sheath. It is also noticed that increase of magnetic field angle enhances the ion density near the sheath edge for a constant ion temperature. With increase in ion temperature and magnetic field angle, the lighter ion density near the sheath edge enhances and reverses for the heavier ion species.

  5. Structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediates: Progress report, December 1, 1984--November 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madey, T.E.; Kelley, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The areas of work have supported a common theme: the structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediate of importance to catalysis. A variety of tools have been to study the structure and chemistry of surface species, and to develop models and concepts of broad utility in chemisorption and catalysis. Adsorption of carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen, and sulfur are discussed. Results of the research conducted or completed in the last year, as well as plans for the coming year, are summarized in this report. The results will be presented in three sections: (a) Surface Molecular Structure and Reactivity as Studied Using Electron Simulated Desorption Ion Angular Distribution (ESDIAD) and High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS); (b) Neutron Inelastic Scattering Studies of Adsorption and Reaction on Catalysts; and (c) Reaction Kinetics at High Pressures over Single Crystal Catalysts.

  6. A Literature Survey to Identify Potentially Volatile Iodine-Bearing Species Present in Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H.; Spencer, B. B.; Strachan, D. M.; Jubin, R. T.; Soelberg, N. R.; Riley, B. J.

    2015-06-30

    Four radionuclides have been identified as being sufficiently volatile in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel that their gaseous release needs to be controlled to meet regulatory requirements (Jubin et al. 2011, 2012). These radionuclides are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Of these, 129I has the longest half-life and potentially high biological impact. Accordingly, control of the release of 129I is most critical with respect to the regulations for the release of radioactive material in stack emissions. It is estimated that current EPA regulations (EPA 2010) would require any reprocessing plant in the United States to limit 129I release to less than 0.05 Ci/MTIHM for a typical fuel burnup of 55 gigawatt days per metric tonne (GWd/t) (Jubin 2011). The study of inorganic iodide in off-gas systems has been almost exclusively limited to I2 and the focus of organic iodide studies has been CH3I. In this document, we provide the results of an examination of publically available literature that is relevant to the presence and sources of both inorganic and organic iodine-bearing species in reprocessing plants. We especially focus on those that have the potential to be poorly sequestered with traditional capture methodologies. Based on the results of the literature survey and some limited thermodynamic modeling, the inorganic iodine species hypoiodous acid (HOI) and iodine monochloride (ICl) were identified as potentially low-sorbing iodine species that could present in off-gas systems. Organic species of interest included both short chain alkyl iodides such as methyl iodide (CH3I) and longer alkyl iodides up to iodododecane (C10H21I). It was found that fuel dissolution may provide conditions conducive to HOI formation and has been shown to result in volatile long-chain alkyl iodides, though these may not volatilize until later in the reprocessing sequence. Solvent extraction processes were found to be significant sources of various organic iodine-bearing species; formation of these was facilitated by the presence of radiolytic decomposition products resulting from radiolysis of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane. Primarily inorganic iodine compounds were expected from waste management processes, including chlorinated species such as ICl. Critical knowledge gaps that must still be addressed include confirmation of the existence and quantification of low-sorbing species in the off-gas of reprocessing facilities. The contributions from penetrating forms of iodine to the plant DF are largely unknown and highly dependent on the magnitude of their presence. These species are likely to be more difficult to remove and it is likely that their sequestration could be improved through the use of different sorbents, through design modifications of the off-gas capture system, or through chemical conversion prior to iodine abatement that would produce more easily captured forms.

  7. Fundamental Mechanistic Investigations of Silane and Chlorocarbon Addition to Low Valent Palladium Species and their Application to Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Mark J.

    2009-01-27

    The collaboration between Mark Fink (Tulane University) and R. Morris Bullock (Brookhaven National Laboratory, currently at PNL) is an effort to understand some of the fundamental processes involved in catalytic bond activations with low coordinate palladium species. The project involves the photochemical generation of reactive low-valent palladium species as transients using nanosecond laser flash photolysis and the subsequent investigation of their reactions with chloroarenes and hydrosilanes. In the case of Si-H activation of hydrosilanes, relatively long-lived sigma complexes are implicated. These complexes may be important models for C-H activation in hydrocarbons. The information obtained from these studies will help in the understanding of fundamental processes involved in a number of important catalytic reactions in the petrochemical and environmental areas.

  8. Rhizosphere effect of colonizer plant species on the development of soil microbial community during primary succession on postmining sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhottova, D.; Kristufek, V.; Maly, S.; Frouz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The impact of pioneer plant species Tussilago farfara on structural, functional, and growth characterization of microbial community colonizing the spoil colliery substrate was studied in a laboratory microcosm experiment. Microcosms consisting of spoil substrate (0.7 dm{sup 3} of tertiary alkaline clay sediment from Sokolov brown-coal mine area) from a pioneer site (without vegetation, 5 years after heaping) were cultivated in a greenhouse with one plant of this species. Plant roots substantially increased microbial diversity and biomass after one season (7 months) of cultivation. Roots influenced the microbial community and had nearly twice the size, higher growth, and metabolic potential in comparison to the control. The development of microbial specialists improves the plant nutrient status. Bacterial nitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixators (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium radiobacter) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were confirmed in the rhizosphere of Tussilago farfara.

  9. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  11. Identification of the Active Species in Photochemical Hole Scavenging Reactions of Methanol on TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-11-03

    Molecular and dissociative methanol adsorption species were prepared on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces to study photocatalytic oxidation of methanol in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorbed methoxy groups (CH3O-) were found to be the photoactive form of adsorbed methanol converted to adsorbed formaldehyde and a surface OH group by hole-mediated C-H bond cleavage. These results suggest that adsorbed methoxy is the effective hole scavenger in photochemical reactions involving methanol.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the ecological risks to wide-ranging wildlife species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. 1996 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Hinzman, R.L.; Jackson, B.L.; Baron, L.

    1996-09-01

    More than approximately 50 years of operations, storage, and disposal of wastes generated by the three facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant) has resulted in a mosaic of uncontaminated property and lands that are contaminated to varying degrees. This contaminated property includes source areas and the terrestrial and aquatic habitats down gradient from these source areas. Although the integrator OUs generally contain considerable habitat for biota, the source OUs provide little or no suitable habitat. Historically, ecological risk assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites has focused on species that may be definitively associated with a contaminated area or source OU. Endpoints considered in source OUs include plants, soil/litter invertebrates and processes, aquatic biota found in on-OU sediments and surface waters, and small herbivorous, omnivorous, and vermivorous (i.e., feeding on ground, litter, or soil invertebrates) wildlife. All of these endpoints have limited spatial distributions or home ranges such that numerous individuals or a distinct population can be expected to reside within the boundaries of the source OU. Most analyses are not adequate for large sites with multiple, spatially separated contaminated areas such as the ORR that provide habitat for wide-ranging wildlife species. This report is a preliminary response to a plan for assessing risks to wide-ranging species.

  13. Using Bayesian Inference Framework towards Identifying Gas Species and Concentration from High Temperature Resistive Sensor Array Data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yixin; Zhou, Kai; Lei, Yu

    2015-01-01

    High temperature gas sensors have been highly demanded for combustion process optimization and toxic emissions control, which usually suffer from poor selectivity. In order to solve this selectivity issue and identify unknown reducing gas species (CO, CH 4 , and CH 8 ) and concentrations, a high temperature resistive sensor array data set was built in this study based on 5 reported sensors. As each sensor showed specific responses towards different types of reducing gas with certain concentrations, based on which calibration curves were fitted, providing benchmark sensor array response database, then Bayesian inference framework was utilized to processmore » the sensor array data and build a sample selection program to simultaneously identify gas species and concentration, by formulating proper likelihood between input measured sensor array response pattern of an unknown gas and each sampled sensor array response pattern in benchmark database. This algorithm shows good robustness which can accurately identify gas species and predict gas concentration with a small error of less than 10% based on limited amount of experiment data. These features indicate that Bayesian probabilistic approach is a simple and efficient way to process sensor array data, which can significantly reduce the required computational overhead and training data.« less

  14. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  15. Proceedings of the SERI Biomass Program Principal Investigators' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program Reports; 23-25 June 1982, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) is concerned with how plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas is utilized. Processes are being developed in this program to make use of those aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as on their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  16. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, Kevin W.; Lindemann, Tim A.; Lyon, Glen E.; Steen, Dan C.; Wills, Cathy A.; Flick, Sarah A.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium-Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-29

    The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solvents can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li-S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  18. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manzolaro, M. Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.; Meneghetti, G.

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  19. Structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediates: Progress report, December 1, 1985-November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madey, T.E.

    1986-07-01

    The areas of work supported under this contract by DOE during the period 12/1/85-11/30/86 have a common theme: the structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediates of importance to catalysis. A variety of tools have been used to study the structure and chemistry of surface species, and to develop models and concepts of broad utility in chemisorption and catalysis. Fourteen papers have appeared, are in press, or in preparation in FY86. Results of the research conducted or completed in the last year are summarized in this report. The results are presented in three sections: surface molecular structure and reactivity as studied using electron stimulated desoprtion ion angular distribution (ESDIAD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS); neutron inelastic scattering studies of adsorption and reaction on metal catalysts and zeolite catalysts; reaction kinetics at high pressures over single crystal metal catalysts: mechanisms of catalyst poisoning. A listing of publications during the past year is included.

