National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for middle piney cr

  1. Piney Point Village, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | OpenBethlehem Biomass Facility JumpPineview,Piney Point

  2. An Economic Study of Farm Organization in the Piney Woods Farming Area of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Thibodeaux, B. H.; Criswell, J. F.

    1932-01-01

    the d Piney Woods farming area of Texas comprises twenty-three counties northeastern part of the state. The majority of the farms are !d by family labor. Topographic conditions do not permit the 1 use of large machinery; consequently these farms.... The enterprises are maluated in terms of their production requirements dion to crop yields and livestock production. The usual require- s for the production of an acre of cotton yielding 324 pounds of cotton, for example, were 76 hours of man labor, 40 hours...

  3. 2015 Middle School Team Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cedar Park Middle School I, Portland, Ore. Cedar Park Middle School II, Portland, Ore. Galaxy Science Club, Bellevue, Wash. George Middle School , Portland, Ore. Harrison Park...

  4. Longfellow Middle School Wins Virginia Middle School Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wins Virginia Middle School Science Bowl on March 7 2014 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl At the end of the day, the team from Longfellow Middle School, Falls Church, won the...

  5. Middle School Teacher's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Bruce D.

    of animals that also includes humans. All mammals are vertebrates and endothermic, warm-blooded. They alsoMiddle School Teacher's Guide ANATOMY Major Sponsor: #12;MIDDLE SCHOOL | EDUCATOR | ANATOMY VIRTUAL of content areas. All materials in this module are optional but designed to enrich your students' Virtual

  6. Fourth Year -34 Credits Cr FA SP Fifth Year 29 Credits Cr FA SP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fourth Year - 34 Credits Cr FA SP Fifth Year ­ 29 Credits Cr FA SP Students: Please note Credits First Year - 28 Credits ­ Courses (prereqs) Cr FA SP Third Year ­ 35 Credits Cr FA SP Second Year

  7. Globalization and the Middle Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    of Liberal Trade on the Middle Class There is considerableGlobalization and the Middle Class Katherine V.W. StoneGlobalization and the Middle Class ? Katherine V.W. Stone

  8. Fifth Year -29 Credits Cr FA SP Fourth Year 32 Credits Cr FA SP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fifth Year - 29 Credits Cr FA SP Fourth Year ­ 32 Credits Cr FA SP Students: Please note Engineering First Year - 31 Credits ­ (prereqs) CR FA SP Third Year - 32 Credits Cr FA SP 3B Arts _____________ _______________ 6 Second Year - 34 Credits Cr FA SP Rev 5/18/2012 Courses are planned to be first be offered: BIOM

  9. The middle Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of scattered light above the planetary limb from 116 Viking Orbiter images are used to constrain the temporal and spatial behavior of aerosols suspended in the Martian atmosphere. The data cover a wide range of seasons, locations, and viewing geometry, providing information about the aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution. The typical atmospheric column contains one or more discrete, optically thin, ice-like haze layers between 30 and 90 km elevation whose composition is inferred to be water ice. Below the detached hazes, a continuous haze, interpreted to have a large dust component, extends from as much as 50 km to the surface. The haze distribution exhibits an annual variation that reflects a seasonally driven circulation in the middle atmosphere. The potential role of stationary gravity waves in modifying the middle atmosphere circulation is explored using a linear theory applied to a realistic Martian environment. Martian topography derived from radar observations is decomposed into Fourier harmonics and used to linearly superpose gravity waves arising from each component. The larger amplitude topography on Mars combined with the absence of extended regions of smooth topography like oceans generates larger wave amplitudes than on the Earth. The circulation of the middle atmosphere is examined using a two-dimensional, linearized, axisymmetric model successfully employed in the study of the terrestrial mesosphere. Illustrations of temperature and wind speeds are presented for the southern summer solstice and southern spring equinox.

  10. NASA CR-187041 DESIGN PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA CR- 187041 ADVANCED DESIGN PROGRAM Proceedings of the 6 t h Annual Summer Conference University Advanced Design Program Hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center June I 1-15,1990 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS & SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIVERSITIES SPACE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;NASA

  11. Seals? from Middle Helladic Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younger, John G.

    1991-01-01

    On the Greek mainland clay stamps have been found dating to the Middle Helladic period (ca. 2000-1500); they may have been used for stamping cloth.

  12. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  13. SEM CR GRADE Intro to Chem Eng 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Elective Option Elective 2 SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 705 or CHE 712 Fossil Fuels or Nuclear Engineering SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 712 or CHE 705 Nuclear Engineering or Fossil Fuels STUDENT NAME ADVISOR NAME #12;Chemical Chemistry SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 601 Fluid Mechanics SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 604 ChE Thermodynamics SEM CR GRADE 4

  14. SEM CR GRADE Intro to Chem Eng 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    or Nuclear Engineering SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 712 or CHE 705 Nuclear Engineering or Fossil Fuels Sem: 16 Cum: 132 students see "Advising Notes" on back page SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 601 Fluid Mechanics SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 604 Ch of 3 SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 761 Biochemical Engineering SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 705 or CHE 712 Fossil Fuels

  15. SEM CR GRADE Intro to Chem Eng 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    E Majors Energy Option Page 1 of 3 SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 705 or CHE 712 Fossil Fuels or Nuclear Engineering Chemistry SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 601 Fluid Mechanics SEM CR GRADE 3 CHE 604 ChE Thermodynamics SEM CR GRADE 3 Energy Option Elective Option Elective 2 SEM CR GRADE 4 CHE 712 or CHE 705 Nuclear Engineering or Fossil

  16. SEM CR GRADE Intro to Chem Eng 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    SEM CR GRADE 3 ENE 612* Unit Operations Lab 1 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 1 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 2 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 3 SEM CR GRADE 4 ENE-IP; Red ­ General Education; Black - Other Environmental Engineering Program University of New Hampshire

  17. Structural analysis of Cr aggregation in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Zn,Cr)Te

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yamawaki, K.; Nishio, Y.; Kanazawa, K.; Kuroda, S.; Mitome, M.; Bando, Y.

    2013-12-04

    The Cr aggregation in a ferromagnetic semiconductor (Zn,Cr)Te was studied by performing precise analyses using TEM and XRD of microscopic structure of the Cr-aggregated regions formed in iodine-doped Zn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}Te films with a relatively high Cr composition x ? 0.2. It was found that the Cr-aggregated regions are composed of Cr{sub 1??}Te nanocrystals of the hexagonal structure and these hexagonal precipitates are stacked preferentially on the (111)A plane of the zinc-blende (ZB) structure of the host ZnTe crystal with its c-axis nearly parallel to the (111){sub ZB} plane.

  18. MIDDLE EARTH MOVE OUT INFORMATION 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    MIDDLE EARTH MOVE OUT INFORMATION 2013 Start thinking about the move-out process now. If you to you by your RA, sent to you by e-mail, and updated on the Middle Earth website (http://www.housing.uci.edu/housingOptions/Middle_Earth noon on June 15th must submit a written request to the Middle Earth Housing Office at middleearth

  19. Midea: ENERGY STAR Referral (MWF-08CR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of Westpointe-brand room air conditioner model MWF-08CR to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  20. Gash-Mm APP21¢¢¢§Q$ Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gash-Mm APP21¢¢¢§Q$ Cr. Partial Transfers by. Daniel Henry Gottliebl. The transfer for compact fibrations has been studied for some time now, [l,2,3,4,6,7,8,

  1. Check One EdM MA MBE MEng MF MFA MPP MS MMP MHP PSM LAST Name (Family) First Name, Middle Initial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    MASTERS Check One EdM MA MBE MEng MF MFA MPP MS MMP MHP PSM LAST Name (Family) First Name, Middle. No. 503 G* Non-Thesis Project, Research, or PSM Internship (3-6 credits) Course Cr. Gr. If applicable

  2. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ) coated tool cutting performance and resistance to abrasive and erosive wear [15]. Graded systems haveInvestigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings Xiaolu-layer Microstructure Fracture toughness Adhesion Single and multi-layer Cr/Cr2O3 coatings were deposited by reactive

  3. SEM CR GRADE Intro to Chem Eng 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Discovery 5 Social Science SEM CR GRADE 3 ENE 612* Unit Operations Lab 1 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 1 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 2 SEM CR GRADE 4 Tech Elective Tech Elective 3 SEM CR of New Hampshire Advising Worksheet for ENE-IP Majors Page 1 of 3 Green ­ ENE-IP; Red ­ General Education

  4. I. NANOSCIENCE COURSE REQUIREMENTS CR A. Communication Skills (8 cr.) CR APSC-101 Applied Science Profession I 1 ENGL-101 Freshman English Composition Required OR 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    Profession I 1 ENGL-101 Freshman English Composition Required OR 3 APSC-311 Issues for Scientific-8 ENGL-102 Freshman English Reading, P: ENGL-101 or ENGL-111 3 APSC-401 Applied Science Profession II 1 COURSE REQUIREMENTS CR A. Communication Skills (8 cr.) CR APSC-101 Applied Science Profession I 1 ENGL

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Hydrogenation of CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 Equilibrium to CpCr(CO)3H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, Jack R.; Spataru, Tudor; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Li, Gang; Choi, Jongwook; Franz, James A.

    2014-05-26

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2 CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 to CpCr(CO)3H has been investigated. The reaction is second-order in Cr and first-order in H2, with a rate constant of 45 M 2s 1 at 25 °C in benzene. DFT calculations rule out an H2 complex as an intermediate, and suggest (a) end-on approach of H2 to one Cr of [CpCr(CO)3]2 as the Cr-Cr bond undergoes heterolytic cleavage, (b) heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated H2 between O and Cr, and (c) isomerization of the resulting O-protonated CpCr(CO)2(COH) to CpCr(CO)3H. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences; Battelle operates PNNL for DOE.

  6. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in Ti-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr{sub 2}. The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability.

  7. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    facility, which will allow DPI to manufacture frame components, such as base plates, poles and bracketing, which had been previously outsourced overseas Train employees to use...

  8. Tennessee: Bringing Jobs and Economic Development to Piney Flats |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartment of Energy Tennessee:

  9. Dual-phase Cr-Ta alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Zhu, Jiahong (Knoxville, TN); Tortorelli, Peter F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Dual phase alloys of chromium containing 2 to 11 atomic percent tantalum with minor amounts of Mo, Cr, Ti, Y, La, Cr, Si and Ge are disclosed. These alloys contain two phases including Laves phase and Cr-rich solid solution in either eutectic structures or dispersed Laves phase particles in the Cr-rich solid solution matrix. The alloys have superior mechanical properties at high temperature and good oxidation resistance when heated to above 1000.degree. C. in air.

  10. High-temperature instability of a Cr{sub 2}Nb-Nb(Cr) microlaminate composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, M.; Rowe, R.G.; Skelly, D.W. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Microlaminate composites consisting of alternating layers of a high temperature intermetallic compound for elevated temperature strength and a ductile refractory metal for toughening may have uses in aircraft engine turbines. Microstructural stability at elevated temperatures is a crucial requirement for these composites. A microlaminate composite consisting of alternating layers of Cr{sub 2}Nb and Nb(Cr) was produced by vapor phase deposition. The stability of the layers at elevated temperatures was investigated by cross-sectional TEM.

  11. Are You Smarter Than a Middle Schooler?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Test your knowledge of math and science against the middle school finalists in the National Science Bowl with these 10 questions.

  12. 2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program Fundamentals of Engineering Coordinator · Promotion of critical thinking through engineering activities · Team building and competitive activities

  13. A comparison between a Middle English carol and a Middle High German Minnelied 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkner, Karen Astrid Morris

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a comparison between two medieval courtly love lyrics. One lyric is an anonymous Middle English carol; the other is a Middle High German song composed by Walther von der Vogelweide. The English carol is ...

  14. Two-band model of -prime phase formation in Fe-Cr. Par Olsson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    of ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Fe-Cr forms a perfect ferro-magnetic alloy for Cr concentrations up

  15. Cr-doped scandium borate laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chai, Bruce H. (Bridgewater, NJ); Lai, Shui T. (Florham Park, NJ); Long, Margaret N. (Landing, NJ)

    1989-01-01

    A broadly wavelength-tunable laser is provided which comprises as the laser medium a single crystal of MBO.sub.3 :Cr.sup.3+, where M is selected from the group of Sc, In and Lu. The laser may be operated over a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures to elevated temperatures. Emission is in a spectral range from red to infrared, and the laser is useful in the fields of defense, communications, isotope separation, photochemistry, etc.

  16. Tri College 2011 Middle School Team Div I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wen-Chen

    Tri College 2011 Middle School Team Div I 1 Ben Franklin 223 2 Schroder Middle GForks 210 3 Horizon;Middle School Team Div II 1 Dilworth-Glydon-Felton 200 2 Mennewaska 185 3 Park River 184 4 Wheaton 167 5 Middle Moorhead 209 4 Discovery 197 5 Sullivan 190 189 Middle School Ind Div I 188 1 Andrew Hu South GF

  17. LADY BIRD JOHNSON MIDDLE SCHOOL IRVING, TX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and purge ports. #12;LADY BIRD JOHNSON MIDDLE SCHOOL IRVING, TX 3' x 5' Solar Panels 191 watts per panel 600 KW Solar Array 2,988 Solar Panels 850,000 kWh Annual Output Solar Classroom Deck SOLAR PV SYSTEM #12 in the United States #12;LADY BIRD JOHNSON MIDDLE SCHOOL IRVING, TX THE LAYOUT AFTER HOURS GYM ENTRY SOLAR

  18. Magnetic coupling in neutral and charged Cr{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}, and CrMn dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desmarais, N. [Institut de Physique Experimentale, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, PHB-Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique Experimentale, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, PHB-Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland); Reuse, F. A. [Institut de Physique Experimentale, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, PHB-Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique Experimentale, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, PHB-Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne, (Switzerland); Khanna, S. N. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical ab initio studies of neutral, cationic and anionic Cr{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}, and CrMn dimers have been carried out to explore the progression of magnetic coupling with the number of electrons. It is shown that while Cr{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}{sup -} have antiferromagnetically coupled atomic spins, Cr{sub 2}{sup +} has a ferromagnetic ground state closely followed by an antiferromagnetic state. On the other hand, all Mn{sub 2} dimers are ferromagnetic, irrespective of the charge. The neutral CrMn is ferrimagnetic while the charged CrMn are antiferromagnetic. In all cases, the charged dimers are found to be more stable than the neutral ones. The results are compared with available calculations and experiments and the difficulties associated with theoretical description and the experimental interpretations are discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Accepted Manuscript Comment on "Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 chemokine deficiencies are not sufficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Accepted Manuscript Comment on "Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 chemokine deficiencies on "Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 chemokine deficiencies are not sufficient to cause age- related retinal on "Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 chemokine deficiencies are not sufficient to cause age- related retinal

  20. Media Advisory - Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Middle School Science Bowl What: Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 1, 2014. Round robin competition runs from 9 a.m. - noon. The double...

  1. Media Advisory: Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Set For March...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Set For March 5 at Jefferson Lab What: The Department of Energy's 2011 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 5,...

  2. Media Advisory: March 7 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Tournament...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 7 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Tournament What: The 2009 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 7, 2009. Round-robin competition will run...

  3. Photo of the Week: Students from Roosevelt Middle School win...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Students from Roosevelt Middle School win Argonne's 2013 Regional Science Bowl Photo of the Week: Students from Roosevelt Middle School win Argonne's 2013 Regional Science Bowl...

