National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for military outer continental

  1. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  2. Unicracking/hydrodesulfurization technology for upgrading California outer continental shelf heavy crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, D.A.; Miller, J.W.; Simpson, H.D.; Skripek, M.

    1985-01-01

    California outer continental shelf crudes represent an important source of oil for energy future. They are difficult to refine, however, because of their high levels of sulfur, metals, and carbon residue. Improved Unicracking/HDS technology, made possible by a new HDM catalyst, now makes upgrading heavy crudes feasible. The authors extended this technology to upgrading California outer continental shelf crudes into a syncrude with properties similar to Alaskan North Slope crude. This is an attractive solution for handing outer continental shelf crudes in existing refineries.

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Continental Shelf appertain to the United States and are subject to its jurisdiction, control, and power of disposition as provided in this Act..." Published NA Year Signed or...

  4. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Revised Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Office of Renewable Energy Programs OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2015-031 Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Revised Environmental Assessment OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2015-031 Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia Revised Environmental Assessment Author Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Office of Renewable Energy Programs

  6. Outer continental shelf development and the North Carolina coast: a guide for local planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brower, D.J.; McElyea, W.D.; Godschalk, D.R.; Lofaro, N.D.

    1981-08-01

    This guide supplies local governments in North Carolina's coastal region with information on (1) the facilities and activities associated with outer continental shelf (OCS) oil and gas development, (2) their impacts on coastal communities, and (3) how local governments can manage these impacts. Offshore activities and onshore facilities accompanying each stage of OCS development (leasing, exploration, field development, production, and shutdown) are described, including factors influencing facility siting, local economies, and local natural resources. The guide helps local governments apply this information by presenting ways in which they can influence the development process.

  7. Regulations Related to the Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria and Implications of Not Renewing the Moratoria (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    From 1982 through 2008, Congress annually enacted appropriations riders prohibiting the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior from conducting activities related to leasing, exploration, and production of oil and natural gas on much of the federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Further, a separate executive ban (originally put in place in 1990 by President George H.W. Bush and later extended by President William J. Clinton through 2012) also prohibited leasing on the OCS, with the exception of the Western Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska. In combination, those actions prohibited drilling along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and in portions of the central Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-432) imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east of a dividing line known as the Military Mission Line, and in the Central Gulf of Mexico within 100 miles of Florida.

  8. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and outer continental shelf in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1985-10-01

    Exploratory drilling on the Atlantic outer continental shelf remained at about the same level as in 1983. Two wells were spudded in the Baltimore Canyon Trough. Three were completed and announced as dry holes, one in a world record water depth of 6,952 ft (2,119 m). Onshore in the Atlantic coastal plain, a dry hole was drilled in Colleton County, South Carolina, and another well, drilled in 1982 in Lee County, North Carolina, was plugged and abandoned as a dry hole. North Atlantic Lease Sale 82, which was to be held in 2 parts, was cancelled in late 1984. The International Court of Justice determined the United States-Canada boundary line in the North Atlantic. Seismic data acquisition decreased 41% below the 1983 level to 7,223 line-mi(11,625 line-km).

  9. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  10. military

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Military Academic Collaborations http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdefenseprogramsmilitaryacademiccollaborations

  11. military

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Military Academic Collaborations http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdefenseprogramsmilitaryacademiccollaborations

  12. Proposed 1986 outer continental shelf oil and gas lease sale offshore the Mid-Atlantic states, OCS Sale No. 111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Sale of oil and gas development leases is proposed for 3561 lease tracts containing 20.3 million acres of outer continental shelf lying off the coasts of Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The lease tracts are located beneath 132 to 10,560 feet of water within an area 24 to 140 miles offshore. Oil would become available in 1994, with production peaking in 1999. Gas production would begin in 1998, peak in 1999, and decline by approximately 50% by the year 2005. Development of the hydrocarbon field would involve approximately 22 exploratory wells, 9 delineation wells, 5 platforms, 27 subsea completions, and 54 production wells. If implemented, the lease offering would be held in October 1985.

  13. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic and their onshore impacts. Atlantic summary report, July 1, 1983-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, R.W.; Havran, K.J.

    1984-12-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Atlantic continues. Hydrocarbon exploration efforts have been and probably will continue to be concentrated on four major sedimentary basins: the Georges Bank Basin, the Baltimore Canyon Trough, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau Basin. To date, 46 exploratory wells have been drilled in these areas, most of them in the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area where resource estimates indicate the hydrocarbon potential is the greatest of the three Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Currently, no operators are involved in exploration efforts in the Atlantic. No commercial discoveries have been announced. Since the first and most successful sale of Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf blocks in Lease Sale 40 in August 1976, there have been eight other sales bringing total revenues of almost $3 billion to the Federal Treasury. The current tentative milestone chart for the 5-year offshore leasing schedule calls for four additional lease sales to be held in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Although no firm plans have been made for the transportation of potential offshore hydrocarbons to onshore processing facilities, it is believed that oil would be transported by tanker or tug-barge system to existing refineries on the Raritan and Delaware Bays. Gas probably would be transported by pipeline to one of several onshore landfalls identifed by Atlantic Coast States and in Federal environmental impact documents. Recent onshore support for Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf exploration came from Davisville, Rhode Island, the only shore support base for the Atlantic that was active during 1984. Three maps are provided in the back pocket of this report for the North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic planning areas. 29 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. offshore is estimated to contain substantial resources of both crude oil and natural gas, but until recently some of the areas of the lower 48 states Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been under leasing moratoria. The Presidential ban on offshore drilling in portions of the lower 48 OCS was lifted in July 2008, and the Congressional ban was allowed to expire in September 2008, removing regulatory obstacles to development of the Atlantic and Pacific OCS.

  15. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts. South Atlantic summary report update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    An update of the South Atlantic Summary Report 2, this report provides current information about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil- and gas-related activities and their onshore impacts for the period June 1982 to February, 1983. The geographical area covered by the report extends from north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida. The information is designed to assist in planning for the onshore effects associated with offshore oil and gas development. It covers lease and transportation strategies and the nature and location of onshore facilities. An appendix summarizes related state and federal studies. 11 references, 2 tables.

  16. South Atlantic summary report 2. Revision of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deis, J.L.; Kurz, F.N.; Porter, E.O.

    1982-05-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the South Atlantic Region began in 1960, when geophysical surveys of the area were initiated. In 1977, a Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well was drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. In March 1978, the first lease sale, Sale 43, was held, resulting in the leasing of 43 tracts. Approximately a year later, in May 1979, the first exploratory drilling began, and by February 1980, six exploratory wells had been drilled by four companies. Hydrocarbons were not found in any of these wells. Lease Sale 56, the second lease sale in the South Atlantic Region, was held in August 1981. The sale resulted in the leasing of 47 tracts. Most of the leased tracts are in deep water along the Continental Slope off North Carolina. To date, no drilling has occurred on these tracts, but it is likely that two wells will be drilled or will be in the process of being drilled by the end of 1982. Reoffering Sale RS-2 is scheduled for July 1982, and it will include tracts offered in Lease Sale 56 that were not awarded leases. Lease Sale 78 is scheduled to be held in July 1983. The most recent (March 1982) estimates of risked resources for leased lands in the South Atlantic OCS are 27 million barrels of oil and 120 billion cubic feet of gas. To date, onshore impacts resulting from OCS exploration have been minimal, and they were associated with Lease Sale 43 exploratory activities. In June 1981, the South Atlantic Regional Technical Working Group prepared a Regional Transportation Management Plan for the South Atlantic OCS. The plan is principally an integration of regulatory frameworks, policies, and plans that are applicable to pipeline siting from each of the South Atlantic coastal States and Federal agencies with jurisdiction in the area.

  17. Impacts of Increased Access to Oil & Natural Gas Resources in the Lower 48 Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This analysis was updated for Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO): Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The OCS is estimated to contain substantial resources of crude oil and natural gas; however, some areas of the OCS are subject to drilling restrictions. With energy prices rising over the past several years, there has been increased interest in the development of more domestic oil and natural gas supply, including OCS resources. In the past, federal efforts to encourage exploration and development activities in the deep waters of the OCS have been limited primarily to regulations that would reduce royalty payments by lease holders. More recently, the states of Alaska and Virginia have asked the federal government to consider leasing in areas off their coastlines that are off limits as a result of actions by the President or Congress. In response, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior has included in its proposed 5-year leasing plan for 2007-2012 sales of one lease in the Mid-Atlantic area off the coastline of Virginia and two leases in the North Aleutian Basin area of Alaska. Development in both areas still would require lifting of the current ban on drilling.

  18. Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final Report to the Department of Energy EERE Wind & Water Power Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kathryn A.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Johnson, Sarah M.; Connelly, Emily E.

    2015-10-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Baseline Studies Project helped address environmental barriers to offshore wind energy development in the mid-Atlantic region by providing regulators, developers, and other stakeholders with comprehensive baseline ecological data and analyses. Project funders and collaborators from a range of academic institutions, non-governmental organizations, federal agencies, foundations, and private companies came together to study bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal distributions, densities, and movements on the mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf between 2012 and 2014. Specific project activities and goals included the following: (1) Conduct standardized surveys to quantify bird, sea turtle, and marine mammal densities seasonally and annually throughout the study region and identify important habitat use or aggregation areas. (2) Develop statistical models to help understand the drivers of wildlife distribution and abundance patterns. (3) Use individual tracking data for several focal bird species to provide information on population connectivity and individual movements that is complementary to survey data. (4) Identify species that are likely to be exposed to offshore wind energy development activities in the mid-Atlantic study area. (5) Develop U.S.-based technological resources and assessment methods for future monitoring efforts, including a comparison of high resolution digital video aerial surveys to boat-based surveys. (6) Help meet data needs associated with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Marine Mammal Protection Act, and Endangered Species Act requirements, by contributing several years of data and analysis towards future Environmental Impact Statements. This report consists of six parts: Project overview (executive summary and Chapters 1-2); Examining wildlife distributions and relative abundance from a digital video aerial survey platform (Chapters 3-6); Examining wildlife distributions and abundance using boat-based surveys

  19. Massachusetts Military Reservation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Military Reservation Jump to: navigation, search Name Massachusetts Military Reservation Facility Massachusetts Military Reservation Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind...

  20. Military Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The articles generally provide insight about present business opportunities for third-party-owned renewable electricity projects at military installations. It should be noted that ...

  1. Collaborative Military Vehicle Design | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Military Vehicle Design Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Collaborative Military Vehicle Design Charles (Burt) Theurer 2012.04.09 I wanted to ...

  2. Military Academic Collaborations | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Programs Military Academic Collaborations The National Nuclear Security Administration ... enhance collaboration between NNSA's eight sites and the U.S. MilitaryService Academies. ...

  3. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  4. Forest City Solar Military Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Forest City military community in Honolulu, Hawaii, that uses high-efficiency solar panels installed on the roof of its community center to power 10 homes.

  5. military academic programs | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    military academic programs Sandia California hosts Military Academic Collaboration students Sandia National Laboratories in California was one of nine national laboratory sites that hosted students from military undergraduate institutions as part of the NNSA's Military Academic Collaboration. The collaboration, now in its seventh year, exposes cadets to careers within the national

  6. Continental Biofuels Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Continental Biofuels Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Continental Biofuels Corporation Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75240 Sector: Biofuels Product: Dallas-based company...

  7. Modeling the Alaskan Continental Shelf waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S.K.; Leendertse, J.J.

    1987-10-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional ocean circulation model and two dimensional stochastic weather model used to calculate hypothetical oil-spill trajectories over the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas. Special consideration is given to the movement of sea ice in areas characterized by the presence of seasonal ice, and to ice/water interaction under different current and wind conditions. Spreading, dispersion, and weathering of crude oil, and probable landfalls of trajectories are calculated under hypothetical scenarios of oil spills from tanker accidents and well blow-outs. The report also provides comparisons between simulated data on water and sea ice motion with available field observations.

  8. Military MOJO | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You November 11, 2015 - 12:09pm Addthis A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and restored with window films to reduce solar heat gain, occupancy sensors to control interior lighting, and daylight sensors to maximize energy savings and enhance productivity. A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and

  9. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Integrated Military Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Capabilities Facilities Projects Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Integrated Military Systems Missile Air Defense Demonstrates advanced technologies, delivers responsive technical solutions in anticipation of Missile Defense mission needs, and facilitates the integration and sustainment of operational capabilities across the broad Missile Defense mission Missile Air Defense Strike Systems & Aerospace Technologies Provides

  11. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  12. Oil-spill risk analysis: Navarin Basin (Proposed Lease Sale 107) Outer Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paluszkiewicz, T.; Marshall, C.; Anderson, C.; Lear, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    The report summarizes results of an oil spill risk analysis (OSRA) conducted for the proposed Navarin Basin OCS Lease Sale 107. The objective of the analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production from proposed leasing alternatives for the proposed lease sale. The analysis will be considered in the environmental impact statement (EIS) prepared for the lease area by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The proposed action (Alternative I) is to offer for lease OCS lands in the Navarin Basin. The leasing proposal consists of nearly 5,036 blocks (11.4 million hectares) located in the Bering Sea approximately 30 to 225 miles (48 to 360 km) off St. Matthew Island. The area lies in waters that are from 70 to 2,400 meters deep. The 41 hypothetical spill locations, which are used to represent platform and transportation risks for the risk analysis.

  13. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic coastal plain and outer Continental Shelf in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, A.C.; Amato, R.V.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region increased in 1981. Eight wells were drilled, 5 of which were completed for a total footage of 71,439 ft (21,780 m). Four of the wells were located in the Baltimore Canyon Trough area and 4 were located in the Georges Bank basin. No exploratory wells were drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment or in the onshore portion of this region in 1981. The 5 completed wells were reported as dry holes. Two lease sales were held in 1981: OCS Lease Sale 56 drew bids on 47 tracts for a total of $342,766,174 in the South Atlantic and OCS Lease Sale 59 drew bids on 50 tracts for a total of $321,981,000 in the Mid-Atlantic. Geophysical activity provided a total of 24,470 line-mi (39,380 line-km) of seismic data.

  14. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and Outer Continental Shelf in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, A.C.; Carpenter, G.B.; Amato, R.V.

    1984-10-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region declined slightly in 1983. Four wells were spudded during the year: 2 in the offshore Baltimore Canyon area and 2 onshore in Lee County, North Carolina. One North Carolina well was drilled, and the other was being tested at year end. In April, 4050 tracts were offered in the mid-Atlantic lease offering (OCS Sale 76), the first area-wide offering of offshore oil and gas leases under the Department of the Interior's new streamlined leasing system. Bids of $86,822,680 were exposed on 40 tracts, and 37 tracts were subsequently leased. In July 3, 082 tracts were offered in the south Atlantic lease offering (OCS Sale 78). Bids of $14,562,040 were exposed on 11 tracts, and all high bids were accepted. Seismic data acquisition decreased 64% below the 1982 level to 13,166 line-mi (21,189 line-km). 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Military

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Reduce Cost Reduce routine operating costs of energy and associated infrastructure ...

  16. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  17. military | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    military CNS employees greet Honor Air veterans Y-12 Deputy Site Manager Gene Sievers, left, and ProForce's Neal Wolfenbarger pose for photo at McGhee Tyson Airport in Knoxville, TN, as Wolfenbarger waits on his uncle to return from Washington, D.C. Veterans Day is important to all Americans, but it carries an even more elevated meaning to those... Pantex honors veterans The Pantex Plant honored veterans at its recent annual ceremony to commemorate Armed Forces Day. Members of the Pantex Fire

  18. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  19. NNSA Launches New Military Academic Collaborations | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Launches New Military Academic Collaborations Press Release Mar 9, 2010 WASHINGTON, ... our effort to recruit the next generation of nuclear security professionals," said Brig. ...

  20. Wind Industry Training for Our Military Veterans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department is taking steps to leverage the skill sets of our military veterans in support of the wind energy industry.

  1. Military students access top R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Some worked with the fundamentals of nuclear weapons and learned about high explosives, methods ... Collaboration inspires nuclear engineering student Alexis Kaplan Military ...

  2. Tire with outer groove containing bonded tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welter, Carolin Anna; Chandra, Dinesh; Benedict, Robert Leon

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates generally to a pneumatic rubber tire which contains an outer, annular, circular groove which contains a flexible tube bonded to the walls of the groove.

  3. Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Programs Military Academic Collaborations Military Academy CadetMidshipman Program This ... Find out more about the sites that comprise the nuclear security enterprise and where ...

  4. NNSA Begins Recruiting for Fall Military Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Begins Recruiting for Fall Military Program November 08, 2011 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The ... its fall recruiting events for the 2012 Military Academic Collaborations (MAC) Program. ...

  5. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load Classification of Bridges Charles ... consideration in planning and executing military deployments is determining the routes ...

  6. Tribal and Military Leaders Come Together to Talk Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 3031 in Phoenix, Arizona. ... Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 30-31 in Phoenix, Arizona. ...

  7. Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Small Business Conference November 4, 2015 9:00AM EST to...

  8. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals May 30-31, 2013 Image of a speaker at ...

  9. Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory data and modeling results are presented on a military auxiliary power unit ... More Documents & Publications Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine ...

  10. ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out - The Military Challenge Campaign...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This entire community active duty military, retired personnel, families and civilian ... It is a national, military-focused energy-efficiency campaign aimed at replacing ...

  11. Military Base Off-taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Military Base Off-taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects Prepared for ...indianenergy | indianenergy@hq.doe.gov Military Base Off-taker Opportunities for Tribal ...

  12. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration for Sustainable Military Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2011-05-05

    This presentation discusses electric vehicle grid integration for sustainable military installations. Fort Carson Military Reservation in Colorado Springs is used as a case study.

  13. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) The constrained variational ...

  14. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    large-scale forcings Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary ... The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying ...

  15. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (jensen-sonde)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Comstock, Jennifer; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2012-01-19

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating Military Bases...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    military to evaluate readiness for plug-in electric vehicles. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Assessment of Data and Survey Results for Join Base Lewis McChord (1.17 MB) Electric ...

  17. Forest City Solar Military Community Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a Forest City military community that uses high-efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) panels installed on the roof of its community center to power 10 homes. Forest City is in...

  18. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  19. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  20. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-03-13

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  1. ARPA-E: Improving Military Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, Bryan; Mahvi, Allison; Stepien, Tom; Wasco, Mick

    2014-02-24

    The U.S. military has a vested interest in advancing microgrid technologies that can power forward operating bases. These technologies could not only help the military significantly reduce its energy demand both at home and abroad, but also they could reduce the number of fuel-supply convoys required on the battlefield and the number of troops killed in fuel-supply convoy attacks. This video highlights two ARPA-E projects that have formed strategic partnerships with the military to enable these microgrids at forward operating bases. Georgia Tech is developing an innovative absorption heat pump that utilizes exhaust heat to provide heating and cooling, which could cut the amount of energy used to heat and cool forward operating bases by 50%. Primus Power is developing a low-cost, energy-dense storage system that could store enough energy to operate a base for several days in the event of a disruption.

  2. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  3. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    LEVERAGING TRIBAL RENEWABLE RESOURCES TO SUPPORT MILITARY ENERGY GOALS May 30-31, 2013 ... for western U.S. tribal leaders and military leaders on the renewable energy resource ...

  4. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning In 2008, DoD and DOE defined a ...

  5. DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DoD Energy Innovation on Military Installations November 5, 2014 Dr. James Galvin Program ... EW-201260 EW-201261 DoD Energy Use, FY 2013 Military Installation Energy Usage DoD ...

  6. Excellence in Energy Awards: Military Academies Leading by Example

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Federal Energy Management Program honors military academies with DOE Excellence in Energy Award for innovative capstone engineering design projects.

  7. SMART BRIDGE: A tool for estimating the military load classification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 99 MATHEMATICS, COMPUTERS, INFORMATION SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, LAW, MISCELLANEOUS; BRIDGES; STATIC LOADS; EXPERT ...

  8. Cultural intelligence support for military operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; MacKerrow, Edward P; Merritt, Terence M; Morgart, Ruth E

    2010-04-08

    It has long been recognized that military success relies on knowledge of the enemy. In the context of standard warfare, adequate knowledge of the enemy may be gained by analyzing observable, measurable data. In the context of modern counterinsurgency operations and the global war on terror, the task of predicting the behavior of the enemy is vastly more complex and difficult. Without an understanding of the ways individuals in the host nation interpret and react to events, no amount of objective information can provide the insight required to accurately predict behavior. US military doctrine has begun to recognize the importance of the many ways that local culture can affect operation success. Increasingly military decision makers use cultural information in the service of operation planning, and troops are provided with pre-deployment cultural training. However, no amount of training can cover the breadth and depth of potentially useful cultural information, and no amount of careful planning can avoid the need to adapt as situations develop. Therefore, a critical challenge is to provide useful tools to US personnel in their efforts to collect, analyze, and utilize cultural information. Essential functions for cultural support tools include the following: (1) to narrow down a broad range of available data and focus the user's attention on context-relevant information, (2) to present cultural information in an easily understood form, (3) to prompt the user to seek relevant information in the environment, (4) to synthesize information, and (5) to predict outcomes based on possible courses of operation. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the ways in which military operations can benefit from cultural intelligence. We then discuss frameworks for analyzing cultural information in the context of a military operation. We conclude with a demonstration of our current efforts to develop a tool that meets the aforementioned functional challenges.

  9. Environmental challenges facing military base closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerleau, N.M.; Cunanan, P.P.; Lingo, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental remediation activities at military bases mandated for closure or realignment pose unique technical and managerial challenges to meet statutory requirements and community interests. Past industrial activities at Department of Army installations involving weapons development, testing, and repairs present extremely diverse problems for cleanup. The combination of environmental and defense statutory requirements present even greater challenges to assure that remediation activities are accelerated to render bases available for early re-use. The inclusion of bases on the National Priorities List and the need to consider socio-economic factors in identifying alternative uses of military bases and public involvement become significant factors in environment decisionmaking. Specific statutory authorities enable military facilities to identify uncontaminated parcels and allow property to be deeded, upon demonstration that an approved remedy is operating properly and successfully, while long-term cleanup of the entire installation continues. Successful cleanup strategies also require effective communication with public and disparate community interest groups. To speed the economic recovery of communities with closing military bases, the Clinton Administration has pledged to reduce the delays normally associated with environmental remediation activities. This article examines four core issues in the decontamination process: complexities associated with accelerating remediation activities at Army installations; managing the process within the constraints of limited resources; the public`s early involvement in shaping environmental contamination. The complexities presented by closing military bases and assuring environmental compliance have resulted in the development and implementation of several innovative methods that may prove useful to non-defense environmental situations. Examples of these methods and a discussion of strategies will be presented.

  10. CLOSURE WELD DEVELOPMENT FOR 3013 OUTER CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.

    2009-11-10

    Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.

  11. Military housing foam application and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  12. "The Voyager Mission to the Outer Planets and Interstellar Space...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grand Tour of the outer planets and are now exploring the outer regions of the heliosphere. Soon they will be the first man-made objects to enter and explore interstellar space....

  13. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective Despite improvements in computing power, current weather and climate models are unable to accurately reproduce the formation, growth, and decay of clouds and precipitation associated with storm systems. Not only is this due to a lack of data about precipitation, but also about the 3-dimensional environment of the surrounding clouds, winds, and moisture, and how that affects the transfer of energy between the sun and Earth. To

  14. Sandia California hosts Military Academic Collaboration students | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Sandia California hosts Military Academic Collaboration students Friday, August 12, 2016 - 9:45am Sandia National Laboratories in California was one of nine national laboratory sites that hosted students from military undergraduate institutions as part of the NNSA's Military Academic Collaboration. The collaboration, now in its seventh year, exposes cadets to careers within the national laboratory complex. This year students came from the U.S.

  15. Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals May 30-31, 2013 Image of a speaker at the forum. Chandler, Arizona Wild Horse Pass Hotel and Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Leveraging Tribal Renewable Resources to Support Military Energy Goals" was held May 30-31, 2013, in Chandler, Arizona. The forum provided information for western

  16. Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Programs / Military Academic Collaborations Military Academy Cadet/Midshipman Program This program places military academy cadets/midshipmen in tours of duty within science, technology, engineering, national security, and relevant fields at any of the NNSA sites. Participants will expand their understanding of the NNSA National Security Enterprise and Department of Defense programs while working closely with nationally recognized staff and researchers on national

  17. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion deer09_yelvington.pdf (196.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diese

  18. Report: U.S. Military Accelerates Deployment of Clean Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is accelerating across military installations operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, according to a report released January 16 by The Pew Charitable Trusts. 'Power...

  19. Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Forest City Military Communities, Hawaii Place: Honolulu, HI Website: www.fcnavyhawaii.com References: Solar Technical Assistance Provided to Forest...

  20. Energy Efficiency Upgrades Help Retired Military Officers Save Money

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how a San Antonio retirement community for military officers worked with a local energy efficiency program to improve the comfort and efficiency of its buildings.

  1. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (196.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Emission Control Strategy for Downsized ...

  2. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  3. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it moremore » robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.« less

  4. Russian military in the year 2000. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlmail, J.F.; Jaworski, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    Through the use of content analysis, this paper attempts to paint a picture of the Russian military in the year 2000 and its impact on the US national security strategy. The research begins by defining the origin of Russian national security policy and how that translates into military policy and doctrine. A framework for evaluating Russian military doctrines is provided with a chronology of the military reform process and the related doctrinal reforms that has its birth in the 1987 announcement of a defensive-defense. Following from the doctrinal variant framework the new strategic missions of the 1992 draft military doctrine are presented with an analysis that shows they are a clear departure from the past and truly represent a defensive-defense type doctrine. Additionally, a comparison is made with the current military reform ongoing in Russia with the historical precedent of the Russian military reform of 1924-25. A rough outline of the separate branches of the Russian military both present and future is provided based on the ongoing trends in the reform process. This thumbnail sketch of the Russian military then assists in the analysis and conclusion that even after a possible 50% cutback in US military spending, in the year 2000 the Russian military will not pose a threat to US national security. The major caveat to this conclusion is in the realm of nuclear weapons and this issue is therefore discussed in some length....Former Soviet Union, Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE), European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Strategy.

  5. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kemeny, George A.; Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  6. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aki, K.

    1989-04-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  7. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Outer Space!" | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Outer Space" Joshua E. G. Peek, Hubble Fellow Department of Astronomy, Columbia University Presentation: Office presentation icon SOS19JAN2013JPeekouter...

  8. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Noble, Robert J.; SLAC; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Caltech, JPL; Bennett, Gary...