  20. System and method for the analysis of one or more compounds and/or species produced by a solution-based nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Policke, Timothy A; Nygaard, Eric T

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates generally to both a system and method for determining the composition of an off-gas from a solution nuclear reactor (e.g., an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)) and the composition of the fissioning solution from those measurements. In one embodiment, the present invention utilizes at least one quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in a system and/or method designed to determine at least one or more of: (i) the rate of production of at least one gas and/or gas species from a nuclear reactor; (ii) the effect on pH by one or more nitrogen species; (iii) the rate of production of one or more fission gases; and/or (iv) the effect on pH of at least one gas and/or gas species other than one or more nitrogen species from a nuclear reactor.

  1. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of Ni species trapped in graphene sheet of carbon nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushiro, Mayuko; Uno, Kanae; Fujikawa, Takashi; Sato, Yoshinori; Tohji, Kazuyuki; Watari, Fumio; Chun, W.-J.; Koike, Yuichiro; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2006-04-01

    Metal impurities in the carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers play an important role in understanding their physical and chemical properties. We apply the Ni K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure analyses to the local electronic and geometric structures around embedded Ni impurities used as catalysts in a carbon nanofiber in combination with multiple scattering analyses. We find almost Ni catalysts as metal particles are removed by the purification treatment. Even after the purification, residual 100 ppm Ni species are still absorbed; most of them are in monomer structure with Ni-C bond length 1.83 A, and each of them is substituted for a carbon atom in a graphene sheet.

  2. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DSTs is given at the end of this report.

  3. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  4. OntologicalDiscovery.org: A web resource for the empirical discovery of phenotypic relations across species and experimental systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Erich J; Li, Zuopan; Jay, Jeremy J; Philip, Vivek M; Zhang, Yun; Langston, Michael A; Chesler, Elissa J

    2009-01-01

    The Ontological Discovery Environment ( http://ontologicaldiscovery.org ) is a free, public Internet resource for the storage, sharing, retrieval and analysis of phenotype-centered genomic data sets. The intent of this resource is to allow the creation of user-defined phenotype categories based on naturally and experimentally observed biological networks, pathways and systems rather than on externally manifested constructs and semantics such as disease names and processes. By extracting the relationships of complex processes from the technology that produces those relationships, this resource meets a growing demand for data integration and hypothesis discovery across multiple experimental contexts, including broad species and phenotype domains. At a highly processed level, analyses of set similarity, distance and hierarchical relations are performed through a modular suite of tools. The core pivot point of analysis is the creation of a bipartite network of gene-phenotype relations, a unique discrete graph approach to gene-set analysis which enables set-set matching of non-referential data. The central organizing metaphor of a gene set may be created, stored and curated by individual users, shared among virtual working groups, or made publicly available. Gene sets submission incorporates a variety of accession numbers, microarray feature IDs, and gene symbols from model organisms, allowing integration across experimental platforms, literature reviews and other genomic analyses. The sets themselves are annotated with several levels of metadata which may include an unstructured description, publication information and structured community ontologies for anatomy, process and function. Gene set translation to user chosen reference species through gene homology allows translational comparison of models regardless of the face validity of the experimental systems. In addition, computationally derived gene sets can be integrated into phenome interdependency and similarity hierarchy graphs, which are hierarchical trees of phenotypes based on the genes to which they are associated. This provides an empirical discovery of the natural phenotype ontology.

  5. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; et al

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has anmore » exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.« less

  6. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinxin [Chinese Academy of Forestry; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotopic studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotopic ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotopic ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found that higher nitrogen concentrations in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous concentrations had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotopic ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic heterotrophic difference in carbon isotopic compositions.

  7. Drought-influenced mortality of tree species with different predawn leaf water dynamics in a decade-long study of a central US forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-05-18

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of 1 year or more, which was correlated fairly tightly with a number of quantitative predictors formulated based on ψpd and precipitation regimes. Predictors based on temperature and vapor pressure deficit anomalies worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The exceptional drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality ofmore » all species, including drought-tolerant oaks, in the subsequent year. The drought-influenced tree mortality was related to the species position along the spectrum of ψpd regulation capacity with those in either ends of the spectrum being associated with elevated risk of death. Regardless of species and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events in all droughts. This result, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests an absence of catastrophic hydraulic disconnection in the xylem and that tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects. Species differences in the capacity of regulating ψpd and its temporal integral were magnified under moderate drought intensities but diminished towards wet and dry extremes. Severe droughts may overwhelm the capacity of even drought-tolerant species to maintain differential levels of water potential as the soil becomes exhausted of available water in the rooting zone, thus rendering them more susceptible to death if predisposed by other factors such as age.« less

  8. Species characterization and responses of subcortical insects to trap-logs and ethanol in a hardwood biomass plantation: Subcortical insects in hardwood plantations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, David R.; Brissey, Courtney L.; Gandhi, Kamal J. K.

    2015-01-02

    1. We characterized subcortical insect assemblages in economically important eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantations in the southeastern U.S.A. Furthermore, we compared insect responses between freshly-cut plant material by placing traps directly over cut hardwood logs (trap-logs), traps baited with ethanol lures and unbaited (control) traps. 2. We captured a total of 15 506 insects representing 127 species in four families in 2011 and 2013. Approximately 9% and 62% of total species and individuals, respectively, and 23% and 79% of total Scolytinae species and individuals, respectively, were non-native to North America. 3. We captured more Scolytinae using cottonwood trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although this was the case with sycamore and sweetgum only in 2013. More woodborers were captured using cottonwood and sweetgum trap-logs compared with control traps in both years, although only with sycamore in 2013. 4. Ethanol was an effective lure for capturing non-native Scolytinae; however, not all non-native species were captured using ethanol lures. Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff) and Hypothenemus crudiae (Panzer) were captured with both trap-logs and control traps, whereas Coccotrypes distinctus (Motschulsky) and Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff were only captured on trap-logs. 5. Indicator species analysis revealed that certain scolytines [e.g. Cnestus mutilates (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)] showed significant associations with trap-logs or ethanol baits in poplar or sweetgum trap-logs. In general, the species composition of subcortical insects, especially woodboring insects, was distinct among the three tree species and between those associated with trap-logs and control traps.

  9. Nanowires, Capacitors, and Other Novel Outer-Surface Components Involved in Electron Transfer to Fe(III) Oxides in Geobacter Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek, R.

    2008-12-22

    The overall goal of this project was to better understand the mechanisms by which Geobacter species transfer electrons outside the cell onto Fe(III) oxides. The rationale for this study was that Geobacter species are often the predominant microorganisms involved in in situ uranium bioremediation and the growth and activity of the Geobacter species during bioremediation is primarily supported by electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides. These studies greatly expanded the understanding of electron transfer to Fe(III). Novel concepts developed included the potential role of microbial nanowires for long range electron transfer in Geobacter species and the importance of extracytoplasmic cytochromes functioning as capacitors to permit continued electron transfer during the hunt for Fe(III) oxide. Furthermore, these studies provided target sequences that were then used in other studies to tract the activity of Geobacter species in the subsurface through monitoring the abundance of gene transcripts of the target genes. A brief summary of the major accomplishments of the project is provided.

  10. EO 13112: Invasive Species

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and advice for consideration by the Council, and shall, after consulta- tion with other members of the Council, appoint members of the advisory committee representing stakeholders. ...

  11. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, Mayo; Johkura, Kohei; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN and FOS, were detected and notably elevated in the plasma-medium. These results showed that the medium irradiated with a non-lethal level of plasma flow altered various gene expressions of HeLa cells by giving not only common effects with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but also some distinctive actions. This study suggests that in addition to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, other chemical species able to affect the cellular responses exist in the plasma-irradiated medium and provide unique features for it, probably increasing the oxidative stress level.

  12. Diffuse interstellar bands versus known atomic and molecular species in the interstellar medium of M82 toward SN 2014J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welty, Daniel E.; York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ritchey, Adam M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dahlstrom, Julie A., E-mail: dwelty@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carthage College, 2001 Alford Park Drive, Kenosha, WI 53140 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We discuss the absorption due to various constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) of M82 seen in moderately high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of SN 2014J. Complex absorption from M82 is seen, at velocities 45 ? v {sub LSR} ? 260 km s{sup 1}, for Na I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, CH, CH{sup +}, and CN; many of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are also detected. Comparisons of the column densities of the atomic and molecular species and the equivalent widths of the DIBs reveal both similarities and differences in relative abundances, compared to trends seen in the ISM of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Of the 10 relatively strong DIBs considered here, 6 (including ?5780.5) have strengths within 20% of the mean values seen in the local Galactic ISM, for comparable N(K I); 2 are weaker by 20%-45% and 2 (including ?5797.1) are stronger by 25%-40%. Weaker than 'expected' DIBs (relative to N(K I), N(Na I), and E(B V)) in some Galactic sight lines and toward several other extragalactic supernovae appear to be associated with strong CN absorption and/or significant molecular fractions. While the N(CH)/N(K I) and N(CN)/N(CH) ratios seen toward SN 2014J are similar to those found in the local Galactic ISM, the combination of high N(CH{sup +})/N(CH) and high W(5797.1)/W(5780.5) ratios has not been seen elsewhere. The centroids of many of the M82 DIBs are shifted relative to the envelope of the K I profilelikely due to component-to-component variations in W(DIB)/N(K I) that may reflect the molecular content of the individual components. We compare estimates for the host galaxy reddening E(B V) and visual extinction A {sub V} derived from the various interstellar species with the values estimated from optical and near-IR photometry of SN 2014J.

  13. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smietana, Michael J.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 ; Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V.; Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 ; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  14. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD{sub 50} of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Gillian E.; Farmahin, Reza; Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 ; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P.; Klein, Jeff; Konstantinov, Alex; Potter, Dave; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2012-09-15

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect their relative potency values.