  4. Cr segregation at the FeCr surface and the origin of corrosion resistance in ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Caro, M S; Morse, B; Egiebor, N; Farmer, J; Caro, A

    2008-11-22

    Structural materials in Gen-IV nuclear reactors will face severe conditions of high operating temperatures, high neutron flux exposure, and corrosive environment. Radiation effects and corrosion and chemical compatibility issues are factors that will limit the materials lifetime. Low-chromium (9-12 Cr wt.%) ferritic martensitic (F/M) steels are being considered as possible candidates because they offer good swelling resistance and good mechanical properties under extreme conditions of radiation dose and irradiation temperature. The surface chemistry of FeCr alloys, responsible for the corrosion properties, is complex. It exists today a controversy between equilibrium thermodynamic calculations, which suggest Cr depletion at the surface driven by the higher surface energy of Cr, and experimental data which suggest the oxidation process occurs in two stages, first forming a Fe-rich oxide, followed by a duplex oxide layer, and ending with a Cr-rich oxide. Moreover, it has been shown experimentally that corrosion resistance of F/M steels depends significantly on Cr content, increasing with increasing Cr content and with a threshold around 10% Cr, below which, the alloy behaves as pure Fe. In an attempt to rationalize these two contradicting observations and to understand the physical mechanism behind corrosion resistance in these materials we perform atomistic simulations using our FeCr empirical potential and analyze Cr equilibrium distributions at different compositions and temperatures in single and polycrystalline samples. We analyze the controversy in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations.

  5. MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Faculty of Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Faculty of Architecture Department of City & Regional Planning #12 I N G V i s i o n PLANNERS in Turkey should be capable of: ...developing alternative views (utopian/

  6. Effects of Cr and Ni on Interdiffusion and Reaction between U and Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Huang; Y. Park; L. Zhou; K.R. Coffey; Y.H. Sohn; B.H. Sencer; J. R. Kennedy

    2014-08-01

    Metallic U-alloy fuel cladded in steel has been examined for high temperature fast reactor technology wherein the fuel cladding chemical interaction is a challenge that requires a fundamental and quantitative understanding. In order to study the fundamental diffusional interactions between U with Fe and the alloying effect of Cr and Ni, solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled between pure U and Fe, Fe–15 wt.%Cr or Fe–15 wt.%Cr–15 wt.%Ni alloy, and annealed at high temperature ranging from 580 to 700 °C. The microstructures and concentration profiles that developed from the diffusion anneal were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), respectively. Thick U6Fe and thin UFe2 phases were observed to develop with solubilities: up to 2.5 at.% Ni in U6(Fe,Ni), up to 20 at.%Cr in U(Fe, Cr)2, and up to 7 at.%Cr and 14 at.% Ni in U(Fe, Cr, Ni)2. The interdiffusion and reactions in the U vs. Fe and U vs. Fe–Cr–Ni exhibited a similar temperature dependence, while the U vs. Fe–Cr diffusion couples, without the presence of Ni, yielded greater activation energy for the growth of intermetallic phases – lower growth rate at lower temperature but higher growth rate at higher temperature.

  7. Common CX3CR1 alleles are associated with a reduced risk of headaches Short title: CX3CR1 gene polymorphisms and headaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Common CX3CR1 alleles are associated with a reduced risk of headaches Short title: CX3CR1 gene Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 in headaches and migraine. Methods: Distribution of two polymorphisms of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 (V249I and T280M

  8. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SPINODAL Fe-Cr-Co ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okada, Masuo

    2011-01-01

    28 Isothermal wt% Co, Fe-31 wtS Cr-23 wt% Co, Cr-26 wt% Fe-system. An Fe-31 wt% Cr-23 wtS Co a l l o y was found to be

  9. march200830 Bacon sandwiches and middle-Bacon sandwiches and middle-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    march200830 Bacon sandwiches and middle-Bacon sandwiches and middle- class drinkers: the risk to a debate about bacon sandwiches (see Box, right). One of the first culprits that can be identified Cancer Research Fund "bacon sandwiches" report (http://news.bbc. co.uk/1/hi/programmes/more_or_ less

  10. Proceedings of IADC Middle East Drilling Conference, Dubai, November 1998. 1 IADC Middle East Drilling Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aamodt, Agnar

    to 170 000 $ during 1985 - 1988, and represented 3 - 5 % of the total drilling costs. The cause of goingProceedings of IADC Middle East Drilling Conference, Dubai, November 1998. 1 IADC Middle East Drilling Conference Case-Based Reasoning, a method for gaining experience and giving advise on how to avoid

  11. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN GEOLOGY (UNOFFICIAL) CATALOG 129 Fall (Th-Pr) Cr Spring (Th-Pr) Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN GEOLOGY (UNOFFICIAL) CATALOG 129 Fall (Th-Pr) Cr Spring (Th-Pr) Cr Freshman Geology (3-3) 4 GEOL 106 Historical Geology (3-3) 4 MATH 151 Engineering Math. I (3-2) 4 MATH 152 341 Introduction to Global Geophysics (3-0) 3 GEOL 309 Introduction to Geologic Field Methods (1-6) 3

  12. 244-CR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARKMAN, D.B.

    2000-04-25

    The 244-CR Vault is a two-level, multi-cell structure of reinforced concrete constructed below grade. The lower cell contains four individual compartments, each containing a steel process storage tank and equipped with a concrete sump. The upper cell contains the piping and support equipment, and has two compartments for each of the tanks. The ''pump pit'' is accessed by the removal of concrete cover blocks, while the smaller ''riser pit'' is accessed by steel cover plates. The facility most recently was used as a double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). A DCRT is a type of waste transfer tank that together with its related equipment constitutes a short-term storage area for liquid waste and has a pump pit for waste transfer operations. This vault most recently was used for short-term storage and waste routing for saltwell liquid pumped from the 241-C Tank Farm in the 200 East Area. Waste transfer lines are connected inside the pump pit by a jumper installed between connecting nozzles. An active ventilation system is in operation at the 244-CR vault. Ventilation supply air enters the upper vault section through an inlet header with some leakage through the spaces between the cell cover blocks. The upper and lower vaults are connected by exhauster ports, which allow airflow between the two sections. Normal flow moves air from the upper cell to the lower cell where it is removed and routed into a filter plenum; there the air is treated by a bank of four prefilters and two banks of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters (each containing four HEPAs). The air is exhausted to the atmosphere through the 296-C-05 Stack. The stack is equipped with a record sampler and continuous air monitor. Two fans (each rated at 4,200 cubic feet per minute) installed downstream of the filtration system provide the motive force for exhausting the vaults and the tanks. As an active system, it is operated continuously with only one of the two fans required to operate at a time. A continuous beta-gamma air monitor is interlocked to the operating fan. Loss of power to the fans will activate an alarm at the 244-AR facility.

  13. The Middle East Roads, Bridges and Tolls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    EconomicCrisis ­ Expatriatejobscut ­ Overconges8on · DubaiWorld'sDebt ­ Slowedexpansion ­ AbuDhabiBailout #12;Negatives Low Housing#12;#12;The Middle East #12;Dubai #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Roads, Bridges and Tolls RTA Two Major longest automatic driverless system in the world Red (2009) and Green Line (2010) 87 Trains 74

  14. 2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program Lego Robot Coordinator: Ali Zilouchian, Ph of the course, students will be placed into teams. Through the course of the week each team will design, build, and program a Lego sumo-bot. On the last day of the course, each team's robot will compete in the Sumo

  15. Middle School "Exploration" Engineering Challenge Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Middle School "Exploration" Engineering Challenge Camp Hosted by the West Virginia University ESB Lunabotics Team 1:00 p.m. Kerbal Space Program MRB 243 Daytime Counselors 2:00 p.m. Build a Camera 107 MRB Daytime Counselors 9:30 a.m. Biometrics Activity Stations ESB Atrium Biometric Research Team

  16. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    .8 Static Stability Structure 9.9 Gravity Wave Generation in Unbalanced Jet­Front Systems 10. Equatorial, T. G., 2007: Transport in the Middle Atmosphere. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 85B, 165­191. 1 #12. Vertically Propagating Waves 2.1 Extratropical (Planetary) Rossby Waves 2.2 Extratropical Gravity Waves 2

  17. 2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    arm in a competition Wednesday Ocean Energy : Current, Tidal, and Wave Energy · Design a wave and wind energy harvesting surface vehicle · Tour of Ocean Energy lab · Build a wind and wave energy harvesting2015 Middle School Summer Engineering Technology Program Introduction to Ocean Engineering FAU Sea

  18. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  19. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solana Beach, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  20. Phase stability and elastic properties of Cr-V alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, M. C.; Suzuki, Y.; Schweiger, H.; Do?an, Ö.N.; Hawk, J.; Widom M.

    2013-02-20

    V is the only element in the periodic table that forms a complete solid solution with Cr and thus is particularly important in alloying strategy to ductilize Cr. This study combines first-principles density functional theory calculations and experiments to investigate the phase stability and elastic properties of Cr–V binary alloys. The cluster expansion study reveals the formation of various ordered compounds at low temperatures that were not previously known. These compounds become unstable due to the configurational entropy of bcc solid solution as the temperature is increased. The elastic constants of ordered and disordered compounds are calculated at both T = 0 K and finite temperatures. The overall trends in elastic properties are in agreement with measurements using the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method. The calculations predict that addition of V to Cr decreases both the bulk modulus and the shear modulus, and enhances the Poisson’s ratio, in agreement with experiments. Decrease in the bulk modulus is correlated to decrease in the valence electron density and increase in the lattice constant. An enhanced Poisson’s ratio for bcc Cr–V alloys (compared to pure Cr) is associated with an increased density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, the difference charge density in the bonding region in the (110) slip plane is highest for pure Cr and decreases gradually as V is added. The present calculation also predicts a negative Cauchy pressure for pure Cr, and it becomes positive upon alloying with V. The intrinsic ductilizing effect from V may contribute, at least partially, to the experimentally observed ductilizing phenomenon in the literature.

  1. Media Advisory - The Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Is Set...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Is Set For March 6 at Jefferson Lab What: The 2010 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 6, 2010. Round-robin...

  2. Longfellow Middle School Edges Out Gildersleeve to Win 2011 Virginia...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edges Out Gildersleeve to Win 2011 Virginia Middle School Science Bowl 1stplaceLongfellow.jpg The team from Longfellow Middle School, Falls Church, won the 2011 Virginia Regional...

  3. Evolution of Middle Eastern Social Structures: a new model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    Evolution of Middle Eastern Social Structures: a new model Abstract The desert is small relative: evolution, endogamy, population, raiding, Bedouin,] #12;2 Evolution of Middle Eastern Social Structures

  4. STEM Volunteer Training: Engaging Middle School Students | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEM Volunteer Training: Engaging Middle School Students STEM Volunteer Training: Engaging Middle School Students August 13, 2015 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Register: https:...

  5. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    homes in the United States use middle distillate as a primary energy source for heating. -homes in the United States use middle distillate as their primary energy source for heating. -

  6. Thickness trends and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelder, Terry

    Thickness trends and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation, Appalachian to the lithostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Devonian shale succession of the Appalachian

  7. EnergySmart Schools Case Study: Northern Guilford Middle School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-01

    An EnergySmart Schools Case Study on the Northern Guilford Middle School in Greensboro, North Carolina

  8. V.P. Biden Hosts the Middle Class Task Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu will join Vice President Biden at the White House as he hosts a Middle Class Task Force event.

  9. MIDDLE EARTH MANAGEMENT TEAM ASSISTANT (1-2 POSITIONS AVAILABLE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    MIDDLE EARTH MANAGEMENT TEAM ASSISTANT (1-2 POSITIONS AVAILABLE) The Management Team Assistant (MTA) works cooperatively with the Middle Earth professional staff and is directly supervised by the Business Manager. The MTA assists Middle Earth in a variety of projects in Residence Life, Operations and Business

  10. Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2005) Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar's research outputs online #12;Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Vitali E

  11. BACHELOR OF ARTS IN GEOLOGY (UNOFFICIAL) CATALOG 129 Fall (Th-Pr) Cr Spring (Th-Pr) Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACHELOR OF ARTS IN GEOLOGY (UNOFFICIAL) CATALOG 129 Fall (Th-Pr) Cr Spring (Th-Pr) Cr Freshman Geology (3-3) 4 GEOL 106 Historical Geology (3-3) 4 MATH 166 Topics in Cont. Math II 1 (3-0) 3 MATH 131-3) 4 GEOP 341 Introduction to Global Geophysics (3-0) 3 GEOL 309 Introduction to Geologic Field Methods

  12. Characterization of the CR-39 neutron track etch dosimeter and evaluation of a combination CR-39/thermoluminescent dosimeter badge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Paul Steven

    1989-01-01

    . . . . . . . Objectives . THEORY 2 5 9 12 14 Charged Particle Interactions and Damage Track Formation Neutron Converters The Etching Process Background Effects The Quality Factor MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 16 18 21 22 31 CR-39 Supply . CR-39... to the total neutron exposure is the nuclear power industry. Neutrons from the reactor core produced by induced fission penetrate the shielding and escape through coolant ducts and safety vents. Spontaneous fission in the fuel itself contributes significant...

  13. http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011 P6 http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html web #12;http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html () ( #12;http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html X MeV X Astro-H 2013 TeV10m) #12;http://www-cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/gakubu/P6.html 2010 ASTRO-H CCD X (2) () (2) (2

  14. Chromium Isotope Fractionation During Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Gibson, Blair D.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2012-10-25

    Chromium isotopes are potentially useful indicators of Cr(VI) reduction reactions in groundwater flow systems; however, the influence of transport on Cr isotope fractionation has not been fully examined. Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate isotopic fractionation of Cr during Cr(VI) reduction under both static and controlled flow conditions. Organic carbon was used to reduce Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater containing 20 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI) in both batch and column experiments. Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved Cr on samples from the batch experiments, and on effluent and profile samples from the column experiment. Analysis of the residual solid-phase materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed association of Cr(III) with organic carbon in the column solids. Decreases in dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations were coupled with increases in {delta}{sup 53}Cr, indicating that Cr isotope enrichment occurred during reduction of Cr(VI). The {delta}{sup 53}Cr data from the column experiment was fit by linear regression yielding a fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 0.9979, whereas the batch experiments exhibited Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation ({alpha} = 0.9965). The linear characteristic of the column {delta}{sup 53}Cr data may reflect the contribution of transport on Cr isotope fractionation.

  15. Surface structure of ?-Cr2O3(0001) after activated oxygen exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chamberlin, Sara E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2013-09-13

    The surface structure of a-Cr2O3(0001) before and after exposure to activated oxygen from an ECR plasma source was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). Epitaxial Cr2O3(0001) thin films were deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE). When cooled or annealed in vacuum, strong evidence for a Cr-Cr-O3- termination was obtained by comparing the Cr3+ XPD azimuthal scan to single scattering simulations. However, after plasma exposure, a high binding energy feature was observed in the Cr 2p XPS spectrum that possesses an ordered structure distinct from the underlying Cr3+ of Cr2O3, which remains Cr-Cr-O3-like. Investigation of this new surface structure with simulations of various candidate structures tentatively rules out CrO2-like configurations. The high binding energy feature likely arises from a higher oxidation state of Cr. One possibility is the oxidation of the surface layer of Cr to Cr6- with a double chromyl structure (O=Cr=O).