  9. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MC3E) Experiment (MC3E) Campaign Links Science Plan MC3E Website Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Inner Domain Thermodynamic Profiling during MC3E 2011.04.22, Turner, SGP Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers 2011.04.22, Williams, SGP Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment: 2DVD Support 2011.04.22, Schwaller, SGP Midlatitude

  11. Curiosity rover finds evidence of Mars' primitive continental crust

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curiosity rover finds evidence of Mars' primitive continental crust Curiosity rover finds evidence of Mars' primitive continental crust This is the first discovery of a potential "continental crust" on Mars. July 13, 2015 Igneous clast named Harrison embedded in a conglomerate rock in Gale crater, Mars, shows elongated light-toned feldspar crystals. The mosaic merges an image from Mastcam with higher-resolution images from ChemCam's Remote Micro-Imager. Credit:

  12. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair) ...

  13. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) ...

  14. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet) ...

  15. Curiosity rover finds evidence of Mars' primitive continental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a potential "continental crust" on Mars. July 13, 2015 Igneous clast named Harrison embedded in a conglomerate rock in Gale crater, Mars, shows elongated light-toned...

  16. FBL Outer Can Welder Analysis Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-21

    The Outer Can Welder Analysis Software (OCWAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After that development effort, SRS funded SRTC to develop a similar system for FB-Line for use with 3013 canister welding at SRS. More robust analysis routines and techniques were used withmore » this new version as well as enhanced graphical representation of the data. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. To improve this process, another software package developed by SRTC, the OCW DAS, digitizes the weld data and stores the data in a file. The OCWAS automates the weld analysis process by analyzing the data obtained during the weld process. The OCWAS reads a data file that was previously collected using the OCW DAS software. The software will read the file and parse the data. The user is first prompted to enter the file name. The file is then opened and the operator name, canister identification, and Date/Time of Acquisition are read from the file and displayed on the screen. The binary weld data is then read from the file into an array until the end of the file is reached. The current, voltage, and position data are displayed on the screen in graphical format on the front panel. The weld power and resistance are calculated and are also displayed in graphical format on the front panel.« less

  17. Tribal and Military Leaders Come Together to Talk Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The seventh in a series of DOE Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Forums was held May 30–31 in Phoenix and focused on potential opportunities for Tribes to partner with the military on clean energy.

  18. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This presentation by DOE's Sunita Satyapal was given at the Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference in March 2010. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities (3.37 MB) ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating Military Bases and Fleet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Readiness for Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy Military Bases and Fleet Readiness for Electric Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Evaluating Military Bases and Fleet Readiness for Electric Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Through the AVTA, Idaho National Laboratory also does fleet and other analysis to

  20. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Mid-latitude Continental ...

  1. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S-band Radar (williams-sband) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-sband) This data was ...

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...filer(williams-449prof) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449prof) This data was ...

  3. Continental Divide El Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    El Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Continental Divide El Coop Inc Place: New Mexico Phone Number: (505) 285-6656 Website: www.cdec.coop Twitter: @maccdec Facebook:...

  4. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  5. Vertical Velocities in Continental Boundary Layer Stratocumulus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Velocities in Continental Boundary Layer Stratocumulus Clouds Virendra Ghate Bruce Albrecht and Pavlos Kollias Why BL Stratocumulus?? * Extensive Coverage - Cover ~24% of earth's surface - Persist of long time-scales * Impact on radiation budget - High SW albedo compared to land or ocean Klein and Hartmann 1993 But Why Continental Clouds? * They do exist - Monthly cloud fraction can vary from 10% to 23% * Impact on pollution & Diurnal Cycle - Affect pollutant venting out of BL & Aerosol

  6. Continental Liquid-phase Stratus Clouds at SGP: Meteorological Influences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Relationship to Adiabacity Continental Liquid-phase Stratus Clouds at SGP: Meteorological Influences and Relationship to Adiabacity Kim, Byung-Gon Kangnung National University Schwartz, Stephen Brookhaven National Laboratory Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Category: Cloud Properties The microphysical properties of continental stratus clouds observed over SGP appear to be substantially influenced by micrometeorological

  7. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  8. Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You November 11, 2015 - 12:09pm Addthis A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and restored with window films to reduce solar heat gain, occupancy sensors to control interior lighting, and daylight sensors to maximize energy savings and enhance productivity. A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and

  9. [?/Fe]ABUNDANCES OF FOUR OUTER M31 HALO STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: luis.vargas@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [?/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = 2.2 and [Fe/H] = 1.4. The sample's average [?/Fe] ratio is +0.20 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [?/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  10. Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.

    2012-05-01

    Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  11. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  12. Local community strategies for successful military base conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures are a paradox. On one hand, the scale and the rate of present base closures is unique historically. Since 1988, the US has closed 56 major military installations and over 60 minor facilities. Under the 1993 round of base closures, another 35 major installations and 95 smaller facilities nationwide were closed. Yet, for the most part, each base itself does not present unique problems. Common questions of environmental contamination remediation, infrastructure improvement, and reuse and redevelopment strategies are shared by each closing base. The challenge for the communities is to simultaneously recognize the uniqueness of the military base closure process, and adopt common but novel approaches to resolutions of the similar issues. Thus while the property disposal or economic development mechanisms which have historically been used may no longer be appropriate, new and innovative common strategies may be developed to expedite successful conversions. The purpose of this article is to examine the paradox presented by military base closures, to identify those outdated processes no longer appropriate for the unique nature of base closures, and to recommend innovative and common solutions to those issues found at all closing bases.

  13. Swords into plowshares: Military geology and national security projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    Military geology and national security projects are often comparable, achieving their rai-son d`etre in support of national goals, military operations, and/or systems-all for vital national interests. The application of Geoscience to these ends, especially engineering geology, has occurred from pole to pole and included every conceivable environment and natural condition. In the conduct of such projects, the Geosciences have advanced, and vice versa. Desert trafficability, most notably regarding playa surfaces, is both temporary and variable and not a persistent condition as some early authors believed. Playas in Australia, Iran, and the US show that saline efflorescence is removed following surface water dissolution and subsequent deflation, resulting in very hard crusts. Magadiite, a hydrous sodium silicate and possible precursor of bedded chert, was first discovered in North America at Alkali Lake, OR, during a military project. Pleistocene Lake Trinity, a small and mostly buried evaporate basin in the northern Jornada del Muerto, NM, was discovered during exploratory drilling in support of a military test program.

  14. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation by DOE's Sunita Satyapal was given at the Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference in March 2010.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) 2011.04.22, Jensen, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers 2011.04.22 - 2011.06.06 Lead Scientist : Christopher Williams For data sets, see below.

  16. Leaf seal for inner and outer casings of a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Leach, David

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of arcuate, circumferentially extending leaf seal segments form an annular seal spanning between annular sealing surfaces of inner and outer casings of a turbine. The ends of the adjoining seal segments have circumferential gaps to enable circumferential expansion and contraction of the segments. The end of a first segment includes a tab projecting into a recess of a second end of a second segment. Edges of the tab seal against the sealing surfaces of the inner and outer casings have a narrow clearance with opposed edges of the recess. An overlying cover plate spans the joint. Leakage flow is maintained at a minimum because of the reduced gap between the radially spaced edges of the tab and recess, while the seal segments retain the capacity to expand and contract circumferentially.

  17. "Outer Space" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 19, 2013, 9:30am "Outer Space" Science on Saturday is a series of lectures given by scientists, mathematicians, and other professionals involved in cutting-edge research. Held on Saturday mornings throughout winter, the lectures are geared toward high school students. The program draws more than 300 students, teachers, parents, and community members each Saturday. Topics are selected from a variety of disciplines. The program runs January through March, and is free and open to

  18. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET OUTER COIL SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.

  19. THE DYNAMICS OF THE OUTER PARTS OF {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.

    2012-05-20

    The multi-object fiber-fed spectrograph AAOmega at the Anglo-Australian Telescope has been used to establish and measure accurate ({<=}1 km s{sup -1}) radial velocities for a new sample of members in the outer parts of the stellar system {omega} Centauri. The new sample more than doubles the number of known members with precise velocities that lie between 25' and 45' from the cluster center. Combining this sample with earlier work confirms that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of {omega} Cen remains approximately constant at {approx}6.5 km s{sup -1} in the outer parts of the cluster, which contain only a small fraction of the total cluster stellar mass. It is argued that the approximately constant velocity dispersion in the outer regions is most likely a consequence of external influences, such as the tidal shock heating that occurs each time {omega} Cen crosses the Galactic plane. There is therefore no requirement to invoke dark matter or non-standard gravitational theories.

  20. Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaugher, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked controversy over the proper US role in the Gulf. In this book Thomas L. McNaugher offers a military strategy for the Gulf that seeks to balance the risks of overinvolvement against the risks of neglect. The author, a research associate in the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies program, believes that the United States must cultivate the traditional security mechanisms of the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and he encourages cooperation with allies like Great Britain and France that historically have been involved in Gulf security. He argues that the United States should focus on protecting the Gulf states from external attack and on deterring further Soviet encroachment in the region, leaving internal security largely to the states themselves. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. EIS-0470: U.S. Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Cape Wind Energy Project on the Outer Continental Shelf off Massachusetts, Nantucket Sound

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Loan Programs Office is proposing to offer a loan guarantee to Cape Wind Associates, LLC for the construction and start-up of the Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, offshore of Massachusetts. The proposed Cape Wind Energy Project would consist of up to 130, 3.6-MW turbine generators, in an area of roughly 25-square miles, and would include 12.5 miles of 115-kilovolt submarine transmission cable and an electric service platform. To inform DOE's decision regarding a loan guarantee, DOE adopted the Department of the Interior’s 2009 Final Cape Wind Energy Project EIS, in combination with two Cape Wind Environmental Assessments dated May 2010 and April 2011 (per 40 CFR 1506.4), as a DOE Final EIS (DOE/EIS-0470). The adequacy of the Department of the Interior final EIS adopted by DOE is the subject of a judicial action. This project is inactive.

  2. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Mid-Atlantic and their onshore impacts: a summary report, November 1979. Update 3, August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    At the present, there are no operators drilling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The prime targets for future exploration will be in areas of 3000 to 6000 feet (914 to 1829 m) depth of water, seaward of previously leased tracts. No commercial discoveries have been found during the 4-year drilling history of the area. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the Mid-Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Little development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with upcoming Lease Sale 59. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of future exploration efforts. After Lease Sale 59, the next sale is Lease Sale 76, which is tentatively scheduled for March 1983.

  3. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, July 1980. Update 1, February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1981-02-01

    Lease Sale 43, in the Southeast Georgia Embayment, was the first lease sale to be held in the South Atlantic. Two additional sales are scheduled between now and 1985: Sale 56 is scheduled for August 1981 and Sale 78, for January 1984. All leases from Sale 43 remain active, but no drilling has taken place since the last of six dry holes was plugged and abandoned. There are no additional plans for drilling on Sale 43 leases in the immediate future. Future exploration may shift away from previous Sale 43 leased tracts to deep-water areas after Sale 56. One hundred thirty of the 286 proposed Sale 56 tracts are in deep-water. The geologic conditions in the deep-water areas are more favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation than those under shallower waters. Structures that may provide trapping mechanisms have been shown to exist in the area. Because leases in deep-water areas take longer and are more costly to explore and develop than those in areas of shallower water, industry consensus is that longer primary lease terms may be required and some delays in acquiring rigs may be experienced. The Sale 43 area appears to be a region of relatively low hydrocarbon-bearing potential. However, the Bureau of Land Management's Intergovernmental Planning Program is preparing the necessary Regional Transportation Management Plan for the entire South Atlantic OCS Region. Nearly all the support facilities associated with Sale 43 have been removed or converted to other uses. Temporary support facilities are likely to be reactivated only if Sale 56 results in further exploration of the South Atlantic OCS.

  4. Mesozoic stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Exxon 975-1 well, Georges Bank Basin, U. S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W. . Quissett Labs.)

    1993-03-01

    The Exxon 975--1 well, located in the southeastern part of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4,452 m relative to the Kelly Bushing. The oldest sediments penetrated by the well are Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Early Bathonian), but unambiguous seismic correlations with the COST G--1 and G--2 wells show that about 6,860 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks rest on the Paleozoic basement at the 975--1 wellsite. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the well is placed at 1,673 m; the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary occurs at 384 m. Limestone is predominant below 3,966 m (Iroquois Formation), and at the intervals 3,810--3,246 m and 1,897--1,654 m (lower and upper tongues of the Abenaki Formation). Siliciclastics of the Mohican, undivided Mic Mac-Mohawk, Missisauga, Logan Canyon, and Dawson Canyon Formations dominate the remainder of the Mesozoic section. The Exxon 975--1 well penetrated updip, more terrestrial lithofacies than the COST G--2, Conoco 145--1, and Mobil 312--1 wells. Salt, anhydrite, dolomite, and the micritic textures of the carbonates in the Iroquois Formation of the Exxon 975--1 well suggest hypersaline restricted marine and supratidal depositional environments. The predominantly nonmarine deltaic siliciclastics of the Mohican, Misaine Shale, and Mic Mac-Mohawk units are thicker in the Exxon 975--1 well, whereas marine carbonates of the Scatarie and Bacarro Limestones are usually thinner than at the downdip (seaward) wellsites. Similarly, the Early Cretaceous Missisauga and Logan Canyon Formations represent lower delta plain (alluvial and swamp) and delta front (beach, bar, and lagoon) facies at the Exxon 975--1 wellsite, whereas correlative downdip facies represent shallow marine to delta front deposition.

  5. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  6. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer(tomlinson-uhsas)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tomlinson, Jason; Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-28

    Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSASA) A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is

  7. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links MC3E Home News News & Press MC3E Backgrounder (PDF, 1.61MB) SGP Images ARM flickr site Field Blog ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 3.85 MB) Featured Data Plots SGP Data Plots (all) Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions MC3E Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Contacts Michael Jensen, Lead Scientist Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) Thanks

  9. Geologic development and characteristics of continental margins, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-09-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf basin covers more than 500,000 km/sup 2/ and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200-m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise at a depth of 2800 m. The most complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 km/sup 2/ and in which bottom slopes range from less than 1/sup 0/ to greater than 20/sup 0/ around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope is a function of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depocenters throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often exceeding 15-20 km/m.y. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Slope oversteepening, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments, and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landslides and debris flows. Large-scale features such as shelf-edge separation scars and landslide-related canyons often result from such processes.

  10. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  11. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning In 2008, DoD and DOE defined a joint initiative to address military energy use by identifying specific actions to reduce energy demand and increase use of renewable energy on DoD installations. 48876.pdf (1.74 MB) More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy

  12. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Jobs | Department of Energy Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs February 13, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs WASHINGTON -- Today, the first class of Marine trainees at Camp Pendleton will graduate from the Energy Department's solar job

  13. Buy Back Needed to Add Military Time for Retirement By Catherine Ferguson

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Back Needed to Add Military Time for Retirement By Catherine Ferguson Defense Finance and Accounting Service WASHINGTON, March 3, 1997 - Waiting until the last moment before thinking about retirement might end up costing some civilian federal employees more than stress. Civilian employees with prior military service may not have as many years of federal service for retirement as they thought. Before military time can be applied toward civil service retirement, in most cases the employee has to

  14. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  15. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  16. Unproven screening devices threaten the lives of police and military.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Dale W.

    2010-07-01

    In a world plagued with improvised explosive devices, drugs and dangerous people, the desire to field technology to protect our police and military is providing a fertile market for the proliferation of protection technologies that range from the unproven to the disproven. The market place is currently being flooded with detection equipment making inflated and inaccurate marketing claims of high reliably, high detection probabilities, and ease of operation - all while offering detection capabilities at safe distances. The manufacturers of these devices have found a willing global marketplace, which includes some of the most dangerous places in the world. Despite a wealth of contradictory performance and testing data available on the Internet, sales of these devices remain brisk and profitable. Rather than enhancing the security of police and military personnel, the reliance on these unproven and disproven devices is creating a sense of false security that is actually lowering the safety of front-line forces in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper addresses the development and distribution history of some of these devices and describes the testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, and other reputable testing agencies that illustrate the real danger in using this kind of unproven technology.

  17. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  18. New Tracers of Gas Migration in the Continental Crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurz, Mark D.

    2015-11-01

    Noble gases are exceptional tracers in continental settings due to the remarkable isotopic variability between the mantle, crust, and atmosphere, and because they are inert. Due to systematic variability in physical properties, such as diffusion, solubility, and production rates, the combination of helium, neon, and argon provides unique but under-utilized indices of gas migration. Existing noble gas data sets are dominated by measurements of gas and fluid phases from gas wells, ground waters and hot springs. There are very few noble gas measurements from the solid continental crust itself, which means that this important reservoir is poorly characterized. The central goal of this project was to enhance understanding of gas distribution and migration in the continental crust using new measurements of noble gases in whole rocks and minerals from existing continental drill cores, with an emphasis on helium, neon, argon. We carried out whole-rock and mineral-separate noble gas measurements on Precambrian basement samples from the Texas Panhandle. The Texas Panhandle gas field is the southern limb of the giant Hugoton-Panhandle oil and gas field; it has high helium contents (up to ~ 2 %) and 3He/4He of 0.21 (± 0.03) Ra. Because the total amount of helium in the Panhandle gas field is relatively well known, crustal isotopic data and mass balance calculations can be used to constrain the ultimate source rocks, and hence the helium migration paths. The new 3He/4He data range from 0.03 to 0.11 Ra (total), all of which are lower than the gas field values. There is internal isotopic heterogeneity in helium, neon, and argon, within all the samples; crushing extractions yield less radiogenic values than melting, demonstrating that fluid inclusions preserve less radiogenic gases. The new data suggest that the Precambrian basement has lost significant amounts of helium, and shows the importance of measuring helium with neon and argon. The 4He/40Ar values are particularly useful

  19. Testing military grade magnetics (transformers, inductors and coils).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Engineers and designers are constantly searching for test methods to qualify or 'prove-in' new designs. In the High Reliability world of military parts, design test, qualification tests, in process tests and product characteristic tests, become even more important. The use of in process and function tests has been adopted as a way of demonstrating that parts will operate correctly and survive its 'use' environments. This paper discusses various types of tests to qualify the magnetic components - the current carrying capability of coils, a next assembly 'as used' test, a corona test and inductance at temperature test. Each of these tests addresses a different potential failure on a component. The entire process from design to implementation is described.

  20. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  1. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, A.C.; Arraki, K.; Kaib, N.A.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aguilera, C.; Blackman, J.W.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Damke, G.; Davis, T.M.; Filippenko, A.V.; Foley, R.J.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P.M.; Hicken, M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  2. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Penarrubia, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cote, P.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Fardal, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2013-05-10

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of {approx}20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii {approx}> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 {+-} 19 km s{sup -1}. The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 {+-} 12 km s{sup -1}, which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M{sub M31} = (1.2-1.5) {+-} 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  3. Turbulence transport modeling of the temporal outer heliosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Dosch, A.

    2014-09-20

    The solar wind can be regarded as a turbulent magnetofluid, evolving in an expanding solar wind and subject to turbulent driving by a variety of in situ sources. Furthermore, the solar wind and the drivers of turbulence are highly time-dependent and change with solar cycle. Turbulence transport models describing low-frequency magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind have so far neglected solar cycle effects. Here we consider the effects of solar cycle variability on a turbulence transport model developed by Zank et al. This model is appropriate for the solar wind beyond about 1 AU, and extensions have described the steady-state dependence of the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature throughout the outer heliosphere. We find that the temporal solar wind introduces a periodic variability, particularly beyond ?10 AU, in the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature. The variability is insufficient to account for the full observed variability in these quantities, but we find that the time-dependent solutions trace the steady-state solutions quite well, suggesting that the steady-state models are reasonable first approximations.

  4. Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bents, E.R.

    1995-05-01

    The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

  5. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  6. Isotopic prediction of eruption volume at continental volcanoes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, F.V.; Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to determine whether isotopic techniques can be used to assess the eruption potential and eruption volume of continental stratovolcanoes. Large-volume eruptions from stratovolcanoes pose significant hazards to population and infrastructure in many parts of the world. We are testing whether this technique will allow a short- to medium-term (decades to millennia) probabilistic hazard assessment of large-volume eruptions. If successful, the technique will be useful to countries or regions that must consider medium to long-term volcanic (e.g., nuclear waste facilities). We have begun sample acquisition and isotopic measurements at two stratovolcanoes, Pico de Orizaba in eastern Mexico and Daisen in western Japan.

  7. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  8. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, {mu}, and {sigma}) are

  9. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; et al

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deepmore » convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.« less

  10. Tectonic evolution of Brazilian equatorial continental margin basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azevedo, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The structural style and stratigraphic relationships of sedimentary basins along the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Continental Margin were used to construct an empirical tectonic model for the development of ancient transform margins. The model is constrained by detailed structural and subsidence analyses of several basins along the margin. The structural framework of the basins was defined at shallow and deep levels by the integration of many geophysical and geological data sets. The Barreirinhas and Para-Maranhao Basins were divided in three tectonic domains: the Tutoia, Caete, and Tromai subbasins. The Caete area is characterized by northwest-southeast striking and northeast-dipping normal faults. A pure shear mechanism of basin formation is suggested for its development. The structure of the Tutoia and Tromai subbasins are more complex and indicative of a major strike-slip component with dextral sense of displacement, during early stages of basin evolution. These two later subbasins were developed on a lithosphere characterized by an abrupt transition (<50 km wide) from an unstretched continent to an oceanic lithosphere. The subsidence history of these basins do not comply with the classical models developed for passive margins or continental rifting. The thermo-mechanical model proposed for the Brazilian equatorial margin includes heterogeneous stretching combined with shearing at the plate margin. The tectonic history comprises: (1) Triassic-Jurassic limited extension associated with the Central Atlantic evolution; (2) Neocomian intraplate deformation consisting of strike-slip reactivation of preexisting shear zones; (3) Aptian-Cenomanian two-phase period of dextral shearing; and (4) Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sea-floor spreading.

  11. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, S. E.; Heymsfield, A.; Heymsfield, G.; Kollias, P.; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Neumann, A.; Poellot, M.; Rutledge, S. A.; Schwaller, M.; Tokay, A.; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, S.; Zipser, E. J.

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.

  12. Energy efficiency in military housing: Monitoring to support revitalization guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is working with the US Army, the US Air Force, and the US Department of Energy to develop a guidebook to be used by architectural and engineering firms in the design phases of military family housing revitalization projects. The purpose of the guidebook is to ensure that energy efficiency is properly addressed in revitalization projects. Monitoring space-heating and cooling energy used in houses both before and after they are revitalized is necessary in order to assess the amount of energy saved by the revitalization process. Three different methods of conducting monitoring experiments are discussed, as well as the methods of data analysis to be used. Houses will be monitored individually using standard gas and electric meters to obtain heating and cooling data for the houses. The authors recommend conducting monitoring programs at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, and Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, because of their project schedules and potential for savings. They do not recommend doing any monitoring at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, because of the relatively small savings that they expect revitalization to accomplish there. They do not recommend seeking out alternative sites for monitoring because of the time required to become familiar with the installation and also because revitalization schedules at alternative sites may be no better than those at the sites they inspected.

  13. Corrosion investigation of coatings for surface protection of military hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, N.; Vasanth, K.L.

    1996-10-01

    A product improvement program (PIP) for the surface finish of some steel military hardware has been recently initiated by the Navy. Presently the metal cleaning methods, interior and exterior surface finishes and corrosion protection requirements for such hardware are specified in MIL-P-18948. The coated hardware are stored in a warehouse structure for long durations. Because these storage places are not environmentally controlled (that is, no temperature or humidity control) the corrosion protection has not been adequate. The exterior surfaces of the hardware are coated with a corrosion inhibiting alkyd primer coating (TT-P-664) or a rust inhibiting lacquer primer coating (MIL-P-11414) to a thickness of 0.4 to 0.6 mils. The exterior color paint, (MIL-E-52891 or MIL-P11195), is applied to a thickness of 1.5 mils. The investigation of various coatings to replace the present system is an ongoing effort. The coatings have been examined from a corrosion protection vantage point and results have been correlated. The coatings were evaluated by exposing them to natural marine atmosphere and seawater wetdown tests. The coatings were also exposed to a 5.0% sodium chloride solution in a laboratory environmental salt fog chamber for 500 hours. Selected coatings were examined using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained from field tests, salt fog, and EIS measurements are discussed.

  14. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  15. EA-1606: Proposed Use of Savannah River Site Lands for Military Training, South Carolina

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security to use the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina, for military training purposes.

  16. Report: U.S. Military Accelerates Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deployment of clean energy technologies is accelerating across military installations operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, according to a report released by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

  17. EM Employee Serves Military in Afghanistan, Manages $5.8 Billion Army Task Order

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    BAGRAM AIRFIELD, Afghanistan – EM employee James Hawkins is currently serving the U.S. military in Afghanistan, where he is administering a $5.8 billion task order for the Army.

  18. EM Discusses Job Opportunities with 140 Military Veterans at Hiring Event

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM recruiters discussed career opportunities with about 140 military veterans during a recent hiring event held by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  19. Second highest-ranking U.S. military officer gets classified briefings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. military officer gets classified briefings Second highest-ranking U.S. military officer gets classified briefings Winnefield was at Los Alamos to receive a wide variety of classified briefings that covered the broad spectrum of national security science at the Lab. November 17, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable

  20. Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    H.R. 4837, The Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005, was signed into law on October 13, 2004. The Act provides for construction to support the operations of the U.S. Armed Forces and for military family housing. It also provides funds to help citizens in Florida and elsewhere in the aftermath of multiple hurricanes and other natural disasters. In addition, it authorizes construction of an Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

  1. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Samuel Booth, John Barnett, Kari Burman, Josh Hambrick and Robert Westby Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-48876 August 2010 Technical Report Net Zero Energy Military NREL/TP-7A2-48876 Installations: A Guide to August 2010 Assessment and Planning Samuel Booth, John Barnett, Kari Burman, Josh Hambrick and Robert Westby Prepared under Task No. IDOD.1010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado

  2. A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - Central_Plateau_Outer_Zone.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outer Zone Th t f th C t l Pl t i b t 65 il The outer zone of the Central Plateau is about 65 square miles. Recovery Act funding will be used in this area to support shrinking the active footprint of cleanup to as little as 10 square miles in the center of the site. Work will consist mainly of demolishing facilities and remediating waste sites. Central Plateau, Outer Zone (~65 sq. mi.) * 200 North Area * Demolish spent fuel C o C o * Demolish spent fuel transfer storage facilities (212 N/P/R) *

  4. "The Voyager Mission to the Outer Planets and Interstellar Space", Dr. Alan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Cummings, California Institute of Technology | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab October 17, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "The Voyager Mission to the Outer Planets and Interstellar Space", Dr. Alan C. Cummings, California Institute of Technology Presentation: Office presentation icon WC17OCT2012_ACCummings.ppt Thirty-five years after their launches in 1977, the twin Voyager spacecraft have completed the Grand Tour of the outer planets and are now exploring the outer regions

  5. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H.; Cookson, Alan H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  6. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay A.

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  7. Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, E.