  15. A mutation in the mitochondrial protein UQCRB promotes angiogenesis through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Junghwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • We constructed mitochondrial protein UQCRB mutant stable cell lines on the basis of a human case report. • These mutant cell lines exhibit pro-angiogenic activity with enhanced VEGF expression. • Proliferation of mutant cell lines was regulated by UQCRB inhibitors. • UQCRB may have a functional role in angiogenesis. - Abstract: Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) is one of the subunits of mitochondrial complex III and is a target protein of the natural anti-angiogenic small molecule terpestacin. Previously, the biological role of UQCRB was thought to be limited to the maintenance of complex III. However, the identification and validation of UQCRB as a target protein of terpestacin enabled the role of UQCRB in oxygen sensing and angiogenesis to be elucidated. To explore the biological role of this protein further, UQCRB mutant stable cell lines were generated on the basis of a human case report. We demonstrated that these cell lines exhibited glycolytic and pro-angiogenic activities via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS)-mediated HIF1 signal transduction. Furthermore, a morphological abnormality in mitochondria was detected in UQCRB mutant stable cell lines. In addition, the proliferative effect of the UQCRB mutants was significantly regulated by the UQCRB inhibitors terpestacin and A1938. Collectively, these results provide a molecular basis for UQCRB-related biological processes and reveal potential key roles of UQCRB in angiogenesis and mitochondria-mediated metabolic disorders.

  16. Electrode films of porous agarose: The effects of physical structure on electron transport processes. [Impregnated with Nafion; immobilized electroactive species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, K.D.

    1988-02-01

    Potential use of chemically modified electrodes in electrocatalysis has stimulated interest in creation and characterization of electrode films for reagent immobilization. We have created two highly porous electrocatalyst support matrices, with high rates of electron transport. Both are based on immobilization of reagents in agarose gel. In one case, Nafion was impregnated into agarose gel films. Diffusion of methyl viologen in Nafionagarose matrices are higher than in Nafion. In Nafion, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing methyl viologen concentration, while in Nafionagarose, the opposite dependence is observed. The faster rate of electron transport in Nafionagarose films is related to the heterogeneous structure and the coupling of the diffusion pathways. In the second application of agarose gels as an electrode coating material, agarose hydroxyl groups were activated in 1,1'carbonyldiimidazole and subsequently reacted with amine derivatives of electroactive mediators. Electron transport between the electroactive sites in the gel is very rapid (on the order of 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2/s. Interpreting the data in light of the Dahms-Ruff description of electron transport shows that the rate of electron transport through both ferrocene and viologen derivatized gels is limited by the rate of electron self-exchange of the species. 22 figs., 15 tabs

  17. Fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish (Coregoninae) species in the vicinity of industrial thermal emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Carly F.; Eberts, Rebecca L.; Morgan, Thomas D.; Boreham, Douglas R.; Lance, Stacey L.; Manzon, Richard G.; Martino, Jessica A.; Rogers, Sean M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Somers, Christopher M.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopicmore » niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Furthermore, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.« less

  18. Influence of magnetic field on laser-produced barium plasmas: Spectral and dynamic behaviour of neutral and ionic species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raju, Makaraju Srinivasa; Gopinath, Pramod, E-mail: pramod@iist.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547 (India); Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-21

    The expansion dynamics and spectral behaviour of plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser (?=1.064 ?m, pulse width: 8 ns) from barium target and expanding in 0.45 T transverse magnetic field in vacuum (10??Torr pressure) are investigated using time-of-flight optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments are carried out at various laser fluences from 12 to 31 J/cm. The temporal profiles of neutral (Ba I 553.5 and 577.7 nm) lines are temporally broadened, while that of ionic (Ba II 413.0 and 455.4 nm) lines show strong confinement in the presence of a magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, the temporal profile of Ba I 553.5 nm is exactly reproduced by fitting with two Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann (SMB) Distribution components, while in the presence of a magnetic field the profile could only be fitted with three components. The field enhanced and field induced SMB components of neutral profile are correlated with populations of ground state, metastable states, and long-lived Rydberg states present in the barium plasma, while SMB components of ionic lines are explained on the basis of the presence of super-elastic collisions among the excited species in the plasma. The spatial variation of electron temperature and temporal variation of electron density are deduced and correlated to the different collisional processes in the barium plasma. The ionic profiles show efficient confinement in the presence of a magnetic field at higher fluences.

  19. Constitutive NF-?B activation and tumor-growth promotion by Romo1-mediated reactive oxygen species production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Jin Sil; Lee, Sora; Yoo, Young Do

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: Romo1 expression is required for constitutive nuclear DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. Romo1 depletion suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Romo1 presents a potential therapeutic target for diseases. - Abstract: Deregulation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and related pathways contribute to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Mechanisms for constitutive NF-?B activation are not fully explained; however, the underlying defects appear to generate and maintain pro-oxidative conditions. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) correlates positively with tumor size. In the present study, we showed that Romo1 expression is required to maintain constitutive nuclear DNA-binding activity of NF-?B and transcriptional activity through constitutive I?B? phosphorylation. Overexpression of Romo1 promoted p65 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity. We also show that Romo1 depletion suppressed anchorage-independent colony formation by HCC cells and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Based on these findings, Romo1 may be a principal regulatory factor in the maintenance of constitutive NF-?B activation in tumor cells. In the interest of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer, Romo1 may also present a productive target for drug development.

  20. Photo-ionization of aluminum in a hot cavity for the selective production of exotic species project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, D. Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Calderolla, M.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Makhathini, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Grassi, D.

    2014-02-15

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) based accelerator facility that will be built in the Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratory (Italy), intended to provide intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams obtained by proton-induced fission of a uranium carbide (UCx) target. Besides this main target material, silicon carbide (SiC) will be the first to be used to deliver p-rich beams. This target will also validate the functionality of the SPES facility with aluminum beam as result of impinging SiC target with proton beam. In the past, off line studies on laser photoionization of aluminum have been performed in Pavia Spectroscopy Laboratory and in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; a XeCl excimer laser was installed in order to test the laser ionization in the SPES hot cavity. With the new Wien filter installed a better characterization of the ionization process in terms of efficiency was performed and results are discussed.

  1. Thirty-Two Complete Genome Assemblies of Nine Yersinia Species, Including Y.pestis, Y.pseudotuberculosis, and Y.enterocolitica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Coyne, Susan R.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Munk, A. Christine; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole; Koroleva, Galina I.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Redden, Cassie L.; Xu, Yan; Minogue, Timothy D.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-04-30

    The genus Yersinia includes three human pathogens, of which Yersinia pestis is responsible for >2,000 illnesses each year. To aid in the development of detection assays as well as aid further phylogenetic elucidation, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of 32 strains (across 9 Yersinia species).

  2. Thirty-Two Complete Genome Assemblies of Nine Yersinia Species, Including Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Coyne, Susan R.; et al

    2015-04-30

    The genus Yersinia includes three human pathogens, of which Yersinia pestis is responsible for >2,000 illnesses each year. To aid in the development of detection assays as well as aid further phylogenetic elucidation, we sequenced and assembled the complete genomes of 32 strains (across 9 Yersinia species).

  3. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  4. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreiem, Anne Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  5. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  6. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otter, Ryan; Bailey, Frank; Fortner, Allison M; Adams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  7. Characterization of a genuin iron(V) - nitrido species by nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy coupled to density functional calculations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, T.; George, S. D.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Bill, E.; Mienert, B.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y.; Sturhahn, W.; Cramer, S.P.; Wieghardt, K.; Neese, F.; X-Ray Science Division; Institut of Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie; SSRL; Standford Univ.; Max-Planck Institut fur Bioanogranische Chemie; Univ. of California at Davis; LBNL

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of high-valent iron species is of interest due to their relevance to biological reaction mechanisms. Recently, we have synthesized and characterized an [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]{sup +} complex, which has been characterized by M{umlt o}ssbauer, magnetic susceptibility data, and XAS spectroscopies combined with DFT calculations . The results of this study indicated that the [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]+ complex is an unusual d{sup 3} system with a nearly orbitally degenerate S = 1/2 ground state. Although the calculations predicted fairly different Fe-N stretching frequencies for the S = 1/2 and the competing S = 3/2 ground states, a direct experimental determination of this important fingerprint quantity was missing. Here we apply synchrotron-based nuclear resonance vibrational scattering (NRVS) to characterize the Fe-N stretching frequency of an Fe(V)-nitrido complex and its Fe(III)-azide precursor. The NRVS data show a new isolated band at 864 cm{sup -1} in the Fe(V)-nitrido complex that is absent in the precursor. The NRVS spectra are fit and simulated using a DFT approach, and the new feature is unambiguously assigned to a Fe(V)-N stretch. The calculated Fe-N stretching frequency is too high by {approx}75 cm{sup -1}. Anharmonic contributions to the Fe-N stretching frequency have been evaluated and have been found to be small (-5.5 cm{sup -1}). The NRVS data provided a unique opportunity to obtain this vibrational information, which had eluded characterization by more traditional vibrational spectroscopies.