  16. Middle Urals` pollution prevention priorities assessment project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L.; Chukanov, V.

    1995-09-13

    The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.

  17. Gamma-ray decay of levels in /sup 53/Cr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickens, J.K.; Larson, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    Gamma-ray decay of levels in the stable isotope /sup 53/Cr has been studied using /sup 53/Cr(n,n'..gamma..) reactions for incident neutron energies between threshold and 10 MeV. Of the 65 gamma rays or gamma-ray groups observed for neutron interactions with /sup 53/Cr, 50 have been placed or tentatively placed among 34 levels in /sup 53/Cr up to an excitation energy of 4.36 MeV. Deduced branching ratios are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements except for decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level. For the decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level we are unable to explain variations in the branching ratios of the transition gamma rays as a function of incident neutron energy within the framework of the presently known level structure of /sup 53/Cr and suggest the possibility of a second energy level at E/sub x/ = 1537 keV. 59 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Enhanced Electrochemical Lithium Storage Activity of LiCrO2 by Size Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, N; Li, H; Yang, X; Huang, X; Chen, L; Nam, K; Yoon, W

    2009-01-01

    Cr8O21 was chemically lithiated using a lithium-biphenyl-dimethoxyethane solution. Lithiated Cr8O21 shows a structure in which as-formed LiCrO2 units are sandwiched between Cr2O3 superlattice layers. Chemically lithiated Cr8O21 shows a delithiation capacity of 200 mAh g-1. It means that LiCrO2 units in lithiated Cr8O21 are electrochemically active. This finding is opposite to previous reports that LiCrO2 materials have very poor Li-storage capacities. Our new result implies that LiCrO2 with extremely small domain size could show enhanced reactivity. This proposal is proved unambiguously by the fact that LiCrO2 powder materials with smaller grain size (<20 nm) show much higher capacities than LiCrO2 materials with larger grain size (>50 nm). In addition, it is found that the cation mixing is more significantly in LiCrO2 materials with smaller grain size, which seems a key factor for the storage and transport of lithium in layered Cr-based materials. The cation mixing may also explain the result that the lattice parameters of LiCrO2 do not change significantly upon lithium extraction and insertion, investigated by in situ and ex situ XRD techniques.

  19. Importance of Doping and Frustration in Itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susner, Michael A; Parker, David S; Safa-Sefat, Athena

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x 0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. This is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explain that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.

  20. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  1. Exchange bias in Fe/Cr double superlattices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J. S.; Felcher, G. P.; Inomata, A.; Goyette, R.; Nelson, C.; Bader, S. D.

    1999-11-30

    Utilizing the oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/Cr superlattices, we have constructed ''double superlattice'' structures where a ferromagnetic (F) and an antiferromagnetic (AF) Fe/Cr superlattice are coupled through a Cr spacer. The minor hysteresis loops in the magnetization are shifted from zero field, i.e., the F superlattice is exchange biased by the AF one. The double superlattices are sputter-deposited with (211) epitaxy and possess uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The magnitude of the bias field is satisfactorily described by the classic formula for collinear spin structures. The coherent structure and insensitivity to atomic-scale roughness makes it possible to determine the spin distribution by polarized neutron reflectivity, which confirms that the spin structure is collinear. The magnetic reversal behavior of the double superlattices suggests that a realistic model of exchange bias needs to address the process of nucleating local reverse domains.

  2. Metastable bcc phase formation in the Nb-Cr system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, D.J.; Schwarz, R.B.; Perepezko, J.H.; Plantz, D.H.

    1993-08-01

    Extended metastable bcc solid solutions of Nb-Xat.%Cr (X = 35, 50, 57, 77, 82, and 94) were synthesized by two-anvil splat-quenching. In addition, bcc (Nb-67at.%Cr) was prepared by mechanically alloying mixtures of niobium and chromium powders. The lattice parameters were measured by X-ray diffraction and the Young`s moduli were measured by low-load microindentation. The composition dependence of the lattice parameters and elastic moduli show a positive deviation with respect to a rule of mixtures. During continuous heating at 15C/min., the metastable precursor bcc phases decomposed at temperatures above 750C to uniformly refined microstructures.

  3. Middle East sparking increase in world drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Global drilling outside the United States appears to have bottomed out last year if official numbers and estimates supplied to World oil prove accurate. The 1990:0090 forecast calls for a 7.8% boost to 22,316 wells (excluding the USSR, Eastern Europe and North Korea), and every region expects to see a net increase. Figures provided by governmental agencies, operating companies and other sources indicate Middle Eastern drilling last year hit a new high for the 1980's with 948 wells. These figures are also given for Western Europe, the Far East, Africa, South America, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala.

  4. October 2010 NASA/CR2010-216861

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2010 NASA/CR­2010-216861 Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports Part Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia #12;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical

  5. October 2010 NASA/CR2010-216860

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2010 NASA/CR­2010-216860 Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports Part 1;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part

  6. October 2006 NASA/CR-2006-214298

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    October 2006 NASA/CR-2006-214298 NIA Report No. 2006-01 A High-Level Formalization of Floating of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical

  7. NASA/CR2004208938 Lunar Receiving Laboratory Project History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA/CR­2004­208938 Lunar Receiving Laboratory Project History Susan Mangus Muskingum College New Concord, Ohio William Larsen Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas June 2004 #12;THE NASA STI PROGRAM OFFICE . . . IN PROFILE Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

  8. Math 5654 4cr Spring 2010 Prediction and Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Nicolai

    Math 5654 4cr Spring 2010 Syllabus Prediction and Filtering Lectures: 10:10am-12:05pm TTh, VinH 364: Saturday, May 15, 4 pm-6 pm. A few homeworks wil be assigned and the grades for them will enter as 2-dimensional case 133 2:2. Multidimensional case 137 3. Linear filtering 147 Chapter 6. Wiener process

  9. Middle Tennessee EMC- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Middle Tennessee Electric Membership Corporation (MTEMC) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) offer incentives for residential customers through the In-Home Energy Evaluation Program. This...

  10. Secretary Chu Announces Middle and High School Finalists Set...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and performance of America's students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the list of 113 regional middle...

  11. Middle school students participate in Math Field Day - - Purdue ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    Middle school students participate in Math Field Day ... Students working in teams (Gold and Black) played 12 different games designed to test their abilities.

  12. Stoller Middle School of Beaverton, Ore., emerges undefeated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stoller-emerges-undefeated-at-BPAs-Middle-School-Science-Bowl Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  13. Math Field Day brings middle school students to campus - - Purdue ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    To get young learners excited about math, local middle school students are ... math competition as they work in teams on several games our students have ...

  14. Middle School Regional Science Bowl Competition | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coach's Resources Registration Middle School Electric Car Competition High School Rube Goldberg Teacher Programs Classroom Resources Additional Information For more information...

  15. Maryland team wins Virginia/Maryland Regional Middle School Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    There are two competitions at the National Middle School Science Bowl - an academic math and science competition and a model fuel-cell car competition. The academic competition...

  16. ADHERENCE OF A12O3 TO CoCrAl COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittle, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, San Diego, CA, Aprilfr ADHERENCE OF AlgOg TO CoCrAl COATINGS D. P. Whittle, D. HADHERENCE OF Al 0 TO CoCrAl COATINGS D. P. Whittle, D. H.

  17. Technology Implimentation Plan - ATF FeCrAl Cladding for LWR Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Mary A.; Snead, Lance; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; Hu, Xunxiang

    2015-06-01

    Technology implimentation plan for FeCrAl development under the FCRD Advanced Fuel program. The document describes the activities required to get FeCrAl clad ready for LTR testing

  18. Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced Via the 209Bi(52Cr,n)260Bh Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    models. For many years, “cold fusion” reactions utilizingproduced via the new “cold fusion” reaction 209 Bi( 52 Cr,

  19. CSC444-2001-CR-01A Page 1 14 November, 2001 Change Request #001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easterbrook, Steve

    CSC444-2001-CR-01A Page 1 14 November, 2001 Change Request #001 for the CSC444 Graph Editor Document # CSC444-2001-CR-01A Revision A 14th November 2001 #12;CSC444-2001-CR-01A Page 2 14 November, 2001 ...................................................................................................... 5 #12;CSC444-2001-CR-01A Page 3 14 November, 2001 1 Scope This change request refers to the Graph

  20. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  1. Radiation effects on interface reactions of U/Fe, U/(Fe+Cr), and U/(Fe+Cr+Ni)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Chen, Di; Wei, Chaochen; Martin, Michael S.; Wang, Xuemei; Park, Youngjoo; Dein, Ed; Coffey, Kevin R.; Sohn, Yongho; Sencer, Bulent H.; et al

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of radiation damage on interdiffusion and intermetallic phase formation at the interfaces of U/Fe, U/(Fe + Cr), and U/(Fe + Cr + Ni) diffusion couples. Magnetron sputtering is used to deposit thin films of Fe, Fe + Cr, or Fe + Cr + Ni on U substrates to form the diffusion couples. One set of samples are thermally annealed under high vacuum at 450 C or 550 C for one hour. A second set of samples are annealed identically but with concurrent 3.5 MeV Fe++ ion irradiation. The Fe++ ion penetration depth is sufficient to reachmore »the original interfaces. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis with high fidelity spectral simulations is used to obtain interdiffusion profiles, which are used to examine differences in U diffusion and intermetallic phase formation at the buried interfaces. For all three diffusion systems, Fe++ ion irradiations enhance U diffusion. Furthermore, the irradiations accelerate the formation of intermetallic phases. In U/Fe couples, for example, the unirradiated samples show typical interdiffusion governed by Fick’s laws, while the irradiated ones show step-like profiles influenced by Gibbs phase rules.« less

  2. Radiation effects on interface reactions of U/Fe, U/(Fe+Cr), and U/(Fe+Cr+Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Lin; Chen, Di; Wei, Chaochen; Martin, Michael S.; Wang, Xuemei; Park, Youngjoo; Dein, Ed; Coffey, Kevin R.; Sohn, Yongho; Sencer, Bulent H.; Rory Kennedy, J.

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of radiation damage on interdiffusion and intermetallic phase formation at the interfaces of U/Fe, U/(Fe + Cr), and U/(Fe + Cr + Ni) diffusion couples. Magnetron sputtering is used to deposit thin films of Fe, Fe + Cr, or Fe + Cr + Ni on U substrates to form the diffusion couples. One set of samples are thermally annealed under high vacuum at 450 C or 550 C for one hour. A second set of samples are annealed identically but with concurrent 3.5 MeV Fe++ ion irradiation. The Fe++ ion penetration depth is sufficient to reach the original interfaces. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis with high fidelity spectral simulations is used to obtain interdiffusion profiles, which are used to examine differences in U diffusion and intermetallic phase formation at the buried interfaces. For all three diffusion systems, Fe++ ion irradiations enhance U diffusion. Furthermore, the irradiations accelerate the formation of intermetallic phases. In U/Fe couples, for example, the unirradiated samples show typical interdiffusion governed by Fick’s laws, while the irradiated ones show step-like profiles influenced by Gibbs phase rules.

  3. Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meucci, Olimpia

    Expression of CX3CR1 chemokine receptors on neurons and their role in neuronal survival Olimpia expression of CX3CR1, the only known receptor for fractalkine, has been demonstrated exclusively on microglia, that hippocampal neurons also express CX3CR1. Receptor activation by soluble fractalkine induces activation

  4. Surface half-metallicity of CrS thin films and perfect spin filtering and spin diode effects of CrS/ZnSe heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, G. Y. Yao, K. L.

    2014-11-03

    Recently, ferromagnetic zinc-blende Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}S thin films (above x?=?0.5) were fabricated experimentally on ZnSe substrate, which confirmed the previous theoretical prediction of half-metallic ferromagnetism in zinc-blende CrS. Here, we theoretically reveal that both Cr- and S-terminated (001) surfaces of the CrS thin films retain the half-metallicity. The CrS/ZnSe(001) heterogeneous junction exhibits excellent spin filtering and spin diode effects, which are explained by the calculated band structure and transmission spectra. The perfect spin transport properties indicate the potential applications of half-metallic CrS in spintronic devices. All computational results are obtained by using the density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's function.

  5. Constructivist Approach To Information Security Awareness In The Middle East

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    Constructivist Approach To Information Security Awareness In The Middle East Mohammed Boujettif the application of an approach to en- hance information security awareness amongst employees within middle- eastern companies, in effort to improve information security. We aim at surveying the current attitudes

  6. WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION SPECIAL. Suomela, Commissioner WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION Report--Fisheries No. 290 Washington, D. C. March 1959 #12;Library of Congress catalog card for the Fish

  7. WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION iW''^^, ^^c, Commissioner WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION by Robert 0 No. 290 Washington, D. C. March 1959 #12;Library of Congress catalog card for the Fish and Wildlife

  8. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Glenshaw Formation (MiddleLate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martino, Ronald L.

    Sequence Stratigraphy of the Glenshaw Formation (Middle­Late Pennsylvanian) in the Central. L., 2004, Sequence stratigraphy of the Glenshaw Formation (middle­late Pennsylvanian) in the central Appalachian basin, in J. C. Pashin and R. A. Gastaldo, eds., Sequence stratigraphy, paleoclimate

  9. Precipitation processes in the Middle East , R. Smitha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Precipitation processes in the Middle East J. Evansa , R. Smitha and R.Oglesbyb a Dept. Geology and topography in generating precipitation in the Middle East. The model is run for five years (1990 thru 1994 that exhibit precipitation regimes disparate from one-another are identified and examined. The models ability

  10. The Studying Abroad Fever: A Case Study of the Rise of the Middle Class in China and International Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Shanshan

    2013-01-01

    Change and the Middle Classes. UCL Press. Chen,  Shuhong.  “?????”  [The  New  Middle  Class  and  Cultural  Capital].  the   Definition of the Middle Class]. Social Sciences in

  11. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (?) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  12. MIDDLE EARTH STUDENT COORDINATOR OF STUDENT STAFF LEADERSHIP The Student Coordinator will work collaboratively with the Middle Earth Residential Life Team to assess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    MIDDLE EARTH STUDENT COORDINATOR OF STUDENT STAFF LEADERSHIP The Student Coordinator will work collaboratively with the Middle Earth Residential Life Team to assess the needs of the Middle Earth community with Middle Earth staff to enhance different processes that occur yearly within the complex. The successful

  13. Transport signatures of quantum critically in Cr at high pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Wang, J.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2010-08-03

    The elemental antiferromagnet Cr at high pressure presents a new type of naked quantum critical point that is free of disorder and symmetry-breaking fields. Here we measure magnetotransport in fine detail around the critical pressure, P{sub c} {approx} 10 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell and reveal the role of quantum critical fluctuations at the phase transition. As the magnetism disappears and T {yields} 0, the magntotransport scaling converges to a non-mean-field form that illustrates the reconstruction of the magnetic Fermi surface, and is distinct from the critical scaling measured in chemically disordered Cr:V under pressure. The breakdown of itinerant antiferromagnetism only comes clearly into view in the clean limit, establishing disorder as a relevant variable at a quantum phase transition.

  14. Cr/sup 3 +/-doped colquiriite solid state laser material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-03-31

    Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3 +/, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slope efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd/sup 3 +/ or Tm/sup 3 +/ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility. 4 figs.