    1986-07-01

    The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation was discovered in the F well. Because these attempts to find oil were unsuccessful and because drilling costs have escalated, exploratory activities have been curtailed. Forearc basins off central Chile are characterized by low geothermal gradient and a sedimentary filling of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Tertiary sequences are characterized by low organic carbon content, immature humic-type organic matter, and a biogenic gas potential. Cretaceous sequences are characterized by higher organic carbon content, good reservoir rocks, and fair to good source rocks. The organic matter is sapropelic, with vitrinite and liptinites, and is favorable for oil and gas generation. Seismic and well data suggest that Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequences filling the basins (more than 4000 m thick at the shelf edge) extend 40-70 km beyond the present shelf edge. Mesozoic rocks deposited on the slope may generate petroleum and gas that could migrate upslope and accumulate in traps associated with the faulted basement highs and graben-type depressions existing at the shelf edge. This geologic setting favors the development of large petroleum accumulations along the shelf edge and graben on the sedimentary basins off central Chile.

  8. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ?) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at {approximately}1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  9. Structure of continental rifts: Role of older features and magmatism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, G.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in several continental rifts have begun to shed light on the details of the processes which govern the structural evolution of these important exploration targets. In Kenya and Tanzania, the classic East African rift has been the object of several investigations which reveal that its location follows the boundary (suture ) between the Tanzanian craton (Archean) and Mozambiquan belt (Proterozoic), The Baikal rift also follows a similar boundary, and the Mid-continent rift of North America appears to do the same. Rifts themselves often act as zones of weakness which are reactivated by younger tectonic regimes. The classic North American example of this effect is the Eocambrian Southern Oklahoma aulacogen which was deformed to create the Anadarko basin and Wichita uplift in the late Paleozoic. The Central basin platform has a similar history although the original rift formed at [approximately]1,100Ma. Integration of geophysical data with petrologic and geochemical data from several rift zones has also provided a new picture of the nature and extent of magmatic modification of the crust. An interesting contradiction is that Phanerozoic rifts, except the Afar region, show little evidence for major magmatic modification of the crust whereas, at least in North America, many Precambrian rifts are associated with very large mafic bodies in the crust. The Kenya rift displays evidence for modification of the lower crust in a two-phase magmatic history, but upper crustal magmatic features are limited to local intrusions associated with volcanoes. In this rift, complex basement structure plays a much more important role than previously realized, and the geophysical signatures of basement structure and magmatism are easy to confuse. If this is also the case in other rifts, additional rift basins remain to be discovered.

  10. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  11. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have includedmore » a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  12. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  13. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H.; Jain, R.

    2009-08-15

    Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.

  14. Continental Scientific Drilling Committee: comments on the Continental Scientific Drilling Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This program, which provides support for geoscience research, including advanced technology and data/information services, concerning drilling in the continental crust of the United States for scientific purposes, is described. The curatorial needs and comparative site assessment projects are discussed. (MHR)

  15. Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain January 26, 2015 - 1:15am Addthis Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en route to view the Manifa Oil Field. | Photo by Kathryn Grant, Energy Department. Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en

  16. ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships January 31, 2013 - 1:06pm Addthis Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus speaks to attendees at the 2011 Energy Innovation Summit in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo. Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus speaks to attendees at the 2011 Energy Innovation Summit in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo. Alexa McClanahan

  17. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train Veterans for Solar Jobs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Today, the first class of Marine trainees at Camp Pendleton will graduate from the Energy Department’s solar job training pilot program, which is aimed at preparing service members for careers in the solar industry as solar photovoltaic system installers, sales representatives, system inspectors, and other solar-related opportunities. Camp Pendleton is one of three military bases partnering with the Department’s SunShot Initiative to train 200 transitioning military service members during the pilot period for employment opportunities in the rapidly growing U.S. solar energy industry. Training courses will also begin at Fort Carson and Naval Station Norfolk this spring.

  18. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  19. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earths energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical parameterizations that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with

  20. Preliminary engineering studies for the support shell of the outer tracker of the SDC detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergriff, D.H.; Mayhall, J.

    1991-09-01

    The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) detector is in the conceptual design phase. ORNL is currently working with various sub-groups on the design of the outer tracker portion of the SDC detector. A major focus in the outer tracker design is the structure that mounts and supports the tracking elements. This structure must meet extreme requirements of alignment and stability while containing a minimum of material. This report describes the requirements, evaluations, and analyses that have been performed on the two options being explored; a cylindrical support shell and a modular support shell.

  1. Implementation of an Outer Can Welding System for Savannah River Site FB-Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, S.R.

    2003-03-27

    This paper details three phases of testing to confirm use of a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) system for closure welding the 3013 outer container used for stabilization/storage of plutonium metals and oxides. The outer container/lid closure joint was originally designed for laser welding, but for this application, the gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process has been adapted. The testing progressed in three phases: (1) system checkout to evaluate system components for operational readiness, (2) troubleshooting to evaluate high weld failure rates and develop corrective techniques, and (3) pre-installation acceptance testing.

  2. A system architecture for long duration free floating flight for military applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epley, L.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Accessibility is today's space frontier. Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging an sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is endless but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about potential vulnerability. Military commanders want space assets more accessible and under direct local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Buoyant vehicles, free floating in the middle stratosphere could provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a verity of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric wind modeling and materials combined with ever-improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The fundamental question is whether a free floating balloon, used in a pseudo-satellite role, has value in a military system. Flight tests are ongoing under NASA sponsorship. Following these tests NASA intends to use the vehicles for research in the Antarctic. The concept is being reviewed by other agencies interested in stratospheric research. We believe that LDFFF systems have applications in areas of communications, surveillance and other traditional satellite missions. Dialogue with the broader community of space users is needed to expand the applications. This report reviews the status of the recent flight tests and presents an overview of the concept of Long Duration Free Floating Flight for military applications. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of Navy, on September 19, 2014, to announce awards for three commercial-scale biorefinery projects that will help meet the transportation needs of the U.S. military and private sector.

  4. Role of magmatism in continental lithosphere extension: an introduction to tectnophysics special issue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wijk, Jolante W

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics and evolution of rifts and continental rifted margins have been the subject of intense study and debate for many years and still remain the focus of active investigation. The 2006 AGU Fall Meeting session 'Extensional Processes Leading to the Formation of Basins and Rifted Margins, From Volcanic to Magma-Limited' included several contributions that illustrated recent advances in our understanding of rifting processes, from the early stages of extension to breakup and incipient seafloor spreading. Following this session, we aimed to assemble a multi-disciplinary collection of papers focussing on the architecture, formation and evolution of continental rift zones and rifted margins. This Tectonophysics Special Issue 'Role of magmatism in continental lithosphere extension' comprises 14 papers that present some of the recent insights on rift and rifted margins dynamics, emphasising the role of magmatism in extensional processes. The purpose of this contribution is to introduce these papers.

  5. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. E.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Bannister, M. T.; Schmidt, B. P.; McNaught, R.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E.

    2015-02-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20° to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover eight known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having V=19.8±0.1, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for V≲19.1 (V≲18.6 in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plane is approximately 32%.

  6. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  7. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  8. Bottom fixed OTEC plant on the edge of a continental (or island) shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daidola, J.C.; Basar, N.; Sasscer, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to a generic type of OTEC plant. This shallow water bottom fixed OTEC plant consists of a platform structure rigidly attached to the seabed at the edge of a continental or island shelf. A cost comparison and thoughts on commercialization are presented. Conclusions and recommendations indicate the desire and need for further development. 12 refs.

  9. Iberia versus Europe - Effects of continental break-up and round-up on hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourrouilh, R.; Zolnai, G.

    1988-08-01

    Based on the continuity of foldbelts and the positions of intermountain continental nuclei and transcontinental megashears, a close Pangea fit is proposed for the central and north Atlantic borderlands. The Variscan arch segment missing between Brittany and Galicia in the Gulf of Gascony (Biscaye) can tentatively be identified with the Flemish Cap block off Newfoundland. At the same time the northwest African-Gondwana border (central Morocco) was located some 800 km farther to the west-northwest, as compared to its present position in southwestern Europe (Iberia). During the opening of the central and northern segments of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic and Cretaceous) and during the closure of the western Mediterranean basin, i.e., the thrust of Africa toward southern Europe (Tertiary), the European continental mass underwent deformation in the transtensive and transpressive modes, which reactivated parts of its inherited structural network. The trailing south European continental margin was partially dismembered into loosely bound continental blocks, to be assembled again during the subsequent Alpine orogenic cycle. These events can be compared with processes known in the northernmost and western segments of the North American continent. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation and deformation of inter- and intraplate basins by way of moderate shifts (wrenching) and slight rotations, the direction of which changed during the Mesozoic-Tertiary according to the global stress field. The above evolution and mechanisms had multiple and decisive effects on hydrocarbon generation, habitat, and accumulation.

  10. Military Base Off-Taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nangle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper surveys DOD installations that could have an increased potential interest in the purchase of energy from renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Identification of likely purchasers of renewable energy is a first step in the energy project development process, and this paper aims to identify likely electricity customers that tribal commercial-scale projects could serve. This white paper builds on a geospatial analysis completed in November 2012 identifying 53 reservations within 10 miles of military bases (DOE 2012). This analysis builds on those findings by further refining the list of potential opportunity sites to 15 reservations (Table ES-1), based on five additional factors: 1) The potential renewable resources required to meet the installation energy loads; 2) Proximity to transmission lines; 3) Military installation energy demand; 4) State electricity prices; 5) Local policy and regulatory environment.

  11. Methodology for evaluating military systems in a counterproliferation role. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafira, S.

    1995-03-01

    This thesis develops a methodology to evaluate how dissimilar military systems support the accomplishment of the United States. counterproliferation objectives. The overall scope is to develop a model of the counterproliferation decision process that enables systems to be evaluated against common criteria. By using decision analysis, a influence diagram model is developed which represents military activities in the counterproliferation process. The key questions which must be asked in evaluating counterproliferation systems are highlighted. An analysis of perfect intelligence, perfect defensive, and perfect offensive systems reveal that a perfect intelligence system provides the greatest potential to meet the United States` counterproliferation objectives. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine which factors in the model are mode important. To demonstrate the model, nine systems from the Air Force wargame Vulcan`s Forge 1995 are evaluated. The results are used to demonstrate the type of analysis which can be performed to evaluate U.S. counterproliferation systems.

  12. PARALLAXES OF STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE OUTER SPIRAL ARM OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachisuka, K.; Choi, Y. K.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Sanna, A.

    2015-02-10

    We report parallaxes and proper motions of three water maser sources in high-mass star-forming regions in the Outer Spiral Arm of the Milky Way. The observations were conducted with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey and double the number of such measurements in the literature. The Outer Arm has a pitch angle of 14.9 2.7 and a Galactocentric distance of 14.1 0.6 kpc toward the Galactic anticenter. The average motion of these sources toward the Galactic center is 10.7 2.1 km s{sup 1} and we see no sign of a significant fall in the rotation curve out to 15 kpc from the Galactic center. The three-dimensional locations of these star-forming regions are consistent with a Galactic warp of several hundred parsecs from the plane.

  13. On the interplay between inner and outer iterations for a class of iterative methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giladi, E.

    1994-12-31

    Iterative algorithms for solving linear systems of equations often involve the solution of a subproblem at each step. This subproblem is usually another linear system of equations. For example, a preconditioned iteration involves the solution of a preconditioner at each step. In this paper, the author considers algorithms for which the subproblem is also solved iteratively. The subproblem is then said to be solved by {open_quotes}inner iterations{close_quotes} while the term {open_quotes}outer iteration{close_quotes} refers to a step of the basic algorithm. The cost of performing an outer iteration is dominated by the solution of the subproblem, and can be measured by the number of inner iterations. A good measure of the total amount of work needed to solve the original problem to some accuracy c is then, the total number of inner iterations. To lower the amount of work, one can consider solving the subproblems {open_quotes}inexactly{close_quotes} i.e. not to full accuracy. Although this diminishes the cost of solving each subproblem, it usually slows down the convergence of the outer iteration. It is therefore interesting to study the effect of solving each subproblem inexactly on the total amount of work. Specifically, the author considers strategies in which the accuracy to which the inner problem is solved, changes from one outer iteration to the other. The author seeks the `optimal strategy`, that is, the one that yields the lowest possible cost. Here, the author develops a methodology to find the optimal strategy, from the set of slowly varying strategies, for some iterative algorithms. This methodology is applied to the Chebychev iteration and it is shown that for Chebychev iteration, a strategy in which the inner-tolerance remains constant is optimal. The author also estimates this optimal constant. Then generalizations to other iterative procedures are discussed.

  14. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  15. MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stabilized by Diabetes Drugs MitoNEET is a Uniquely Folded Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Stabilized by Diabetes Drugs The rise in obesity in the United States parallels a dramatic increase in obesity-associated diseases, most notably type-2 diabetes. This disease is predicted to reach epidemic proportions in the next several decades (Zimmet et al 2001, Urek et al 2007). Thus, understanding the biochemical processes underlying type-2 diabetes and identifying new targets for therapeutic

  16. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Okamura, Natsuko; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.12.5 ?m) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ? 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.52.1 ?m). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%60% and 80%95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 ?m) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  17. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Lohse, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    A number of blocks off Cape Hatteras have been leased by Mobil Oil, which has requested permission to drill an exploratory well, at 820-m depth, in a block identified as Manteo 467. The proposed well location is 39 miles from the coast of North Carolina. The possibility of extracting gas from the continental slope off the coast of North Carolina, particularly at slope depths, has raised a number of environmental concerns that cannot be addressed from existing data. The present study was developed by the Minerals Management Service to better define the nature of the continental slope benthic communities off Cape Hatteras and to delineate their areal extent. Emphasis was placed on the area around the proposed drill site in the Manteo 467 lease block.

  18. Competition and liberalization in European gas markets: Towards a continental European model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    Many of the long-awaited changes to the European gas market are now imminent. Institutional developments and market forces are combining to produce a transformation. This major study analyzes the developments in a wide range of European countries, including central and eastern Europe. In examining how different institutional traditions and political priorities will affect the gas market, Stern explores the potential for a distinct continental European model of competition and liberalization.

  19. Geologic development and characteristics of the continental margins, Gulf of Mexico. Research report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf Basin covers more than 500,000 sq km and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200 m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise, at a depth of 2800 m. The most-complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 sq km and in which bottom slopes range from < 1 deg to > 20 deg around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope are functions of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depo-centers throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often in excess of 15-20 km/my. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Oversteeping, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landsliding and debris flows. Large scale features such as shelf edge separation scars and landslide related canyons often results from such processes.

  20. Source and dispersal of silt on northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, M.; Mazzullo, J.

    1988-01-01

    The surficial sediment on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico is characterized by abundant silty clay which was deposited during the late Pleistocene lowstand and reworked during and after the Holocene transgression. The purposes of this study were to determine the sources of the silt fraction in this surficial sediment by quartz grain roundness and surface texture analysis, and to determine the effects of modern shelf currents upon the distribution of silt. Areal variations in quartz grain roundness and surface texture define six silt provinces on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. The Mississippi province is the largest province and stretches from the Chandeleur Islands to Matagorda Bay. It is characterized by a mixture of rounded grains that were derived from the sedimentary rocks of the Gulf coastal plain and the Mid-Continent, and angular, fractured grains that were derived from glacial deposits in the northern United States. A comparison of the areal distribution of these six provinces with the late Pleistocene paleogeography of the continental shelf shows evidence for varying degrees of shore-parallel transport of silt by modern shelf currents.

  1. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  2. TRACING THE OUTER HALO IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL TO 25 R {sub eff}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejkuba, M.; Harris, W. E.; Greggio, L.; Harris, G. L. H.; Jerjen, H.; Gonzalez, O. A.

    2014-08-10

    We have used the Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope to resolve stars in the halo of the nearest giant elliptical (gE) galaxy NGC 5128 out to a projected distance of 140 kpc (25 effective radii, R {sub eff}) along the major axis and 90 kpc (16 R {sub eff}) along the minor axis. This data set provides an unprecedented radial coverage of the stellar halo properties in any gE galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams clearly reveal the presence of the red giant branch stars belonging to the halo of NGC 5128, even in our most distant fields. The star counts demonstrate increasing flattening of the outer halo, which is elongated along the major axis of the galaxy. The V – I colors of the red giants enable us to measure the metallicity distribution in each field and so map the gradient out to ∼16 R {sub eff} from the galaxy center along the major axis. A median metallicity is obtained even for the outermost fields along both axes. We observe a smooth transition from a metal-rich ([M/H] ∼0.0) inner galaxy to lower metallicity in the outer halo, with the metallicity gradient slope along the major axis of Δ[M/H]/ΔR ≅ –0.0054 ± 0.0006 dex kpc{sup –1}. In the outer halo, beyond ∼10 R {sub eff}, the number density profile follows a power law, but also significant field-to-field metallicity and star count variations are detected. The metal-rich component dominates in all observed fields, and the median metallicity is [M/H] >–1 dex in all fields.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ON THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE OORT CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Quinn, Thomas; Kaib, Nathan A.

    2013-07-01

    We study the influence of outer solar system architecture on the structural evolution of the Oort Cloud (OC) and the flux of Earth-crossing comets. In particular, we seek to quantify the role of the giant planets as ''planetary protectors''. To do so, we have run simulations in each of four different planetary mass configurations to understand the significance of each of the giant planets. Because the outer planets modify the structure of the OC throughout its formation, we integrate each simulation over the full age of the solar system. Over this time, we follow the evolution of cometary orbits from their starting point in the protoplanetary disk to their injection into the OC to their possible re-entry into the inner planetary region. We find that the overall structure of the OC, including the location of boundaries and the relative number of comets in the inner and outer parts, does not change significantly between configurations; however, as planetary mass decreases, the trapping efficiency (TE) of comets into the OC and the flux of comets into the observable region increases. We determine that those comets that evolve onto Earth-crossing orbits come primarily from the inner OC but show no preference for initial protoplanetary disk location. We also find that systems that have at least a Saturn-mass object are effective at deflecting possible Earth-crossing comets but the difference in flux between systems with and without such a planet is less than an order of magnitude. We conclude by discussing the individual roles of the planets and the implications of incorporating more realistic planetary accretion and migration scenarios into simulations, particularly on existing discrepancies between low TE and the mass of the protoplanetary disk and on determining the structural boundaries of the OC.

  4. Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-04-24

    A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

  5. Technical analysis of US Army Weapons Systems and related advanced technologies of military interest. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-06-14

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of an US Army technology security project designed to identify and develop effective policy guidelines for militarily critical technologies in specific Army systems and in broad generic technology areas of military interest, Individual systems analyses are documented in separate Weapons Systems Technical Assessments (WSTAs) and the general generic technology areas are evaluated in the Advanced Technology Assessment Reports (ATARs), However, specific details of these assessments are not addressed here, only recommendations regarding aspects of the defined approach, methodology, and format are provided and discussed.

  6. COLLOQUIUM: The Alfvénic Motions of the Sun's Outer Atmosphere | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab 8, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The Alfvénic Motions of the Sun's Outer Atmosphere Scott McIntosh National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Presentation: PDF icon WC08MAY2013_SWMcIntosh.pdf In 2005 a novel imaging spectro-polarimeter, the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP), was deployed to the Evans Facility in Sunspot, NM to measure the solar corona's magnetic field. The design of the instrument permitted it to capture something

  7. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Mon

    2001-08-29

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified.

  8. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, Robert J.; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Bennett, Gary L.; Brophy, John R.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ervin, Joan; Fernandez, Yan R.; Grundy, Will; Khan, Mohammed Omair; King, David Q.; Lang, Jared; Meech, Karen J.; Newhouse, Alan; Oleson, Steven R.; Schmidt, George R.; Spilker, Thomas; West, John L.; /Caltech, JPL

    2010-05-26

    Today, our questions and hypotheses about the Solar System's origin have surpassed our ability to deliver scientific instruments to deep space. The moons of the outer planets, the Trojan and Centaur minor planets, the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. Robotic missions to these objects are needed to make the discoveries, but the lack of deep-space propulsion is impeding this science. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) will revolutionize the way we do deep-space planetary science with robotic vehicles, giving them unprecedented mobility. Radioisotope electric generators and lightweight ion thrusters are being developed today which will make possible REP systems with specific power in the range of 5 to 10 W/kg. Studies have shown that this specific power range is sufficient to perform fast rendezvous missions from Earth to the outer Solar System and fast sample return missions. This whitepaper discusses how mobility provided by REP opens up entirely new science opportunities for robotic missions to distant primitive bodies. We also give an overview of REP technology developments and the required next steps to realize REP.

  9. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  10. Preliminary assessment report for Florence Military Reservation, Installation 04080, Florence, Arizona. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Arizona Army National Guard property near Florence, Arizona. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. Florence Military Reservation is a 5,655-acre site located in the southern portion of Arizona, about 65 mi southeast of Phoenix, in the county of Pinal. Florence Military Reservation includes Unit Training Equipment Site (UTES) 1, an artillery firing range, and ammunition storage. The subject of this PA is the UTES. The environmentally significant operations associated with the UTES property are (1) vehicle maintenance and refueling, (2) supply/storage of materials, and (3) the vehicle washrack.

  11. Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turbiville, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

  12. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  13. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Lohse, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    The Point is an area that supports a most productive pelagic fishery, including tuna, swordfish, marlin, and more. The objective of the study is to analyze video tapes from near the Point, in order to provide data on epibenthic, megafaunal invertebrates including species composition, relative abundances, and large scale (1 km) distribution. The Point is not a defined spot on a chart. Although fishermen do use the steep shelf break for location, they generally look for the west wall of the Gulf Stream. The Point and the oil lease site coincidentally occur where the Gulf Stream parts the continental slope, just north of the eastern-most tip of Cape Hatteras.

  14. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2014-06-03

    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, and potential anthropogenic warming in the deep future, on the atmospheric methane emission flux, and the sensitivities of that flux to processes such as permafrost formation and terrestrial organic carbonmore » (Yedoma) deposition. Hydrological forcing drives a freshening and ventilation of pore waters in areas exposed to the atmosphere, which is not quickly reversed by invasion of seawater upon submergence, since there is no analogous saltwater pump. This hydrological pump changes the salinity enough to affect the stability of permafrost and methane hydrates on the shelf. Permafrost formation inhibits bubble transport through the sediment column, by construction in the model. The impact of permafrost on the methane budget is to replace the bubble flux by offshore groundwater flow containing dissolved methane, rather than accumulating methane for catastrophic release when the permafrost seal fails during warming. By far the largest impact of the glacial/interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is attenuation by dissolution of bubbles in the ocean when sea level is high. Methane emissions are highest during the regression (soil freezing) part of the cycle, rather than during transgression (thawing). The model-predicted methane flux to the atmosphere in response to a warming climate is small, relative to the global methane production rate, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. A slight increase due to warming could be completely counteracted by sea level rise on geologic time

  15. Non-binding conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a non-binding transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement and for moving without binding along corrugations of any slope less than vertical. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed parallel to the motion of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  16. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 6 report: The potential impacts of a worst-case military conflict on world petroleum availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.; Das, S.; Leiby, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    A major Middle East and European military confrontation would cause an extremely large disruption in the supply of oil worldwide. There would be imbalances between oil supply and demand. These imbalances can only be solved by rationing and by military actions to ensure an adequate flow of crude oil and products. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Fault tolerance in an inner-outer solver: A GVR-enabled case study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Ziming; Chien, Andrew A.; Teranishi, Keita

    2015-04-18

    Resilience is a major challenge for large-scale systems. It is particularly important for iterative linear solvers, since they take much of the time of many scientific applications. We show that single bit flip errors in the Flexible GMRES iterative linear solver can lead to high computational overhead or even failure to converge to the right answer. Informed by these results, we design and evaluate several strategies for fault tolerance in both inner and outer solvers appropriate across a range of error rates. We implement them, extending Trilinos’ solver library with the Global View Resilience (GVR) programming model, which provides multi-streammore » snapshots, multi-version data structures with portable and rich error checking/recovery. Lastly, experimental results validate correct execution with low performance overhead under varied error conditions.« less

  18. Fault tolerance in an inner-outer solver: A GVR-enabled case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ziming; Chien, Andrew A.; Teranishi, Keita

    2015-04-18

    Resilience is a major challenge for large-scale systems. It is particularly important for iterative linear solvers, since they take much of the time of many scientific applications. We show that single bit flip errors in the Flexible GMRES iterative linear solver can lead to high computational overhead or even failure to converge to the right answer. Informed by these results, we design and evaluate several strategies for fault tolerance in both inner and outer solvers appropriate across a range of error rates. We implement them, extending Trilinos’ solver library with the Global View Resilience (GVR) programming model, which provides multi-stream snapshots, multi-version data structures with portable and rich error checking/recovery. Lastly, experimental results validate correct execution with low performance overhead under varied error conditions.

  19. Crystallographic Structure of SurA, a Molecular Chaperone that Facilitates Folding of Outer Membrane Porins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitto, E.

    2002-01-01

    The SurA protein facilitates correct folding of outer membrane proteins in gram-negative bacteria. The sequence of Escherichia coli SurA presents four segments, two of which are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases); the crystal structure reveals an asymmetric dumbbell, in which the amino-terminal, carboxy-terminal, and first PPIase segments of the sequence form a core structural module, and the second PPIase segment is a satellite domain tethered approximately 30 A from this module. The core module, which is implicated in membrane protein folding, has a novel fold that includes an extended crevice. Crystal contacts show that peptides bind within the crevice, suggesting a model for chaperone activity whereby segments of polypeptide may be repetitively sequestered and released during the membrane protein-folding process.

  20. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; et al

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. Wemore » find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.« less

  1. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  2. A MEGACAM SURVEY OF OUTER HALO SATELLITES. II. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE LOWEST STELLAR DENSITY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santana, Felipe A.; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Geha, Marla; Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter; Simon, Joshua D.; Djorgovski, S. G. E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl

    2013-09-10

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across 10 outer halo globular clusters, 3 classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and 9 ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low-density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters, we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue stragglers and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers is well fit by a single trend with a smooth transition between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; this result points to a common origin for these satellites' blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr and they represent {approx}1%-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low-density systems.

  3. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = 38.140.08 (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of ?? = 129.510.17. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ?24+96 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  4. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V. ); Truett, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems' data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  5. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V.; Truett, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems` data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  6. Apparatus and methods for relieving thermally induced stresses in inner and outer bands of thermally cooled turbine nozzle stages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Correia, Victor H. S.

    2002-01-01

    To control the temperature mismatch between the inner and outer bands and covers forming plenums with the inner and outer bands on sides thereof remote from the hot gas path, passages extend from the leading edge of the covers in communication with the hot gases of combustion to the trailing edge of the covers in communication with the hot gas flowpath. A mixing chamber is provided in each passage in communication with compressor discharge air for mixing the hot gases of combustion and compressor discharge air for flow through the passage, thereby heating the cover and minimizing the temperature differential between the inner and outer bands and their respective covers. The passages are particularly useful adjacent the welded or brazed joints between the covers and inner band portions.