  8. Characterization of a Genuine Lron(V)-Nitrido Species By Nuclear Resonant Vibrational Spectroscopy Coupled to Density Functional Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, T.; George, S.D.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Bill, E.; Mienert, B.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y.; Sturhahn, W.; Cramer, S.P.; Wieghardt, K.; Neese, F.; /Bonn U., LTC /SLAC, SSRL /Max Planck Inst., Mulheim /UC, Davis /Argonne /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-10-19

    The characterization of high-valent iron species is of interest due to their relevance to biological reaction mechanisms. Recently, we have synthesized and characterized an [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]+ complex, which has been characterized by M{umlt o}ssbauer, magnetic susceptibility data, and XAS spectroscopies combined with DFT calculations. The results of this study indicated that the [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]+ complex is an unusual d3 system with a nearly orbitally degenerate S = 1/2 ground state. Although the calculations predicted fairly different Fe-N stretching frequencies for the S = 1/2 and the competing S = 3/2 ground states, a direct experimental determination of this important fingerprint quantity was missing. Here we apply synchrotron-based nuclear resonance vibrational scattering (NRVS) to characterize the Fe-N stretching frequency of an Fe(V)-nitrido complex and its Fe(III)-azide precursor. The NRVS data show a new isolated band at 864 cm-1 in the Fe(V)-nitrido complex that is absent in the precursor. The NRVS spectra are fit and simulated using a DFT approach, and the new feature is unambiguously assigned to a Fe(V)-N stretch. The calculated Fe-N stretching frequency is too high by {approx}75 cm-1. Anharmonic contributions to the Fe-N stretching frequency have been evaluated and have been found to be small (-5.5 cm-1). The NRVS data provided a unique opportunity to obtain this vibrational information, which had eluded characterization by more traditional vibrational spectroscopies.

  9. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis of arsenic-transformed cells.

  10. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in brominated diphenyl ether-47-induced inflammatory cytokine release from human extravillous trophoblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hae-Ryung Kamau, Patricia W.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds. Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 is one of the most prevalent PBDE congeners found in human breast milk, serum and placenta. Despite the presence of PBDEs in human placenta, effects of PBDEs on placental cell function are poorly understood. The present study investigated BDE-47-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and its role in BDE-47-stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release in a first trimester human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. Exposure of HTR-8/SVneo cells for 4 h to 20 ?M BDE-47 increased ROS generation 1.7 fold as measured by the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay. Likewise, superoxide anion production increased approximately 5 fold at 10 and 15 ?M and 9 fold at 20 ?M BDE-47 with a 1-h exposure, as measured by cytochrome c reduction. BDE-47 (10, 15 and 20 ?M) decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential by 4764.5% at 4, 8 and 24 h as assessed with the fluorescent probe Rh123. Treatment with 15 and 20 ?M BDE-47 stimulated cellular release and mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-8 after 12 and 24-h exposures: the greatest increases were a 35-fold increased mRNA expression at 12 h and a 12-fold increased protein concentration at 24 h for IL-6. Antioxidant treatments (deferoxamine mesylate, ()?-tocopherol, or tempol) suppressed BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release by 54.1%, 56.3% and 37.7%, respectively, implicating a role for ROS in the regulation of inflammatory pathways in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Solvent (DMSO) controls exhibited statistically significantly decreased responses compared with non-treated controls for IL-6 release and IL-8 mRNA expression, but these responses were not consistent across experiments and times. Nonetheless, it is possible that DMSO (used to dissolve BDE-47) may have attenuated the stimulatory actions of BDE-47 on cytokine responses. Because abnormal activation of proinflammatory responses can disrupt trophoblast functions necessary for placental development and successful pregnancy, further investigation is warranted of the impact of ROS and BDE-47 on trophoblast cytokine responses. - Highlights: BDE-47 induced ROS overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. BDE-47 stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Antioxidant treatment reduced BDE-47-stimulated ROS generation and cytokine release.

  11. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    Monitor i ng in f ectio n s in v ect o rs su c h as m osquit o es, s a nd fl i es, tsetse fl i es, a nd ticks to i denti f y hu m a n path o gens m a y s e r v e as a n ear l y w arn i ng det e ction system t o dir e ct loc a l g o v er n ment dise a se pr e v en t i v e m easu r e s . One major hurdle i n de t ection is the abi l i t y to scre e n l arge n u mbers of v e c t ors for h uman patho g ens w i thout t h e u s e of ge n o t y pe - s p ecific m o lecu l ar tec h nique s . N e x t genera t ion s equ e nc i ng (NG S ) pr o v i des a n unbi a sed p latfo r m capab l e of identi f y i ng k n o w n a n d unk n o w n p ath o ge n s circula t ing w i thin a v e ctor p opul a tion, but utili z ing t h is te c h nolo g y i s tim e - con s u ming a n d cos t l y for v ecto r -b o rne disease su r v e illan c e pr o gra m s. T o addr e s s this w e d e v e lop e d cos t -eff e ct i v e Ilumina(r) R NA- S eq l i bra r y p r epara t ion m e thodol o gies i n con j u n ction w i t h an automa t ed c ompu t at i onal a n a l y sis pipel i n e to ch a racter i ze t h e microbial popula t ions c ircula t i n g in Cu l e x m o squit o e s (Cul e x qui n quef a s c iatu s , C ul e x quinq u efasc i atus / pip i ens co m pl e x h y bri d s, and C u l e x ta r salis ) t hroug h out Californ i a. W e assembled 2 0 n o vel a n d w e l l -do c ume n ted a r b o v i ruses repres e nting mem b e rs of B u n y a v ir i da e , F l a v i virid a e, If a virida e , Meson i v i rida e , Nid o v iri d ae, O rtho m y x o virid a e, Pa r v o v iri d ae, Re o virid a e, R h a b d o v i rid a e, T y m o v iri d ae, a s w ell as s e v e r al u n assi g n e d v irus e s . In addit i o n, w e m app e d mRNA s pecies to d i vergent s peci e s of t r y panos o ma a nd pl a s modium eu k a r yotic parasit e s and cha r a c terized t he p r oka r yot i c microb i al c o mposit i on to i d enti f y bacteri a l tran s c r ipts der i v ed from wolba c hia, clo s tridi u m, m y c oplas m a, fusoba c terium and c am p y l o bacter bac t er i al spec i e s . W e utilized the s e mic r obial transcri p tomes pre s e nt in g e ogra p hical l y defined Cul e x po p ul a tions to defi n e spatial and m osqui t o specie s -spec i fic ba r r iers of i n fecti o n. T he v i r ome and microbi o me c o mpos i tion id e ntified in e ach mosqui t o p o ol pr o v i ded suf f icient resolut i on to dete r m i ne both the mosq u ito species and the g e o graphic regi o n in Californ i a w h e re t h e mosqui t o po o l orig i n ated. T his d a ta pr o v i des ins i ght in t o the compl e x i t y of microb i al spec i es cir c ulati n g in med i cal l y i mport a nt Culex mosqui t oes a nd t h eir potent i al im p act o n t he tran s missi o n of v ector-b o rne human / veter i na r y p a t hogens in C a liforn i a.

  12. An ab initio study of the electronic structure of the boron oxide neutral (BO), cationic (BO{sup +}), and anionic (BO{sup ?}) species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Ilias; Kalemos, Apostolos

    2014-09-28

    The BO neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular species have been painstakingly studied through multireference configuration interaction and single reference coupled cluster methods employing basis sets of quintuple cardinality. Potential energy curves have been constructed for 38 (BO), 37 (BO{sup +}), and 12 (BO{sup ?}) states and the usual molecular parameters have been extracted most of which are in very good agreement with the scarce experimental data. Numerous avoided crossings appear on more or less all of the studied states of the neutral and cationic species challenging the validity of the Born Oppenheimer approximation. Finally, all excited states of the anionic system lie above the ground state of the neutral BO system and are therefore resonances.

  13. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S. Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  14. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-06-12

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)1 are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughout the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD.

  15. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-06-12

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)1 are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughoutmore » the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD.« less

  16. Theoretical studies of nonadiabatic and spin-forbidden processes: Investigations of the reactions and spectroscopy of radical species relevant to combustion reactions and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarkony, D.R.

    1993-12-01

    This research program focusses on studies of spin-forbidden and electronically nonadiabatic processes involving radical species relevant to combustion reactions and combustion diagnostics. To study the electronic structure aspects of these processes a unique and powerful system of electronic structure programs, developed over the past nine years, the BROOKLYN codes, is employed. These programs enable the authors to address questions basic to the understanding of elementary combustion processes not tractable using more standard quantum chemistry codes.

  17. Using multispectral videography to distinguish the pattern of zonation and plant species composition in brackish water marshes of the Rio Grande Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, F.W.; Lonard, R.I.; Everitt, J.H. [Univ. of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Cyclical flooding of the Rio Grande and movement of floodwater into distributary channels formerly constituted significant freshwater input into the marshes of the Rio Grande Delta, but dams and flood control projects have eliminated this source of freshwater. The marshes are now dependent on rainfall alone for freshwater input and may be experiencing significant change in species of vegetation, abundance and patterns of distribution. Unfortunately, little is known of the ecology of these marshes. As a first step in providing needed information, multispectral videography was used to distinguish species composition and patterns of zonation in a brackish water marsh at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron County, Texas. The line intercept method of vegetation analysis provided ground truth and quantified species distribution and abundance. The vegetation of a typical brackish water marsh is organized into three zones along an elevation gradient. At the lowest elevations there is a distinct zone dominated by maritime saltwort, Batis maritime. At the lowest elevations in this zone where rainwater remains the longest, stands of California bulrush, Scirpus californicus, occur. An intermediate zone supports shoregrass, Monanthochloe littoralis, as the dominant species. A third (highest) zone is dominated by Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae. The upper margin of this zone grades gradually into a shrub-grassland community that occurs on lomas (clay dunes). Each of the zones is distinguished by a distinctive signature in the multispectral videography. The Batis maritime community has a bright pink to red image response. Monanthochloe littoralis has a dark brown color and Spartina spartinae has a light gray to pinkish-tan color. Brackish water marshes may be distinguished from saltwater marshes by the relative positions of the Monanthochloe littoralis and Spartina spartinae communities, but additional data are needed before this possibility is confirmed.