  15. Cr{sub 2}Nb-based alloy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress in developing Cr{sub 2}Nb/Cr(Nb) alloys for structural use in advanced fossil energy conversion systems. Alloy additions were added to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. Two beneficial elements have been identified among all alloying additions added to the alloys. One element is effective in refining the coarse eutectic structure and thus substantially improves the compressive strength and ductility of the alloys. The other element enhances oxidation resistance without sacrificing the ductility. The tensile properties are sensitive to cast defects, which can not be effectively reduced by HIPping at 1450-1580{degrees}C and/or directionally solidifying via a floating zone remelting method.

  16. Improving thermostability of CrO{sub 2} thin films by doping with Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Shuo; Shi, Jing; Yin, Di; Yuan, Cheng; Lu, Zhihong; Xiong, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Chromium dioxide (CrO{sub 2}) is an ideal material for spin electronic devices since it has almost 100% spin polarization near Fermi level. However, it is thermally unstable and easily decomposes to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} even at room temperature. In this study, we try to improve the thermal stability of CrO{sub 2} thin films by doping with Sn whose oxide has the same structure as CrO{sub 2}. High quality epitaxial CrO{sub 2} and Sn-doped CrO{sub 2} films were grown on single crystalline TiO{sub 2} (100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Sn{sup 4+} ions were believed to be doped into CrO{sub 2} lattice and take the lattice positions of Cr{sup 4+}. The magnetic measurements show that Sn-doping leads to a decrease of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The thermal stabilities of the films were evaluated by annealing the films at different temperatures. Sn-doped films can withstand a temperature up to 510?°C, significantly higher than what undoped films can do (lower than 435?°C), which suggests that Sn-doping indeed enhances the thermal stability of CrO{sub 2} films. Our study also indicates that Sn-doping may not change the essential half metallic properties of CrO{sub 2}. Therefore, Sn-doped CrO{sub 2} is expected to be very promising for applications in spintronic devices.

  17. Reflections on the Macro Foundations of the Middle Class in the Developing World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birdsall, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Among Equals: The Middle Class Kingdoms of India and China.Foundations of the Middle Class in the Developing World Byeconomic command of the middle class. I suggest a definition

  18. Low temperature spin dynamics in Cr{sub 7}Ni-Cu-Cr{sub 7}Ni coupled molecular rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordonali, L.; Furukawa, Y.; Mariani, M.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Garlatti, E.; Borsa, F.

    2014-05-07

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements have been performed down to very low temperature (50?mK) to determine the effect of coupling two Cr{sub 7}Ni molecular rings via a Cu{sup 2+} ion. No difference in the spin dynamics was found from nuclear spin lattice relaxation down to 1.5?K. At lower temperature, the {sup 1}H-NMR line broadens dramatically indicating spin freezing. From the plot of the line width vs. magnetization, it is found that the freezing temperature is higher (260?mK) in the coupled ring with respect to the single Cr{sub 7}Ni ring (140?mK)

  19. Low-cost, highly efficient, and tunable ultrafast laser technology based on directly diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral project aims to develop robust, ultra low-cost ($5,000-20,000), highly-efficient, and tunable femtosecond laser technology based on diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite gain media (Cr:LiCAF, Cr3+:LiSAF and Cr:LiSGaF). ...

  20. Characterization of the natural barriers of intergranular tunnel junctions: Cr2O3 surface layers on CrO2 nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    thin native oxide layer with a thickness of 1­3 nm on the surface of CrO2 powders has been observed direct observation by TEM of a 1­3 nm thick native oxide layer on the surface of the CrO2 single crystal

  1. Cr(OH)?(s) Oxidation Induced by Surface Catalyzed Mn(II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Namgung, Seonyi; Kwon, M.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lee, Gie Hyeon

    2014-09-16

    This study examined the feasibility of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation mediated by surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation under common groundwater pH conditions as a potential pathway of natural Cr(VI) contaminations. Dissolved Mn(II) (50 ?M) was reacted with or without synthesized Cr(OH)?(s) (1.0 g/L) at pH 7 – 9 under oxic or anoxic conditions. In the absence of Cr(OH)?(s), homogeneous Mn(II) oxidation by dissolved O? was not observed at pH ? 8.0 for 50 d. At pH 9.0, by contrast, dissolved Mn(II) was completely removed within 8 d and precipitated as hausmannite. When Cr(OH)?(s) was present, this solid was oxidized and released substantial amounts of Cr(VI) as dissolved Mn(II) was added into the suspension at pH ? 8.0 under oxic conditions. Our results suggest that Cr(OH)?(s) was readily oxidized by a newly formed Mn oxide as a result of Mn(II) oxidation catalyzed on Cr(OH)?(s) surface. XANES analysis of the residual solids after the reaction between 1.0 g/L Cr(OH)?(s) and 204 ?M Mn(II) at pH 9.0 for 22 d revealed that the product of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation resembled birnessite. The rate and extent of Cr(OH)?(s) oxidation was likely controlled by those of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation as the production of Cr(VI) increased with increasing pH and initial Mn(II) concentrations. This study evokes the potential environmental hazard of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)?(s) that can be a source of Cr(VI) in the presence of dissolved Mn(II).

  2. Physics education research: Resources for middle school science teachers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krusberg, Zosia A C

    2009-01-01

    This resource letter intends to provide middle school science teachers with a collection of resources to aid them in planning and implementing a physical science curriculum. The resources are in the form of books, websites, journals, and organizations.

  3. Embedded autonomies projecting an American middle-Class polis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, David (David Porter)

    2015-01-01

    What possible response to the last forty years of depressed wages can the American middle-class have? Along with long established tactics on the consumption side of the production equation -- namely collective housing and ...

  4. The Middle East under Malware Attack Dissecting Cyber Weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    the middle east was the Shamoon attack on Saudi Aramco [10]. Shamoon malware [11] is less sophisticated than destruction of the content of around 30,000 workstations in Saudi Aramco [12], [10]. Given the amount

  5. Middle Schoolers Face-Off in Model Car Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forty-four teams entered the middle school Lithium-Ion Battery Powered Model Car Competition, and two teams distinguished themselves, one for speed and the other for design.

  6. Jefferson Lab Hosts Virginia Middle School Science Bowl on March...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virginia Middle School Science Bowl on March 1 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Feb. 26, 2014 - Some of the brightest young minds in the Commonwealth will meet at the Department of Energy's...

  7. Fourteen Teams to Compete in Virginia Middle School Science Bowl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fourteen Teams to Compete in Virginia Middle School Science Bowl on March 7 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., March 3, 2015 - Some of the brightest young minds in the Commonwealth will meet at...

  8. Record 18 teams prepare for Virginia Regional Middle School Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEDIA ADVISORY: News Media invited to cover the March 10 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl at Jefferson Lab; Record turnout with bright young minds from 18 teams vying...

  9. Record 18 teams prepare for Virginia Regional Middle School Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy's Jefferson Lab, in Newport News, Va., hosts the Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl on Saturday, March 10, with a record 18 teams competing. This is the...

  10. Media Advisory: March 1 Middle School Science Bowl Tournament...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisory What: Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 1, 2008. Round robin competition runs from 10 a.m. - noon. The double elimination, semi-final and...

  11. Middle School Science Bowl Registration | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Middle School Science Bowl Registration Regional champions of the Academic Science Bowl win a trip to Washington, D.C. We encourage all eligible participants to apply to the...

  12. Fission track evidence for widespread early to Middle miocene...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Early to Middle Miocene as an additional time of very significant extension-induced uplift and range formation. Many ranges in a 700-km-long north-south corridor from the...

  13. Calloway Middle School Honored at DOE National Science Bowl,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Claire Umstead show off their lithium-ion battery-powered car at the DOE National Science Bowl in Washington, D.C. The Calloway County Middle School team finished in the top...

  14. Environmental, Institutional, and Demographic Predictors of Environmental Literacy among Middle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Environmental, Institutional, and Demographic Predictors of Environmental Literacy among Middle & Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America, 2, United States of America, 4 Department of Forestry & Environmental Resources, North Carolina State

  15. Teachers and JLab scientists help middle-school science instructors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientists help middle-school science instructors prepare to teach physics in the 21st century By John Anderson, II, JLab Public Affairs intern August 11, 2003 As part of Jefferson...

  16. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1–9 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinenian, N. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Manuel, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); McDuffee, S. C. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Casey, D. T. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Se?guin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92–9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. Effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  17. Ferromagnetism at room temperature in Cr-doped anodic titanium dioxide nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Yulong E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaiwu E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Li, Jie; Yu, Guoliang; Zhong, Zhiyong; Bai, Feiming; Jia, Lijun; Zhang, Shihong; Zhong, Peng

    2014-05-07

    This study reports the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) synthesized via the electrochemical method followed by a novel Cr-doping process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the TiO{sub 2} NTs were highly ordered with length up to 26 ?m, outer diameter about 110 nm, and inner diameter about 100 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated there were no magnetic contaminations of metallic Cr clusters or any other phases except anatase TiO{sub 2}. The Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} NTs were further annealed in oxygen, air and argon, and room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in all Cr-doped samples. Moreover, saturation magnetizations and coercivities of the Cr-doped under various annealing atmosphere were further analyzed, and results indicate that oxygen content played a critical role in the room-temperature ferromagnetism.

  18. Effects of Cr doping on the magnetic properties of multiferroic YMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Tai-Chun Wu, I-Chu; Hsu, Hsin-Kai

    2014-05-07

    We have synthesized a series of YMn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (0???x???0.1) samples and study the effect of Cr-doping on their magnetic properties. The magnetic characterization indicates that with increasing Cr-content up to 0.1, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature increases from 73 to 89?K. Our experiment results also indicate that the Cr-doped samples exhibit the characteristics of spin-glass state at low temperature. Moreover, the magnetic hysteresis curves of the doped samples show a weak ferromagnetic (FM) behavior. It is found that the spin-glass state of the Cr-doped samples is due to the competition between AFM superexchange and FM double-exchange interaction, induced by the Cr doping.

  19. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1–9 MeV protons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92–9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. Effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  20. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1–9 MeV protons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Se?guin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; et al

    2011-10-28

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak®) to protons in the energy range of 0.92–9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. The effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather thanmore »the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.« less

  1. Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

    1983-07-26

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

  2. Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken (Naperville, IL); Baxter, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

  3. SF6432-CR (02-01-13) Cost Reimbursement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The2/01/12 Page 1 of 24 Printed copies of thisCR

  4. Hot-pressed ceramic Cr2+ :ZnSe gain-switched

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirov, Sergey B.

    Hot-pressed ceramic Cr2+ :ZnSe gain-switched laser A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov: The technology of hot-pressed Cr2+ :ZnSe ceramic preparation is reported. Comparative gain-switched lasing of hot­pressed ceramic and CVD grown Cr2+ :ZnSe samples with slope efficiencies up to 10 % and output energies up to 2 m

  5. Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol K.F. Chan, F.M.F. Ng, D. described the use of NaOH/ethanol as an etchant for the CR-39 detector, and have determined the corre and track etch properties of CR- 39 in NaOH/ethanol were derived from direct measurements. The bulk etch

  6. 189Center for Arab and Middle Eastern Studies (CAMES) Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Middle Eastern Studies (CAMES) Director: Hazbun, Waleed Assistant Director: Saidi, Aliya R. Professor

  7. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Africa and Middle East Project Plan 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamison, Jeremy D.

    2012-02-01

    GTRI Africa and Middle East Project Plan submitted for school project to American Graduate University.

  8. Ecological Factors Affecting Hispanic Urban Middle School and High School Adolescents’ College and Career Aspirations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hostrup, Judy Ann

    2011-08-08

    Program Enrollment ............... 49 9 Hispanic Middle School Adolescents? College Aspirations ............. 50 10 Hispanic Middle School Adolescents? Common Career Choices (Percentages... in previous years (Gottlieb, 2006). 11 Adolescents: Middle and high school grade-level students who are approximately 10 to 18 years old (American Psychological Association, 2002). Middle School Students: Usually grades seven and eight, but sometimes...

  9. Structural studies and band gap tuning of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinet, Gunjan Kumar, Ravindra Sajal, Vivek

    2014-04-24

    Structural and optical properties of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the thermal decomposition method are presented. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the substitution of Cr on Zn sites without changing the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Modified form of W-H equations was used to calculate various physical parameters and their variation with Cr doping is discussed. Significant red shift was observed in band gap, i.e., a band gap tuning is achieved by Cr doping which could eventually be useful for optoelectronic applications.

  10. Pressure dependence of the magnetic order in CrAs: A neutron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure dependence of the magnetic order in CrAs: A neutron diffraction investigation Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January...

  11. Stress Evolution Behavior in CoCrPt Alloy Thin Films with varying Pt Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, M.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Stress Evolution Behavior in CoCrPt Alloy Thin Films withmagnetic recording media is to investigate growth stress,since stress inevitably generated during thin film

  12. CORROSION OF Fe-10Al-Cr ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    off-gas from a typical gasifier contains large percentagesIOAl-Cr alloys at coal-gasifier This FeS and CaS0 operating

  13. The effects of the middle school concept on student achievement as identified by principals and the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports in selected middle schools in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brundrett, Robert Clinton

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the level of implementation of the middle school concept and student achievement. The level of implementation of the middle school concept ...

  14. Magnetic Interaction Reversal In Watermelon Nanostructured Cr-doped Fe Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-11-11

    Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr (<10 at. %) were selected in order to inhibit the complete conversion of the Fe-oxide shell to Cr2O3 and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (rv25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of r-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect,1,2 where an antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling exists between two ferromagnetic (FM) layers separated by a certain type of magnetic or non-magnetic spacer,3 has significant potential for application in the magnetic recording industry. Soon after the discovery of the GMR, the magnetic properties of multilayer systems (FeCr) became a subject of intensive study. The application of bulk iron-chromium (Fe-Cr) alloys has been of great interest, as these alloys exhibit favorable prop- erties including corrosion resistance, high strength, hardness, low oxidation rate, and strength retention at elevated temper- ature. However, the structural and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters (NCs) have not been investigated in-depth. Of all NCs, Fe-based clusters have unique magnetic properties as well as favorable catalytic characteristics in reactivity, selectivity, and durability.4 The incorporation of dopant of varied type and concentration in Fe can modify its chemical ordering, thereby optimizing its electrical, optical, and magnetic properties and opening up many new applications. The substitution of an Fe atom (1.24 A? ) by a Cr atom (1.25 A? ) can easily modify the magnetic properties, since (i) the curie temperature (Tc ) of Fe is 1043 K, while Cr is an itinerant AFM with a bulk Neel temperature TN =311 K, and (ii) Fe and Cr share the same crystal structure (bcc) with only 0.5% difference between their lattice constants.

  15. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N INDIANA315BNSFBOE

  16. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N INDIANA315BNSFBOEGas

  17. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RU N

  18. Page 1 | B.A. in Middle Grades Education | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.A. in Middle Grades Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    Page 1 | B.A. in Middle Grades Education | Academic Plan of Study Updated March 2014 B.A. in Middle Grades Education Academic Plan of Study College of Education Department of Middle, Secondary and K-12 Education education.uncc.edu/mdsk PROGRAM SUMMARY · Credit Hours: 120-128 · Concentrations: English

  19. Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    cladding include austenitic stainless steels, solid solution and precipitation-hardened alloys, ferritic­martensitic is on the ferritic­martensitic 9Cr ODS steel, which was originally developed by JAEA for use in sodium-cooled fastTransmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water A

  20. Towards the use of Cr-rules and Semantic Contents in ASP for planning in GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Christian

    Towards the use of Cr-rules and Semantic Contents in ASP for planning in GIS Claudia Zepeda Cort, using cr-rules. Keywords: Answer sets, GIS, Planning. 1 Introduction Government is responsible as part of a Geographical In- formation System (GIS) in order to give decision support. Besides, our work

  1. Precipitation in a Cu–Cr–Zr–Mg alloy during aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.Y. Shen, B.; Yu, F.X.