  7. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roedel, Erik Q.; Cafasso, Danielle E.; Lee, Karen W.M.; Pierce, Lisa M.

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W

  8. Geologic hazards on the Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folger, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although 46 exploratory holes have failed to reveal commercial hydrocarbon accumulations on the US Atlantic margin, about twice that number were drilled on the contiguous Canadian margin before large reserves were discovered. Thus, despite the initial results, exploration on the US margin will probably continue and additional information will be needed to augment the extensive environmental data base acquired over the past 10 years. The extent, timing, causes, and importance of sediment instability of the Continental Slopes of Georges Bank, Baltimore Canyon Trough and Carolina Trough--where future exploration will take place--remain controversial. Many question remain to be answered regarding such phenomena as creep on the upper slope, mass wasting in canyons and gullies, and slumping associated with faults and salt diapirs. Along the southeastern margin, the distribution of cavernous porosity below the shelf is only broadly known. Caverns pose a potential threat to drilling operations ranging from collapse of rigs to circulation loss and sheared drill strings. In deeper waters of the Continental Slope (700-2000 m), clathrates or frozen gas hydrates are common. The potential hazard of blow-outs from gas trapped beneath this layer are unknown. Additional information is needed to assess the bottom stresses imposed by tidal, storm, and geostrophically-driven currents on offshore rigs and structures, particularly in such areas as Georges Bank, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau.

  9. Seismic stratigraphy of Long Island platform, United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jowett, R.A.; Hutchinson, D.R.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 2000 km of single- and multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected over the Long Island platform on the US Atlantic continental margin show that the basement beneath the platform was rifted prior to the separation of Africa from North America and that it subsided after the separation. Postrift sediment thicknesses range from less than 1 km in the northwest part of the platform to several kilometers in the southeast, near the Atlantis and Nantucket rift basins. Flanking the platform are the Georges Bank basin to the east and Baltimore Canyon Trough to the south, where sedimentary rocks are 10-15 km thick. Nine major unconformities have been delineated in analysis of the seismic profiles. The most conspicuous unconformities are correlated with the end of rifting and the upper surfaces of the Bathonian, Tithonian, Albian, Turonian-Coniacian, Maestrichtian, upper Eocene, mid-Oligocene, and mid-Miocene sections. Ages are determined by tracing reflectors and unconformities to the COST (Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test), AMCOR (Atlantic Margin Coring Project), and coastal wells. Several of these unconformities coincide with pronounced fluctuations in the Vail curve of relative sea level.

  10. Fission track analysis, rift shoulder uplift, and tectonic modeling of the Norwegian Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriessen, P.; Van Der Beek, P.; Cloetingh, S.; Rohrman, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Apatite fission track analysis from southern Norway and Sweden, across the Permian Carboniferous Oslo rift, are presented and discussed in relation to different rifting scenarios. Vertical and horizontal apatite fission tack profiles in middle and southern Norway unravel the post-Carboniferous history of the Fennoscandian shield. Fission track apatite ages range from 240 Ma in the south to 160 Ma in the north, and according to spontaneous fission track length measurements, they must be interpreted as mixed ages, indicating minor amounts of Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover. Apatite fission track length and age modeling suggest rapid cooling and uplift in the Tertiary for the southernmost part of Norway, suggesting a differential uplift of the basement. the obtained data are important for the reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins of the Norwegian continental margin in the northern North Sea, where diverse rifting events, intraplate stress regimes, and inversion tectonics are involved. Fission track analysis puts constraints on tectonic modeling of uplift of rift flanks and the Norwegian continental margin and yields information for these assessment of hydrocarbon potentials of the sedimentary basins.

  11. Characterization and vaccine potential of outer membrane vesicles produced by Haemophilus parasuis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCaig, William D.; Loving, Crystal L.; Hughes, Holly R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Charbit, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structuresmore » has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Lastly, vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria.« less

  12. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.; Elkington, S. R.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M. K.; Reeves, G. D.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations reveal an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.

  13. The lick AGN monitoring project 2011: Fe II reverberation from the outer broad-line region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Brewer, Brendon J.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; and others

    2013-06-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including H? and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases, the measured lag (?{sub cen}) of Fe II is longer than that of H?, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Vron-Cetty et al., we find ?{sub cen}(Fe II)/?{sub cen}(H?) = 1.9 0.6 in NGC 4593 and 1.5 0.3 in Mrk 1511. The detection of highly correlated variations between Fe II and continuum emission demonstrates that the Fe II emission in these galaxies originates in photoionized gas, located predominantly in the outer portion of the broad-line region.

  14. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.; Elkington, S. R.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M. K.; et al

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations revealmore » an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.« less

  15. Pre-accretional sorting of grains in the outer solar nebula

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Price, M. C.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2013-12-20

    Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are an important class of extraterrestrial material since their properties are consistent with a cometary origin and they show no evidence of significant post-accretional parent body alteration. Consequently, they can provide information about grain accretion in the comet-forming region of the outer solar nebula. We have previously reported our comparative study of the sizes and size distributions of crystalline silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs, in which we found these components exhibit a size-density relationship consistent with having been sorted together prior to accretion. Here we extend our data set and include GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), the most abundant amorphous silicate phase observed in CP IDPs. We find that while the silicate and sulfide sorting trend previously observed is maintained, the GEMS size data do not exhibit any clear relationship to these crystalline components. Therefore, GEMS do not appear to have been sorted with the silicate and sulfide crystals. The disparate sorting trends observed in GEMS and the crystalline grains in CP IDPs present an interesting challenge for modeling early transport and accretion processes. They may indicate that several sorting mechanisms operated on these CP IDP components, or alternatively, they may simply be a reflection of different source environments.

  16. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  17. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2015-05-21

    A two-dimensional model of a sediment column, with Darcy fluid flow, biological and thermal methane production, and permafrost and methane hydrate formation, is subjected to glacial–interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to the cold atmosphere during glacial times and immersing it in the ocean in interglacial times. The glacial cycles are followed by a "long-tail" 100 kyr warming due to fossil fuel combustion. The salinity of the sediment column in the interior of the shelf can be decreased by hydrological forcing to depths well below sea level when the sediment is exposed to the atmosphere. Theremore » is no analogous advective seawater-injecting mechanism upon resubmergence, only slower diffusive mechanisms. This hydrological ratchet is consistent with the existence of freshwater beneath the sea floor on continental shelves around the world, left over from the last glacial period. The salt content of the sediment column affects the relative proportions of the solid and fluid H2O-containing phases, but in the permafrost zone the salinity in the pore fluid brine is a function of temperature only, controlled by equilibrium with ice. Ice can tolerate a higher salinity in the pore fluid than methane hydrate can at low pressure and temperature, excluding methane hydrate from thermodynamic stability in the permafrost zone. The implication is that any methane hydrate existing today will be insulated from anthropogenic climate change by hundreds of meters of sediment, resulting in a response time of thousands of years. The strongest impact of the glacial–interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is due to bubbles dissolving in the ocean when sea level is high. When sea level is low and the sediment surface is exposed to the atmosphere, the atmospheric flux is sensitive to whether permafrost inhibits bubble migration in the model. If it does, the atmospheric flux is highest during the glaciating, sea level regression

  18. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  19. Model for the formation of longshore sand ridges on the Continental Shelf: The interaction of internal waves and the bottom topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bona, J.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-01-05

    Longshore sand ridges are frequently observed to occur on the continental shelf where the overlying ocean is stratified. This study formulates a model for the formation and evolution of three-dimensional longshore sand ridges on the continental shelf. The model is based on the interaction of interfacial, weakly nonlinear waves in a stratified ocean with the sedimentary bottom topography.

  20. EXACT SOLUTION OF HEAT CONDUCTION IN A TWO-DOMAIN COMPOSITE CYLINDER WITH AN ORTHOTROPIC OUTER LAYER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. AVILES-RAMOS; C. RUDY

    2000-11-01

    The transient exact solution of heat conduction in a two-domain composite cylinder is developed using the separation of variables technique. The inner cylinder is isotropic and the outer cylindrical layer is orthotropic. Temperature solutions are obtained for boundary conditions of the first and second kinds at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer. These solutions are applied to heat flow calorimeters modeling assuming that there is heat generation due to nuclear reactions in the inner cylinder. Heat flow calorimeter simulations are carried out assuming that the inner cylinder is filled with plutonium oxide powder. The first objective in these simulations is to predict the onset of thermal equilibrium of the calorimeter with its environment. Two types of boundary conditions at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer are used to predict thermal equilibrium. The procedure developed to carry out these simulations can be used as a guideline for the design of calorimeters. Another important application of these solutions is on the estimation of thermophysical properties of orthotropic cylinders. The thermal conductivities in the vertical, radial and circumferential directions of the orthotropic outer layer can be estimated using this exact solution and experimental data. Simultaneous estimation of the volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivities is also possible. Furthermore, this solution has potential applications to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in this cylindrical geometry. An interesting feature of the construction of this solution is that two different sets of eigenfunctions need to be considered in the eigenfunction expansion. These eigenfunctions sets depend on the relative values of the thermal diffusivity of the inner cylinder and the thermal diffusivity in the vertical direction of the outer cylindrical layer.

  1. A trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex for extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yimo; Wang, Zheming; Liu, Juan; Levar, Caleb; Edwards, Marcus; Babauta, Jerome T.; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Zhi; Beyenal, Haluk; Bond, Daniel R.; et al

    2014-09-24

    The multiheme, outer membrane c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) OmcB of Geobacter sulfurreducens was previously proposed to mediate electron transfer across the outer membrane. However, the underlying mechanism has remained uncharacterized. In G. sulfurreducens, the omcB gene is part of two tandem four-gene clusters, each is predicted to encode a transcriptional factor (OrfR/OrfS), a porin-like outer membrane protein (OmbB/OmbC), a periplasmic c-type cytochrome (OmaB/OmaC), and an outer membrane c-Cyt (OmcB/OmcC), respectively. Here we showed that OmbB/OmbC, OmaB/OmaC and OmcB/OmcC of G. sulfurreducens PCA formed the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complexes, which were involved in transferring electrons across the outer membrane. The isolated Pccmore » protein complexes reconstituted in proteoliposomes transferred electrons from reduced methyl viologen across the lipid bilayer of liposomes to Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. The pcc clusters were found in all eight sequenced Geobacter and 11 other bacterial genomes from six different phyla, demonstrating a widespread distribution of Pcc protein complexes in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Deletion of ombB-omaB-omcB-orfS-ombC-omaC-omcC gene clusters had no impact on the growth of G. sulfurreducens PCA with fumarate, but diminished the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite. Finally, complementation with the ombB-omaB-omcB gene cluster restored the ability of G. sulfurreducens PCA to reduce Fe(III)-citrate and ferrihydrite.« less

  2. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  3. Automation and optimization of the design parameters in tactical military pipeline systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frick, R.M.

    1988-12-01

    Tactical military petroleum pipeline systems will play a vital role in any future conflict due to an increased consumption of petroleum products by our combined Armed Forces. The tactical pipeline must be rapidly constructed and highly mobile to keep pace with the constantly changing battle zone. Currently, the design of these pipeline system is time consuming and inefficient, which may cause shortages of fuel and pipeline components at the front lines. Therefore, a need for a computer program that will both automate and optimize the pipeline design process is quite apparent. These design needs are satisfied by developing a software package using Advance Basic (IBM DOS) programming language and made to run on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The program affords the user the options of either finding the optimum pump station locations for a proposed pipeline or calculating the maximum operating pressures for an existing pipeline. By automating the design procedure, a field engineer can vary the pipeline length, diameter, roughness, viscosity, gravity, flow rate, pump station pressure, or terrain profile and see how it affects the other parameters in just a few seconds. The design process was optimized by implementing a weighting scheme based on the volume percent of each fuel in the pipeline at any given time.

  4. Development of a Fluxless Flip Chip Bonding Process for Optical Military Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girardi, Michael

    2007-11-11

    As military electronics tend to become lighter, smaller, thinner, and lower cost, the use of flip chip technology is becoming more common place to meet system requirements, yet survive environments. This paper explores the development of an optical flip chip application and details the selection/qualification of the substrate. The selected assembly consists of a procured 1x12 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) die, having 80um diameter eutectic AuSn solder bumps at 250um pitch and flip chip bonded to a .006” thick 99.6% alumina substrate with .006” diameter thru holes and metallized with 500Å WTi, under minimum 2.0-3.0μm (80-120μ”) thin film deposited Au. An 8 run, 3 factor, 2 level Full Factorial Design of Experiments (DOE) was completed on procured detector arrays and procured ceramic substrates using the Suss Microtec FC150. The optimum settings for the peak temperature, peak time and final die z-height were selected using the ANOVA results and interaction plots. Additional studies were completed to qualify in-house produced substrates. An epoxy glob-top encapsulant was selected to dissipate stress on the flip chip solder joints and to enhance thermal shock performance.

  5. Final report for LDRD project 11-0783 : directed robots for increased military manpower effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Wagner, John S.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Morrow, James Dan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this LDRD is to develop technology allowing warfighters to provide high-level commands to their unmanned assets, freeing them to command a group of them or commit the bulk of their attention elsewhere. To this end, a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) was developed, incorporating novel and uniquely capable feature creation and reinforcement learning algorithms. BECCA was demonstrated on both a mobile manipulator platform and on a seven degree of freedom serial link robot arm. Existing military ground robots are almost universally teleoperated and occupy the complete attention of an operator. They may remove a soldier from harm's way, but they do not necessarily reduce manpower requirements. Current research efforts to solve the problem of autonomous operation in an unstructured, dynamic environment fall short of the desired performance. In order to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicle (UV) operators, we proposed to develop robots that can be 'directed' rather than remote-controlled. They are instructed and trained by human operators, rather than driven. The technical approach is modeled closely on psychological and neuroscientific models of human learning. Two Sandia-developed models are utilized in this effort: the Sandia Cognitive Framework (SCF), a cognitive psychology-based model of human processes, and BECCA, a psychophysical-based model of learning, motor control, and conceptualization. Together, these models span the functional space from perceptuo-motor abilities, to high-level motivational and attentional processes.

  6. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  7. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Zasowski, Gail; Smith, Verne V.; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Holtzman, Jon; Nidever, David; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Girardi, Leo; and others

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403 giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Departments of Energy and Defense Launch ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out- the Military Challenge Campaign to Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Light Bulbs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CAMP LEJEUNE, NC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman on Earth Day launched a joint Department of Energy (DOE) and Defense campaign to challenge military bases nationwide to change their...

  10. ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out Initial Results Save Nearly $11 Million in Energy Costs at 84 U.S. Military Bases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON - The United States Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the initial results of energy cost reduction by 84 military bases that have shifted away from traditional lighting to...

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Low-Altitude Overflights by Fixed-Wing and Rotary-Wing Military Aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2001-01-12

    This is a companion report to the risk assessment framework proposed by Suter et al. (1998): ''A Framework for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources,'' hereafter referred to as the ''generic framework.'' The generic framework is an ecological risk assessment methodology for use in environmental assessments on Department of Defense (DoD) installations. In the generic framework, the ecological risk assessment framework of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1998) is modified for use in the context of (1) multiple and diverse stressors and activities at a military installation and (2) risks resulting from causal chains, e.g., effects on habitat that indirectly impact wildlife. Both modifications are important if the EPA framework is to be used on military installations. In order for the generic risk assessment framework to be useful to DoD environmental staff and contractors, the framework must be applied to specific training and testing activities. Three activity-specific ecological risk assessment frameworks have been written (1) to aid environmental staff in conducting risk assessments that involve these activities and (2) to guide staff in the development of analogous frameworks for other DoD activities. The three activities are: (1) low-altitude overflights by fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft (this volume), (2) firing at targets on land, and (3) ocean explosions. The activities were selected as priority training and testing activities by the advisory committee for this project.

  12. Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-10-01

    The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.

  13. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN STARS OF THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK. IV. A NEW SAMPLE OF OPEN CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D. E-mail: bruce@physics.unc.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [{alpha}/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance (<0.02 dex kpc{sup -1}), but for some elements, there is a hint that the local (R{sub GC} < 13 kpc) and distant (R{sub GC} > 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age (<0.04 dex Gyr{sup -1}). We measure the linear relation between [X/Fe] and metallicity, [Fe/H], and find that the scatter about the mean trend is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. Comparison with solar neighborhood field giants shows that the open clusters share similar abundance ratios [X/Fe] at a given metallicity. While the flattening of the metallicity gradient and enhanced [{alpha}/Fe] ratios in the outer disk suggest a chemical enrichment history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide density and structure govern the extent and distance of nanoparticle interaction with actual and model bacterial outer membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  15. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less

  16. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; et al

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  17. On the stability of pick-up ion ring distributions in the outer heliosheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerlin, Errol J.; Vias, Adolfo F.; Moore, Thomas E.; Christian, Eric R.; Cooper, John F., E-mail: errol.summerlin@nasa.gov, E-mail: adolfo.figueroa-vinas-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: thomas.e.moore@nasa.gov, E-mail: eric.r.christian@nasa.gov, E-mail: john.f.cooper@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Science Division, NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The 'secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA)' hypothesis for the ribbon feature observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) posits that the neutral component of the solar wind continues beyond the heliopause and charge exchanges with interstellar ions in the Outer Heliosheath (OHS). This creates pick-up ions that gyrate about the draped interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) lines at pitch angles near 90 on the locus where the ISMF lies tangential to the heliopause and perpendicular to the heliocentric radial direction. This location closely coincides with the location of the ribbon feature according to the prevailing inferences of the ISMF orientation and draping. The locally gyrating ions undergo additional charge exchange and escape as free-flying neutral atoms, many of which travel back toward the inner solar system and are imaged by IBEX as a ribbon tracing out the locus described above. For this mechanism to succeed, the pick-up ions must diffuse in pitch angle slowly enough to permit secondary charge exchange before their pitch angle distribution substantially broadens away from 90. Previous work using linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves has suggested that the ring distribution in the OHS is highly unstable, which, if true, would make the secondary ENA hypothesis incapable of rendering the observed ribbon. In this paper, we extend this earlier work to more realistic ring distribution functions. We find that, at the low densities necessary to produce the observed IBEX ribbon via the secondary ENA hypothesis, growth rates are highly sensitive to the temperature of the beam and that even very modest temperatures of the ring beam corresponding to beam widths of <1 are sufficient to damp the self-generated waves associated with the ring beam. Thus, at least from the perspective of linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves, there is no reason to expect that the ring distributions necessary to produce the

  18. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.; Troyan, D.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Holdridge, D.; Kyrouac, J.; Schatz, J.

    2014-09-12

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a 6-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing datasets. Over the course of the 46 day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript describes the details of the instrumentationmore » used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings.« less

  19. Model for the formation of longshore sand ridges on the continental shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, J.M.; Bona, J.L.

    1994-01-05

    A model is proposed for the formation and evolution of three- dimensional sedimentary structures such as longshore sand ridges on the continental shelf in water deeper than that of the shoaling region. Owing to the striking similarity between the bar spacing and the length scales in which interactions among the most energetic modes of shallow water waves take place, we argue that these bars are formed slowly by flows in the turbulent boundary layer generated by weakly nonlinear, dispersive waves. Hence the model is based on the interaction between surficial, weakly nonlinear shallow water waves, having weak spanwise spatial dependence, and the bottom topography. While such underwater structures are not the result of a single formative agent, it is argued that the mechanism proposed in this study does contribute significantly to their generation and evolution. Comparisons of this model with oceanographic data must wait for sufficient data to become available. In conjunction with developing the sand ridge model, this study proposes new mathematical equations of interest in their own right.

  20. Outside the Continental United States International Travel and Contagion Impact Quick Look Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Kunkel, Brenda M.; Muller, George; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2012-11-09

    ABSTRACT This paper describes a tool that will allow public health analysts to estimate infectious disease risk at the country level as a function of different international transportation modes. The prototype focuses on a cholera epidemic originating within Latin America or the Caribbean, but it can be expanded to consider other pathogens as well. This effort leverages previous work in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop the International Travel to Community Impact (IT-CI) model, which analyzes and assesses potential international disease outbreaks then estimates the associated impacts to U.S. communities and the nation as a whole and orient it for use Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS). For brevity, we refer to this refined model as OIT-CI. First, we developed an operationalized meta-population spatial cholera model for Latin America and the Caribbean at the secondary administrative-level boundary. Secondly, we developed a robust function of human airline critical to approximating mixing patterns in the meta- population model. In the prototype version currently presented here, OIT-CI models a cholera epidemic originating in a Latin American or Caribbean country and spreading via airline transportation routes. Disease spread is modeled at the country level using a patch model with a connectivity function based on demographic, geospatial, and human transportation data. We have also identified data to estimate the water and health-related infrastructure capabilities of each country to include this potential impact on disease transmission.

  1. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.; Troyan, D.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Holdridge, D.; Kyrouac, J.; Schatz, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, S.

    2015-01-27

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the US Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing data sets. Over the course of the 46-day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript provides details on the instrumentationmore » used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings. In addition, the impact of including the humidity corrections and quality controls on the thermodynamic profiles that are used in the derivation of a large-scale model forcing data set are investigated. The results show a significant impact on the derived large-scale vertical velocity field illustrating the importance of addressing these humidity biases.« less

  2. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to

  3. Solar technical assistance provided to Forest City military communities in Hawaii for incorporation of 20-30 MW of solar energy generation to power family housing for US Navy personnel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominick, Jeff; Merrigan, Tim; Boudra, Will; Miller, Ryan; Cisneros, Gabriela; Rosenthal, Andrew L.; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2010-06-01

    In May 2007, Forest City Military Communities won a US Department of Energy Solar America Showcase Award. As part of this award, executives and staff from Forest City Military Communities worked side-by-side with a DOE technical assistance team to overcome technical obstacles encountered by this large-scale real estate developer and manager. This paper describes the solar technical assistance that was provided and the key solar experiences acquired by Forest City Military Communities over an 18 month period.

  4. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti

  5. Tectonic significance of Synrift sediment packages across the Congo continental margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, J.P.; Karner, G.D.; Driscoll, N.W. ); Brumbaugh, W.D. ); Cameron, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The tectonic and stratigraphic development of the Congo continental margin reflects the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension responsible for its formation. Details of the lithospheric extension process are recorded in the stratigraphic successions preserved along and across the margin. By using the stratal relationships (e.g., onlap, downlap, and truncation) and lithofacies determined from seismic reflection and exploratory well data as input into our basin-modeling strategy, we have developed an integrated approach to determine the relationship between the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension across the margin. Two hinge zones, an eastern and Atlantic hinge formed along the Congo margin in response to discrete extensional events occurring from the Berriasian to the Aptian. The eastern hinge zone demarcates the eastern limit of the broadly distributed Berriasian extension. This extension resulted in the formation of deep anoxic, lacustrine systems. In contrast, the Atlantic hinge, located [approximately]90 km west of the eastern hinge, marks the eastern limit of a second phase of extension, which began in the Hauterivian. Consequent footwall uplift and rotation exposed the earlier synrift and prerift stratigraphy to at least wave base causing varying amounts of erosional truncation across the Atlantic hinge zone along much of the Gabon, Congo, and Angola margins. The absence of the Melania Formation across the Congo margin implies that uplift of the Atlantic hinge was relatively minor compared to that across the Angola and Gabon margins. In addition, material eroded from the adjacent and topographically higher hinge zones may in part account for the thick wedge of sediment deposited seaward of the Congo Atlantic hinge. A third phase of extension reactivated both the eastern and Atlantic hinge zones and was responsible for creating the accommodation space for Marnes Noires source rock deposition.

  6. Assssment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Paul T.; Ravens, Thomas M.; Cunningham, Keith W.; Scott, George

    2012-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Electric Power Research Institute and its collaborative partners, University of Alaska ? Anchorage, University of Alaska ? Fairbanks, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, to provide an assessment of the riverine hydrokinetic resource in the continental United States. The assessment benefited from input obtained during two workshops attended by individuals with relevant expertise and from a National Research Council panel commissioned by DOE to provide guidance to this and other concurrent, DOE-funded assessments of water based renewable energy. These sources of expertise provided valuable advice regarding data sources and assessment methodology. The assessment of the hydrokinetic resource in the 48 contiguous states is derived from spatially-explicit data contained in NHDPlus ?a GIS-based database containing river segment-specific information on discharge characteristics and channel slope. 71,398 river segments with mean annual flow greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) mean discharge were included in the assessment. Segments with discharge less than 1,000 cfs were dropped from the assessment, as were river segments with hydroelectric dams. The results for the theoretical and technical resource in the 48 contiguous states were found to be relatively insensitive to the cutoff chosen. Raising the cutoff to 1,500 cfs had no effect on estimate of the technically recoverable resource, and the theoretical resource was reduced by 5.3%. The segment-specific theoretical resource was estimated from these data using the standard hydrological engineering equation that relates theoretical hydraulic power (Pth, Watts) to discharge (Q, m3 s-1) and hydraulic head or change in elevation (??, m) over the length of the segment, where ? is the specific weight of water (9800 N m-3): ??? = ? ? ?? For Alaska, which is not encompassed by NPDPlus, hydraulic head and discharge data were manually obtained from Idaho National

  7. HALL EFFECT CONTROLLED GAS DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. FULL 3D SIMULATIONS TOWARD THE OUTER DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2015-01-10

    We perform three-dimensional stratified shearing-box magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations on the gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks with a net vertical magnetic flux of B {sub z0}. All three nonideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion, are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5 to 60 AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across the disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the dynamics near the disk midplane. We find that at around R = 5 AU the system launches a laminar or weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field B {sub z0} is not too weak. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at the disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Ω⋅B{sub z0}<0) is more susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) when B {sub z0} decreases, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular momentum transport. At the outer disk around and beyond R = 30 AU, the system shows vigorous MRI turbulence in the surface layer due to far-UV ionization, which efficiently drives disk accretion. The Hall effect affects the stability of the midplane region to the MRI, leading to strong/weak Maxwell stress for aligned/anti-aligned field polarities. Nevertheless, the midplane region is only very weakly turbulent in both cases. Overall, the basic picture is analogous to the conventional layered accretion scenario applied to the outer disk. In addition, we find that the vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated into thin, azimuthally extended shells in most of our simulations beyond 15 AU, leading to enhanced radial density variations know as zonal flows. Theoretical implications and observational consequences are briefly discussed.