  18. Assessment of the Species Composition, Densities, and Distribution of Native Freshwater Mussels along the Benton County Shoreline of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Turner, Gerald; Welch, Ian D.

    2011-01-31

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is the last unimpounded section of the river and contains substrate characteristics (cobble, gravel, sand/silt) suitable for many of the native freshwater mussels known to exist in the Pacific Northwest. Information concerning the native mussel species composition, densities, and distributions in the mainstem of the Columbia River is limited. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an assessment of the near-shore habitat on the Hanford Reach. Surveys conducted in 2004 as part of the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance project documented several species of native mussels inhabiting the near-shore habitat of the Hanford Reach. Findings reported here may be useful to resource biologists, ecologists, and DOE-RL to determine possible negative impacts to native mussels from ongoing near-shore remediation activities associated with Hanford Site cleanup. The objective of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the species composition, densities, and distribution of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae and Unionidae families) that exist in the Hanford Reach. Researchers observed and measured 201 live native mussel specimens. Mussel density estimated from these surveys is summarized in this report with respect to near-shore habitat characteristics including substrate size, substrate embeddedness, relative abundance of aquatic vegetation, and large-scale geomorphic/hydrologic characteristics of the Hanford Reach.

  19. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  20. An X-ray Absorption Fine Structure study of Au adsorbed onto the non-metabolizing cells of two soil bacterial species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Zhen; Kenney, Janice P.L.; Fein, Jeremy B.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2015-02-09

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells can remove Au from Au(III)-chloride solutions, and the extent of removal is strongly pH dependent. In order to determine the removal mechanisms, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy experiments were conducted on non-metabolizing biomass of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with fixed Au(III) concentrations over a range of bacterial concentrations and pH values. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data on both bacterial species indicate that more than 90% of the Au atoms on the bacterial cell walls were reduced to Au(I). In contrast to what has been observed for Au(III) interaction with metabolizing bacterial cells, no Au(0) or Au-Au nearest neighbors were observed in our experimental systems. All of the removed Au was present as adsorbed bacterial surface complexes. For both species, the XAFS data suggest that although Au-chloride-hydroxide aqueous complexes dominate the speciation of Au in solution, Au on the bacterial cell wall is characterized predominantly by binding of Au atoms to sulfhydryl functional groups and amine and/or carboxyl functional groups, and the relative importance of the sulfhydryl groups increases with increasing pH and with decreasing Au loading. The XAFS data for both microorganism species suggest that adsorption is the first step in the formation of Au nanoparticles by bacteria, and the results enhance our ability to account for the behavior of Au in bacteria-bearing geologic systems.

  1. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditionsA multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Hnsel-Ziegler, W.; Freund, H.-J.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 10{sup 11} spins/cm{sup 2}, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.

  2. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  3. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Swift Military Reservation, Installation 48070, Bastrop County, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard property in Bastrop County, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Camp Swift property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicated that the activities at Camp Swift include no operations considered to have an adverse impact to the environment. The recommendation, therefore, is that no further IRP action is necessary at this property.

  4. Base technology Stirling engine military applications assessment. Final technical report, 1 June 30-September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, J.G.

    1983-10-01

    The design of an advanced Stirling engine is considered for potential use in Air Force mobile electric power generator sets. The prospects for acceptable reliability appears good due to new approaches to recognized Stirling problem areas; sealing, heater head and control. The present design appears suitable for a 30kW set, but Air Force needs would be best suited by development of a 60kW unit. Standardization would be facilitated by using the 60kW Stirling engine and associated auxiliaries in a 30kW set. Final design drawings have been completed in the 30kW engine but construction and tests are required to establish that both design criteria for the engine and mobile power requirements are met. Originator-supplied keywords include: Heat pipe, and Combustor control.

  5. Departments of Energy, Defense Partner to Install Fuel Cell Backup Power Units at Eight Military Installations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that as part of an interagency partnership with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to strengthen American energy security and develop new clean...

  6. Departments of Energy, Defense Partner to Install Fuel Cell Backup Power Units at Eight Military Installations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that as part of an interagency partnership with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to strengthen American energy security...

  7. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  8. EM Executives Share Challenges in Transition from Military to Civilian Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Two EM senior executives participated as panelists in a special Veterans Day celebration at DOE headquarters.

  9. ANUDISflM-37 SMART BRIDGE: A TOOL FOR ESTIMATING THE MILITARY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... types, analytical techniques, and database ... accurately known from recent civilian records or ... more populated, artificial intelligence concepts, such as data ...

  10. Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about their work around vehicle emissions, engine efficiency, energy use modeling, unconventional gas development and enhanced imaging tools for resource mapping, much of...

  11. Long-range military implications of petroleum availability for Navy planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.P.; O'Neill, T.C.

    1981-11-01

    This study evaluates petroleum issues facing the Navy over the next 20 years. It analyzes the threat of reduced availability of petroleum and the probable effects on naval warfare, on the selection of weapons, and on mobility. There are four areas of investigation: the current oil market, production forecasts, the prospect of import interruptions, and Navy options. The study address the changes in the oil market since the embargo of 1973. It explains how those changes in the market have affected Navy budgets and eroded steaming and flying hours. Published forecasts of lowered production of petroleum and the threat of interruptions of imports are evaluated for their potential to disrupt world markets out to the year 2000. Several aspects of future petroleum supplies are quantified. The study concludes by recommending measures the Navy can take to deal wtih the problems of reduced fuel availability and quality. (Author)

  12. Second highest-ranking U.S. military officer gets classified...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fleet; commander NATO Allied Joint Command, Lisbon; and, commander, Striking and Support Forces NATO. He also served as the commander of North American Aerospace Defense Command...

  13. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ?} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. Exposure to ROFA produces alterations in mitochondrial function. ??{sub m} decrease in state 3 may be responsible for the decreased ATP production. Mild uncoupling prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  14. Cells with dysfunctional telomeres are susceptible to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide via generation of multichromosomal fusions and chromosomal fragments bearing telomeres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Seon Rang; Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 ; Park, Jeong-Eun; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Jeong, Jaemin; Kang, Chang-Mo; Yun, Hyun Jin; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Park, In-Chul; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Haekwon; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Gil Hong; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under conditions of telomere erosion, cells become extremely sensitive to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres are cleaved by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under such conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} thus causes multichromosomal fusions and generation of small chromosomal fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-acetylcysteine prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced chromosomal aberrations. -- Abstract: During genotoxic stress, reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) is a prime mediator of the DNA damage response. Telomeres function both to assist in DNA damage repair and to inhibit chromosomal end-to-end fusion. Here, we show that telomere dysfunction renders cells susceptible to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, via generation of multichromosomal fusion and chromosomal fragments. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} caused formation of multichromosomal end-to-end fusions involving more than three chromosomes, preferentially when telomeres were erosive. Interestingly, extensive chromosomal fragmentation (yielding small-sized fragments) occurred only in cells exhibiting such multichromosomal fusions. Telomeres were absent from fusion points, being rather present in the small fragments, indicating that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} cleaves chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres. Restoration of telomere function or addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented development of chromosomal aberrations and rescued the observed hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thus, chromosomal regions adjacent to telomeres become sensitive to reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide when telomeres are dysfunctional, and are cleaved to produce multichromosomal fusions and small chromosomal fragments bearing the telomeres.

  15. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; Wu, R.; Yao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, G.; Wu, B.; Lu, Q.; Meng, P.

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.

  16. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembly, J. P.

    2007-06-01

    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  17. Dual-pump CARS temperature and major species concentration measurements in counter-flow methane flames using narrowband pump and broadband Stokes lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thariyan, Mathew P.; Ananthanarayanan, Vijaykumar; Bhuiyan, Aizaz H.; Naik, Sameer V.; Gore, Jay P.; Lucht, Robert P.

    2010-07-15

    Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to measure temperature and species profiles in representative non-premixed and partially-premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames. A new laser system has been developed to generate a tunable single-frequency beam for the second pump beam in the dual-pump N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} CARS process. The second harmonic output ({proportional_to}532 nm) from an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser is used as one of the narrowband pump beams. The second single-longitudinal-mode pump beam centered near 561 nm is generated using an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator, consisting of two non-linear {beta}-BBO crystals, pumped using the third harmonic output ({proportional_to}355 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser. A broadband dye laser (BBDL), pumped using the second harmonic output of an unseeded Nd:YAG laser, is employed to produce the Stokes beam centered near 607 nm with full-width-at-half-maximum of {proportional_to}250 cm{sup -1}. The three beams are focused between two opposing nozzles of a counter-flow burner facility to measure temperature and major species concentrations in a variety of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} non-premixed and partially-premixed flames stabilized at a global strain rate of 20 s{sup -1} at atmospheric-pressure. For the non-premixed flames, excellent agreement is observed between the measured profiles of temperature and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} concentration ratios with those calculated using an opposed-flow flame code with detailed chemistry and molecular transport submodels. For partially-premixed flames, with the rich side premixing level beyond the stable premixed flame limit, the calculations overestimate the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flamefronts. Consequently, the calculated temperatures near the rich, premixed flame are higher than those measured. Accurate prediction of the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flames provides an interesting challenge for future computations. (author)

  18. Exploration of multi-fold symmetry element-loaded superconducting radio frequency structure for reliable acceleration of low- & medium-beta ion species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shichun; Geng, Rongli

    2015-09-01

    Reliable acceleration of low- to medium-beta proton or heavy ion species is needed for future high current superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerators. Due to the high-Q nature of an SRF resonator, it is sensitive to many factors such as electron loading (from either the accelerated beam or from parasitic field emitted electrons), mechanical vibration, and liquid helium bath pressure fluctuation etc. To increase the stability against those factors, a mechanically strong and stable RF structure is desirable. Guided by this consideration, multi-fold symmetry element-loaded SRF structures (MFSEL), cylindrical tanks with multiple (n>=3) rod-shaped radial elements, are being explored. The top goal of its optimization is to improve mechanical stability. A natural consequence of this structure is a lowered ratio of the peak surface electromagnetic field to the acceleration gradient as compared to the traditional spoke cavity. A disadvantage of this new structure is an increased size for a fixed resonant frequency and optimal beta. This paper describes the optimization of the electro-magnetic (EM) design and preliminary mechanical analysis for such structures.