    2013-07-15

    The precipitation processes in a Cu-0.69Cr-0.10Zr-0.02Mg alloy aged at 450 °C and 550 °C have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 450 °C is: supersaturated solid solution ? Guinier–Preston zone (fcc Cr-rich phase) ? ordered fcc Cr-rich phase ? ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 550 °C is: supersaturated solid solution ? ordered fcc Cr-rich phase ? ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. In the evolution of decomposition, the orientation relationship between the precipitates and the Cu matrix changes from cube-on-cube to Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. The ordering of Cr-rich precipitates facilitates the formation of the bcc precipitates and promotes the development of Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. - Highlights: • Two different precipitation sequences in the Cu–Cr–Zr–Mg alloy are proposed. • The changes in orientation relationship of the precipitates are presented. • The roles of ordering and coherent interface of the precipitates are discussed.

  2. Metastable bcc phase formation in the Nb-Cr-Ti system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, D.J.; Perepezko, J.H.

    1994-08-01

    Metastable disordered bcc phases have been formed from the melt in the Nb-Cr-Ti system where primary Laves phases would develop under equilibrium solidification conditions. Three vertical temperature-composition sections in the ternary system incorporating NbCr, were evaluated: the Nb-Cr binary, the TiCr{sub 2}-NbCr{sub 2} isoplethal section, and the NbCr{sub 2}-Ti plethal section. In the rapid solidification of NbCr{sub 2}, metastable bcc phase formation was not observed, but deviations from NbCr{sub 2} stoichiometry or alloying with Ti was found to promote bcc phase formation by decreasing the required liquid undercooling to reach the metastable bcc liquidus and solidus. The metastable phases were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), and systematic deviations from Vegard`s Rule have been defined in the three plethal sections. The metastable bcc phases decompose at temperatures >800{degrees}C to uniformly refined microstructures. As a result, novel microstructural tailoring schemes are possible through the metastable precursor microstructures.

  3. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

  4. Compressive deformation and failure of CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Raghavan, R.; Zeng, X. T.; Michler, J.; Clegg, W. J.

    2014-02-28

    The deformation and failure mechanisms of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings containing grains a few nanometres in size have been compared with those of conventional CrN-based coatings. It is shown that the addition of amorphous Si3N4 phase increased the yield...

  5. Precipitation in the Equiatomic High-Entropy Alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickering, E. J.; Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Stone, H. J.; Jones, N. G.

    2015-11-02

    CrMnFeCoNi is widely considered to be an exemplar high-entropy alloy, which is stable as a single solid-solution phase at all temperatures below its melting point. Here, for the first time, the formation of two distinct types of Cr-rich precipitate...

  6. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Implementation of scattering pinhole diagnostic for detection of fusion products on CR-39 at high particle fluence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, David, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Many Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments use solid-state nuclear track detector CR-39 as a means to detect different types of nuclear products. Until recently, it was difficult to use CR-39 in experiments with ...

  8. On the Relation Between Oxide Ridge Evolution and Alloy Surface Grain Boundary Disorientation in Fe22 wt % Cr Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    design requires the use of interconnectors in the SOFC stack that provide mechanical support to the cell and on relatively expensive high Cr superalloys have been used as interconnector materials.2 However, lowering for interconnector applications, alumina or silica formers are not suitable. Fe­Cr-based alloys less than 24 wt % Cr

  9. Progress in the material development of LiCaAlF sub 6 :Cr sup 3+ laser crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelle D. Shinn.; Chase, L.L.; Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Atherton, L.J.; Kway, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    High Cr{sup 3+} doping levels, up to 8 mole percent, and low losses have been obtained with the tunable solid-state laser material LiCaAlF{sub 6}:Cr{sup 3+} (Cr:LiCAF). Measurements and calculations show that high pumping and extraction efficiencies are possible with the improved material. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Lipid bloated subretinal microglial cells are at the origin of Drusen appearance in CX3CR1 deficient mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lipid bloated subretinal microglial cells are at the origin of Drusen appearance in CX3CR1 of sizeable dome-shaped material below the RPE. We show that aged CX3CR1-/- mice present with drusen,version1-1Sep2008 #12;shaped sub-RPE debris of an equivalent size (7). We recently demonstrated that CX3CR

  11. Cr-Ga-N materials for negative electrodes in Li rechargeable batteries : structure, synthesis and electrochemical performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Miso

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical performances of two ternary compounds (Cr2GaN and Cr3GaN) in the Cr-Ga-N system as possible future anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries were studied. Motivation for this study was dealt in ...

  12. Temperature activated self-lubrication in CrN/Mo2N nanolayer coatings Robin Abraham Koshy 1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    . Introduction Hard coatings for cutting tools have been in use for many decades , [1­6], and have evolved from coatings Tool coatings Self lubrication Multi-layers Magnetron Sputtering Reactive sputtering CrN Mo2N CrTemperature activated self-lubrication in CrN/Mo2N nanolayer coatings Robin Abraham Koshy 1

  13. Effects of competing magnetic interactions on the electronic transport properties of CuCrSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Girish C.; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 ; Karppinen, Maarit; Rastogi, Ashok K.

    2013-02-15

    We have synthesized single-phase samples of the CuCrSe{sub 2} phase that exhibits hexagonal-rhombohedral layered crystal structure with space group R3m. Here we present a detailed study of electronic transport and magnetic properties of CuCrSe{sub 2}. We moreover investigate the heat capacity of CuCrSe{sub 2} in comparison to that of CuCrS{sub 2}. The electrical resistivity of CuCrSe{sub 2} shows metallic-like behavior down to 2 K, while the thermoelectric power is large around 100 {mu}V K{sup -1} at 300 K. A weak anomaly in resistivity and a rounded maximum in magnetic susceptibility are observed around 55 K. No sharp transition at 55 K is observed in the heat capacity of CuCrSe{sub 2}, rather a visible maximum is seen. At low temperatures from 2 to 14 K, the magnetic heat capacity follows T{sup 2}-dependence. We tentatively believe this behavior of CuCrSe{sub 2} to be due to competing magnetic interactions between intralayer Cr atoms. The ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr indirect exchange among intralayer Cr atoms is enhanced in the selenide compound (that is more metallic than the sulfide compound), and competes with the antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr direct interactions. The interlayer antiferromagnetic exchange through Cu atoms leads to magnetic ordering at low temperature at T{sub N}=55 K. - Graphical abstract: Comparison of magnetic properties of CuCrSe{sub 2} and CuCrS{sub 2} indicates a sharp cusp-like anomaly in magnetic susceptibility at the antiferromagnetic transition of CuCrS{sub 2} while the maximum of CuCrSe{sub 2} is well rounded. Magnetization is reversible after field-cooling (FC) and zero-field-cooling (ZFC) for both compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Layered CuCrSe{sub 2} can be synthesized in both fully and partially cation-ordered forms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrary to previously believed insulating nature the cation-ordered phase is metallic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property of CuCrSe{sub 2} is somewhat different from that of CuCrS{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetization and heat capacity data suggest complex short-range ordering for CuCrSe{sub 2}.

  14. Game On! Middle School Camp Engineering Challenge Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Game On! Middle School Camp Engineering Challenge Camp Hosted by the West Virginia University Student Discussion 501 ESB 2:00 p.m. Human Powered Vehicle ESB Atrium Dr. Kostas Sierros and Team 3:00 p Engineering Learning Center Cate Schlobohm 3:00 p.m. High School Presentations ESB Atrium Cate Schlobohm 4

  15. Name __________________________________________________________________ Date of Birth _______/_______/_______ Family Given Middle Month Day Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanibbi, Richard

    Year Projected Support Second Year Third Year Fourth Year Declaration of Financial Support #12; _______/_______/_______ Family Given Middle Month Day Year Visa Requested: F-1 (I-20) Other first year of study at RIT is US$ ___________________________. I certify that the information provided

  16. Domestic Artefacts: Sustainability in the context of Indian Middle Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    Domestic Artefacts: Sustainability in the context of Indian Middle Class Dhaval Vyas Human Media Interaction University of Twente, the Netherlands dhaval_vyas@yahoo.com ABSTRACT Sustainability has become one has focused on the Western culture. In this paper, we explore sustainable household practices

  17. Probe Mössbauer spectroscopy of mechanical alloying in binary Cr?{sup 57}Fe(1 at%) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsukov, Evgeny P. Kolodkin, Denis A. Ul'yanov, Alexander L. Porsev, Vitaly E.

    2014-10-27

    Solid state reactions during mechanical alloying (MA) in a binary mixture of powdered Cr and {sup 57}Fe in atomic ratio of 99:1 have been studied using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Auger spectrometry. The proposed model of MA includes formation of Cr(Fe){sub x}O{sub y} oxides at the contact places of Cr and Fe particles, formation of nanostructure with simultaneous dissolution of the oxides, penetration of Fe atoms along grain boundaries in close-to-boundary distorted zones of interfaces in a substitutional position, formation of the substitutional solid solution of Fe in Cr in the body of grains. It was shown that the increase in the BCC lattice parameter on increasing the milling time is due to the dissolution of oxides and formation of interstitial solid solution of O in Cr. There were established substantial differences in consumption of BCC Fe in a Mg ? Al ? Si ? Cr sequence due to the major role of chemical interaction of Mg(Al,Si,Cr) with Fe.

  18. Ferromagnetic superexchange in insulating Cr2MoO6 by controlling orbital hybridization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, M.; Do, D.; Dela Cruz, Clarina R.; Dun, Zhiling; Cheng, J. -G.; Goto, H.; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Zou, T.; Zhou, Haidon D.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; et al

    2015-09-11

    We report the magnetic and electronic structures of the newly synthesized inverse-trirutile compound Cr2MoO6. Despite the same crystal symmetry and similar bond-lengths and bond-angles to Cr2TeO6, Cr2MoO6 possesses a magnetic structure of the Cr2MoO6 type, different from that seen in Cr2TeO6. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations show that the sign and strength of the Cr-O-Cr exchange coupling is strongly influenced by the hybridization between Mo 4d and O 2p orbitals. This result further substantiates our recently proposed mechanism for tuning the exchange interaction between two magnetic atoms by modifying the electronic states of the non-magnetic atoms in the exchange path throughmore »orbital hybridization. This approach is fundamentally different from the conventional methods of controlling the exchange interaction by either carrier injection or through structural distortions.« less

  19. Magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in Cr{sub 8}, Cr{sub 7}Cd, and Cr{sub 7}Ni molecular rings from {sup 19}F-NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordonali, L.; Borsa, F.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Garlatti, E.; Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 7 Casadei, C. M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 ; Furukawa, Y.; Lascialfari, A.; Consorzio INSTM, Via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze; Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano ; Carretta, S.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.

    2014-04-14

    A detailed experimental investigation of the {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance is made on single crystals of the homometallic Cr{sub 8} antiferromagnetic molecular ring and heterometallic Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni rings in the low temperature ground state. Since the F{sup ?} ion is located midway between neighboring magnetic metal ions in the ring, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra yield information about the local electronic spin density and {sup 19}F hyperfine interactions. In Cr{sub 8}, where the ground state is a singlet with total spin S{sub T} = 0, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra at 1.7 K and low external magnetic field display a single narrow line, while when the magnetic field is increased towards the first level crossing field, satellite lines appear in the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum, indicating a progressive increase in the Boltzmann population of the first excited state S{sub T} = 1. In the heterometallic rings, Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 7}Ni, whose ground state is magnetic with S{sub T} = 3/2 and S{sub T} = 1/2, respectively, the {sup 19}F-NMR spectrum has a complicated structure which depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field, due to both isotropic and anisotropic transferred hyperfine interactions and classical dipolar interactions. From the {sup 19}F-NMR spectra in single crystals we estimated the transferred hyperfine constants for both the F{sup ?}-Ni{sup 2+} and the F{sup ?}-Cd{sup 2+} bonds. The values of the hyperfine constants compare well to the ones known for F{sup ?}-Ni{sup 2+} in KNiF{sub 3} and NiF{sub 2} and for F{sup ?}-Cr{sup 3+} in K{sub 2}NaCrF{sub 6}. The results are discussed in terms of hybridization of the 2s, 2p orbitals of the F{sup ?} ion and the d orbitals of the magnetic ion. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the electron-spin decoherence.

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Study of the Fe-Cr-Zr System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Bei, Hongbin; Busby, Jeremy T

    2013-01-01

    Wide applications of zircaloys, stainless steels and their interactions in nuclear reactors require the knowledge on phase stability and thermodynamic property of the Fe-Cr-Zr system. This knowledge is also important to develop new Zr-contained Fe-Cr ferritic steels. This work aims at developing thermodynamic models for describing phase stability and thermodynamic property of the Fe-Cr-Zr system using the Calphad approach coupled with experimental study. Thermodynamic descriptions of the Fe-Cr and Cr-Zr systems were either directly adopted or slightly modified from literature. The Fe-Zr system has been remodeled to accommodate recent ab-initio calculation of formation enthalpies of various Fe-Zr compounds. Reliable ternary experimental data and thermodynamic models were mainly available in the Zr-rich region. Therefore, selected ternary alloys located in the vicinity of the eutectic valley of (Fe,Cr,Zr) and (Fe,Cr)2Zr laves phase in the Fe-rich region have been experimentally investigated in this study. Microstructure has been examined by using scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive Xray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These experimental results, along with the literature data were then used to develop thermodynamic models for phases in the Fe-Cr-Zr system. Calculated phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the ternary system yield satisfactory agreements with available experimental data, which gives the confidence to use these models as building blocks for developing a Zr, Fe and Cr contained multicomponent thermodynamic database for broader applications in nuclear reactors.

  1. Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Ramanan, Sathvik; Walvekar, Sarita K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-11-21

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefor laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr0.61Mo0.39, Cr0.77Mo0.23, and Cr0.32V0.68 alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were thus confirmed.

  2. Nanoscale phase separation in epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V alloy thin films studied using atom probe tomography: Comparison of experiments and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, A.; Ramanan, S.; Walvekar, S.; Bowden, M. E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kaspar, T. C.; Kurtz, R. J.

    2014-11-21

    Tailored metal alloy thin film-oxide interfaces generated using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition of alloy thin films on a single crystalline oxide substrate can be used for detailed studies of irradiation damage response on the interface structure. However, the presence of nanoscale phase separation in the MBE grown alloy thin films can impact the metal-oxide interface structure. Due to nanoscale domain size of such phase separation, it is very challenging to characterize by conventional techniques. Therefore, laser assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized to study the phase separation in epitaxial Cr{sub 0.61}Mo{sub 0.39}, Cr{sub 0.77}Mo{sub 0.23}, and Cr{sub 0.32}V{sub 0.68} alloy thin films grown by MBE on MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Statistical analysis, namely frequency distribution analysis and Pearson coefficient analysis of experimental data was compared with similar analyses conducted on simulated APT datasets with known extent of phase separation. Thus, the presence of phase separation in Cr-Mo films, even when phase separation was not clearly observed by x-ray diffraction, and the absence of phase separation in the Cr-V film were confirmed.