  8. Development of a Geographic Information System Based Dust Dispersion Modeling System For Use In the Planning and Implementation of Military Training Exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Duard W; Rutz, Frederick C

    2004-08-12

    Military maneuvers and training exercises are essential for national and world defense. These maneuvers must however be performed in a manner that will have a minimal effect on the environment and local civilians. As residential areas continue to develop near military sites, possible impacts from military traffic and exercises to these areas begin to become of greater concern. Concerns facing the military include the effects of particulate air quality and atmospheric dust dispersion caused by such maneuvers. To aid the Department of Defense with this problem, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed a plan to develop, document and test a modeling system for use in dust dispersion reduction and management near government sites. To accomplish this task a user interface was developed that would be user friendly yet sophisticated enough to accommodate the needs of the client. One such need is to integrate a geographic information system (GIS) with the dust dispersion modeling software. This allows the user to enter the point, area, or line source required for the model runs. Incorporating the GIS with the software will also allow the user to view plume rise and expansion over actual data maps of the desired site. Data collected during previous field studies will be used to verify the results generated by the dust dispersion models. Thus utilizing historical, current, and user defined data, near real-time dust dispersion models will be able to aid in estimating and minimizing the effects of military exercises on the environment and nonmilitary personnel.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22

  10. Advanced development of rotary stratified charge 750 and 1500 HP military multi-fuel engines at Curtiss-Wright

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1982, two and four rotor naturally aspirated Stratified Charge Rotary Combustion engines were under development for the U.S. Marine Corps. These engines are described and highlights of work conducted under the government ''Advanced Development'' contracts are discussed. The basic direct injected and spark ignited stratified charge technology was defined during 1973-1976 for automotive engine applications. It was then demonstrated that the unthrottled naturally aspirated Rotary could match indirect injected diesel fuel consumption, without regard to fuel cetane or octane rating. This same technology was scaled from the 60''/sup 3//rotor automotive engine module to the 350''/sup 3//rotor military engine size. In addition, parallel company-sponsored research efforts were undertaken to explore growth directions. Tests showed significant thermal efficiency improvement at lean air-fuel ratios. When turbocharged, high exhaust energy recovery of this ported engine provided induction airflow sufficient for increased output plus excess for operation at the lean mixture strengths of best combustion efficiency. With additive improvements in mechanical efficiency accruing to higher BMEP operation, the potential for fuel economy in the same range as direct injected diesels was demonstrated. These lightweight, compact, multi-fuel engines are believed to open new possiblities for lightweight, reliable, highly mobile and agile military fighting vehicles of the future.

  11. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Burress, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  12. Tracking the evolution of a coherent magnetic flux rope continuously from the inner to the outer corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, J. Q.; Li, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Liu, Y. D.; Olmedo, O.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic flux rope (MFR) is believed to be the underlying magnetic structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it remains unclear how an MFR evolves into and forms the multi-component structure of a CME. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) MFR eruption on 2013 May 22 by tracking its morphological evolution, studying its kinematics, and quantifying its thermal property. As EUV brightenings begin, the MFR starts to rise slowly and shows helical threads winding around an axis. Meanwhile, cool filamentary materials descend spirally down to the chromosphere. These features provide direct observational evidence of intrinsically helical structure of the MFR. Through detailed kinematical analysis, we find that the MFR evolution has two distinct phases: a slow rise phase and an impulsive acceleration phase. We attribute the first phase to the magnetic reconnection within the quasi-separatrix layers surrounding the MFR, and the much more energetic second phase to the fast magnetic reconnection underneath the MFR. We suggest that the transition between these two phases is caused by the torus instability. Moreover, we identify that the MFR evolves smoothly into the outer corona and appears as a coherent structure within the white-light CME volume. The MFR in the outer corona was enveloped by bright fronts that originated from plasma pile-up in front of the expanding MFR. The fronts are also associated with the preceding sheath region followed by the outmost MFR-driven shock.

  13. The complex structure of stars in the outer galactic disk as revealed by Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Morganson, Eric; Pearrubia, Jorge; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Magnier, Eugene A.; Tonry, John L.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.; and others

    2014-08-10

    We present a panoptic view of the stellar structure in the Galactic disk's outer reaches commonly known as the Monoceros Ring, based on data from Pan-STARRS1. These observations clearly show the large extent of the stellar overdensities on both sides of the Galactic disk, extending between b = 25 and b = +35 and covering over 130 in Galactic longitude. The structure exhibits a complex morphology with both stream-like features and a sharp edge to the structure in both the north and the south. We compare this map to mock observations of two published simulations aimed at explaining such structures in the outer stellar disk, one postulating an origin as a tidal stream and the other demonstrating a scenario where the disk is strongly distorted by the accretion of a satellite. These morphological comparisons of simulations can link formation scenarios to observed structures, such as demonstrating that the distorted-disk model can produce thin density features resembling tidal streams. Although neither model produces perfect agreement with the observationsthe tidal stream predicts material at larger distances that is not detected while in the distorted disk model, the midplane is warped to an excessive degreefuture tuning of the models to accommodate these latest data may yield better agreement.

  14. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  15. CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE INNER AND OUTER HALO COMPONENTS OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carollo, Daniela; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Ken C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Bovy, Jo; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Aoki, Wako E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: kenne257@msu.edu E-mail: sivarani@iiap.res.in

    2012-01-10

    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the halo components of the Milky Way are explored, based on accurate determinations of the carbon-to-iron ([C/Fe]) abundance ratios and kinematic quantities for over 30,000 calibration stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using our present criterion that low-metallicity stars exhibiting [C/Fe] ratios ({sup c}arbonicity{sup )} in excess of [C/Fe] =+0.7 are considered CEMP stars, the global frequency of CEMP stars in the halo system for [Fe/H] <-1.5 is 8%, for [Fe/H] <-2.0 it is 12%, and for [Fe/H] <-2.5 it is 20%. We also confirm a significant increase in the level of carbon enrichment with declining metallicity, growing from ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.0 at [Fe/H] =-1.5 to ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.7 at [Fe/H] =-2.7. The nature of the carbonicity distribution function (CarDF) changes dramatically with increasing distance above the Galactic plane, |Z|. For |Z| <5 kpc, relatively few CEMP stars are identified. For distances |Z| >5 kpc, the CarDF exhibits a strong tail toward high values, up to [C/Fe] > +3.0. We also find a clear increase in the CEMP frequency with |Z|. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-1.5, the frequency grows from 5% at |Z| {approx}2 kpc to 10% at |Z| {approx}10 kpc. For stars with [Fe/H] <-2.0, the frequency grows from 8% at |Z| {approx}2 kpc to 25% at |Z| {approx}10 kpc. For stars with -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-1.5, the mean carbonicity is ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.0 for 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc, with little dependence on |Z|; for [Fe/H] <-2.0, ([C/Fe]) {approx}+1.5, again roughly independent of |Z|. Based on a statistical separation of the halo components in velocity space, we find evidence for a significant contrast in the frequency of CEMP stars between the inner- and outer-halo components-the outer halo possesses roughly twice the fraction of CEMP stars as the inner halo. The carbonicity distribution also differs between the inner-halo and outer-halo components-the inner halo has a greater portion of stars with modest carbon

  16. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-07-26

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range (> 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies ({>=}10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact the T

  17. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbonmore » monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins

  18. Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Joseph N.; Brewer, Heather M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Morris, Michael J.; Skabelund, Andrew J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Cho, Ji -Hoon; Gelinas, Richard

    2014-10-05

    Background: We have identified candidate protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for dyspnea by studying serum, lavage fluid, and urine from military personnel who reported serious respiratory symptoms after they were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods: Forty-seven soldiers with the complaint of dyspnea who enrolled in the STudy of Active Duty Military Personnel for Environmental Dust Exposure (STAMPEDE) underwent comprehensive pulmonary evaluations at the San Antonio Military Medical Center. The evaluation included fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The clinical findings from the STAMPEDE subjects pointed to seven general underlying diagnoses or findings including airway hyperreactivity, asthma, low diffusivity of carbon monoxide, and abnormal cell counts. The largest category was undiagnosed. As an exploratory study, not a classification study, we profiled proteins or miRNAs in lavage fluid, serum, or urine in this group to look for any underlying molecular patterns that might lead to biomarkers. Proteins in lavage fluid and urine were identified by accurate mass tag (database-driven) proteomics methods while miRNAs were profiled by a hybridization assay applied to serum, urine, and lavage fluid. Results: Over seventy differentially expressed proteins were reliably identified both from lavage and from urine in forty-eight dyspnea subjects compared to fifteen controls with no known lung disorder. Six of these proteins were detected both in urine and lavage. One group of subjects was distinguished from controls by expressing a characteristic group of proteins. A related group of dyspnea subjects expressed a unique group of miRNAs that included one miRNA that was differentially overexpressed in all three fluids studied. The levels of several miRNAs also showed modest but direct associations with several standard clinical measures of lung health such as forced vital capacity or gas exchange efficiency. Conclusions: Candidate proteins and mi

  19. Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

    1993-05-26

    The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

  20. CLUES ON THE REJUVENATION OF THE S0 GALAXY NGC 404 FROM THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE OF ITS OUTER DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresolin, Fabio

    2013-08-01

    The oxygen abundance of the outer disk of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 404, a prototypical early-type galaxy with extended star formation, has been derived from the analysis of H II region spectra. The high mean value found, 12 + log(O/H) = 8.6 {+-} 0.1, equivalent to approximately 80% of the solar value, argues against both the previously proposed cold accretion and recent merger scenarios as viable mechanisms for the assembly of the star-forming gas. The combination of the present-day gas metallicity with the published star formation history of this galaxy favors a model in which the recent star forming activity represents the declining tail of the original one.

  1. Role of plate kinematics and plate-slip-vector partitioning in continental magmatic arcs: Evidence from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, B.A.; Farber, D.L.; Wallace, G.S.; Lopez, R.; Palacios, O.

    1998-09-01

    New structural and geochronological data from the Cordillera Blanca batholith in the Peruvian Andes, coupled with Nazca-South American plate-slip-vector data, indicate that oblique convergence and associated strike-slip partitioning strongly influenced continental magmatic arc evolution. Both the strain field and mode of magmatism (plutonism vs. volcanism) in the late Miocene Peruvian Andes were controlled by the degree to which the arc-parallel component of the plate slip vector was partitioned into the arc. Strong strike-slip partitioning at ca. 8 Ma produced arc-parallel sinistral shear, strike-slip intercordilleran basins and east-west-oriented tension fractures that facilitated emplacement of the Cordillera Blanca batholith (ca. 8.2 {+-} 0.2 Ma). Periods during which the strike-slip component was not partitioned into the arc (ca. 10 and ca. 7 Ma) were associated with roughly arc-normal contraction and ignimbrite volcanism. The data thus support the contention that contraction within continental magmatic arcs favors volcanism, whereas transcurrent shear favors plutonism. The tie between oblique convergence and batholith emplacement in late Miocene Peruvian Andes provides a modern analogue for batholiths emplaced as the result of transcurrent shear in ancient arcs.

  2. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  3. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part I: Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-06-19

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60-hour case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in-situ measurements from the RACORO field campaign and remote-sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, ?, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing datasets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, ECMWF forecasts, and a multi-scale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in 'trial' large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.

  4. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part I: Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-06-19

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60-hour case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in-situ measurements from the RACORO field campaign and remote-sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, κ, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing datasets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, ECMWF forecasts, and a multi-scale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in 'trial' large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.

  5. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part I: Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; et al

    2015-06-19

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60-hour case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in-situ measurements from the RACORO field campaign and remote-sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functionsmore » for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, κ, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing datasets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, ECMWF forecasts, and a multi-scale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in 'trial' large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.« less

  6. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at the Areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East - 12445

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiselev, Sergey M.; Shandala, Nataliya K.; Titov, Alexey V.; Seregin, Vladimir A.; Akhromeev, Sergey V.; Lucyanec, Anatoly I.; Glinsky, Mark L.; Glagolev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    After termination of operation at the serviced facilities of the nuclear fleet of the former Soviet Union, the Military Technical Base in Sysoeva Bay has been reorganized to the site for SNF and RW temporary storage (STS). The main activities of STS are receipt, storage and transmission to radioactive waste reprocessing. Establishment of the RW management regional centre in the Far-Eastern region at the STS in Sysoeva Bay implies intensification of SNF and RW management in this region that can result in increasing ecological load to the adjacent areas and settlements. Regulatory supervision of the radiation safety at the areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East is one of the regulatory functions of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA of Russia). To regulate SNF an RW management and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring system is arranged. For this purpose, wide range of environmental media examinations at the Sysoeva Bay STS was performed by Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre - a technical support organization of FMBA of Russia in collaboration with the Federal State Geological Enterprise 'Hydrospecgeology' (Federal Agency for Entrails). Regulation during the RW and SNF management is continuous process, which the FMBA of Russia implements in close cooperation with other Russian responsible authorities - the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' and Federal Agency for Entrails. The Environmental radiation monitoring findings served as a basis for the associated databank arrangement. The radio ecological monitoring system was arranged at the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main stages. Some new data on the radiation situation at the

  7. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of the outer-sphere oxidation of metal carbonyl anions with coordination complexes containing chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, C.K.; Corraine, M.S.; Atwood, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Reactions of metal carbonyl anions, CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -}, Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, CpMo(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, CpCr(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, and Co(CO){sub 4}{sup -}, with CrCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3S (S = THF, CH{sub 3}CN) and reactions of Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -} and Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -} with [Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]CIO{sub 4} are reported. Net oxidation/reduction chemistry is observed with formation of metal carbonyl dimers and CrCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4S or Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Metal carbonyl halides are also observed and shown to arise from a secondary reaction of the metal carbonyl dimer with the oxidant. The products and rates are most consistent with outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Reactions of CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -} with CpFe(CO){sub 2}X (X = Cl, Br, I) are also reported. The rate dependence on X is very small and in the order expected for nucleophilic substitution. 21 refs. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. A study of the minimum wetting rate of isothermal films flowing down on outer surface of vertical pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tatsuhiro

    1999-07-01

    The minimum wetting rate (MWR) was investigated experimentally with an isothermal water film flowing down on the outer surface of test pipes arranged vertically. A dry patch was generated by blowing a small air jet onto the film temporally, and observation was made to discriminate whether the dry patch was rewetted or not. The contact angle of the film at the top edge of the dry patch and the amplitude, length and velocity of large waves on the film were measured. The MWR decreased rapidly as the film flowed down and reached a nearly constant value at a position around 0.6 m down from the film inlet. There were large waves on the film. The tendency of the variation of MWR with the distance coincided well with the growth of the amplitude of large waves with the distance. The contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch varied periodically in a range synchronizing with the arrival of the waves. When the contact angle exceeded the maximum advancing contact angle, the rewetting of the dry patch was initiated. The existing correlations where the smooth surface film was assumed considerably over-predicted the MWR. The MWR was properly given by supposing that the dry patch is rewetted when the maximum of the fluctuating dynamic pressure of the film exceeds the upward component of the surface tension corresponding to the maximum advancing contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch.

  10. Discovery of star formation in the extreme outer galaxy possibly induced by a high-velocity cloud impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of star formation activity in perhaps the most distant molecular cloud in the extreme outer galaxy. We performed deep near-infrared imaging with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, and found two young embedded clusters at two CO peaks of 'Digel Cloud 1' at the kinematic distance of D = 16 kpc (Galactocentric radius R {sub G} = 22 kpc). We identified 18 and 45 cluster members in the two peaks, and the estimated stellar densities are ?5 and ?3 pc{sup 2}, respectively. The observed K-band luminosity function suggests that the age of the clusters is less than 1 Myr and also that the distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance. On the sky, Cloud 1 is located very close to the H I peak of high-velocity cloud Complex H, and there are some H I intermediate velocity structures between the Complex H and the Galactic disk, which could indicate an interaction between them. We suggest the possibility that Complex H impacting on the Galactic disk has triggered star formation in Cloud 1 as well as the formation of the Cloud 1 molecular cloud.

  11. Development of a Geographic Information System Based Dust Dispersion Modeling System for Use in the Planning Implementation of Military Training Exercises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.; Rutz, F.

    2004-01-01

    As residential areas continue to develop near military sites, possible impacts from military traffic and exercises become of greater concern. Of particular concern is the effect of particulate matter and atmospheric dust dispersion on air quality caused by such maneuvers. To aid this problem, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed a plan to develop, document, and test a modeling system in support of dust dispersion reduction and management near government sites. To accomplish this task a model interface was developed that would be user friendly yet sophisticated enough to accommodate the varying needs of the client. One such need was for the modeling system to be capable of providing data for diverse locations and varying sites. To accomplish this task, the dust dispersion modeling system needed to be integrated with a geographic information system (GIS). Through use of the GIS application, data maps contained within the application could be used to create new sites. The GIS application would also allow the user to enter the point, area, or line source required to run the dispersion modeling system. Incorporating the GIS with the model would allow the user to view plume rise and expansion over actual data maps of the desired site. By using historical, current, and user defined data, near real-time dust dispersion models will aid in estimating and managing the effects of military exercises on the environment and nonmilitary personnel.

  12. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  13. The influences of solar wind pressure and interplanetary magnetic field on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt electrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.

    2016-07-22

    Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < –2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00–18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancakemore » distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00–06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. As a result, these variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.« less

  14. Modeling reservoir heterogeneity within outer ramp carbonate facies using an outcrop analog, San Andres Formation of the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, R.A.; Harris, P.M.; Grant, C.W.

    1994-09-01

    Variably cyclic, fusulinid-rich, outer ramp facies of the Permian San Andres Formation are exposed along the Algerita escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. We have used the outcrop exposures and cored wells drilled adjacent to the outcrop to assess reservoir- and interwell-scale variability of permeability as a potential analog for carbonate reservoirs in the Permian basin and elsewhere. Permeability distribution was evaluated using a field permeameter and conventional measurements on small core plugs taken along vertical and horizontal outcrop traverses and from the slim-hole cores. Geostatistical models of permeability variation, honoring the geologic and petrophysical data, were constructed and input into a waterflood simulator to understand the interactions between heterogeneity and flow. Different vertical variogram characteristics are displayed by cyclic and less distinctly cyclic parts of the San Andres. Variograms constructed for horizontal transect data from three distinct stratigraphic units have nearly identical properties. Overall, the ranges of correlation are short (3-3.5 in; 10-12 ft) when compared to typical interwell distances, supporting a nearly uncorrelated and highly variable permeability model. Using observed short ranges of vertical and horizontal correlation and honoring the vertical transect data, cross sectional, conditionally simulated permeability fields were generated and used in simulated waterfloods to investigate the sensitivities to an oil recovery model and overall fluid injection rate for this style of stratigraphy and cyclicity. Cyclic parts of the section are characterized by a potential for early water breakthrough and relatively high vertical sweep efficiencies. Within the less distinctly cyclic section, waterflood fronts have a fingerlike profile and vertical sweep efficiency is generally poorer.

  15. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-01-06

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition ofmore » gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40 vs. −8% for anthropogenics, and −52 vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics). Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility

  16. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-05-26

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas-phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48% and 63% respectively over the continental US Dry deposition of gas-phasemore » SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40% vs. −8% for anthropogenics, −52% vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas-phase (61% for anthropogenics, 76% for biogenics). A number of sensitivity studies shows that this is a robust feature of the modeling system. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = 105 M atm−1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 25% / 10% compared to our best estimate. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We

  17. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Delong, Waylon Anthony; White, Scott; Yepez, Esteban; Rackow, Kirk A.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diverse structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to detect

  18. Before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: Oil and Natural Gas Development on the Outer Continental Shelf By: Adam Sieminski , Administrator, Energy Information Administration

  19. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, scar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.80.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  20. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  1. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf.

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  6. EA-2011: Proposed Release of Three Parasitoids for the Biological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) in the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service issued an EA (July 2007) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the release of three parasitoids into the continental U.S. for the biological control of the emerald ash borer, a nonnative invasive beetle. The DOE Oak Ridge Office reviewed the EA, adopted it, and issued a FONSI for the proposed release of the same parasitoids into the environment on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  7. Recruit Military Job Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location:FedEx Field, Landover, MD 20785POC: DOECorporateRecruitmentWebsite: https://events.recruitmilitary.com/ 

  8. An experimental and modeling study investigating the ignition delay in a military diesel engine running hexadecane (cetane) fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cowart, Jim S.; Fischer, Warren P.; Hamilton, Leonard J.; Caton, Patrick A.; Sarathy, S. Mani; Pitz, William J.

    2013-02-01

    In an effort aimed at predicting the combustion behavior of a new fuel in a conventional diesel engine, cetane (n-hexadecane) fuel was used in a military engine across the entire speed–load operating range. The ignition delay was characterized for this fuel at each operating condition. A chemical ignition delay was also predicted across the speed–load range using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism with a constant pressure reactor model. At each operating condition, the measured in-cylinder pressure and predicted temperature at the start of injection were applied to the detailed n-hexadecane kinetic mechanism, and the chemical ignition delay was predicted withoutmore » any kinetic mechanism calibration. The modeling results show that fuel–air parcels developed from the diesel spray with an equivalence ratio of 4 are the first to ignite. The chemical ignition delay results also showed decreasing igntion delays with increasing engine load and speed, just as the experimental data revealed. At lower engine speeds and loads, the kinetic modeling results show the characteristic two-stage negative temperature coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon fuels. However, at high engine speeds and loads, the reactions do not display negative temperature coefficient behavior, as the reactions proceed directly into high-temperature pathways due to higher temperatures and pressure at injection. A moderate difference between the total and chemical ignition delays was then characterized as a phyical delay period that scales inversely with engine speed. This physical delay time is representative of the diesel spray development time and is seen to become a minority fraction of the total igntion delay at higher engine speeds. In addition, the approach used in this study suggests that the ignition delay and thus start of combustion may be predicted with reasonable accuracy using kinetic modeling to determine the chemical igntion delay. Then, in conjunction with the physical delay

  9. An experimental and modeling study investigating the ignition delay in a military diesel engine running hexadecane (cetane) fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowart, Jim S.; Fischer, Warren P.; Hamilton, Leonard J.; Caton, Patrick A.; Sarathy, S. Mani; Pitz, William J.

    2013-02-01

    In an effort aimed at predicting the combustion behavior of a new fuel in a conventional diesel engine, cetane (n-hexadecane) fuel was used in a military engine across the entire speed–load operating range. The ignition delay was characterized for this fuel at each operating condition. A chemical ignition delay was also predicted across the speed–load range using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism with a constant pressure reactor model. At each operating condition, the measured in-cylinder pressure and predicted temperature at the start of injection were applied to the detailed n-hexadecane kinetic mechanism, and the chemical ignition delay was predicted without any kinetic mechanism calibration. The modeling results show that fuel–air parcels developed from the diesel spray with an equivalence ratio of 4 are the first to ignite. The chemical ignition delay results also showed decreasing igntion delays with increasing engine load and speed, just as the experimental data revealed. At lower engine speeds and loads, the kinetic modeling results show the characteristic two-stage negative temperature coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon fuels. However, at high engine speeds and loads, the reactions do not display negative temperature coefficient behavior, as the reactions proceed directly into high-temperature pathways due to higher temperatures and pressure at injection. A moderate difference between the total and chemical ignition delays was then characterized as a phyical delay period that scales inversely with engine speed. This physical delay time is representative of the diesel spray development time and is seen to become a minority fraction of the total igntion delay at higher engine speeds. In addition, the approach used in this study suggests that the ignition delay and thus start of combustion may be predicted with reasonable accuracy using kinetic modeling to determine the chemical igntion delay. Then, in conjunction with the physical delay time

  10. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Department of Defense Military Bases and Department of Energy Facilities for Siting a Small Modular Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poore III, Willis P; Belles, Randy; Mays, Gary T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of US Department of Defense (DOD) military base sites and DOE sites for possible powering with an SMR; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for several sample sites. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is demonstrate the capability to characterize specific DOD and DOE sites to identify any particular issues associated with powering the sites with an SMR using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  11. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  12. Robots for hazardous duties: Military, space, and nuclear facility applications. January 1987-September 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and application of robots used in place of humans where the environment could be hazardous. Military applications include autonomous land vehicles, robotic howitzers, and battlefield support operations. Space operations include docking, maintenance, and mission support, both intra-vehicular and extra-vehicular activities. Nuclear applications include operations within the containment vessel, radioactive waste operations, fueling operations, and plant security. Many of the articles reference control techniques and the use of expert systems in robotic operations. Applications involving industrial manufacturing, walking robots, and robot welding are cited in other published searches in the series. (Contains 172 citations with title list and subject index.)