  19. Mechanical and photo-fragmentation processes for nanonization of melanin to improve its efficacy in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Sih-Min; Liu, Jhong-Han; Hsu, Hsiang-Wei; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Chen, Szu-yuan

    2015-02-14

    It has been well established ex vivo that melanin has the ability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), besides other functions. Therefore, we propose to utilize nanonized melanin as medication against acute oxidative stress. For this purpose, we developed and characterized two techniques based on mechanical stir and photo-fragmentation using femtosecond laser pulses, respectively, for disintegration of suspended melanin powder to produce nanometer-sized and water-dispersible melanin. This resolves a major obstacle in the medical and industrial applications of melanin. The viabilities of cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exposed to exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress and treated with various conditions of melanin and irradiation were compared. It was found that melanin could be nanonized very effectively with the techniques, and nanonized melanin exhibited a much stronger effect than unprocessed melanin on raising the viability of cultured RPE cells under acute ROS stress. The effect was even more prominent without simultaneous light irradiation, promising for effective in vivo application to the whole body.

  20. In utero and in vitro effects of benzene and its metabolites on erythroid differentiation and the role of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badham, Helen J.; Winn, Louise M.

    2010-05-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational and environmental toxicant. Exposures to benzene both prenatally and during adulthood are associated with the development of disorders such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. Mechanisms of benzene toxicity are unknown; however, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by benzene metabolites may play a role. Little is known regarding the effects of benzene metabolites on erythropoiesis. Therefore, to determine the effects of in utero exposure to benzene on the growth and differentiation of fetal erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E), pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to benzene and CFU-E numbers were assessed in fetal liver (hematopoietic) tissue. In addition, to determine the effect of benzene metabolite-induced ROS generation on erythropoiesis, HD3 chicken erythroblast cells were exposed to benzene, phenol, or hydroquinone followed by stimulation of erythrocyte differentiation. Our results show that in utero exposure to benzene caused significant alterations in female offspring CFU-E numbers. In addition, exposure to hydroquinone, but not benzene or phenol, significantly reduced the percentage of differentiated HD3 cells, which was associated with an increase in ROS. Pretreatment of HD3 cells with polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) prevented hydroquinone-induced inhibition of erythropoiesis, supporting the hypothesis that ROS generation is involved in the development of benzene erythrotoxicity. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that ROS generated as a result of benzene metabolism may significantly alter erythroid differentiation, potentially leading to the development of Blood Disorders.

  1. Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanocrystals: Changes to the Crystallinity or Morphology as Induced by the Treatment of Seeds with a Sulfur Species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S₂O₃²⁻ ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S₂O₃²⁻ ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S₂O₃²⁻ ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to themore » spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S₂O₃²⁻ ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.« less

  2. Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanocrystals: Changes to the Crystallinity or Morphology as Induced by the Treatment of Seeds with a Sulfur Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S₂O₃²⁻ ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S₂O₃²⁻ ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S₂O₃²⁻ ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to the spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S₂O₃²⁻ ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.

  3. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  4. GRIZZLY Model of Multi-Reactive Species Diffusion, Moisture/Heat Transfer and Alkali-Silica Reaction for Simulating Concrete Aging and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Cai, Guowei

    2015-09-01

    Concrete is widely used in the construction of nuclear facilities because of its structural strength and its ability to shield radiation. The use of concrete in nuclear power plants for containment and shielding of radiation and radioactive materials has made its performance crucial for the safe operation of the facility. As such, when life extension is considered for nuclear power plants, it is critical to have accurate and reliable predictive tools to address concerns related to various aging processes of concrete structures and the capacity of structures subjected to age-related degradation. The goal of this report is to document the progress of the development and implementation of a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model in GRIZZLY code with the ultimate goal to reliably simulate and predict long-term performance and response of aged NPP concrete structures subjected to a number of aging mechanisms including external chemical attacks and volume-changing chemical reactions within concrete structures induced by alkali-silica reactions and long-term exposure to irradiation. Based on a number of survey reports of concrete aging mechanisms relevant to nuclear power plants and recommendations from researchers in concrete community, we’ve implemented three modules during FY15 in GRIZZLY code, (1) multi-species reactive diffusion model within cement materials; (2) coupled moisture and heat transfer model in concrete; and (3) anisotropic, stress-dependent, alkali-silica reaction induced swelling model. The multi-species reactive diffusion model was implemented with the objective to model aging of concrete structures subjected to aggressive external chemical attacks (e.g., chloride attack, sulfate attack, etc.). It considers multiple processes relevant to external chemical attacks such as diffusion of ions in aqueous phase within pore spaces, equilibrium chemical speciation reactions and kinetic mineral dissolution/precipitation. The moisture/heat transfer module was implemented to simulate long-term spatial and temporal evolutions of the moisture and temperature fields within concrete structures at both room and elevated temperatures. The ASR swelling model implemented in GRIZZLY code can simulate anisotropic expansions of ASR gel under either uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress states, and can be run simultaneously with the moisture/heat transfer model and coupled with various elastic/inelastic solid mechanics models that were implemented in GRIZZLY code previously. This report provides detailed descriptions of the governing equations, constitutive equations and numerical algorithms of the three modules implemented in GRIZZLY during FY15, simulation results of example problems and model validation results by comparing simulations with available experimental data reported in the literature. The close match between the experiments and simulations clearly demonstrate the potential of GRIZZLY code for reliable evaluation and prediction of long-term performance and response of aged concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  5. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox viruses (which are of two bovine types) bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). A timeline for this development is presented in Table 1. The development of the Version 1.0 panel for FMDV rule-out and the most current efforts aimed to designed species specific panels has spanned over 2 1/2 years with multiple collaborative partnerships. This document provides a summary of the development, testing and performance data at OIE Stage 1 Feasibility into Stage 2 Assay Development and Standardization1 (see Table 2), gathered as of June 30th, 2007 for the porcine and bovine MUX assay panels. We present an overview of the identification and selection of candidate genetic signatures, the assay development process, and preliminary performance data for each of the individual signatures as characterized in the multiplexed format for the porcine and bovine panels. The Stage 1 Feasibility data of the multiplexed panels is presented in this report also includes relevant data acquired from the Version 1.0 panel as supporting information where appropriate. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must precede efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available. As a summary report, this document does not provide the details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, nor does it provide spec

  6. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  7. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS ?/? mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS ?/? mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS ?/? mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS ?/? mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS ?/? mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ? Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ? RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ? iNOS ?/? mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and altered lung functioning.

  8. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  10. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  11. SNP in TXNRD2 Associated With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis: A Study of Genetic Variation in Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edvardsen, Hege; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Landmark-Hyvik, Hege; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Reinertsen, Kristin V.; Zhao, Xi; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Grenaker-Alns, Grethe Irene; Nebdal, Daniel; Syvnen, Ann-Christine; Rdningen, Olaug; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo ; Foss, Sophie D.; National Resource Centre for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, OUS Radiumhospitalet, Oslo ; Kristensen, Vessela N.; K. G. Jebsen Breast cancer centre, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo; Department of Clinical Molecular Biology , Division of Medicine, Ahus University Hospital

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify noninvasive markers of treatment-induced side effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after irradiation, and genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism might influence the level of radiation-induced adverse effects (AEs). Methods and Materials: 92 breast cancer (BC) survivors previously treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy were assessed for the AEs subcutaneous atrophy and fibrosis, costal fractures, lung fibrosis, pleural thickening, and telangiectasias (median follow-up time 17.1 years). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were analyzed for association to AE grade. SNPs associated with subcutaneous fibrosis were validated in an independent BC survivor material (n=283). The influence of the studied genetic variation on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 18 genes previously associated with fibrosis was assessed in fibroblast cell lines from BC patients. Results: Subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy had the highest correlation (r=0.76) of all assessed AEs. The nonsynonymous SNP rs1139793 in TXNRD2 was associated with grade of subcutaneous fibrosis, the reference T-allele being more prevalent in the group experiencing severe levels of fibrosis. This was confirmed in another sample cohort of 283 BC survivors, and rs1139793 was found significantly associated with mRNA expression level of TXNRD2 in blood. Genetic variation in 24 ROS-related genes, including EGFR, CENPE, APEX1, and GSTP1, was associated with mRNA expression of 14 genes previously linked to fibrosis (P?.005). Conclusion: Development of subcutaneous fibrosis can be associated with genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme TXNRD2, critically involved in removal of ROS, and maintenance of the intracellular redox balance.