  3. The rise of the emerging Middle East carriers : outlook and implications for the global airline industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Sayeh, Karim Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The development of the aviation industry in the Middle East over the past decade has captivated both industry watchers and passengers alike. The interest in the Middle East aviation industry is due to the fact that it has ...

  4. ULUSLARARASI LKLER: TRKYE, AVRUPA VE ORTA DOU (MIR) (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: TURKEY, EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : TURKEY, EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST) II. Öretim Tezsiz Yüksek Lisans Asil Sinif - Kabul Listesi (Without) (INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: TURKEY, EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST) II. Öretim Tezli Yüksek Lisans Asil Sinif - Kabul

  5. The Rapid Rise of Middle-Class Vehicle Ownership in Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirgaokar, Manish

    2012-01-01

    of the Indian Middle Classes. Routledge, India, 2011. Ben-The Politics of Forgetting: Class Politics, State Power andEconomy of the Middle Classes in Liberalising India. Working

  6. The Rapid Rise of Middle-Class Vehicle Ownership in Mumbai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirgaokar, Manish

    2012-01-01

    and established middle-classes. Figure 2.11 shows threeof the Indian Middle Classes. Routledge, India, 2011. Ben-The Politics of Forgetting: Class Politics, State Power and

  7. "Shelter within my reach" : medium rise apartment housing for the middle income group in Karachi, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Saman, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis identifies the project development processes of medium rise (five storied or less) apartment housing built by the private formal sector, catering to the middle income groups in Karachi, Pakistan. Middle income ...

  8. D.C. Middle and High School Students Get a Chance to Experience...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    D.C. Middle and High School Students Get a Chance to Experience the Regional Science Bowl Competition Setting D.C. Middle and High School Students Get a Chance to Experience the...

  9. Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-10-01

    Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ºC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

  10. Electrochemical Testing of Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Lister; R. E. Mizia; H. Tian

    2005-10-01

    The waste package site recommendation design specified a boron-containing stainless steel, Neutronit 976/978, for fabrication of the internal baskets that will be used as a corrosion-resistant neutron-absorbing material. Recent corrosion test results gave higher-than-expected corrosion rates for this material. The material callout for these components has been changed to a Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy (ASTM-B 932-04, UNS N06464) that is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory. This report discusses the results of initial corrosion testing of this material in simulated in-package environments that could contact the fuel baskets after breach of the waste package outer barrier. The corrosion test matrix was executed using the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic electrochemical test techniques. The alloy performance shows low rates of general corrosion after initial removal of a gadolinium-rich second phase that intersects the surface. The high halide-containing test solutions exhibited greater tendencies toward initiation of crevice corrosion.

  11. Modelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    Modelling complex flood flow evolution in the middle Yellow River basin, China Hongming He a January 2008 KEYWORDS Flood routing; Backwater flow; The middle Yellow River; River morphology Summary Flood routing processes in the middle Yellow River basin are complex since they consist of three types

  12. Distribution of the tiger beetle Megacephala {Grammognatha) euphratica in Egypt, the Middle East and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of the tiger beetle Megacephala {Grammognatha) euphratica in Egypt, the Middle East Megacephala euphratica in Egypt, the Middle East and Central Asia is analysed and localities are listed, Egypt, Middle East, Central Asia. Introduction Most recently the Mediterranean and North African

  13. Sharp boundaries of small-and middle-scale solar wind structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Sharp boundaries of small- and middle-scale solar wind structures M. O. Riazantseva1 and G. N wind ion flux changes which are not due to shocks. These changes are boundaries of small- and middle boundaries of small- and middle-scale solar wind structures, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A12110, doi:10

  14. Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Seung Yeob

    1 Enhanced ARP: Preventing ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks Seung Yeob Nam, Member- tion Protocol (ARP) is proposed to prevent ARP poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks deployable. Index Terms--ARP cache poisoning, Man-in-the-Middle attack, ARP poisoning prevention, voting. I

  15. Seasonal persistence of northern low-and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases) Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases outputs online #12;Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other

  16. Rev. 10/08 Registration | student info change.doc Last Name First Name Middle Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    Rev. 10/08 ­ Registration | student info change.doc Student ID Last Name First Name Middle Name Resources) New: Last First Middle Former: Last First Middle Reason(s) for name change (check all that apply): Marital Status Naturalization or Citizenship (Documentation required) Spelling Correction Legal Name

  17. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS TBD Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Report NESDIS TBD Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) User. NESDIS 114 Satellite Rainfall Estimation Over South America: Evaluation of Two Major Events. Daniel A

  18. CORROSION OF Fe-10Al-Cr ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Potent.ials Encountered in Coal Conversion Systems", NASA TNof Illinois #6 ash and coal char. Figure 1. Cross sectionsof Fe-lOAl-Cr Alloys by Coal Char B. A. Gordon and V.

  19. Microstructural Stability of 9-12 Cr Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to explore new substitutional solute solution (Cu, Co) and precipitate (TiC) hardening mechanisms for improved strength of 9-12 Cr martensitic steels.

  20. Rolling contact fatigue in martensitic 100Cr6: Subsurface hardening and crack formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jee-Hyun; Vegter, R. H.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E. J.

    2014-04-13

    Rolling contact fatigue tests on 100Cr6 steel were carried out with a ball-on-rod tester. Microstructural damage was manifested by gradual hardness changes under the subsurface, and microcracks formed adjacent to inclusions; both being evidence...

  1. NASA-CR-203364 0045-7949(94)E0223-0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    dds =and bo for _ Pergamon NASA-CR-203364 0045-7949(94)E0223-0 REDUCED BASIS TECHNIQUE Technology, University of Virginia, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, U.S.A. (Received 28

  2. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in Cr-doped semiconducting Ge-chalcogenide: Density functional approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Hardev S.; Singh, Mukhtiyar; Thakur, Jyoti; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2014-04-24

    A supercell approach has been used to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Ge chalcogenide, Ge{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}Te (x = 0.25 and 0.125). The calculations have been performed using full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The calculated results show that the doping of Cr induces the 100% spin polarization at Fermi level (EF) and showed the robust half metallic ferromagnetism in this compound. Thus, the compound at both dopant concentrations behave as dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) showing metallic property in majority and semiconducting for minority spin channels which is best suited for spintronic applications. The total magnetic moments of this compound are mainly due to Cr-d states present at E{sup F} with negligible contribution from electronic states of other atoms.

  3. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solan Beach, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  4. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solana Beach, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  5. In Situ Long-Term Reductive Bioimmobilization of Cr(VI) in Groundwater...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    injection into Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater stimulates an average increase in biomass by up to 50 times, from-5105 to 2.5107 cellsmL. The results also show a...

  6. while ll 6= ERROR do tcl tuple of ctcl corresponding to ll.tid cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samet, Hanan

    corresponding to cdb.tid cr lca #12;rst tuple t of li cl such that t.class >= ca.name caf while lca 6= ERROR and lca.class = ca.name do lia tuple of logical images corresponding to lca.tid cr lcb #12;rst tuple next tuple of li cl in alphabetic order can lca next tuple of li cl in alphabetic order can Plan P4P

  7. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  8. Surface modification to improve fireside corrosion resistance of Fe-Cr ferritic steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL); Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL); Rink, David L. (Mokena, IL)

    2010-03-16

    An article of manufacture and a method for providing an Fe--Cr ferritic steel article of manufacture having a surface layer modification for corrosion resistance. Fe--Cr ferritic steels can be modified to enhance their corrosion resistance to liquid coal ash and other chemical environments, which have chlorides or sulfates containing active species. The steel is modified to form an aluminide/silicide passivating layer to reduce such corrosion.

  9. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy to optimize resistance to intergrannular stress corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Bibb, Albert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprising heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cool the alloy body, and heat the cooled body to a temperature between 1100.degree. to 1500.degree. F. for about 1 to 30 hours.

  10. Determination of mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-P amorphous alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondlapudi, Swaroop Kumar R

    1991-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Ni-Cr-P AMORPHOUS ALLOYS A Thesis by SWAROOP KUMAR R. KONDLAPUDI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Ni-Cr-P AMORPHOUS ALLOYS A Thesis by SWAROOP KUMAR R. KONDLAPUDI Approved as to style and content by I-t (, :()o . e, ~&am A. Wolfenden...

  11. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  12. Processing of LaCrO{sub 3} for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, W.; Anderson, H.U.

    1994-09-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla is performing a 5 year research program dedicated towards the development of LaCrO{sub 3}-based interconnect powders which densify when in contact with anode and cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). During the course of this program the authors investigated compositions within the pseudo-ternary LaCrO{sub 3}-LaMnO{sub 3}-LaCoO{sub 3} system. Their expanded studies on the processing and sintering of LaCrO{sub 3} to make dense interconnects using LaCrO{sub 3}-based oxides at temperatures less than 1,500 C in an air atmosphere and in contact with both anode and cathode oxides. The specific objectives of this research program are to: Develop a novel technique which reproducibly yields LaCrO{sub 3}-based powders with the desired particle characteristics; Fully understand the liquid phase sintering mechanism; Clearly identify the reason why LaCrO{sub 3} does not densify in the presence of electrolyte and cathode materials; Systematically solve this problem through judicious control over the liquid phase; and Incorporate materials developed in this program into planar cells and measure their performance. Results are discussed on porosity and skrinkage, and sintering and melting behaviors.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of n-irradiated Fe-Cr Model Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matijasevic, Milena; Al Mazouzi, Abderrahim

    2008-07-01

    High chromium ( 9-12 wt %) ferritic/martensitic steels are candidate structural materials for future fusion reactors and other advanced systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). Their use for these applications requires a careful assessment of their mechanical stability under high energy neutron irradiation and in aggressive environments. In particular, the Cr concentration has been shown to be a key parameter to be optimized in order to guarantee the best corrosion and swelling resistance, together with the least embrittlement. In this work, the characterization of the neutron irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys with different Cr % with respect to microstructure and mechanical tests will be presented. The behavior of Fe-Cr alloys have been studied using tensile tests at different temperature range ( from -160 deg. C to 300 deg. C). Irradiation-induced microstructure changes have been studied by TEM for two different irradiation doses at 300 deg. C. The density and the size distribution of the defects induced have been determined. The tensile test results indicate that Cr content affects the hardening behavior of Fe-Cr binary alloys. Hardening mechanisms are discussed in terms of Orowan type of approach by correlating TEM data to the measured irradiation hardening. (authors)

  14. Radiation Tolerance of Neutron-Irradiated Model Fe-Cr-Al Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Ken; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. A structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  15. Networks of ultrasmall Pd/Cr bilayer nanowires as high performance hydrogen sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X.-Q.; Wang, Y.-L.; Deng, H.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Pearson, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, H.-H.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed hydrogen sensor, based on a network of ultrasmall pure palladium nanowires sputter-deposited on a filtration membrane, takes advantage of single palladium nanowires' characteristics of high speed and sensitivity while eliminating their nanofabrication obstacles. However, this new type of sensor, like the single palladium nanowires, cannot distinguish hydrogen concentrations above 3%, thus limiting the potential applications of the sensor. This study reports hydrogen sensors based on a network of ultrasmall Cr-buffered Pd (Pd/Cr) nanowires on a filtration membrane. These sensors not only are able to outperform their pure Pd counterparts in speed and durability but also allow hydrogen detection at concentrations up to 100%. The new networks consist of a thin layer of palladium deposited on top of a Cr adhesion layer 1-3 nm thick. Although the Cr layer is insensitive to hydrogen, it enables the formation of a network of continuous Pd/Cr nanowires with thicknesses of the Pd layer as thin as 2 nm. The improved performance of the Pd/Cr sensors can be attributed to the increased surface area to volume ratio and to the confinement-induced suppression of the phase transition from Pd/H solid solution ({alpha}-phase) to Pd hydride ({beta}-phase).

  16. Hood River Middle School Music and Science Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Hood River, Oregon The Hood River Middle School Music and Science Building is includes music and science classroom, music practice rooms, teacher offices, a greenhouse, an adjacent recycling and storage building, and outdoor spaces including an amphitheater and garden. The building is integrated with the school's progressive sustainability and permaculture curriculum. Students can track and create experiments using data from the buildings net zero energy system and rainwater harvesting system, and learn about the building's innovative and integrated use of materials and systems.

  17. Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan) crinoids from Oklahoma and Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strimple, H. L.

    1975-05-28

    (1969), are included. One new species from the Webbers Falls Shale Member, Atoka Formation, in Wag- oner County, Oklahoma, is described and ma- terial is included from an unnamed shale in Manuscript received November 20, 1979. Johnston County as well... the base of the cup, is assigned to the species. Hypotype.—OU 4480, Paleontological Collec- tions, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma; collected by Allen A. Graffham. Occurrence.—Barnett Hill Member, Atoka Formation, Atokan Stage (Middle...

  18. Literary Influences and Adaptation in the Middle English Kyng Alisaunder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Geneva

    2008-01-01

    of later Greek and Roman authors. Men like Callisthenes, Ptolemy and Aristobolus recorded their experiences with Alexander’s court and army in the East, and in so doing codified the fundamental facts of his life and achievements. These first generation... five languages: Classical Greek, Classical Latin, Medieval Latin, Anglo-Norman and Middle English. I have presented direct quotes from the Greek texts in Greek script. I use the transliterated form of Greek words, such as polis, when such words...

  19. Middle East and African Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvesting in MinorityOverview and HistoryCafeteriaspMiddle

  20. ROTATIONAL REST FREQUENCIES FOR CrO (X 5Pr) AND CrN (X 4) P. M. Sheridan, M. A. Brewster, and L. M. Ziurys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    were created by the reac- tion of chromium vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with N2O or NH3 under 10À8, while the Cr/H ratio is 4:8 Â 10À7 (Savage & Sembach 1996). The solar abundance of chromium

  1. Influence of the hydration by the environmental humidity on the metallic speciation and the photocatalytic activity of Cr/MCM-41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elías, Verónica R.; Sabre, Ema V.; Winkler, Elin L.; Andrini, Leandro; Requejo, Félix G.; Casuscelli, Sandra G.; Eimer, Griselda A.

    2014-05-01

    The influence of the environmental humidity on the Cr species deposited on inorganic supports like MCM-41 silicates was analyzed by UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance (UV–vis RD), Electronic Spin Resonance (ESR) and X-ray near-edge (XANES) spectroscopy. Metal speciation could be inferred, finding that prolonged exposure periods under environmental humidity provoked the reduction of the active Cr{sup 6+} species and thus, the decrease of the Cr/MCM-41 photoactivity. After the Ti loading over the Cr modified samples, Cr species and the photoactivity were not notably influenced by the humidity exposure. Thus, it could be concluded that the presence of Ti is important because the TiO{sub 2} cover protects the oxidized Cr species, stabilizing them. - Graphical abstract: The load of Ti on the Cr modified MCM-41 produces a TiO{sub 2} cover that protects the active Cr species from their reduction by the environmental humidity. - Highlights: • Spectroscopic analysis shows presence of Cr{sup 6+}/Cr{sup 5+} in calcined/re-calcined samples. • Cr{sup 3+} species increase for hydrated samples causing their photoactivity decrease. • Samples with high Cr loadings are more sensitive to environmental humidity presence. • TiO{sub 2} cover protects oxidized Cr species from their reduction by the water. • Ti is important to allow a synergistic effect and to stabilize active Cr{sup 6+}/Cr{sup 5+}.