  13. The Role of a Dipeptide Outer-Coordination Sphere on H2 -Production Catalysts: Influence on Catalytic Rates and Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C.; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-02-04

    The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(PPh2NPh-R2)2]2+ hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides were prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ~1000 s-1, 40% faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

  14. Petroleum source potential of miocene and eocene shales from the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffans, G. )

    1993-09-01

    From 1965 through 1968, 80 core holes were drilled by the M/V Eureka above shallow salt bodies on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (offshore Texas and Louisiana) in water depths of 660-5280 ft. (An additional 13 deep-water core holes were drilled in the north-central gulf of Mexico.) Approximately 40,000 ft of sediment and small amounts of diapiric salt and/or associated cap rock were penetrated by these 80 Eureka core holes, from which more than 18,000 ft of core subsequently was recovered. Although most core holes penetrated only Pleistocene sediments, allochthonous sequences of older sediments (Pliocene-Upper Cretaceous) emplaced during salt diapirism were penetrated at eight drill sites in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. We have determined the petroleum source potential of Miocene and Eocene shales from four deep-water Eureka core holes (water depths of 1890-2350 ft) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. All of these samples have attained only moderate levels of thermal maturity (VR [approx] 0.4-0.6). Two samples of Miocene shale obtained from the East Break 672 Block are relatively lean (containing only 0.37-0.54 wt.% total organic carbon) and their kerogen is enriched in gas prone or inert macerals. Eocene shales penetrated in the Alaminos Canyon 970 and 971 blocks are slightly richer (0.68-0.95 wt.% total organic carbon), principally because they contain migrated petroleum-aliquots extracted with a strong organic solvent contain only 0.31 0.48 wt.% total organic carbon. The leanest sample is an Eocene shale obtained from the boundary between the Garden Banks 332 and 333 blocks, approximately 18 mi northwest of the deep-water Auger oil and gas discovery. This sample contains only 0.33 wt% total organic carbon, and its kerogen also consists predominantly of gas-prone or inert macerals. We conclude these Tertiary shale samples are not the source of the oil that has been generated in the deepwater realm of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

  15. Effects of long-term elevated CO2 treatment on the inner and outer bark chemistry of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L.; Labbé, Nicole; So, Chi-Leung; Kim, Keonhee; Reed, Karen G.; Leduc, Daniel J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2015-07-23

    Long-term exposure of sweetgum trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations significantly shifted inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) chemical compositions, having implications for both defense and nutrient cycling. Changes in plant tissue chemistry due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have direct implications for tissue resistance to abiotic and biotic stress while living, and soil nutrient cycling when senesced as litter. Although the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on tree foliar chemistry are well documented, the effects on tree bark chemistry are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of a long-term elevated CO2 treatment on the contents of individual elements, extractives, ash, lignin, and polysaccharide sugars of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) bark. Trees were harvested from sweetgum plots equipped with the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus, receiving either elevated or ambient CO2 treatments over a 12-year period. Whole bark sections were partitioned into inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) samples before analysis. Moreover, principal component analysis, coupled with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, was also used to screen for differences. Elevated CO2 reduced the N content (0.42 vs. 0.35 %) and increased the C:N ratio (109 vs. 136 %) of the outer bark. For the inner bark, elevated CO2 increased the Mn content (470 vs. 815 mg kg-1), total extractives (13.0 vs. 15.6 %), and residual ash content (8.1 vs. 10.8 %) as compared to ambient CO2; differences were also observed for some hemicellulosic sugars, but not lignin. Shifts in bark chemistry can affect the success of herbivores and pathogens in living trees, and as litter, bark can affect the biogeochemical cycling of

  16. Effects of long-term elevated CO2 treatment on the inner and outer bark chemistry of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L.; Labbé, Nicole; So, Chi-Leung; Kim, Keonhee; Reed, Karen G.; Leduc, Daniel J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2015-07-23

    Long-term exposure of sweetgum trees to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations significantly shifted inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) chemical compositions, having implications for both defense and nutrient cycling. Changes in plant tissue chemistry due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have direct implications for tissue resistance to abiotic and biotic stress while living, and soil nutrient cycling when senesced as litter. Although the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on tree foliar chemistry are well documented, the effects on tree bark chemistry are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of a long-term elevatedmore » CO2 treatment on the contents of individual elements, extractives, ash, lignin, and polysaccharide sugars of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) bark. Trees were harvested from sweetgum plots equipped with the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus, receiving either elevated or ambient CO2 treatments over a 12-year period. Whole bark sections were partitioned into inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) samples before analysis. Moreover, principal component analysis, coupled with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, was also used to screen for differences. Elevated CO2 reduced the N content (0.42 vs. 0.35 %) and increased the C:N ratio (109 vs. 136 %) of the outer bark. For the inner bark, elevated CO2 increased the Mn content (470 vs. 815 mg kg-1), total extractives (13.0 vs. 15.6 %), and residual ash content (8.1 vs. 10.8 %) as compared to ambient CO2; differences were also observed for some hemicellulosic sugars, but not lignin. Shifts in bark chemistry can affect the success of herbivores and pathogens in living trees, and as litter, bark can affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within the forest floor. Our results demonstrate that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations

  17. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the major outer surface protein, OSP-A from North American and European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, B.C.; Dunn, J.J.; France, L.L.; Jaing, W.; Polin, D.; Gorgone, G.; Luft, B.; Dykhuizen, D.

    1995-12-31

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Western Europe. As the major delayed immune response in humans, a better understanding of the major outer surface lipoproteins OspA and OspB are of much interest. These proteins have been shown to exhibit three distinct phylogenetic genotypes based on their DNA sequences. This paper describes the cloning of genomic DNA for each variant and amplification of PCR. DNA sequence data was used to derive computer driven phylogenetic analysis and deduced amino acid sequences. Overproduction of variant OspAs was carried out in E. coli using a T7-based expression system. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies was carried out on the recombinant B31 PspA yielding evidence supporting a B31 protein containing 11% alpha-helix, 34% antiparallel beta-sheet, 12% parallel beta sheet.

  18. Binding and Direct Electrochemistry of OmcA, an Outer-Membrane Cytochrome from an Iron Reducing Bacterium, with Oxide Electrodes: A Candidate Biofuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, Carrick M.; Voros, Janos; Shi, Liang; Lower, Brian H.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Colberg, Patricia J.

    2008-02-15

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria transfer electrons to solid ferric respiratory electron acceptors. Outer-membrane cytochromes expressed by these organisms are of interest in both microbial fuel cells and biofuel cells. We use optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to show that OmcA, an 85 kDa decaheme outer-membrane c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, adsorbs to isostructural Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in similar amounts. Adsorption is ionic-strength and pH dependent (peak adsorption at pH 6.57.0). The thickness of the OmcA layer on Al2O3 at pH 7.0 [5.8 1.1 (2r) nm] from OWLS is similar, within error, to that observed using atomic force microscopy (4.8 2 nm). The highest adsorption density observed was 334 ng cm 2 (2.4 1012 molecules cm 2), corresponding to a monolayer or 9.9 nm diameter spheres or submonolayer coverage by smaller molecules. Direct electrochemistry of OmcA on Fe2O3 electrodes was observed using cyclic voltammetry, with cathodic peak potentials of 380 to 320 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Variations in the cathodic peak positions are speculatively attributed to redox-linked conformation change or changes in molecular orientation. OmcA can exchange electrons with ITO electrodes at higher current densities than with Fe2O3. Overall, OmcA can bind to and exchange electrons with several oxides, and thus its utility in fuel cells is not restricted to Fe2O3.

  19. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; et al

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are moremore » common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of “slot filling” events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy- and L shell-dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.« less

  20. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in

  1. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays

  2. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  3. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H₂) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H₂ oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H₂, with turnover frequencies of 290 s⁻¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H₂ using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outer coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.

  4. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  5. C-Mod Outer Divertor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and radiation. * Multi-layer stacks of dimpled shim-stock sheets limit radiative heat transfer. * Multi-level structural plates utilize welded studs and standoffs to...

  6. PHASE II CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE USNS BRIDGE (T AOE 10), MILITARY SEALIFT FLEET SUPPORT COMMAND, NAVAL STATION, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA DCN 5180-SR-01-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NICK A. ALTIC

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 T?hoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ships air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  7. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 3. Separation of parameterization biases in single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  8. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  9. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-s_band)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  10. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 3. Separation of parameterization biases in single-column model CAM5 simulations of shallow cumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only amore » relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.« less

  11. Depositional and erosional coastal processes during the late postglacial sea-level rise: An example from the central Tyrrhenian continental shelf (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortora, P.

    1996-03-01

    A transgressive systems tract (TST) deposit on the inner continental shelf of the south Tuscany region (central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) formed during the last postglacial sea-level rise. Its small-scale stratigraphy has been detailed using high-resolution seismic profiles, gravity cores, and grab samples. The TST deposit overlies a lowstand unconformity, shows a tabular geometry, and comprises three internal architectures of beach facies. Because the lateral distribution of these vertical successions is not random, but parallel to the coast, each architecture represents an individual sedimentary stage during sea-level rise. However, all architectures were formed via shoreface retreat in response to the landward migration of a beach complex over the unconformity. During this migration the beach system was characterized by a source diastem located in the surf zone and by two sediment dispersal systems. One moved the eroded sand over the flat back-barrier palustrine area by storm washover, while the other transported part of this sand to the lower shoreface, forming a reworked sand sheet above the older and inactive source diastem (ravinement surface). The TST architectures originated from a transgressive succession of beach facies, differentiated according to the intensity of shoreface retreat. Architecture A represents a low preservation potential of the original beach complex, Architecture B relatively high preservation, and Architecture C no preservation. The intensity of erosion and the consequent preservation potential were totally controlled by antecedent topography.

  12. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations. The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.

  13. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations.more » The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.« less

  14. Electron transfer reactivity of the aqueous iron(IV)–oxo complex. Outer-sphere vs proton-coupled electron transfer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2016-06-18

    Here, the kinetics of oxidation of organic and inorganic reductants by aqueous iron(IV) ions, FeIV(H2O)5O2+ (hereafter FeIVaqO2+), are reported. The substrates examined include several water-soluble ferrocenes, hexachloroiridate(III), polypyridyl complexes M(NN)32+ (M = Os, Fe and Ru; NN = phenanthroline, bipyridine and derivatives), HABTS–/ABTS2–, phenothiazines, CoII(dmgBF2)2, macrocyclic nickel(II) complexes, and aqueous cerium(III). Most of the reductants were oxidized cleanly to the corresponding one-electron oxidation products, with the exception of phenothiazines which produced the corresponding oxides in a single-step reaction, and polypyridyl complexes of Fe(II) and Ru(II) that generated ligand-modified products. FeIVaqO2+ oxidizes even Ce(III) (E0 in 1 M HClO4 = 1.7more » V) with a rate constant greater than 104 M–1 s–1. In 0.10 M aqueous HClO4 at 25 °C, the reactions of Os(phen)32+ (k = 2.5 × 105 M–1 s–1), IrCl63– (1.6 × 106), ABTS2– (4.7 × 107), and Fe(cp)(C5H4CH2OH) (6.4 × 107) appear to take place by outer sphere electron transfer (OSET). The rate constants for the oxidation of Os(phen)32+ and of ferrocenes remained unchanged in the acidity range 0.05 < [H+] < 0.10 M, ruling out prior protonation of FeIVaqO2+ and further supporting the OSET assignment. A fit to Marcus cross-relation yielded a composite parameter (log k22 + E0Fe/0.059) = 17.2 ± 0.8, where k22 and E0Fe are the self-exchange rate constant and reduction potential, respectively, for the FeIVaqO2+/FeIIIaqO+ couple. Comparison with literature work suggests k22 < 10–5 M–1 s–1 and thus E0(FeIVaqO2+/FeIIIaqO+) > 1.3 V. For proton-coupled electron transfer, the reduction potential is estimated at E0 (FeIVaqO2+, H+/FeIIIaqOH2+) ≥ 1.95 V.« less

  15. DOE/EA-1985

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Assessment for the Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia US Department of Energy Office of ...

  16. Category:Federal Environmental Statutes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act P Paleontological Resources Preservation Act S Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Demonstration Program Retrieved from "http:...

  17. File:BOEMRE US.CSB.bathy.map.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Boundary Areas, in color Sources Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas...

  18. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  19. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2012-01-19

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  20. The Atlantic continental margin: US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheridan, R.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Grow, J.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The Geology of North America series has been prepared to mark the Centennial of The Geological Society of America. It represents the cooperative efforts of more than 1000 individuals from academia, state and federal agencies of many countries, and industry to prepare syntheses that are as current and authoritative as possible about the geology of the North American continent and adjacent oceanic regions. This series is part of the Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) Project which also includes eight wall maps at a scale of 1:5,000,000 that summarize the geology, tectonics, magnetic and gravity anomaly patterns, regional stress fields, thermal aspects, seismicity and neotectonics of North America and its surroundings. Together, the synthesis volumes and maps are the first coordinated effort to integrate all available knowledge about the geology and geophysics of a crustal plate on a regional scale. Topics discussed in Volume 1 include stratigraphy, depositional processes, and depositional history; basin synthesis; deep crystal structure; rifting and subsidence theory; geological resources; and environmental hazards. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  2. A classification scheme for young stellar objects using the wide-field infrared survey explorer AllWISE catalog: revealing low-density star formation in the outer galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present an assessment of the performance of WISE and the AllWISE data release for a section of the Galactic Plane. We lay out an approach to increasing the reliability of point-source photometry extracted from the AllWISE catalog in Galactic Plane regions using parameters provided in the catalog. We use the resulting catalog to construct a new, revised young star detection and classification scheme combining WISE and 2MASS near- and mid-infrared colors and magnitudes and test it in a section of the outer Milky Way. The clustering properties of the candidate Class I and II stars using a nearest neighbor density calculation and the two-point correlation function suggest that the majority of stars do form in massive star-forming regions, and any isolated mode of star formation is at most a small fraction of the total star forming output of the Galaxy. We also show that the isolated component may be very small and could represent the tail end of a single mechanism of star formation in line with models of molecular cloud collapse with supersonic turbulence and not a separate mode all to itself.

  3. THE ORBITS OF NEPTUNE'S OUTER SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozovic, Marina; Jacobson, Robert A.; Sheppard, Scott S. E-mail: raj@jpl.nasa.gov

    2011-04-15

    In 2009, we used the Subaru telescope to observe all the faint irregular satellites of Neptune for the first time since 2004. These observations extend the data arcs for Halimede, Psamathe, Sao, Laomedeia, and Neso from a few years to nearly a decade. We also report on a search for unknown Neptune satellites in a half-square degree of sky and a limiting magnitude of 26.2 in the R band. No new satellites of Neptune were found. We numerically integrate the orbits for the five irregulars and summarize the results of the orbital fits in terms of the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. Sao and Neso are confirmed to be Kozai librators, while Psamathe is a 'reverse circulator'. Halimede and Laomedeia do not seem to experience any strong resonant effects.

  4. EM Helps Military Families in Need

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    LAS VEGAS – Six families from Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas recently received nearly $4,000 in donations — funds that helped provide a welcome relief during the holidays.

  5. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; NUCLEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONTAINERS; MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required...

  6. Military and Reservist | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    December 20, 2005 Payment of Health Benefit Expenses for Reservists Called to Active Duty This authorized full payment of coverage up to 24 months for each employee called to active ...

  7. ARPA-E University- Strategic Military Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar will provide an inside look at how one ARPA-E project team, led by Primus Power, formed a strategic partnership with a major defense contractor to demonstrate its innovative energy storage system. Don’t miss the chance to learn more about Primus Power’s innovative EnergyPod and how the company has worked with Raytheon to advance the technology.

  8. EM Field Office Manager Receives Military Honor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EM Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) Manager Joe Franco receives the Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve (ESGR) Seven Seals Award in June at a ESGR recognition event in Carlsbad, N.M.

  9. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut 767 693 574 174 0 0 1984-2014 Maine 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Massachusetts 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 New Hampshire 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 ...

  10. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine 1,487 2,852 1,506 1,071 1,058 2,482 1984-2014 Massachusetts 500 343 3,101 466 329 453 1984-2014 New Hampshire 1,480 490 253 104 90 257 1984-2014 Rhode Island 1,643 903 900 ...

  11. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. ...

  12. CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aki, K.

    1991-05-01

    The past year continued to be extremely productive following up two major breakthroughs made in the preceding year. One of the breakthroughs was the derivation of an integral equation for time- dependent power spectra, which unified all the existing theories on seismic scattering including the radiative transfer theory for total energy and single-multiple scattering theories based on the ray approach. We successfully applied the method to the data from the USGS regional seismic arrays in central California, Long Valley and Island of Hawaii, and obtained convincing results on the scattering Q{sup {minus}1} and intrinsic Q{sup {minus}1} in these areas for the frequency range from 1 Hz to 20 Hz. The frequency dependence of scattering Q{sup {minus}1} is, then, interpreted in terms of random medium with continuous or discrete scatterers. The other breakthrough was the application of T-matrix formulation to the seismic scattering problem. We are currently working on 2-dimensional inclusions with high and low velocity contrast with the surrounding medium. In addition to the above two main lines of research, we were able to use so-called T-phase'' observed on the Island of Hawaii to map the Q value with a good spatial resolution. We found that we can eliminate remarkably well the frequency dependent recording site effect from the T-phase amplitude using the amplification factor for coda waves, further confirming the fundamental separability of source, path and site effects for coda waves, and proving the effectiveness of stochastic modeling of high-frequency seismic waves. 70 refs., 24 figs.

  13. Continental Components Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Bengal, India Zip: 700 001 Sector: Hydro Product: Manufacturer of large hydroenergy systems and project development consultant. Coordinates: 22.52667, 88.34616...

  14. QER- Comment of Continental Resources, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Per your request I am sending some backup data pursuant to our conversation today. You'll note I tweaked the numbers a bit since we spoke after digging a little deeper into the data.

  15. Continental breakup and the dawn of humankind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fe 7:00 p.m. Tuesday, April 8, 2008 Taos Convention Center, Los Angelitos Room Civic Plaza Drive 7:00 p.m. Wednesday, April 9, 2008 Duane W. Smith Auditorium Los Alamos High...

  16. Drilling Report- First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Rowley, Et Al., 1987) Core Holes At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Goff, Et Al., 1986) Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Rowley, Et Al.,...

  17. File:BOEMRE OCS.oil.gas.2007-12.map.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OCS.oil.gas.2007-12.map.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil & Gas Leasing Program 2007 - 2012 Size of this preview: 700...

  18. Property:File/Description | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Map of the U.S. land-based and offshore annual average wind speed at 100m B BOEMRE OCS.oil.gas.2007-12.map.pdf + Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil & Gas Leasing Program 2007 -...

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at Massachusetts Military Reservation. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying photovoltaics (PV) systems on a superfund site located within the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR). The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.17/kWh and incentives offered in the State of Massachusetts, such as the solar renewable energy credits. According to calculations, MMR can place 8 MW of ballast-weighted, ground-mounted PV systems on the crowns of the three landfill caps and the borrow pit with the PV modules tilted at 30 degrees.

  20. Outer Banks Ocean Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: Privately-held company that plans to develop a 200-600MW offshore wind farm in federal lease blocks near North Carolina's barrier islands, known as...

  1. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 33 ... PROPULSION; RADIOISOTOPES; RANGE; SOLAR SYSTEM; SPACE; VEHICLES Astrophysics, Word Cloud ...

  2. Outer sphere hydrogenation catalysis (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Eisenstein, Odile ; Crabtree, Robert H Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1080563 DOE Contract Number: SC0001055 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ...

  3. Electronic transport properties of inner and outer shells in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Beijing National Laboratory For Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China) International Center for Quantum Materials, ...

  4. The role of solvent and the outer coordination sphere on H2 oxidation using [Ni(PCy2NPyz2)2]2+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Arnab; Lense, Sheri J.; Roberts, John A.; Helm, Monte L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogenase enzymes are reversible catalysts for H2 production/oxidation, operating with fast rates and minimal overpotentials in water. Many synthetic catalyst mimics of hydrogenase operate in organic solvents. However, recent work has demonstrated the importance of water in the performance of some model complexes. In this work, the H2oxidation activity of [Ni(PCy2N(3pyridazyl)methyl2)2]2+ (CyPyz) was compared as a function of acetonitrile, methanol, and water. The reactivity was compared under neutral and acidic conditions in all three solvents and improvement in catalytic activity, from 2 to 40 s-1, was observed with increasing hydrogen bonding ability of the solvent. In addition, the overpotential for catalysis drops significantly in the presence of acid in all solvents, from as high as 600 mV to as low as 70 mV, primarily due to the shift in the equilibrium potential under these conditions. Finally, H2 production was also observed in the same solution, demonstrating bidirectional (irreversible) homogeneous H2 production/oxidation. A structurally and electronically similar complex with a benzyl instead of a pyridazyl group was not stable under these conditions, limiting the evaluation of the contributions of the outer coordination sphere. Collectively, we show that by tuning conditions we can promote fast, efficient H2 oxidation and bidirectional catalysis.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    USAF SOFC Systems for Aviation Applications * Focus on smaller, sub-units (<10kW) * Cooperative ArmyUSAF Activities - Air Force UAV, Army Silent Watch * Technical Challenges - ...

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Thomas Reitz, Air Force Research Laboratory, at the DOD-DOE Aircraft Petroleum Use Reduction Workshop, September 30, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  7. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration for Sustainable Military Installatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smith Newton EV NREL PIX 17631 Fort Carson 2MW PV Array NREL ... Managed Bi-directional Charging Normal Grid Microgrid ... Generation Supply to PEVs Coal Hydro NGOil Solar Desired ...

  8. Large-area metallic photonic lattices for military applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    In this project we developed photonic crystal modeling capability and fabrication technology that is scaleable to large area. An intelligent optimization code was developed to find the optimal structure for the desired spectral response. In terms of fabrication, an exhaustive survey of fabrication techniques that would meet the large area requirement was reduced to Deep X-ray Lithography (DXRL) and nano-imprint. Using DXRL, we fabricated a gold logpile photonic crystal in the <100> plane. For the nano-imprint technique, we fabricated a cubic array of gold squares. These two examples also represent two classes of metallic photonic crystal topologies, the connected network and cermet arrangement.

  9. An Overview of Industry-Military Cooperation in the Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  10. An overview of industry-military cooperation in the development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  11. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Figure 2: Span Data Form Window used directly in the detailed analysis of the span. ... gives the user the flexibility to use the most appropriate or convenient measurement system. ...

  12. Available 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NATIONAL DEFENSE; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIONS; SHOCK WAVES; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; ACCIDENTS; SAFETY; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; BLAST EFFECTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; BUILDINGS; CHEMICAL EXPLOSIVES;...

  13. Augmented cognition tool for rapid military decision making.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Verzi, Stephen J.; Dubicka, Irene; Vineyard, Craig Michael

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the laboratory directed research and development work to model relevant areas of the brain that associate multi-modal information for long-term storage for the purpose of creating a more effective, and more automated, association mechanism to support rapid decision making. Using the biology and functionality of the hippocampus as an analogy or inspiration, we have developed an artificial neural network architecture to associate k-tuples (paired associates) of multimodal input records. The architecture is composed of coupled unimodal self-organizing neural modules that learn generalizations of unimodal components of the input record. Cross modal associations, stored as a higher-order tensor, are learned incrementally as these generalizations form. Graph algorithms are then applied to the tensor to extract multi-modal association networks formed during learning. Doing so yields a novel approach to data mining for knowledge discovery. This report describes the neurobiological inspiration, architecture, and operational characteristics of our model, and also provides a real world terrorist network example to illustrate the model's functionality.

  14. Savannah River Site hosts military interns | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    complex dedicated to environmental cleanup, nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship, and nuclear materials disposition in support of the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation efforts. ...

  15. Solar energy integrated at Hawaiian military housing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Suzanne L. Singer Graduate Student Intern University of California, Berkeley DOE Program Review Meeting November 19, 2008 Heat Management for Energy Conversion * Heat to electricity: thermoelectrics * Sunlight to electricity: concentrated PV Solar/Wind hybrid - Kayenta, AZ with NTUA Systems power rural areas Navajo Tribe Wind Potential - Aubrey Cliffs, AZ with NTUA Met towers test wind potential Navajo Tribe Sustainable Building Materials in Peach Springs, AZ Earthship flexcrete Recyclable

  16. Ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Neal A.; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Parker, Eric Paul; Resnick, Paul James; Okandan, Murat; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2007-11-01

    Acoustic sensing systems are critical elements in detection of sniper events. The microphones developed in this project enable unique sensing systems that benefit significantly from the enhanced sensitivity and extremely compact foot-print. Surface and bulk micromachining technologies developed at Sandia have allowed the design, fabrication and characterization of these unique sensors. We have demonstrated sensitivity that is only available in 1/2 inch to 1 inch studio reference microphones--with our devices that have only 1 to 2mm diameter membranes in a volume less than 1cm{sup 3}.

  17. The future of components for high reliability military and space...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Further, they offer cost, space and weight savings, shared manufacturing and field test experience with industry, and access to the most modern technology. Also reported are ...

  18. Military Officers Association of America (MOAA) Job Fair

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Location: The Washington Convention CenterPOC: Recruitment@hq.doe.govWebsite: www.moaa.org/careerfairs/

  19. Nuclear disarmament, disposal of military plutonium and international security problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipchenko, V.S.; Rybatchenkov, V.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major issues of the current debate deals with the question: what does real nuclear disarmament actually involve? It becomes more and more obvious for many experts that it can no longer be limited to the reduction or elimination of delivery vehicles alone, but must necessarily cove the warheads and the fissile materials recovered from them, which should totally or partially be committed to peaceful use and placed under appropriate international safeguards, thus precluding their re-use for as weapons. There are various options as to how to solve the problems of disposal of fissile materials released from weapons. The optimal choice can only be made on the basis of a thorough study. This study should treat the disposal of weapon-grade plutonium and weapon-grade uranium as separate problems. The possible options for plutonium disposition currently discussed are as follows: (a) Storage in a form or under conditions not suitable for use in the production of new types of nuclear weapons. This option seems to be most natural and inevitable at the first phase, subject to determination of storage period, volume, and technology. Besides, the requirements of the international nuclear weapons nonproliferation regime could be met easily. Safe, secure, and controlled temporary storage may provide an appropriate solution of disposal of weapon-grade plutonium in the near future. (b) Energy utilization (conversion) of weapon-grade plutonium. The most efficient option of utilization of plutonium appears to be for nuclear power generation. This option does not exclude storage, but considers it as a temporary phase, which can, however, be a prolonged one: its length is determined by the political decisions made and possibilities existing to transfer plutonium for processing.

  20. Three Military Bases Partner with Energy Department to Train...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rapidly, and demand for highly skilled solar workers is on the rise," said Minh Le, director, SunShot Initiative. "This new solar energy job training program will help our...

  1. Recovery of precious metals from military electronic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundiler, I.H.; Lutz, J.D.; Neiswander, P.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components from dismantled weapons components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminium and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non- hazardous waste.

  2. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus subtilis mutants to probe mechanisms of spore germination and inactivation. In conclusion, we employ techniques of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and phase contrast microscopy to examine the effects of γ-irradiation on bacterial spores of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus atrophaeus spp. and of ClO2 on B. subtilis spores, and present in detail assays using spore bio-indicators to ensure sterility when decontaminating with ClO2.

  3. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as amore » dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. Here, we present the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus subtilis mutants to probe mechanisms of spore germination and inactivation. In conclusion, we employ techniques of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and phase contrast microscopy to examine the effects of γ-irradiation on bacterial spores of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus atrophaeus spp. and of ClO2 on B. subtilis spores, and present in detail assays using spore bio-indicators to ensure sterility when decontaminating with ClO2.« less

  4. Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF) for Assessment of Risks of Military Training and Testing to Natural Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter II, G.W.

    2003-06-18

    The objective of this research is to provide the DoD with a framework based on a systematic, risk-based approach to assess impacts for management of natural resources in an ecosystem context. This risk assessment framework is consistent with, but extends beyond, the EPA's ecological risk assessment framework, and specifically addresses DoD activities and management needs. MERAF is intended to be consistent with existing procedures for environmental assessment and planning with DoD testing and training. The intention is to supplement these procedures rather than creating new procedural requirements. MERAF is suitable for use for training and testing area assessment and management. It does not include human health risks nor does it address specific permitting or compliance requirements, although it may be useful in some of these cases. Use of MERAF fits into the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process by providing a consistent and rigorous way of organizing and conducting the technical analysis for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) (Sigal 1993; Carpenter 1995; Canter and Sadler 1997). It neither conflicts with, nor replaces, procedural requirements within the NEPA process or document management processes already in place within DoD.

  5. Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essertier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The statistics in this update of the Outer Continental Shelf Statistics publication document what has happened since federal leasing began on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in 1954. Highlights note that of the 29.8 million acres actually leased from 175.6 million acres offered for leasing, 20.1% were in frontier areas. Total revenues for the 1954-1982 period were $58.9 billion with about 13% received in 1982. The book is divided into six parts covering highlights, leasing, exploration and development, production and revenue, reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and pollution problems from well and tanker accidents. 5 figures, 59 tables.