  12. Predictors and mechanisms of the drought-influenced mortality of tree species along the isohydric to anisohydic continuum in a decade-long study of a central US temperate forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-01-19

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied along the isohydric to anisohydric continuum and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of one year or more, which was predicted by predawn leaf water potential integral (PLWPI), mean effective precipitation interval (a time period with no daily precipitation rates exceeding a threshold) with a daily threshold precipitation at 5 mm day-1 (MEPI5), and precipitation variability index (PVI).more » Positive temperature anomaly integral (PTAI) and vapor pressure deficit integral (VPDI) also worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The extreme drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality of all species in the subsequent year. Regardless of the degree of isohydry and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events. This, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests that hydraulic disconnection in the xylem was absent even during extreme drought and tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects of drought. We also found that species occupying middle positions along the isohydric to anisohydric continuum suffered less mortality than those at either extremes (i.e. extremely isohydric or extremely anisohydric). Finally, our study suggested that species differences in mortality mechanisms can be overwhelmed and masked in extreme droughts and should be examined in a broad range of drought intensity.« less

  13. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling involved in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. • The inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy contributes to Cr(VI) carcinogenesis.

  14. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  15. D{sub 3h} [A-CE{sub 3}-A]{sup −} (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb): A new class of hexatomic mono-anionic species with trigonal bipyramidal carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yan-Bo E-mail: zxwang@ucas.ac.cn; Li, Yan-Qin; Bai, Hui; Lu, Hai-Gang; Li, Si-Dian; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Zhi-Xiang E-mail: zxwang@ucas.ac.cn

    2014-03-14

    The non-classical trigonal bipyramidal carbon (TBPC) arrangement generally exists as transition states (TSs) in nucleophilic bimolecular substitution (S{sub N}2) reactions. Nevertheless, chemists have been curious about whether such a carbon bonding could be stable in equilibrium structures for decades. As the TBPC arrangement was normally realized as cationic species theoretically and experimentally, only one anionic example ([At-C(CN){sub 3}-At]{sup −}) was computationally devised. Herein, we report the design of a new class of anionic TBPC species by using the strategy similar to that for stabilizing the non-classical planar hypercoordinate carbon. When electron deficient Al and Ga were used as the equatorial ligands, eight D{sub 3h} [A-CE{sub 3}-A]{sup −} (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) TBPC structures were found to be the energy minima rather than TSs at both the B3LYP and MP2 levels. Remarkably, the energetic results at the CCSD(T) optimization level further identify [Ge-CAl{sub 3}-Ge]{sup −} and [Sn-CGa{sub 3}-Sn]{sup −} even to be the global minima and [Si-CAl{sub 3}-Si]{sup −} and [Ge-CGa{sub 3}-Ge]{sup −} to be the local minima, only slightly higher than their global minima. The electronic structure analyses reveal that the substantial ionic C–E bonding, the peripheral E–A covalent bonding, and the axial mc-2e (multi center-two electrons) bonding play roles in stabilizing these TBPC structures. The structural simplicity and the high thermodynamic stability suggest that some of these species may be generated and captured in the gas phase. Furthermore, as mono-anionic species, their first vertical detachment energies are differentiable from those of their nearest isomers, which would facilitate their characterization via experiments such as the negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy.

  16. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patil, Shrikant; Moeys, Sara; von Dassow, Peter; Huysman, Marie J. J.; Mapleson, Daniel; De Veylder, Lieven; Sanges, Remo; Vyverman, Wim; Montresor, Marina; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata

    2015-11-14

    Sexual reproduction is an obligate phase in the life cycle of most eukaryotes. Meiosis varies among organisms, which is reflected by the variability of the gene set associated to the process. Diatoms are unicellular organisms that belong to the stramenopile clade and have unique life cycles that can include a sexual phase. The exploration of five diatom genomes and one diatom transcriptome led to the identification of 42 genes potentially involved in meiosis. While these include the majority of known meiosis-related genes, several meiosis-specific genes, including DMC1, could not be identified. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses supported gene identification and revealed ancestralmore » loss and recent expansion in the RAD51 family in diatoms. The two sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta were used to explore the expression of meiosis-related genes: RAD21, SPO11-2, RAD51-A, RAD51-B and RAD51-C were upregulated during meiosis, whereas other paralogs in these families showed no differential expression patterns, suggesting that they may play a role during vegetative divisions. An almost identical toolkit is shared among Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, as well as two species for which sex has not been observed, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, suggesting that these two may retain a facultative sexual phase. Lastly, our results reveal the conserved meiotic toolkit in six diatom species and indicate that Stramenopiles share major modifications of canonical meiosis processes ancestral to eukaryotes, with important divergences in each Kingdom.« less

  17. GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B.

    2013-07-01

    Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

  18. Review of the State-of-the-Art in Power Electronics Suitable for 10-KW Military Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the technological opportunities of integrating power electronics-based inverters into a TEP system, primarily in the 10-kW size range. The proposed enhancement offers potential advantages in weight reduction, improved efficiency, better performance in a wider range of generator operating conditions, greater versatility and adaptability, and adequate reliability. In order to obtain strong assurance of the availability of inverters that meet required performance and reliability levels, a market survey was performed. The survey obtained positive responses from several manufacturers in the motor drive and distributed generation industries. This study also includes technology reviews and assessments relating to circuit topologies, reliability issues, vulnerability to pulses of electromagnetic energy, potential improvements in semiconductor materials, and potential performance improvement through cryogenics.

  19. DOE, NREL Help DoD Enhance Energy Security (Fact Sheet), Integrated Deployment: Military, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Technologies from National Laboratories to Market | Department of Energy DOE's Office of Technology Transitions Issues First Call to Launch New Energy Technologies from National Laboratories to Market DOE's Office of Technology Transitions Issues First Call to Launch New Energy Technologies from National Laboratories to Market February 5, 2016 - 2:34pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - As part of a continued push to encourage energy innovation and

  20. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  1. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  2. Research Helps DOE Manage Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sage grouse. The attached link takes you to a video that describes Stoller's monitoring activities of the sage grouse. http:www.stoller-eser.comvideos.htm Editorial Date May 17...

  3. The Origin of a New Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, Li-Ta

    2015-12-09

    This report discusses methods for using code to determine the position and velocity of particles and other objects.

  4. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may help to weigh down the microorganisms, which live on rock substrates. Scanning electron microscopy image of two intracellularly calcifying cyanobacterial cells. Ca-, Mg-,...

  5. Synthesis of perhydroxydodecaborate salts and related species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Peymann, Toralf; Herzog, Axel Hans-Joachim

    2001-01-01

    New icosahedral borohydrates Cs.sub.2 [closo-B.sub.12 (OH).sub.12 ]; Cs[closo-1-H-1-CB.sub.11 (OH).sub.11 ]; and closo-1,12-H.sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 (OH).sub.10 are disclosed. Also set forth are their preparation by refluxing the icosahedral boranes [closo-B.sub.12 H.sub.12 ].sup.2-, [closo-1-CB.sub.11 H.sub.12 ].sup.- and closo-1,12-(CH.sub.2 OH).sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 H.sub.10 with a hydroxylating agent, preferably 30%.sub.w hydrogen peroxide.

  6. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Solicitations There are currently no open solicitations for the High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program. You can search for other opportunities at www.grants.gov.

    New Solicitations There are currently no open solicitations for the National Laser Users' Facility Program. You can search for other opportunities at www.grants.gov.

    New Solicitations There are currently no open solicitations for the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program. You can search for other

  7. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    images at a spatial resolution better than 25 nm. The soft x-ray STXM enabled characterization of the type (i.e., coordination andor reduction-oxidation state) of carbon...

  8. Microsoft Word - sensitive-species-table.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Goshawk NMS, FSOC High Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike NMS High Vireo vicinior Gray Vireo NMT Moderate Amazilia violiceps Violet-crowned Hummingbird NMT Low Myotis...

  9. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    understood. Scientists agree that calcification in cyanobacteria is an extracellular process: Photosynthesizing cells commonly export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32-...

  10. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  11. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rather than external precipitates, cells may not have been entombed within mineral shells, and so calcified cyanobacteria microfossils may not have formed, explaining the...

  12. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32- outside their cells where it bonds with an alkaline earth metal like Ca2+. The cyanobacteria recently found in Lake Alchichica, however,...

  13. California Endangered Species Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and its habitat. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation Colorado Fish and Game Code Sections 2050 et seq. DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  14. Differential effects of five 'classical' scorpion {beta}-toxins on rNa{sub v}1.2a and DmNav1 provide clues on species-selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosmans, Frank; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Tytgat, Jan . E-mail: Jan.Tytgat@pharm.kuleuven.be

    2007-01-01

    In general, scorpion {beta}-toxins have been well examined. However, few in-depth studies have been devoted to species selectivity and affinity comparisons on the different voltage-activated Na{sup +} channels since they have become available as cloned channels that can be studied in heterologous expression systems. As a result, their classification is largely historical and dates from early in vivo experiments on mice and cockroach and fly larvae. In this study, we aimed to provide an updated overview of selectivity and affinity of scorpion {beta}-toxins towards voltage-activated Na{sup +} channels of vertebrates or invertebrates. As pharmacological tools, we used the classic {beta}-toxins AaHIT, Css II, Css IV, Css VI and Ts VII and tested them on the neuronal vertebrate voltage-activated Na{sup +} channel, rNa{sub v}1.2a. For comparison, its invertebrate counterpart, DmNav1, was also tested. Both these channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the currents measured with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. We supplemented this data with several binding displacement studies on rat brain synaptosomes. The results lead us to propose a general classification and a novel nomenclature of scorpion {beta}-toxins based on pharmacological activity.