  2. Stephan Klemme Hugh St.C. O'Neill The reaction MgCr2O4 + SiO2 = Cr2O3 + MgSiO3 and the free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bar and 298 K (J molA1 ) DG Gibbs free energy change for a reaction among pure end membersStephan Klemme á Hugh St.C. O'Neill The reaction MgCr2O4 + SiO2 = Cr2O3 + MgSiO3 and the free energy of formation of magnesiochromite (MgCr2O4) Received: 9 May 1997 / Accepted: 28 July 1997 Abstract

  3. Comparative studies of etching mechanisms of CR-39 in NaOH/H2O and NaOH/ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Comparative studies of etching mechanisms of CR-39 in NaOH/H2O and NaOH/ethanol K.C.C. Tse, D Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Available online 13 May 2007 Abstract The bulk etch rate for CR-39 in NaOH/ethanol accumulates on the surface of CR-39 detector during etching in NaOH/ethanol, which is absent during etching

  4. Production of Ni-Cr-Ti-natural fibres composite and investigation of mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesmen, G.; Erol, A.

    2015-03-30

    Intermetallic materials such as Ni{sub 2}Ti, Cr{sub 2}Ti are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of (%50Ni-%48Cr-%2Ti)-%10Naturel Fibres and (%64Ni-%32Cr-%4Ti)-%10Naturel Fibres powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1200-1400°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Ti,Cr and Ni have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition (%64Ni-%32Cr-%4Ti)-%10Naturel at 1400°C suggest that the best properties as 112.09HV and 5,422g/cm{sup 3} density were obtained at 1400°C.

  5. Ablation and cone formation mechanism on CR-39 by ArF laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakeri Jooybari, B. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Afarideh, H. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Ghergherehchi, M.

    2015-03-07

    In this work, chemical properties, surface modification, and micro structures formation on ablated polyallyl di-glycol carbonate (CR-39) polymer by ArF laser irradiation (??=?193?nm) at various fluences and pulse number were investigated. CR-39 samples have been irradiated with an ArF laser (193?nm) at a repetition rate of 1?Hz. Threshold fluence of ablation and effective absorption coefficient of CR-39 were determined. Conical microstructures (Taylor cone) formed on laser-ablated CR-39 exhibit: smooth, Taylor cone shape walls and sharp tips together with interference and well defined fringe-structure with a period of 230?nm, around cone base. Mechanism of cone formation and cone evolution of CR-39 ablated surface were investigated by change of fluences (at a given pulse number) and pulse number (at a given fluence). Cone height, cone base, and region of interface were increased in micrometer steps by increasing the total fluence. Depression on the base of the cone and the circular fringe were simulated. FTIR spectra were measured and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of irradiated and un-irradiated samples was performed.

  6. ROLE OF QUARTERNARY ADDITIONS ON DISLOCATED MARTENSITE, RETAIN AUSTENITE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Fe/Cr/C STRUCTURAL STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Bangaru Venkata Narasimha

    2011-01-01

    ductile fracture (dimpled rupture) above DBTT. While the Fe/4Cr/0.35C base steels exhibited excellent plane strain fracture toughness

  7. Middle School Science Bowl Registration | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection ofOctober10MidSchoolMath CommunityMiddle School

  8. Ames wins 2015 Middle School Science Bowl | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWith PropaneNaturalTest YourProgramAmeswins 2015 Middle School

  9. 2016 Middle School Science Bowl Participating Teams | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 2010 james-r.giusti@srs.govTuesday,255Events2016HighMiddle

  10. Middle Georgia El Member Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,Mereg GmbH Jump to:EC-LEDSMidAmerican Energy CoMiddle

  11. Stratton Middle and High School Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBeforeCreek Wind FarmStratton Middle and

  12. Thomas Middle School Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation,TholenMiddle School

  13. Wellington Middle School Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw, Poland:EnergyWe Energy WindWellington Middle School Wind

  14. Conneaut Middle School Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures JumpCommercialRenewable Services GmbH JumpConneaut Middle

  15. Middle School | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6AerosolsofMarshall N.Medicine2015Michael M.Middle

  16. Response of 9Cr-ODS Steel to Proton Irradiation at 400 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianchao He; Farong Wan; Kumar Sridharan; Todd R. Allen; A. Certain; Y. Q. Wu

    2014-09-01

    The stability of Y–Ti–O nanoclusters, dislocation structure, and grain boundary segregation in 9Cr-ODS steels has been investigated following proton irradiation at 400 °C with damage levels up to 3.7 dpa. A slight coarsening and a decrease in number density of nanoclusters were observed as a result of irradiation. The composition of nanoclusters was also observed to change with a slight increase of Y and Cr concentration in the nanoclusters following irradiation. Size, density, and composition of the nanoclusters were investigated as a function of nanocluster size, specifically classified to three groups. In addition to the changes in nanoclusters, dislocation loops were observed after irradiation. Finally, radiation-induced enrichment of Cr and depletion of W were observed at grain boundaries after irradiation.

  17. Ionospheric slab thickness in middle and low latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, K.; Liu, X.M. (NOAA, Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere at 15 stations in middle and low latitudes was studied to determine its dependence on solar cycle and location. The data were grouped by season. The following are the major conclusions. There appears to be little or no geographical, or geomagnetic, dependence. The slab thickness varies approximately linearly with the 12-month smoothed values of the 10.7-cm solar radio flux. In middle latitudes the winter midnight thickness is essentially independent of the flux, whereas in summer and equinox the midnight thickness increases with increase of solar flux. The noon thickness increases with increase of solar flux in all seasons. The zero-order Fourier coeffficients for the diurnal curves at all 15 stations were expressed as linear functions of the 10.7-cm flux. The higher harmonic coefficients showed no appreciable dependence on solar flux. The pronounced predawn increase in slab thickness is caused by low values of the maximum electron density, not by increase of total electron content. 10 refs.

  18. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-08-21

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  20. Development and quality assessments of commercial heat production of ATF FeCrAl tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-01

    Development and quality assessment of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl tube production with commercial manufacturers were conducted. The manufacturing partners include Sophisticated Alloys, Inc. (SAI), Butler, PA for FeCrAl alloy casting via vacuum induction melting, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for extrusion process to prepare the master bars/tubes to be tube-drawn, and Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), North Ridgeville, OH, for tube-drawing process. The masters bars have also been provided to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who works with Century Tubes, Inc., (CTI), San Diego, CA, as parallel tube production effort under the current program.

  1. School as Classificatory Machine: Sorting, Socialization, and Class in a Japanese Middle School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeehwan

    2011-01-01

    History of Urban Lower Classes). Takehiro Kobayashi, ed. Pp.of Class 2. Schooling, Class Reproduction and Middle Schooland Classlessness 2. Class Identity and the Anthropology of

  2. Jefferson Lab Hosts 20 Teams for Middle School Science Bowl on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    testing their mental skills at the Department of Energy's Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl taking place at Jefferson Lab on Saturday, March 1. Twenty teams,...

  3. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  4. Information Technology and Middle Management Downsizing: A Tale of Two Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonneault, Alain; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    of Information Technology,” Management Science, in press,K.L. Kraemer, “Technology and Urban Management: The PowerInformation Technology and Middle Management Downsizing: A

  5. Middle school students' representational understandings and justification schemes: gleanings from cognitive interviews 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteson, Shirley Marie

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation investigated several aspects of middle graders’ mathematical understanding based on representational models. Twenty (11 male, 9 female) sixth grade students were interviewed about their solution strategies ...

  6. Dual and Triple Ion-Beam Irradiations of Fe, Fe(Cr) and Fe(Cr)-ODS Final Report: IAEA SMoRE CRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fluss, M J; Hsiung, L L; Marian, J

    2011-11-20

    Structures of nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37Y2O3 (K3) and Fe-20Cr-4.5Al-0.34Ti-0.5Y2O3 (MA956) oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels produced by mechanical alloying (MA) and followed by hot extrusion have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to gain insight about the formation mechanism of nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels. The observations of Y-Al-O complex-oxide nanoparticles in both ODS steels imply that decomposition of Y2O3 in association with internal oxidation of Al occurred during mechanical alloying. While the majority of oxide nanoparticles formed in both steels is Y4Al2O9, a few oxide particles of YAlO3 are also occasionally observed. These results reveal that Ti (0.3 wt %) plays an insignificant role in forming oxide nanoparticles in the presence of Al (4.5 wt %). HRTEM observations of crystalline nanoparticles larger than {approx}2 nm and amorphous or disordered cluster domains smaller than {approx}2 nm provide an insight into the formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticle in MA/ODS steels, which we believe from our observations involves a solid-state amorphous precursor followed by recrystallization. Dual ion-beam irradiations using He{sup +} + Fe{sup +8} ions were employed to gain more detailed insight about the role of nanoparticles in suppressing radiation-induced swelling. This is elaborated through TEM examinations of cavity distributions in ion-irradiated Fe-14Cr and K3-ODS ferritic steels. HRTEM observations of helium-filled cavities (helium bubbles) preferably trapped at nanoscale oxide particles and clusters in ion-irradiated K3-ODS are presented. Finally, we describe the results from triple ion-beam irradiations using H{sup +} + He{sup +} + Fe{sup +8} ions to emulate fusion first wall radiation effects. Preliminary work is reported that confirms the existence of significant hydrogen synergistic effects described earlier by Tanaka et al., for Fe(Cr) and by Wakai et al., for F82H reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAF/M) steel. These previous results combined with our data suggest a complex new 'catalytic' mechanism whereby H interacts with the steady state population of defects and the embryonic cavities so as to accelerated cavity (void) growth in both Fe(Cr) and under special conditions in ODS steels.

  7. An Electron Microscopy Investigation of the Transient Stage Oxidation Products in an Fe-22Cr Alloy with Ce and La

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    as interconnector materials.[1] However, lowering of the operational temperature of SOFCs from approximately 1273 K; these properties make Fe-Cr alloys favorable candidates for interconnector materials.[1,3] Research has been. A major problem with metallic interconnectors based on Fe-Cr alloys, is their reactivity

  8. Changes induced in a ZnS:Cr-based electroluminescent waveguide structure by intrinsic near-infrared laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlasenko, N. A. Oleksenko, P. F.; Mukhlyo, M. A.; Veligura, L. I.

    2013-08-15

    The causes of changes that occur in a thin-film electroluminescent metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal waveguide structure based on ZnS:Cr (Cr concentration of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) upon lasing ({lambda} Almost-Equal-To 2.6 {mu}m) and that induce lasing cessation are studied. It is established that lasing ceases because of light-scattering inhomogeneities formed in the structure and, hence, optical losses enhance. The origin of the inhomogeneities and the causes of their formation are clarified by studying the surface topology and the crystal structure of constituent layers of the samples before and after lasing. The studies are performed by means of atomic force microscopy and X-ray radiography. It is shown that a substantial increase in the sizes of grains on the surface of the structure is the manifestation of changes induced in the ZnS:Cr film by recrystallization. Recrystallization is initiated by local heating by absorbed laser radiation in existing Cr clusters and quickened by a strong electric field (>1 MV cm{sup -1}). The changes observed in the ZnS:Cr film are as follows: the textured growth of ZnS crystallites, an increase in the content of Cr clusters, and the appearance of some CrS and a rather high ZnO content. Some ways for improving the stability of lasing in the ZnS:Cr-based waveguide structures are proposed.

  9. Strain induced ferromagnetism in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films integrated on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punugupati, Sandhyarani Narayan, Jagdish; Hunte, Frank

    2014-09-29

    We report on the epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic and magnetoelectric (ME) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films deposited on cubic yttria stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ)/Si(001) using pulsed laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction (2? and ?) and TEM characterizations confirm that the films were grown epitaxially. The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) growth on YSZ(001) occurs with twin domains. There are four domains of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} with in-plane rotation of 30° or 150° from each other about the [0001] growth direction. The epitaxial relation between the layers is given as [001]Si???[001]YSZ???[0001]Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and [100]Si???[100]YSZ???[101{sup ¯}0] Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} or [112{sup ¯}0] Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Though the bulk Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an antiferromagnetic with T{sub N}?=?307?K, we found that the films exhibit ferromagnetic like hysteresis loops with high saturation and finite coercive field up to 400?K. The thickness dependent magnetizations together with oxygen annealing results suggest that the ferromagnetism (FM) is due to oxygen related defects whose concentration is controlled by strain present in the films. This FM, in addition to the intrinsic magneto-electric properties of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, opens the door to relevant spintronics applications.

  10. Crystalline ZnMgSe:Cr2+: a new material for active elements of tunable IR-lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. A. Zagoruiko; N. O. Kovalenko; O. A. Fedorenko; V. A. Khristyan

    2008-07-01

    Obtained is a new thermostable material for active elements of tunable IR-lasers - Zn1-xMgxSe:Cr2+ single crystals. The position of the absorption band of Cr2+ ions in wurtzite-type Zn0.8Mg0.2Se matrix is established.

  11. Understanding the solidification and microstructure evolution during CSC-MIG welding of Fe–Cr–B-based alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorour, A.A. Chromik, R.R. Gauvin, R. Jung, I.-H. Brochu, M.

    2013-12-15

    The present is a study of the solidification and microstructure of Fe–28.2%Cr–3.8%B–1.5%Si–1.5%Mn (wt.%) alloy deposited onto a 1020 plain carbon steel substrate using the controlled short-circuit metal inert gas welding process. The as-solidified alloy was a metal matrix composite with a hypereutectic microstructure. Thermodynamic calculation based on the Scheil–Gulliver model showed that a primary (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase formed first during solidification, followed by an eutectic formation of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase and a body-centered cubic Fe-based solid solution matrix, which contained Cr, Mn and Si. Microstructure analysis confirmed the formation of these phases and showed that the shape of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase was irregular plate. As the welding heat input increased, the weld dilution increased and thus the volume fraction of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates decreased while other microstructural characteristics were similar. - Highlights: • We deposit Fe–Cr–B-based alloy onto plain carbon steel using the CSC-MIG process. • We model the solidification behavior using thermodynamic calculation. • As deposited alloy consists of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates embedded in Fe-based matrix. • We study the effect of the welding heat input on the microstructure.