  6. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Poellot, M. 14 ; Rutledge, S. A. 9 ; Schwaller, M. 10 more ; Tokay, A. 15 ; Williams, C. R. 16 ; Wolff, D. B. 2 ; Xie, S. 17 ; Zipser, E. J. 18 less + Show ...

  7. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (jensen-sonde...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. ...

  8. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths CLOWD Optical Radiative ... droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the ...

  9. Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and implementing the new continental law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.M.; Beaulieu, A.

    1995-12-01

    Two internationally-known experts discuss both law and policy as they examine the environmental implications of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the related North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). The authors consider the context in which those implications were brought to the negotiating table, the legal mechanism established to address them, and the original trilateral institution set up to maintain a continent-wide level of environmental cooperation. The authors explain how NAFTA and its interaction with NAAEC might take place and how that will affect trade policy and practices, environmental protection efforts, and the relationships between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In addition, they consider the environmental features of NAFTA as part of the `social agenda` of trade--the environmental, labor, and broad human rights issues that are coming to play an increasing role in the development of international agreements. The manner in which NAFTA parties have confronted that challenge provides valuable insight into the future of regional and international cooperation. Also included in the volume are appendices that provide the complete text of the NAAEC along with selected provisions of NAFTA that relate to the environment.

  10. InterContinental Hotels Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration Partnership Year 2009 Link to project...

  11. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (comstock-hvps)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Comstock, Jennifer; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  12. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (comstock-hvps)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Comstock, Jennifer; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2012-01-06

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  13. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  14. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 3. Separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States) UCLA Joint Institute for Regional Earth System ...

  15. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States) NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS), New York, NY (United States) Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States) ...

  16. Selected Data from Continental Scientific Drilling Core Holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. Authors John A. Musgrave, Fraser E. Goff, Lisa Shevenell, Patricio E. Trujillo Jr, Dale Counce, Gary Luedemann, Sammy Garcia,...

  17. Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case; October 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, B.

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the potential environmental and human effects of deploying renewable energy on private and public lands, along our coasts, on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and in the Great Lakes requires a new way of evaluating potential environmental and human impacts. The author argues that deployment of renewables requires a framework risk paradigm that underpins effective future siting decisions and public policies.

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Assesses Risks for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The nationwide demand for energy is fueling development of sustainable offshore wind resources. To reach the strong and steady offshore wind resources, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) will lease the seabed on the outer continental shelf for offshore wind farms.

  19. EA-1985: Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP), 24 nautical miles offshore of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is proposing to fund Virginia Electric and Power Company's Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP). The proposed VOWTAP project consists of design, construction and operation of a 12 megawatt offshore wind facility located approximately 24 nautical miles off the coast of Virginia Beach, VA on the Outer Continental Shelf.

  20. Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

  1. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Five of the first six nuclear tests conducted by the United States occurred in the far reaches of the Pacific Ocean. Almost immediately, scientists and military planners discovered that logistics, weather, security and safety concerns required the need for a continental test site. The effort of transporting, supplying and housing a nuclear test task force in the middle of the Pacific was more than originally anticipated. In addition to the communist insurgency in Korea, the need for a

  2. Arc-continent collision in Banda Sea region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowin, C.; Purdy, G.M.; Johnston, C.; Shor, G.; Lawver, L.; Hartono, H.M.S.; Jezek, P.

    1980-06-01

    A 2-month marine geophysical study of the Banda arc region was conducted in late 1976 using the R/V Atlantis II of WHOI' and the R/V Thomas Washington of SIO; 19 seismic refraction lines were successfully completed. Oceanic crust underlies the Banda Sea and Weber Deep. Continental crust 35 to 40 km thick underlies the Australian Shelf. Thick continental crust is also present beneath the Timor and Aru Troughs. Low-amplitude magnetic anomalies are present over the Australian Shelf and extend to near the western edge of the Banda outer arc and, together with the presence of metamorphic rocks, suggest that continental crust may extend to the eastern lip of the Weber Deep. Continuous seismic reflection profiling shows the Australian Shelf sedimentary sequence dipping beneath the accretionary prisms of the outer Banda arc at the Timor and Seram Troughs: the tectonic front of the subduction zone lies along the axis of these troughs. The bathymetric profile on the outer flank of the Timor and Seram Troughs is unusual in that the profile asymptotically approaches a shallow depth near sea level and no outer rise is present as at oceanic trenches. It is concluded that the Outer Banda arc from Buru around to Timor, and possibly to Sumba, contained Australian continental crustal blocks and fragments prior to its collision with the Australian margin in the last 3 to 6 m.y. Continuous convergence following the addition of a thick Australian margin sedimentary sequence to the south Banda subduction zone has led to deformation being distributed over the width of the arc and not simply being taken up on a single thrust surface. This scenario helps reconcile the geologic relations on Timor, Seram, and Buru with the structural continuity of the Timor Trough with the Java Trench. 30 figures, 1 table.

  3. Analysis of storm-water infiltration ponds on the North Carolina Outer Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chescheir, G.M.; Fipps, G.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    Increasing development along the North Carolina coast has been linked to the deterioration of water quality in adjacent sounds and estuaries. Degradation of water quality in sounds and estuaries threatens the coastal ecology which provides resources for the area's fishing and tourism industries. The state of N.C. adopted the current Stormwater Runoff Disposal Rules in 1988 requiring stormwater management plans for new development in 20 coastal counties. Stormwater infiltration pond systems are approved by the State as an option for retaining stormwater on the developed site; however, the long-term performance of these systems has not been measured or determined. The study was conducted to monitor the hydrology of stormwater infiltration ponds on the North Carolina barrier islands and to develop a model that continuously simulates the performance of these ponds. The hydrology of two operating infiltration ponds systems was evaluated in an 18-month field study. Rainfall, pond stage, and water table elevations at selected locations were monitored continuously. Water table elevations at additional locations were monitored on a biweekly basis. Soil hydraulic conductivities and soil water characteristic relationships were determined at both field sites. The subsurface geology was described at one site and an aquifer pump test was performed to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific yield. Both of the infiltration ponds in the field studies effectively served their primary purpose of retaining on site the stormwater runoff from the first 38 mm (1.5 in) of rainfall. In nearly every case, the pond seepage rate was sufficient to completely draw down the pond within 5 days. The hydrology of the infiltration ponds at the two research sites was very different.

  4. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra, Ana Laura; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-05-10

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

  6. A PECULIAR FAINT SATELLITE IN THE REMOTE OUTER HALO OF M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, A. D.; Dotter, A.; Huxor, A. P.; Martin, N. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Sakari, C. M.; Venn, K. A.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2013-06-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a newly discovered faint stellar system, PAndAS-48, in the outskirts of the M31 halo. Our photometry reveals this object to be comprised of an ancient and very metal-poor stellar population with age {approx}> 10 Gyr and [Fe/H] {approx}< -2.3. Our inferred distance modulus (m - M){sub 0} = 24.57 {+-} 0.11 confirms that PAndAS-48 is most likely a remote M31 satellite with a three-dimensional galactocentric radius of 149{sup +19}{sub -8} kpc. We observe an apparent spread in color on the upper red giant branch that is larger than the photometric uncertainties should allow, and briefly explore the implications of this. Structurally, PAndAS-48 is diffuse, faint, and moderately flattened, with a half-light radius r{sub h}=26{sup +4}{sub -3} pc, integrated luminosity M{sub V} = -4.8 {+-} 0.5, and ellipticity {epsilon}=0.30{sup +0.08}{sub -0.15}. On the size-luminosity plane it falls between the extended globular clusters seen in several nearby galaxies and the recently discovered faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way; however, its characteristics do not allow us to unambiguously classify it as either type of system. If PAndAS-48 is a globular cluster then it is among the most elliptical, isolated, and metal-poor of any seen in the Local Group, extended or otherwise. Conversely, while its properties are generally consistent with those observed for the faint Milky Way dwarfs, it would be a factor of {approx}2-3 smaller in spatial extent than any known counterpart of comparable luminosity.

  7. Communications system using a mirror kept in outer space by electromagnetic radiation pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csonka, Paul L.

    1981-01-01

    A method and system are described for transmitting electromagnetic radiation by using a communications mirror located between about 100 kilometers and about 200 kilometers above ground. The communications mirror is kept aloft above the atmosphere by the pressure of the electromagnetic radiation which it reflects, and which is beamed at the communications mirror by a suitably constructed transmitting antenna on the ground. The communications mirror will reflect communications, such as radio, radar, or television waves up to about 1,100 kilometers away when the communications mirror is located at a height of about 100 kilometers.

  8. Turbine combustor with fuel nozzles having inner and outer fuel circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2013-12-24

    A combustor cap assembly for a turbine engine includes a combustor cap and a plurality of fuel nozzles mounted on the combustor cap. One or more of the fuel nozzles would include two separate fuel circuits which are individually controllable. The combustor cap assembly would be controlled so that individual fuel circuits of the fuel nozzles are operated or deliberately shut off to provide for physical separation between the flow of fuel delivered by adjacent fuel nozzles and/or so that adjacent fuel nozzles operate at different pressure differentials. Operating a combustor cap assembly in this fashion helps to reduce or eliminate the generation of undesirable and potentially harmful noise.

  9. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (≳1 M {sub Jup}) around 122 newly identified nearby (≲40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M {sub ☉}) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M {sub Jup} at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M {sub Jup}; L0{sub −1}{sup +2}; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64{sub −23}{sup +30} M {sub Jup}; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M {sub Jup}; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M {sub Jup}; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M {sub Jup} planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M {sub Jup} range like those orbiting HR 8799 and β Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M {sub Jup}) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub −1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  10. IONIZATION SOURCE OF A MINOR-AXIS CLOUD IN THE OUTER HALO OF M82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsubayashi, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Sugai, H.; Shimono, A.; Hattori, T.; Ozaki, S.; Yoshikawa, T.; Nagao, T.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2012-12-10

    The M82 ''cap'' is a gas cloud at a projected radius of 11.6 kpc along the minor axis of this well-known superwind source. The cap has been detected in optical line emission and X-ray emission and therefore provides an important probe of the wind energetics. In order to investigate the ionization source of the cap, we observed it with the Kyoto3DII Fabry-Perot instrument mounted on the Subaru Telescope. Deep continuum, H{alpha}, [N II]{lambda}6583/H{alpha}, and [S II]{lambda}{lambda}6716,6731/H{alpha} maps were obtained with subarcsecond resolution. The superior spatial resolution compared to earlier studies reveals a number of bright H{alpha} emitting clouds within the cap. The emission line widths ({approx}< 100 km s{sup -1} FWHM) and line ratios in the newly identified knots are most reasonably explained by slow to moderate shocks velocities (v{sub shock} 40-80 km s{sup -1}) driven by a fast wind into dense clouds. The momentum input from the M82 nuclear starburst region is enough to produce the observed shock. Consequently, earlier claims of photoionization by the central starburst are ruled out because they cannot explain the observed fluxes of the densest knots unless the UV escape fraction is very high (f{sub esc} > 60%), i.e., an order of magnitude higher than observed in dwarf galaxies to date. Using these results, we discuss the evolutionary history of the M82 superwind. Future UV/X-ray surveys are expected to confirm that the temperature of the gas is consistent with our moderate shock model.

  11. THE BIZARRE CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF NGC 2419, AN EXTREME OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Kirby, Evan N. E-mail: enk@astro.caltech.edu

    2012-11-20

    We present new Keck/HIRES observations of six red giants in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419. Although the cluster is among the most distant and most luminous in the Milky Way, it was considered chemically ordinary until very recently. Our previous work showed that the near-infrared Ca II triplet line strength varied more than expected for a chemically homogeneous cluster, and that at least one star had unusual abundances of Mg and K. Here, we confirm that NGC 2419 harbors a population of stars, comprising about one-third of its mass, that is depleted in Mg by a factor of eight and enhanced in K by a factor of six with respect to the Mg-normal population. Although the majority, Mg-normal population appears to have a chemical abundance pattern indistinguishable from ordinary, inner-halo GCs, the Mg-poor population exhibits dispersions of several elements. The abundances of K and Sc are strongly anti-correlated with Mg, and some other elements (Si and Ca among others) are weakly anti-correlated with Mg. These abundance patterns suggest that the different populations of NGC 2419 sample the ejecta of diverse supernovae in addition to asymptotic giant branch ejecta. However, the abundances of Fe-peak elements except Sc show no star-to-star variation. We find no nucleosynthetic source that satisfactorily explains all of the abundance variations in this cluster. Because NGC 2419 appears like no other GC, we reiterate our previous suggestion that it is not a GC at all, but rather the core of an accreted dwarf galaxy.

  12. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  13. Deepwater royalty relief product of 3 1/2 year U.S. political effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.E.; Neff, S.

    1996-04-01

    Against the backdrop of more than 20 years of increasingly stringent environmental regulation, ever-expanding exploration and development moratoria on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and reductions in producer tax incentives, oil and natural gas exploration companies active in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently won a significant legislative victory. On Nov. 28, 1995, President Clinton signed into law S.395, the Alaska Power Administration Sale Act. Title 3 of S.395 embodies the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act. This landmark legislation provides substantial incentives for oil and natural gas production in the gulf of Mexico by temporarily eliminating royalties on certain deepwater leases. It is the first direct incentive for oil and gas production enacted at the federal level in many years. This paper reviews the elements used to arrive at this successful legislation including the congressional leadership. It describes debates, cabinet level discussions, and use of parlimentary procedures.

  14. EA-1965: Florida Atlantic University Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center’s Offshore Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Project, Florida

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), through its Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO), is proposing to provide federal funding to Florida Atlantic University’s South-East National Marine Renewable Energy Center (FAU SNMREC) to support the at sea testing of FAU SNMREC’s experimental current generation turbine and the deployment and operation of their Small-Scale Ocean Current Turbine Test Berth, sited on the outer continental shelf (OCS) in waters off the coast of Ft Lauderdale, Florida. SNMREC would demonstrate the test berth site readiness by testing their pilot-scale experimental ocean current turbine unit at that location. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) conducted an Environmental Assessment to analyze the impacts associated with leasing OCS lands to FAU SNMREC, per their jurisdictional responsibilities under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act. DOE was a cooperating agency in this process and based on the EA, DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  15. ELIST v.8.1 : User's Manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanGroningen, Blachowicz, D.; Duffy Braun, M.; Clemmons, M. A.; Simunich, K. L.; Timmerman, D.; VanderZee, H.; Widing, M. A.

    2002-02-26

    This user's manual documents the capabilities and functions of the Enhanced Logistics Intratheater Support Tool (ELIST) software application. Steps for using the Expanded Time Phase Force Deployment Data (ETPFDD) Editor (ETEdit), which is included in ELIST but is also a stand-alone software application, are contained in a separate document. ELIST is a discrete event simulation tool developed for use by military planners in both the continental United States (CONUS) and outside the continental United States (OCONUS). It simulates the reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) of military personnel and equipment from all services within, between, or among countries. ELIST not only runs a simulation, but it also provides the capability to edit asset sets, networks, and scenarios. These capabilities show how various changes can affect the outcome of a simulation. Further, ELIST incorporates topographic maps on which the network is displayed. The system also allows planners to simulate scenarios at the vehicle level. Prior to the implementation of ELIST, planners were able to simulate military deployment from the point of departure (origin) to the point of arrival in the theater (the port of debarkation). Since the development and implementation of ELIST, however, planners can simulate military deployment from the point of departure (airport or seaport), through the staging area, through the theater-staging base, to the final destination. A typical scenario might be set up to transport personnel and cargo to a location by aircraft or ship. Upon arrival at the airport or seaport, the cargo would be sent to a staging area where it would be set up and transferred to a vehicle, or in the case of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL), a pipeline. The vehicle then would transport the cargo to the theater-staging base where it would ''marry up'' with the main body of personnel. From this point, the cargo and the main body would be transported to the final

  16. Memorandum of Understanding between the Dept. of Interior and Dept. of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING between the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT and the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY for the COORDINATED DEPLOYMENT OF OFFSHORE WIND AND MARINE AND HYDROKINETIC ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES ON THE UNITED STATES OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF I. Purpose The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Ocean Energy, Management, Regulation, and

  17. EA-1985: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Environmental Assessment EA-1985: Final Environmental Assessment Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia DOE is proposing to fund Virginia Electric and Power Company's Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP). The proposed VOWTAP project consists of design, construction and operation of a 12 megawatt offshore wind facility located approximately 24 nautical miles off the coast of Virginia Beach, VA

  18. EA-1985: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1985: Finding of No Significant Impact Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia DOE is proposing to fund Virginia Electric and Power Company's Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP). The proposed VOWTAP project consists of design, construction and operation of a 12 megawatt offshore wind facility located approximately 24 nautical miles off the coast of Virginia

  19. Coastal energy transportation study, phase ii, volume 1: a study of OCS onshore support bases and coal export terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cribbins, P.D.

    1981-08-01

    This study concentrates on siting alternatives for on-shore support bases for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and coal export terminals. Sixteen alternative OCS sites are described, and a parametric analysis is utilized to select the most promising sites. Site-specific recommendations regarding infrastructure requirements and transportation impacts are provided. Eleven alternative coal terminal sites are identified and assessed for their potential impacts.

  20. EA-2004-FONSI-2015.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1985: Final Environmental Assessment Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Virginia DOE is proposing to fund Virginia Electric and Power Company's Virginia Offshore Wind Technology Advancement Project (VOWTAP). The proposed VOWTAP project consists of design, construction and operation of a 12 megawatt offshore wind facility located approximately 24 nautical miles off the coast of Virginia Beach,

  1. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  2. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals. It also summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  3. Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    about their work around vehicle emissions, engine efficiency, energy use modeling, unconventional gas development and enhanced imaging tools for resource mapping, much of...

  4. ANUDISflM-37 SMART BRIDGE: A TOOL FOR ESTIMATING THE MILITARY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... personnel to enter and record information ... The MLC scale is defined in terms of a set of 16 ... networks, could be used to search the database and identify ...

  5. Long-range military implications of petroleum availability for Navy planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.P.; O'Neill, T.C.

    1981-11-01

    This study evaluates petroleum issues facing the Navy over the next 20 years. It analyzes the threat of reduced availability of petroleum and the probable effects on naval warfare, on the selection of weapons, and on mobility. There are four areas of investigation: the current oil market, production forecasts, the prospect of import interruptions, and Navy options. The study address the changes in the oil market since the embargo of 1973. It explains how those changes in the market have affected Navy budgets and eroded steaming and flying hours. Published forecasts of lowered production of petroleum and the threat of interruptions of imports are evaluated for their potential to disrupt world markets out to the year 2000. Several aspects of future petroleum supplies are quantified. The study concludes by recommending measures the Navy can take to deal wtih the problems of reduced fuel availability and quality. (Author)

  6. Base technology Stirling engine military applications assessment. Final technical report, 1 June 30-September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, J.G.

    1983-10-01

    The design of an advanced Stirling engine is considered for potential use in Air Force mobile electric power generator sets. The prospects for acceptable reliability appears good due to new approaches to recognized Stirling problem areas; sealing, heater head and control. The present design appears suitable for a 30kW set, but Air Force needs would be best suited by development of a 60kW unit. Standardization would be facilitated by using the 60kW Stirling engine and associated auxiliaries in a 30kW set. Final design drawings have been completed in the 30kW engine but construction and tests are required to establish that both design criteria for the engine and mobile power requirements are met. Originator-supplied keywords include: Heat pipe, and Combustor control.

  7. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Swift Military Reservation, Installation 48070, Bastrop County, Texas. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Texas Army National Guard property in Bastrop County, Texas. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Camp Swift property, the requirement of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicated that the activities at Camp Swift include no operations considered to have an adverse impact to the environment. The recommendation, therefore, is that no further IRP action is necessary at this property.

  8. Departments of Energy, Defense Partner to Install Fuel Cell Backup Power Units at Eight Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that as part of an interagency partnership with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to strengthen American energy security and develop new clean...

  9. Departments of Energy, Defense Partner to Install Fuel Cell Backup Power Units at Eight Military Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that as part of an interagency partnership with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to strengthen American energy security...

  10. EM Executives Share Challenges in Transition from Military to Civilian Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Two EM senior executives participated as panelists in a special Veterans Day celebration at DOE headquarters.

  11. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, M.; Anderson, K.; Booth, S.; Katz, J.; Tetreault, T.

    2011-09-01

    Report highlights the increase in resources, project speed, and scale that is required to achieve the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) energy efficiency and renewable energy goals and summarizes the net zero energy installation assessment (NZEI) process and the lessons learned from NZEI assessments and large-scale renewable energy projects implementations at DoD installations.

  12. The Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (and soon to become available) ARM facilities: a network of radiosonde stations, NASA ... PRECIPITATIONS; REMOTE SENSING; SIMULATORS; VALIDATION; PLANNING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS

  13. The Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (and soon to become available) ARM facilities: a network of radiosonde stations, NASA ... PRECIPITATIONS; REMOTE SENSING; SIMULATORS; VALIDATION; PLANNING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS

  14. DOE/SC-ARM-14-012 The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... along a dry line in west Texas propagated into the ARM scanning radar domain. ... more than 73 flight hours from Offutt Air Force Base in Bellevue, NE. Flight Date Flight ...

  15. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  16. Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Questionnaire for Funding Proposals | Department of Energy EERE supports hundreds of projects involving renewable energy, such as solar photovoltaic and wind energy. (Photo: EERE) EERE supports hundreds of projects involving renewable energy, such as solar photovoltaic and wind energy. (Photo: EERE) By: Lisa Jorgensen, NEPA Compliance Officer, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) uses a questionnaire to obtain, from an

  17. Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, P.

    2012-12-12

    This report describes the methodology and results of the most rigorous assessment to date of the riverine hydrokinetic energy resource in the contiguous 48 states and Alaska, excluding tidal waters. The assessment provides estimates of the gross, naturally available resource, termed the theoretical resource, as well as estimates, termed the technically recoverable resource, that account for selected technological factors affecting capture and conversion of the theoretical resource. The technically recoverable resource does not account for all technical constraints on energy capture and conversion.

  18. Gas hydrates on the Atlantic Continental Margin of the United States - controls on concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, W.P.; Fehlhaber, K.; Coleman, D.F. ); Lee, M.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Large volumes of gas hydrates exist within ocean-floor deposits at water depths exceeding about 300 to 500 m. They cement a surface layer of sediments as much as about 1,000 m thick, limited at its base by increasing temperature. Gas hydrates are identified by drilled samples and by their characteristic responses in seismic reflection profiles. These seismic responses include, at the base of the hydrate-cemented surface layer, a marked velocity decrease and a sea-floor-paralleling reflection (known as the bottom-simulating reflection, or BSR), and, within the hydrate-cemented layer, a reduction in amplitude of seismic reflections (known as blanking), which is apparently caused by cementation of strata. By using seismic-reflection data we have mapped the volume of hydrate and thickness of the hydrate-cemented layer off the US East Coast. The sources of gas at these concentrations are probably bacterial generation of methane at the locations of rapid deposition, and possibly the migration of deep, thermogenic gap up faults near diapirs. The thickness of the gas-hydrate layer decreases markedly at landslide scars, possibly due to break-down of hydrate resulting from pressure reduction caused by removal of sediment by the slide. Gas traps appear to exist where a seal is formed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer. Such traps are observed (1) where the sea floor forms a dome, and therefore the bottom-paralleling, hydrate-cemented layer also forms a dome; (2) above diapirs, where the greater thermal conductivity of salt creates a warm spot and salt ions act as antifreeze, both effects resulting in a local shallowing of the base of the hydrate; and (3) at locations where strata dip relative to the sea floor, and the updip regions of porous strata are sealed by the gas-hydrate-cemented layer to form a trap. In such situations the gas in the hydrate-sealed trap, as well as the gas that forms the hydrate, may become a resource. 32 refs., 19 figs.

  19. Detection of Historical and Future Precipitation Variations and Extremes Over the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.

    2015-12-11

    Problem: The overall goal of this proposal is to detect observed seasonal-mean precipitation variations and extreme event occurrences over the United States. Detection, e.g. the process of demonstrating that an observed change in climate is unusual, first requires some means of estimating the range of internal variability absent any external drivers. Ideally, the internal variability would be derived from the observations themselves, however generally the observed variability is a confluence of both internal variability and variability in response to external drivers. Further, numerical climate models—the standard tool for detection studies—have their own estimates of intrinsic variability, which may differ substantially from that found in the observed system as well as other model systems. These problems are further compounded for weather and climate extremes, which as singular events are particularly ill-suited for detection studies because of their infrequent occurrence, limited spatial range, and underestimation within global and even regional numerical models. Rationale: As a basis for this research we will show how stochastic daily-precipitation models—models in which the simulated interannual-to-multidecadal precipitation variance is purely the result of the random evolution of daily precipitation events within a given time period—can be used to address many of these issues simultaneously. Through the novel application of these well-established models, we can first estimate the changes/trends in various means and extremes that can occur even with fixed daily-precipitation characteristics, e.g. that can occur simply as a result of the stochastic evolution of daily weather events within a given climate. Detection of a change in the observed climate—either naturally or anthropogenically forced—can then be defined as any change relative to this stochastic variability, e.g. as changes/trends in the means and extremes that could only have occurred through a change in the underlying climate. As such, this method is capable of detecting “hot spot” regions—as well as “flare ups” within the hot spot regions—that have experienced interannual to multi-decadal scale variations and trends in seasonal-mean precipitation and extreme events. Further by applying the same methods to numerical climate models we can discern the fidelity of the current-generation climate models in representing detectability within the observed climate system. In this way, we can objectively determine the utility of these model systems for performing detection studies of historical and future climate change.

  20. Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Waters, A.C.

    1980-10-01

    The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.

  1. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Rhoads, D.C.

    1993-03-01

    Because of the potential impact on the environment associated with development and production activities, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandated that a panel of experts, the North Carolina Environmental Sciences Review Panel (NCESRP), be convened. Their purpose was to consider whether the availability of scientific information was adequate for making decisions about oil and gas leasing, exploration, and development off North Carolina. The present study was developed by the Minerals Management Service because of concern raised by the NCESRP (1992) that not more than 5 percent of the unusual benthic community be covered by drill muds and cuttings. The principal task of the study was to determine if the communities extended over an area of the sea floor that was 20 time larger then the area estimated to be covered by drill muds and cuttings. If more than 5 percent of the unusual benthic community were covered by drill muds and cuttings, the NCESRP recommended that a study be carried out to determine the recovery rate of this community.

  2. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MC3E was a collaborative effort between the ARM Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ...