  15. I INSTRUCTIONS: FROM: Accountability Station Energy Library, AD-622.1/GTN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    I INSTRUCTIONS: FROM: Accountability Station Energy Library, AD-622.1/GTN U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box A Germantown, MD 20874 Document Number Copy Series Classi- fication Date Due TO: I have personally received the material identified above and assume full responsibility for its safe handling in accordance with existing regulations. Date Signature Postal Registry No. AD F 1430.1 (11-92) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. ENERGY LIBRARY CLASSIFIED RECEIPT NO. T 1. Original of this

  16. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -_ ._ i,;PA.il--l-( ---.~ .-.---.-- .-.-_ L.. ,' 3:. /,y. ; .' ( * ' . bABDFUWW.64 iii4 ! .' - , _ ., - \ *Q@e Menwmzdzkm /-5*-i .-, ? r' / .j CJ ' 7, l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT TO : FROM : SUBJECT: Reautor Materiala Brash, Bew York DATE : Au-t 2 % 1950 B.S. Pearson, Chief, Admbidratios Serviwr/ w ' Branch, Pittsburgh W fJ3lUAL~FBR~lFICATES MATDl!ALS,-3 @ * l . - -- E&red ia Copy lo. laf &8tewial Tramfor Cerfiiioatu Nor, 303-Z 353-2, 71bds 958-2 and %pZ eoverhg 6hipnsnt6 of sirc~ni\rp~

  17. Evidence for near-Surface NiOOH Species in Solution-Processed NiOx Selective Interlayer Materials: Impact on Energetics and the Performance of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Meyer, Jens; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Garcia, Andres; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.; Kahn, Antoine; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2011-11-22

    The characterization and implementation of solution-processed, wide bandgap nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) hole-selective interlayer materials used in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are discussed. The surface electrical properties and charge selectivity of these thin films are strongly dependent upon the surface chemistry, band edge energies, and midgap state concentrations, as dictated by the ambient conditions and film pretreatments. Surface states were correlated with standards for nickel oxide, hydroxide, and oxyhydroxide components, as determined using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements show changes in the surface chemistries directly impact the valence band energies. O?-plasma treatment of the as-deposited NiO{sub x} films was found to introduce the dipolar surface species nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), rather than the p-dopant Ni?O?, resulting in an increase of the electrical band gap energy for the near-surface region from 3.1 to 3.6 eV via a vacuum level shift. Electron blocking properties of the as-deposited and O?-plasma treated NiO{sub x} films are compared using both electron-only and BHJ devices. O?-plasma-treated NiO{sub x} interlayers produce electron-only devices with lower leakage current and increased turn on voltages. The differences in behavior of the different pretreated interlayers appears to arise from differences in local density of states that comprise the valence band of the NiO{sub x} interlayers and changes to the band gap energy, which influence their hole-selectivity. The presence of NiOOH states in these NiO{sub x} films and the resultant chemical reactions at the oxide/organic interfaces in OPVs is predicted to play a significant role in controlling OPV device efficiency and lifetime.

  18. Study of Charged Particle Species Produced in Association with B0, B-, and Bs Mesons in proton - anti-proton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usynin, Denys

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the yields of charged kaons, charged pions, and protons produced in association with B mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1960 GeV using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. This is the first reported measurements of these yields at a hadron collider. The B mesons are reconstructed using their semileptonic decays: B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}D{sup -}X, D{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}; B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}D*{sup -}X, D*{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{bar D}{sup 0},{bar D}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}; B{sup +} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{bar D}{sup 0}X, {bar D}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}; B{sub s}{yields}{ell}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}X, D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{phi},{phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The K, {pi}, and p are identified using the Time of Flight detector (TOF), the CDF spectrometer, and the specific ionization (dE/dx) measured in the central drift chamber (COT). The fraction of charged kaons produced in association with {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons is found to be larger than the fraction produced in association with the {bar B}{sup 0} and B{sup -} mesons, as expected from naive models of heavy quark hadronization to mesons. The particle species yields are found to be in qualitative agreement with simulation of B meson production in hadron collisions from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo, although the yield of kaons around {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons is found to be larger in the simulation when compared to the data. These studies are important for understanding methods of identifying the flavor of {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons in measurement of {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} flavor oscillations and charge conjugation-parity (CP) violation in {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} meson decays.

  19. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox viruses which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  20. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  1. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  2. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami U/NREL DoD/DLA Project) (presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  3. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  4. EERE Success Story—Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  5. Full differentiation and assignment of boron species in the electrolytes Li{sub 2}B{sub 6}O{sub 9}F{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 3}O{sub 4}F{sub 3} by solid-state {sup 11}B NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuniger, Thomas; Pilz, Thomas; Chandran, C. Vinod; Jansen, Martin

    2012-10-15

    The syntheses of two new fluorooxoborates, Li{sub 2}B{sub 3}O{sub 4}F{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 6}O{sub 9}F{sub 2}, which possess considerable ion conductivity at higher temperatures, have been reported recently. Here, we describe the characterisation of these compounds by solid-state {sup 11}B NMR spectroscopy. The complex central-transition MAS spectra, resulting from overlap of sub-spectra contributed by the individual boron species in the crystal structures, could be clearly separated by acquisition and analysis of 3QMAS spectra. By numerical fit of these sub-spectra, the isotropic chemical shift {delta}{sub iso}, the quadrupolar coupling constant {chi}, and the asymmetry {eta} were determined. Using known relations between boron coordination and chemical shift as well as quadrupolar coupling, the individual {sup 11}B NMR resonances have been ascribed to boron species in tetrahedral or trigonal environment. To remove remaining assignment ambiguities, the response of the {sup 11}B resonances to {sup 19}F decoupling was qualitatively analysed. Thus, by using the combined information conveyed by chemical shift, quadrupolar and dipolar interaction, a complete assignment of the complex {sup 11}B line shapes exhibited by the fluorooxoborates has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Structure and solid-state {sup 11}B NMR spectrum of Li{sub 2}B{sub 3}O{sub 4}F{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of title compounds by solid-state {sup 11}B NMR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-spectra of boron species separated by evaluation of 3QMAS spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotropic chemical shift and quadrupolar interaction parameters determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full boron assignment based on NMR parameters and response to {sup 19}F decoupling.

  6. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, Shrikant; Moeys, Sara; von Dassow, Peter; Huysman, Marie J. J.; Mapleson, Daniel; De Veylder, Lieven; Sanges, Remo; Vyverman, Wim; Montresor, Marina; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata

    2015-11-14

    Sexual reproduction is an obligate phase in the life cycle of most eukaryotes. Meiosis varies among organisms, which is reflected by the variability of the gene set associated to the process. Diatoms are unicellular organisms that belong to the stramenopile clade and have unique life cycles that can include a sexual phase. The exploration of five diatom genomes and one diatom transcriptome led to the identification of 42 genes potentially involved in meiosis. While these include the majority of known meiosis-related genes, several meiosis-specific genes, including DMC1, could not be identified. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses supported gene identification and revealed ancestral loss and recent expansion in the RAD51 family in diatoms. The two sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta were used to explore the expression of meiosis-related genes: RAD21, SPO11-2, RAD51-A, RAD51-B and RAD51-C were upregulated during meiosis, whereas other paralogs in these families showed no differential expression patterns, suggesting that they may play a role during vegetative divisions. An almost identical toolkit is shared among Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, as well as two species for which sex has not been observed, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, suggesting that these two may retain a facultative sexual phase. Lastly, our results reveal the conserved meiotic toolkit in six diatom species and indicate that Stramenopiles share major modifications of canonical meiosis processes ancestral to eukaryotes, with important divergences in each Kingdom.

  7. S. 936: A Bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1998 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses a bill that may be cited as the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1998.

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","Texas...

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","East Coast (PADD 1) Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand...

  10. Pentagon clings to costly lifestyle (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND ... Planning & Policy-- Environment, Health, & Safety; 450000 -- Military Technology, Weaponry

  11. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: McMasters, Robert L 1 ; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton 2 + Show Author Affiliations Virginia Military Institute Virginia Military Institute ORNL ORNL Publication Date: ...

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","Texas...

  13. 2014 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... > 500 ppm Sulfur, High Other Distillate * Barge company * Fire Boat * Fishing Boat * Marina * Police Boat * VesselShip * Exclude: Military Use Military Use: 30 31 32 No. 2 ...

  14. Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Proposed for publication in Applied Optics. Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country ...

  15. Ultrasound enhanced process for extracting metal species in supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Enokida, Youichi

    2006-10-31

    Improved methods for the extraction or dissolution of metals, metalloids or their oxides, especially lanthanides, actinides, uranium or their oxides, into supercritical solvents containing an extractant are disclosed. The disclosed embodiments specifically include enhancing the extraction or dissolution efficiency with ultrasound. The present methods allow the direct, efficient dissolution of UO2 or other uranium oxides without generating any waste stream or by-products.

  16. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H.; Schutte, Erick J.; Rolfe, Sara L.

    2010-11-02

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  17. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  18. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  19. Chapter 3_14_SpecialStatusSpecies

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... of a river valley adjacent to the stream channel which is covered with water when the ... clay and shale, granite, volcanic ash, tripoli, salt, bentonite, iron ore, and chat. ...

  20. Metallic species derived from fluidized bed coal combustion. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natusch, D.F.S.; Taylor, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of fly ash generated by the combustion of Montana Rosebud coal in an experimental 18 inch fluidized bed combustor were collected. The use of a heated cascade impactor permitted collection of size fractionated material that avoided condensation of volatile gases on the particles. Elemental concentration trends were determined as a function of size and temperature and the results compared to published reports for conventional power plants. The behavior of trace metals appears to be substantially different in the two systems due to lower operating temperatures and the addition of limestone to the fluidized bed. Corrosion of the impactor plates was observed at the highest temperature and lowest limestone feed rate sampled during the study. Data from the elemental concentration and leaching studies suggest that corrosion is most likely due to reactions involving sodium sulfate. However, it is concluded that corrosion is less of a potential problem in fluidized-bed systems than in conventional coal-fired systems.