  3. The state offshore: Petroleum, politics and state intervention on the British and Norwegian Continental Shelves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    Britain and Norway divide between them most of the North Sea offshore oil fields, and much of the natural gas resources. They have in common first world economic status and western political and cultural heritage. They differ in that Britain has by far the larger economy and the Norwegian state has a history of more active participation in its economy. Brent F. Nelson's study is predicated on the premise that a detailed analysis of how these two nations have chosen to mediate the relationships between government and the oil industry would be an interesting case study with broader implications for a political theory of state intervention in natural resource industries. Nelson has provided a narrative, interpretive history of government-industry relationships in Britain and Norway, concerning offshore oil and gas development. Much of this material is interesting, especially to readers unfamiliar with the details; and the conclusions, in so far as they go, are plausible. Nelson's demonstration of the powerful influences that a nation's political and institutional traditions have on they way it handles new opportunities provides a useful counterpoint to the historical approach favored by some policy analysts. However, Nelson has not delivered a fundamental analysis of the relationship between the state and a mobile industry that exploits a stationary and exhaustible resource.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microelectronics & microsystems Military programs Materials Nuclear weapon ... IT, networks, & facilities Microelectronics & microsystems Military programs Materials ...

  5. Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-09-01

    This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

  6. Trapping in irradiated p-on-n silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, W.

    2015-05-08

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200μm thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to 3 • 1015 neq/cm2. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming two effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. Furthermore, the effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes are about 50% smaller than those obtained using standard extrapolations of studies at low fluences and suggests an improved tracker performance over initial expectations.

  7. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the magnetopause, magnetohydrodynamic waveguide in the outer magnetosphere, and Alfven resonance deep in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazur, V. A. Chuiko, D. A.

    2013-06-15

    Oscillations of the 'magnetosphere-solar wind' system are studied analytically in the framework of a plane-stratified model of the medium. The properties of oscillations are determined by three phenomena: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the tangential discontinuity (magnetopause) separating the magnetosphere and the solar wind, the presence of a waveguide for fast magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere, and the Alfven resonance-a sharp increase in the amplitude of oscillations having the properties of Alfven waves-in the inner magnetosphere. The oscillations of the system form a discrete spectrum of eigenmodes. Analytical expressions are obtained for the frequency and growth rate of instability of each mode, as well as for the functions describing the spatial structure of these modes. All these characteristics of the eigenmodes are shown to depend on the velocity of the solar wind as a parameter. The dependences of the main mode characteristics (such as the instability thresholds, the points of the maximum and minimum growth rate, and the spatial distributions of the oscillation energy) on this parameter are determined for each eigenmode.

  8. SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE INTERSTELLAR PICKUP PROTONS, ALFVENIC TURBULENCE, AND CORE SOLAR WIND IN THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamayunov, Konstantin V.; Zhang Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2012-09-20

    A self-consistent model of the interstellar pickup protons, the slab component of the Alfvenic turbulence, and core solar wind (SW) protons is presented for r {>=} 1 along with the initial results of and comparison with the Voyager 2 (V2) observations. Two kinetic equations are used for the pickup proton distribution and Alfvenic power spectral density, and a third equation governs SW temperature including source due to the Alfven wave energy dissipation. A fraction of the pickup proton free energy, f{sub D} , which is actually released in the waveform during isotropization, is taken from the quasi-linear consideration without preexisting turbulence, whereas we use observations to specify the strength of the large-scale driving, C{sub sh}, for turbulence. The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) For C{sub sh} Almost-Equal-To 1-1.5 and f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1, the model slab component agrees well with the V2 observations of the total transverse magnetic fluctuations starting from {approx}8 AU. This indicates that the slab component at low-latitudes makes up a majority of the transverse magnetic fluctuations beyond 8-10 AU. (2) The model core SW temperature agrees well with the V2 observations for r {approx}> 20 AU if f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1. (3) A combined effect of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin attenuation, large-scale driving, and pickup proton generated waves results in the energy sink in the region r {approx}< 10 AU, while wave energy is pumped in the turbulence beyond 10 AU. Without energy pumping, the nonlinear energy cascade is suppressed for r {approx}< 10 AU, supplying only a small energy fraction into the k-region of dissipation by the core SW protons. A similar situation takes place for the two-dimensional turbulence. (4) The energy source due to the resonant Alfven wave damping by the core SW protons is small at heliocentric distances r {approx}< 10 AU for both the slab and the two-dimensional turbulent components. As a result, adiabatic cooling mostly controls the model SW temperature in this region, and the model temperature disagrees with the V2 observations in the region r {approx}< 20 AU.

  9. Cell envelope of Bordetella pertussis: immunological and biochemical analyses and characterization of a major outer membrane porin protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface molecules of Bordetella pertussis which may be important in metabolism, pathogenesis, and immunity to whooping cough were examined using cell fractionation and /sup 125/I cell surface labeling. Antigenic envelope proteins were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting procedures using monoclonal antibodies and convalescent sera. A surface protein with a high M/sub r/, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis but was absent in virulent B. pertussis strains. At least three envelope proteins were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in avirulent and most phenotypically modulated strains. Transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least five heat modifiable proteins which migrated as higher or lower M/sub r/ moieties if solubilized at 25/sup 0/C instead of 100/sup 0/C.

  10. Secrets of the Dark Universe: Simulating the Sky on the Blue Gene/Q, The Outer Rim Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hal finkel; Kalyan Kumaran; Adrian Pope; David Daniel; Zarija Lukic

    2013-04-24

    An astonishing 99.6% of our Universe is dark. Observations indicate that the Universe consists of 70% of a mysterious dark energy and 25% of a yet-unidentified dark matter component, and only 0.4% of the remaining ordinary matter is visible. Understanding the physics of this dark sector is the foremost challenge in cosmology today. Sophisticated simulations of the evolution of the Universe play a crucial task in this endeavor. This movie shows an intermediate stage in a large simulation of the distribution of matter in the Universe, the so-called cosmic web, accounting for the influence of dark energy. The simulation is evolving 1.1 trillion particles. The movie shows a snapshot of the Universe when it was 1.6 billion years old.

  11. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  12. RADIOISOTOPE-DRIVEN DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CUBESAT-SCALE PAYLOADS TO THE OUTER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. D. Jerred; T. M. Howe; S. D. Howe; A. Rajguru

    2014-02-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (approximately 1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. Thus, in effect, allows for beneficial exploration to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO.

  13. Method of evaluating the integrity of the outer carbon layer of triso-coated reactor fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caputo, Anthony J.; Costanzo, Dante A.; Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Layton, Frank L.; Stinton, David P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for determining defective final layers of carbon on triso-coated fuel particles and the like. Samples of the particles are subjected to a high temperature treatment with gaseous chlorine and thereafter radiographed. The chlorine penetrates through any defective carbon layer and reacts with the underlying silicon carbide resulting in the volatilization of the silicon as SiCl.sub.4 leaving carbon as a porous layer. This porous carbon layer is easily detected by the radiography.

  14. Trapping in irradiated p+-n-n- silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adam, W.

    2016-04-22

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200μm thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to 3 x 1015 neq/cm2. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming twomore » effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. Furthermore, the effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes are about 50% smaller than those obtained using standard extrapolations of studies at low fluences and suggests an improved tracker performance over initial expectations.« less

  15. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NON-VACUUM PULSAR OUTER-GAP MODEL: LOCALIZED ACCELERATION ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE HIGHER ALTITUDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the particle accelerator that arises in a rotating neutron-star magnetosphere. Simultaneously solving the Poisson equation for the electro-static potential, the Boltzmann equations for relativistic electrons and positrons, and the radiative transfer equation, we demonstrate that the electric field is substantially screened along the magnetic field lines by pairs that are created and separated within the accelerator. As a result, the magnetic-field-aligned electric field is localized in higher altitudes near the light cylinder and efficiently accelerates the positrons created in the lower altitudes outward but does not accelerate the electrons inward. The resulting photon flux becomes predominantly outward, leading to typical double-peak light curves, which are commonly observed from many high-energy pulsars.

  17. DOE, NREL Help DoD Enhance Energy Security (Fact Sheet), Integrated Deployment: Military, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) DOE, NNSA leaders open summit on the physical security of nuclear weapons Wednesday, August 17, 2016 - 3:52pm Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, NNSA Principal Deputy Administrator Madelyn Creedon, and numerous speakers from throughout the Nuclear Security Enterprise spoke at the 2016 Nuclear Weapons Physical Security Collaboration Summit earlier this month at Joint Base Andrews in Maryland. The event brought together

  18. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  19. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  20. Energy Department Announces New Innovative Projects to Develop Advanced Drop-in Biofuels for Military Jets and Ships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department announced $18 million in four innovative pilot-scale biorefineries in California, Iowa and Washington.

  1. Review of the State-of-the-Art in Power Electronics Suitable for 10-KW Military Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the technological opportunities of integrating power electronics-based inverters into a TEP system, primarily in the 10-kW size range. The proposed enhancement offers potential advantages in weight reduction, improved efficiency, better performance in a wider range of generator operating conditions, greater versatility and adaptability, and adequate reliability. In order to obtain strong assurance of the availability of inverters that meet required performance and reliability levels, a market survey was performed. The survey obtained positive responses from several manufacturers in the motor drive and distributed generation industries. This study also includes technology reviews and assessments relating to circuit topologies, reliability issues, vulnerability to pulses of electromagnetic energy, potential improvements in semiconductor materials, and potential performance improvement through cryogenics.

  2. LLNL Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs At 1 PM EDT today Secretary Chu and Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar will convene top U.S. government scientists and key industry and stakeholder leaders to discuss how to strengthen capabilities for responding to potential blowouts of oil and gas wells on the Outer Continental Shelf. The panel discussion will help guide reforms that are raising the bar for the oil and gas industry's

  3. Subsea technology progress buoys Gulf of Mexico deepwater action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koen, A.D.

    1996-09-02

    This paper reviews the technological advances in subsea oil and gas equipment to drive a new era of exploration and development in the outer continental shelf and other areas considered to complex to economically pursue. As subsea technology expands into deep waters, operators in the Gulf are using subsea production systems based on template and well cluster designs. Subsea cluster systems are gaining favor among operators because they allow more flexibility with shallow water flow which occurs during the first 1,000 feet of clay formations below the seabed. The paper also provides insight into deep water drilling, remote operated vehicles, deep water umbilicals, and other deep water production equipment.

  4. Sulfur isotope evidence for regional recharge of saline water during continental glaciation, north-central United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, D.I. )

    1990-11-01

    Sulfate concentrations in ground water from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer of south-eastern Wisconsin and northern Illinois increase up to hundreds of times where the aquifer is confined beneath the Maquoketa Shale. There is no sulfate source in the aquifer or overlying rocks except for minor amounts of finely disseminated pyrite. Coinciding with increasing sulfate concentrations, {delta}{sup 34}S of the dissolved sulfate increases from less than {minus}5{per thousand} in the unconfined part of the aquifer to a nearly constant value of +20{per thousand} where the aquifer is confined and where sulfate reduction is minimal. The most likely source for this isotopically heavy sulfate is ground water associated with Silurian evaporites under Lake Michigan. It is uncertain if the sulfate-rich water was emplaced in pulses or mostly during the last glaciation.

  5. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, 1 June 1980-1 June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, L P

    1981-02-01

    Research progress is reported in studies of the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight during the spring transition period. Volume I contains preliminary results of GABEX-I. (ACR)

  6. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis ismore » on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.« less

  7. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis is on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.

  8. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  9. OCS National Compendium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & facilities Partnerships & alliances Military programs Supply chain Pulsed power ... IT, networks, & facilities Partnerships & alliances Military programs Supply chain Pulsed ...

  11. Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... census data, obituaries, probate court inventories, military records and much more. .........18 2.6. Military Records ......

  12. Influence of the outer-magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic waveguide on the reflection of hydromagnetic waves from a shear flow at the magnetopause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazur, V. A. Chuiko, D. A.

    2013-12-15

    The coefficient of reflection of a fast magnetosonic wave incident on the magnetosphere from the solar wind is studied analytically in the framework of a plane-stratified model of the medium with allowance for the transverse inhomogeneity of the magnetosphere and a jump of the plasma parameters at the magnetopause. Three factors decisively affecting the properties of reflection are taken into account: the shear flow of the solar wind plasma relative to the magnetosphere; the presence of a magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamic waveguide caused by the transverse plasma inhomogeneity; and the presence of an Alfvn resonance deep in the magnetosphere, where the oscillation energy dissipates. If the solar wind velocity exceeds the wave phase velocity along the magnetopause, then the wave energy in the solar wind is negative and such a wave experiences overreflection. In the opposite case, the wave energy is positive and the wave is reflected only partially. The wave reflection has a pronounced resonant character: the reflection coefficient has deep narrow minima or high narrow maxima at the eigenfrequencies of the magnetospheric waveguide. For other frequencies, the reflection coefficient only slightly differs from unity. The wave energy influx into the magnetosphere is positive for waves with both positive and negative energies. For waves with a negative energy, this is a consequence of their overreflection, because the flux of negative energy carried away by the reflected wave exceeds the incident flux of negative energy.

  13. A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE HEAT RELEASE IN THE OUTER CRUST OF THE TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR XTE J1709-267

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-04-20

    The heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars provides a powerful probe of the structure and composition of their crust. Observations of superbursts and cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars require more heat release than is accounted for in current models. Obtaining firm constraints on the depth and magnitude of this extra heat is challenging and therefore its origin remains uncertain. We report on Swift and XMM-Newton observations of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1709-267, which were made in 2012 September-October when it transitioned to quiescence after a {approx_equal}10 week long accretion outburst. The source is detected with XMM-Newton at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of L{sub X} {approx_equal} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34}(D/8.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray spectrum consists of a thermal component that fits to a neutron star atmosphere model and a non-thermal emission tail, each of which contribute {approx_equal}50% to the total flux. The neutron star temperature decreases from {approx_equal}158 to {approx_equal}152 eV during the {approx_equal}8 hr long observation. This can be interpreted as cooling of a crustal layer located at a column density of y {approx_equal} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} g cm{sup -2} ({approx_equal}50 m inside the neutron star), which is just below the ignition depth of superbursts. The required heat generation in the layers on top would be {approx_equal}0.06-0.13 MeV per accreted nucleon. The magnitude and depth rule out electron captures and nuclear fusion reactions as the heat source, but it may be accounted for by chemical separation of light and heavy nuclei. Low-level accretion offers an alternative explanation for the observed variability.

  14. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H₂) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H₂ oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H₂, with turnover frequencies of 290 s⁻¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H₂ using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outermore » coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.« less

  15. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  16. Moving to Sustainable Metals. Multifunctional Ligands in Catalytic, Outer Sphere C-H, N-H and O-H Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, Robert

    2015-03-03

    Much of our work during this grant period has emphasized green chemistry and sustainability. For example, we were able to convert glycerine, a waste byproduct of biodiesel production, into lactic acid, a compound with numerous applications, notably in the food and cosmetics industry, as well as being a source material for a biodegradable plastic. This work required a catalyst, that ceases to work after a certain lapse of time. We were able to identify the way in which this deactivation occurs by identifying some of the metal catalyst deactivation products. These proved to be multimetallic clusters containing up to six metals and up to 14 hydrogen atoms. Both the catalytic reaction itself and the deactivation structures are novel and unexpected. We have previously proposed that nitrogen heterocycles could be good energy carriers in a low CO2 future world. In another part of our study, we found catalysts for introduction of hydrogen, an energy carrier that is hard to store, into nitrogen heterocycles. The mechanism of this process proved to be unusual in that the catalyst transfers the H2 to the heterocycle in the form of H+ and H-, first transferring the H+ and only then the H-. In a third area of study, some of our compounds, originally prepared for DOE catalysis purposes, also proved useful in hydrocarbon oxidation and in water oxidation. The latter is important in solar-to-fuel work, because, by analogy with natural photosynthesis, the goal of the Yale Solar Group of four PIs is to convert sunlight to hydrogen and oxygen, which requires water splitting catalysts. The catalysts that proved useful mediate the latter reaction: water oxidation to oxygen. In a more technical study, we developed methods for distinguishing the case where catalysis is mediated by a soluble catalyst from cases where catalysis arises from a deposit of finely divided solid. One particular application involved electrocatalysis, where catalysis is driven by application of a voltage to electrodes dipped in the reactant mixture. We measured the mass increase of an electrode as material is deposited, and were able to see how this process is affected by the voltage supplied to the electrode. Our work continues to be well cited and we often receive requests for information or samples from fellow researchers.

  17. Nanowires, Capacitors, and Other Novel Outer-Surface Components Involved in Electron Transfer to Fe(III) Oxides in Geobacter Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek, R.

    2008-12-22

    The overall goal of this project was to better understand the mechanisms by which Geobacter species transfer electrons outside the cell onto Fe(III) oxides. The rationale for this study was that Geobacter species are often the predominant microorganisms involved in in situ uranium bioremediation and the growth and activity of the Geobacter species during bioremediation is primarily supported by electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides. These studies greatly expanded the understanding of electron transfer to Fe(III). Novel concepts developed included the potential role of microbial nanowires for long range electron transfer in Geobacter species and the importance of extracytoplasmic cytochromes functioning as capacitors to permit continued electron transfer during the hunt for Fe(III) oxide. Furthermore, these studies provided target sequences that were then used in other studies to tract the activity of Geobacter species in the subsurface through monitoring the abundance of gene transcripts of the target genes. A brief summary of the major accomplishments of the project is provided.

  18. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  19. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami U/NREL DoD/DLA Project) (presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  20. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  1. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  2. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  3. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  4. Oil and gas occurrences vs. geodynamic evolution in the southern Apennines (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casero, P. ); Roure, F.; Vially, R. ); Sarp, A.R.

    1990-05-01

    The present architecture of the southern Apennines results from the Neogene continental subduction of the Apulia margin (part of North Africa margin). An allochthonous complex is formed by the low-angle, large-scale, east-vergent tectonic stack of Triassic to upper Miocene (Messinian) units. The rocks represent both a shelf carbonate domain (Apennine platform) and a deep marine domain (Lagonegro-Molise basin). They are emplaced as a nappe during uppermost Miocene (Messinian) to lowermost Pliocene. They are transported to the northeast onto the flexed inner part of the Apulia platform (Mesozoic to late Miocene shelf carbonate series). During the middle-upper Pliocene, the inner Apulia carbonate margin (intermediate platform) was thrust against the outer Apulia domain (overthrust belt). Pliocene-Quaternary syntectonic clastic series were deposited in the flexural basin developed to the east of the Apenninic, allochthon outer ramp and also in piggyback basins carried on top of the allochthon. Oil occurrences are confined to the top of the platform carbonates. Discoveries have been made in (1) compressional structures of the overthrust belt (outer margin of the inner Apulian Platform), (2) late-stage compressive folds in the outer slope of the foredeep, and (3) slightly inverted structures of the foreland margin. Gas accumulations at the top of platform limestones occur only in antithetic fault block traps or in slightly inverted structures of the foreland. The most important and frequent biogenic accumulations are in clastic rocks of the foredeep, beneath and to the east of the frontal ramp of the allochthon.

  5. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mogutcheva, N.K.

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  6. The overthrusted Zaza Terrane of middle Cretaceous over the North American continental carbonate rocks of upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age - relationships to oil generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echevarria Rodriguez, G.; Castro, J.A.; Amaro, S.V.

    1996-08-01

    The Zaza Terrane is part of the Caribbean plate thrust over the southern edge of the North American basinal and platform carbonate rocks of upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age. Zaza Terrane are volcanic and ophiolitic rocks of Cretaceous age. The ophiolites are mostly serpentines which behave as reservoirs and seals. All Cuban oil fields are either within Zaza Terrane or basinal carbonates underneath, or not far away to the north of the thrust contacts. It appears that the overthrusting of the Zaza Terrane caused the generation of oil in the basinal carbonate source rocks underneath, due to the increase of rock thickness which lowered the oil window to a deeper position and increased the geothermal gradient. Oil generation was after thrusting, during post-orogenic. API gravity of oil is light toward the south and heavy to very heavy to the north. Source rocks to the south are probably of terrigenous origin.

  7. Spectral analysis of the efficiency of vertical mixing in the deep ocean due to interaction of tidal currents with a ridge running down a continental slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-10-29

    Efficiency of mixing, resulting from the reflection of an internal wave field imposed on the oscillatory background flow with a three-dimensional bottom topography, is investigated using a linear approximation. The radiating wave field is associated with the spectrum of the linear model, which consists of those mode numbers n and slope values α, for which the solution represents the internal waves of frequencies ω = nω0 radiating upwrad of the topography, where ω0 is the fundamental frequency at which internal waves are generated at the topography. The effects of the bottom topography and the earth’s rotation on the spectrum is analyzed analytically and numerically in the vicinity of the critical slope, which is a slope with the same angle to the horizontal as the internal wave characteristic. In this notation, θ is latitude, f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the buoyancy frequency, which is assumed to be a constant, which corresponds to the uniform stratification.

  8. S. 2166: A bill to reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil, to provide for the energy security of the Nation, and for other purposes, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, January 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This bill, also referred to as the National Energy Security Act of 1992, contains the following: Title I - Findings and purposes: Goals, least-cost energy strategy, and Director of climate protection: Title II - Definitions; Title III (none); Title IV - Fleets and alternative fuels: Alternative fuel fleets, Electric and electric-hybrid vehicle demonstration, infrastructure development, and conforming amendments, Alternative fuels, Mass transit and training; Title V - Renewable energy: CORECT and COEECT, Renewable energy initiatives, Hydropower; Title VI - Energy efficiency: Industrial, commercial, and residential, Federal energy management, Utilities, State, local, insular, and tribal energy assistance, LIHEAP options pilot program; Title VII (none); Title VIII - Advanced nuclear reactor commercialization; Title IX - Nuclear reactor licensing; Title X - Uranium: Uranium enrichment, Uranium; Title XI - Natural gas; Title XII - Outer continental shelf; Title XIII - Research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities; Title XIV - Coal, coal technology, and electricity; Title XV - Public Utility Holding Company Act reform; Title XVI - Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  9. H. R. 2325: Comprehensive Oil Pollution Liability and Compensation Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 11, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2325 would establish a domestic liability and compensation system for oil pollution from vessels and facilities and would implement the 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Civil Liability and 1971 Fund Conventions concerning seagoing tanker-source oil pollution. The goal of this act is to: (1) strengthen the four existing oil pollution liability and compensation regimes under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, the Deepwater Port Act, and the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act to create a unified program; (2) establish a system financed by vessel and facility owners and the oil industry to compensate the US government, the states, and Indian tribes for removal and restoration costs associated with oil spills; and (3) provide greater protection from foreign tanker oil spills by implementing the existing protocols and conventions.

  10. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  11. Justice Department review of federal coal and oil leasing: serving the consistent goals of competition and energy independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    As the nation moves into the 1980s, development of our domestic energy resources must surely be the number one priority of energy policy. Important natural resources are owned by the Federal government and must be dedicated to development in the public interest. This includes a government leasing program which fosters competitive and efficient development of these resources by private companies. Through its antitrust review of individual leases and its general advocacy of competition in the leasing program, the Department of Justice seeks to bring the prospect of a sound national energy policy closer to reality. Examples of how this review functions are drawn from the Outer Continental Shelf Land Acts Amendments of 1978 and the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1975. 32 references.

  12. Frontal Eddy Dynamics (FRED) experiment off North Carolina: Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbesmeyer, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    In preparation for oil and gas lease sales on the outer continental shelf offshore of North Carolina, the Minerals Management Service was requested to investigate the potential transport and impacts of oil spilled offshore. The Gulf Stream and associated eddies are an important aspect of the transport. Although the speed and location of the Gulf Stream are reasonably well known, knowledge of the meanders of the Gulf Stream is limited. How the circulatory structure and movement of associated frontal eddies and filaments affect the North Carolina coastal waters is not clear. This study investigates the interactions of these circulatory elements and follows the evolution of frontal eddies as they migrate along the North Carolina coast.

  13. Frontal Eddy Dynamics (FRED) experiment off North Carolina: Volume 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbesmeyer, C.C.

    1988-03-01

    In preparation for oil and gas lease sales on the outer continental shelf offshore of North Carolina, the Minerals Management Service was requested to investigate the potential transport and impacts of oil spilled offshore. Of particular concern is estimating the movement of spilled oil, especially the probability of shoreward transport and/or beaching of the floatable fraction. Although the speed and location of the Gulf Stream are well known, knowledge of the meanders of the Gulf Stream is limited. How the circulatory structure and movement of associated frontal eddies and filaments affect the North Carolina coastal waters is not clear. This present study investigates the interactions of these circulatory elements and follows the evolution of frontal eddies as they migrate along the North Carolina coast.

  14. Image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition, US east coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S.; Purdy, G.M. ); Reiter, E.C.; Toksoez, M.N. )

    1992-03-01

    Strong wide-angle reflections from the Moho were recorded by ocean-bottom seismic instruments during the 1988 Carolina Trough multichannel seismic experiment, in an area where the Moho is difficult to detect with vertical-incidence seismic data. Prestack depth migration of these reflections has enabled the construction of a seismic image of the Moho across the continent-ocean transition of a sedimented passive margin. The Moho rises across the margin at a slope of 10{degree}-12{degree}, from a depth of about 33 km beneath the continental shelf to 20 km beneath the outer rise. This zone of crustal thinning defines a distinct, 60-70-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. The authors interpret the Moho in the Carolina Trough as a Jurassic feature, formed by magmatic intrusion and underplating during the rifting of Pangea.

  15. THORs Power Method for Hydrokinetic Devices - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Turner Hunt; Joel Rumker

    2012-08-08

    Ocean current energy represents a vast untapped source of renewable energy that exists on the outer continental shelf areas of the 5 major continents. Ocean currents are unidirectional in nature and are perpetuated by thermal and salinity sea gradients, as well as coriolis forces imparted from the earth's rotation. This report details THORs Power Method, a breakthrough power control method that can provide dramatic increases to the capacity factor over and above existing marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices employed in the extraction of energy from ocean currents. THORs Power Method represents a constant speed, variable depth operational method that continually locates the ocean current turbine at a depth at which the rated power of the generator is routinely achieved. Variable depth operation is achieved by using various vertical force effectors, including ballast tanks for variable weight, a hydrodynamic wing for variable lift or down force and drag flaps for variable vehicle drag forces.

  16. S. 936: A Bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1998 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses a bill that may be cited as the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1998.

  17. Leveraging Veteran Talent: The Opportunity for the Clean Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Veterans - ingrained with the "get-it-done" approach of the U.S. military - possess a ... gained through military courses; making today's U.S. military a highly technical force. ...

  18. USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and Commercial Transportation USDA, Departments of Energy and Navy Seek Input from Industry to Advance Biofuels for Military and ...

  19. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for National Defense | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SMART BRIDGE: A tool for estimating the military load classification of bridges using ... of components for high reliability military and space applications Hanlon, J.T. ...

  20. NNSA Security Commodity Team Identifies Millions in Savings by...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    by virtue of high quality assurance and military-specification standards, traceability, ... enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science in the ...