  12. Annealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of sputtered multilayer Cr(1 -x)AlxN films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Annealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of sputtered multilayer Cr(1 - x)AlxN films Microstructure Annealing X-ray diffraction Mechanical properties Multilayer Cr(1 - x)AlxN films with a total thickness of 2 m were deposited on high-speed steel by medium frequency magnetron sputtering from

  13. Aging behavior and precipitates analysis of the CuCrZrCe alloy Yi Zhang a,b,d,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Aging behavior and precipitates analysis of the Cu­Cr­Zr­Ce alloy Yi Zhang a,b,d,n , Alex A October 2015 Keywords: Cu­Cr­Zr­Ce alloy Cold rolling Aging treatment Microstructure Physical properties rolling and aging for 16 h at 300 °C. Under the same aging conditions, without cold rolling, the hardness

  14. The implementation process and impact of a six-week number talk intervention with sixth-grade middle school students in a large urban middle school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    middle schools. Urban Education, 30(4), 476– Sowder, J. T. (Research in Mathematics Education, 29, 41–62. Boaler, J. (Research in Mathematics Education, 180–206. Givvin, K. B. ,

  15. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Compositionally Complex Co-free FeNiMnCr18 FCC Solid Solution Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zhenggang [The University of Tennessee; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Recently,a structurally-simplebutcompositionally-complex FeNiCoMnCr highentropyalloywasfoundto haveexcellentmechanicalproperties(e.g.,highstrengthandductility).Tounderstandthepotentialof using highentropyalloysasstructuralmaterialsforadvancednuclearreactorandpowerplants,itis necessary tohaveathoroughunderstandingoftheirstructuralstabilityandmechanicalpropertiesde- gradation underneutronirradiation.ThisrequiresustodevelopasimilarmodelalloywithoutCobe- cause materialwithCowillmakepost-neutron-irradiationtestingdifficult duetotheproductionofthe 60Co radioisotope.Toachievethisgoal,aFCC-structuredsingle-phasealloywithacompositionof FeNiMnCr18 wassuccessfullydeveloped.Thisnear-equiatomicFeNiMnCr18 alloy hasgoodmalleability and itsmicrostructurecanbecontrolledbythermomechanicalprocessing.Byrollingandannealing,the as-cast elongated-grained-microstructureisreplacedbyhomogeneousequiaxedgrains.Themechanical properties (e.g.,strengthandductility)oftheFeNiMnCr18 alloy arecomparabletothoseoftheequiatomic FeNiCoMnCr highentropyalloy.Bothstrengthandductilityincreasewithdecreasingdeformation temperature,withthelargestdifferenceoccurringbetween293and77K.Extensivetwin-bandswhich are bundlesofnumerousindividualtwinsareobservedwhenitistensile-fracturedat77K.Notwin bands aredetectedbyEBSDformaterialsdeformedat293Kandhigher.Theunusualtemperature-de- pendencies ofUTSanduniformelongationcouldbecausedbythedevelopmentofthedensetwin substructure, twin-dislocationinteractionsandtheinteractionsbetweenprimaryandsecondarytwin- ning systemswhichresultinamicrostructurerefinement andhencecauseenhancedstrainhardening and postponednecking.

  16. Zinc protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from Cr(III)(phenanthroline){sub 3}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaramanivel, Sundararaj; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2010-03-15

    We have studied the effect of Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} [(tris(1,10-phenanthroline) chromium(III) chloride)] on lymphocytes in order to find out if metallothioneins (MTs) are produced in the process. We also investigated whether zinc pretreatment is able to protect cells from apoptosis reported to occur for this compound. Our results indicate that MT synthesis is induced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3}, and it has been identified as the MT-3 isoform through RT-PCR which has not been reported earlier. By zinc pretreatment, this apoptosis is reversed as inferred from cytotoxicity studies, Annexin-V/PI staining, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation pattern and ultrastructural investigations using TEM and SEM. The zinc pretreatment reduces the amount of ROS produced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} . The MT-1a and 1b synthesized by zinc (also evidenced through RT-PCR experiments) is possibly able to scavenge ROS which is one of the early signaling molecules that lead to apoptosis. Zinc pretreatment also reverses the changes in downstream signaling events such as mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the induction of MT-3 in lymphocytes due to a metal stress or any other stimuli. Even though MT-3 is synthesized here, apoptosis still occurs due to ROS production on Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} exposure when the cells have not been primed with zinc.

  17. NASA/CR-2009-215703 NIA Report No. 2008-09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    April 2009 NASA/CR-2009-215703 NIA Report No. 2008-09 Design and Verification of a Distributed #12;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part

  18. NASA/CR-2002-211759 ICASE Report No. 2002-26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lüttgen, Gerald

    NASA/CR-2002-211759 ICASE Report No. 2002-26 A Logical Process Calculus Rance Cleaveland State, Sheffield, United Kingdom August 2002 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific

  19. NASA/CR-2002-211637 ICASE Report No. 2002-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2002-211637 ICASE Report No. 2002-12 Air Traffic Conflict Resolution and Recovery Aljons Kirchner ENA C, Toulouse, France May 2002 #12;The NASA STI Program Office... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific

  20. NASA/CR-2007-214546 NIA Report No. 2007-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2007-214546 NIA Report No. 2007-03 Batch Proving and Proof Scripting in PVS Cesar A. Munoz National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), Hampton, Virginia February 2007 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

  1. NASA/CR-2000-210097 ICASE Report No. 2000-16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2000-210097 ICASE Report No. 2000-16 Aircraft Trajectory Modeling and Alerting Algorithm Verification Cdsar Muhoz ICASE, Hampton, Virginia Victor Carreho NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia April 2000 #12;The NASA STI Program Office... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been

  2. NASA/CR-2001-211271 ICASE Interim Report No. 39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2001-211271 ICASE Interim Report No. 39 Real Automation in the Field C6sar Mu_oz ICASE, Hampton, Virginia Micaela Mayero INRIA, Le Chesnay Cedex, France December 2001 #12;The NASA STI Program Office... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics

  3. NASA/CR-97-206268 ICASE Report No. 97-68

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameson, Antony

    NASA/CR-97-206268 ICASE Report No. 97-68 _th ,NNIVERSARY Essential Elements of Computational Algorithms for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design Antony Jameson December 1997 #12;The NASA STI Program Off'we... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

  4. NASA/CR-2001-210853 ICASE Report No. 2001-7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2001-210853 ICASE Report No. 2001-7 Tactical Conflict Detection and Resolution in a 3-D April 2001 #12;The NASA STI Program Office... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program

  5. NASA/CR-2000-209851 ICASE Report No. 2000-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2000-209851 ICASE Report No. 2000-4 Towards a Customizable PVS Gerald Liittgen and C_sar Mu_oz ICASE, Hampton, Virginia Ricky Butler, Ben Di Vito, and Paul Miner NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia January2000 #12;The NASA STI Program Office... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been

  6. NASA/CR-2007-214863 NIA Report No. 2007-06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2007-214863 NIA Report No. 2007-06 In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design Cesar A. Munoz and Radu I. Siminiceanu National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), Hampton, Virginia August 2007 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement

  7. NASA/CR-2003-212418 NIA Report No. 2003-03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, César A.

    NASA/CR-2003-212418 NIA Report No. 2003-03 Rapid Prototyping in PVS César A. Muñoz National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia November 2003 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3 The stresses in the aluminum oxide formed during high-temperature oxidation of a bond-coated superalloy are shown to be measurable through zirconia thermal barrier coatings. The basis for the measurements

  9. Diode-Pumped Gigahertz Repetition Rate Femtosecond Cr:Lisaf Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Duo

    We report a low-cost, 1 GHz repetition-rate, diode-pumped, saturable Bragg reflectors mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser, which generates nearly transform-limited 103-fs long pulses around 866 nm, with a record high peak power of 1.45 kW.

  10. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al?O? oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commercially available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.

  11. CREEP STRENGTH OF HIGH CR FERRITIC STEELS DESIGNED USING NEURAL NETWORKS AND PHASE STABILITY CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    in the creep resistance of 9- 12%Cr steels used for boiler header/piping and steam turbine rotor applications,000 h. While the 630°C goal may be realized, much more work is needed to achieve steam temperatures up Development of heat-resistant steel for power boilers and turbines has been ongoing for about five decades

  12. 55CR 9/23/2007 1 5.5. Optimal advertising

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Peter

    55CR 9/23/2007 1 5.5. Optimal advertising The graph at the right tells us how expected ticket sales T depend on the number x of advertising minutes purchased. For example, with 20 minutes of advertising, some 350 tickets will be sold. (a) Suppose tickets to the concert sell for $5 apiece, and advertising

  13. Relation between thermal expansion and interstitial formation energy in pure Fe and Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    term, i.e. the contribution to the total energy from the valence electron density. Consequently we needRelation between thermal expansion and interstitial formation energy in pure Fe and Cr Janne Wallenius a,b,*, Pa¨r Olsson b , Christina Lagerstedt a a Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, KTH

  14. Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN,,001... layer growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    Nanostaircases: An atomic shadowing instability during epitaxial CrN,,001... layer growth J. R the effect of atomic shadowing on surface morphological and microstructural evolution. The layers are single deposition flux than the surrounding layer. This leads to both vertical and lateral growth and the formation

  15. Synthesis and characterization of CrN/Mo2N multilayers and phases of Molybdenum nitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    ; Nanolayers; Tool coatings 1. Introduction Hard coatings for cutting tools have been in use now for thirty for dry machining [7­10]. If tools (coatings) can effectively tolerate high temperatures or can helpOx and CrN/Mo2N multilayer films were deposited by reactive sputtering. Characterization of the coatings

  16. Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles Tait with depth in areas close to CCA-treated poles. Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood has), and copper (Cu), in soils surrounding CCA-treated wood structures such as decks, fences and poles; and (2

  17. Annual Energy Consumption Analysis Report for Richland Middle School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bing

    2003-12-18

    Richland Middle School is a single story, 90,000 square feet new school located in Richland, WA. The design team proposed four HVAC system options to serve the building. The proposed HVAC systems are listed as following: (1) 4-pipe fan coil units served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boilers, (2) Ground-source closed water loop heat pumps with water loop heat pumps with boiler and cooling tower, and (3) VAV system served by electrical chiller and gas-fired boiler. This analysis estimates the annual energy consumptions and costs of each system option, in order to provide the design team with a reasonable basis for determining which system is most life-cycle cost effective. eQuest (version 3.37), a computer-based energy simulation program that uses the DOE-2 simulation engine, was used to estimate the annual energy costs.

  18. Rare-earth chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Brianna R.; Bie, Haiying; Stoyko, Stanislav S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Bauer, Eric D.; Thompson, Joe D. [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The ternary rare-earth-metal chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1000 Degree-Sign C in the presence of excess gallium used as a self-flux. Their structures are derived by inserting Cr atoms into a quarter of the empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters found in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3} (AuCu{sub 3}-type), although single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies suggest that complex superstructures may be adopted. An ideal ordered Y{sub 4}PdGa{sub 12}-type structure was successfully refined for a crystal of Dy{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (Pearson symbol cI34, space group Im3{sup Macron }m, Z=2, a=8.572(1) A). Magnetic measurements on single-crystal samples reveal ferromagnetic or possibly ferrimagnetic ordering for the Tb, Dy, and Er members (T{sub C}=22, 15, and 2.8 K, respectively) and antiferromagnetic ordering for the Ho member (T{sub N}=7.5 K). Band structure calculations on a hypothetical 'Y{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12}' model suggest that the Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment. - Graphical abstract: RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} is derived by inserting Cr atoms into empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters present in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}MGa{sub 12} (previously known for M=Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag) has been extended to M=Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} compounds show predominantly ferromagnetic ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band structure calculations suggest that Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment.

  19. Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries Sandec #12;Marketing Compost A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries Jonathan Rouse Introduction 7 2 Background 11 2.1 What is marketing? 11 2.2 Why is marketing important for compost producers

  20. Roadmap: Middle Childhood Mathematics and Science Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Middle Childhood ­ Mathematics and Science ­ Bachelor of Science in Education [EH Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last Updated: 20-Aug-13/JS This roadmap is a recommended semester Laboratory or GEOL 11042 Earth History and GEOL 11043 Earth History Laboratory 4 C #12;Roadmap: Middle

  1. Fish Assemblages and Substrates in the Middle Wabash River, USA Robert Mueller, Jr.1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyron, Mark

    Fish Assemblages and Substrates in the Middle Wabash River, USA Robert Mueller, Jr.1,2 and Mark Pyron1 We collected fishes at 28 sites of the middle Wabash River, Indiana, using a boat electrofisher for fish assemblage variation that was explained by variation in water depth and substrate frequency

  2. FLOOD FREQUENCYAND ROUTING PROCESSES AT A CONFLUENCE OF THE MIDDLE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    FLOOD FREQUENCYAND ROUTING PROCESSES AT A CONFLUENCE OF THE MIDDLE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA HONGMING, Boston, Massachusetts 02125, USA ABSTRACT Floods cause environmental hazards and influence on socio-economic activities. In this study, we evaluated the historic flood frequency at a confluence in the middle Yellow

  3. THE MIDDLE SACRAMENTO RIVER: HUMAN IMPACTS ON PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES ALONG A MEANDERING RIVER1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE MIDDLE SACRAMENTO RIVER: HUMAN IMPACTS ON PHYSICAL AND ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES ALONG A MEANDERING, California. Abstract: Native plant and wildlife communities along Northern California's middle Sacramento and eroding terraces. Human-induced changes to the Sacramento River, in- cluding bank protection, gravel

  4. Riparian Valley Oak (Quercus lobata) Forest Restoration on the Middle Sacramento

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riparian Valley Oak (Quercus lobata) Forest Restoration on the Middle Sacramento River, California1 horticultural restoration program on the floodplain of the middle Sacramento River, California. At nearly all that affect valley oaks on the Sacramento River floodplain will require additional study and more detailed

  5. Collaborative Approach to Mitigating ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Seung Yeob Nama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Seung Yeob

    Collaborative Approach to Mitigating ARP Poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle Attacks Seung Yeob Nama for counteracting ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) poisoning-based Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks in a subnet an ARP cache poisoning attack if the mapping between an IP and the corresponding MAC addresses

  6. CATENA Vol. 12, 61-78 Braunschweig 1985 EARLY AND MIDDLE HOLOCENE SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holliday, Vance T.

    CATENA Vol. 12, 61-78 Braunschweig 1985 EARLY AND MIDDLE HOLOCENE SOILS AT THE LUBBOCK LAKE ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE, TEXAS V.T. Holliday, Texas SUMMARY Two buried soils have been identified in early and middle, Lubbock County, Texas. The Firstview Soil formed in organic-rich lacustrine and sandy eolian sediments

  7. Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Dylan

    Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain- posphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Enhanced CO is observed over the Zagros mountains of Iran), Carbon monoxide (CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East: Signature of mountain venting

  8. THE INTERACTION OF ECONOMIC, BIOLOGICAL, AND LEGAL FORCES IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC OYSTER INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are contributing factors in the decline of the Middle Atlantic oyster industry. This paper determinesTHE INTERACTION OF ECONOMIC, BIOLOGICAL, AND LEGAL FORCES IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC OYSTER INDUSTRY into a supply and demand model of the oyster industry. The statistical results yield significantand expected

  9. Prediction of a Mysticete Audiogram via Finite Element Analysis of the Middle Ear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of a Mysticete Audiogram via Finite Element Analysis of the Middle Ear Andrew Tubelli (Rosowski 1994). Biophysical models of the cetacean middle ear can be developed using finite element (FE for FE analysis (COMSOL, Stockholm, Sweden). _________________________ A. Tubelli (!) · A. Zosuls · D

  10. GRAVITY WAVE DYNAMICS AND EFFECTS IN THE MIDDLE David C. Fritts and M. Joan Alexander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, M. Joan

    GRAVITY WAVE DYNAMICS AND EFFECTS IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE David C. Fritts and M. Joan Alexander gravity waves have been a subject of intense research activity in recent years because of their myriad occasionally strong lower-atmospheric effects, the major wave influences occur in the middle atmosphere, be

  11. Man-in-the-Middle Secure Authentication Schemes from LPN and Weak PRFs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    and its more efficient variants such as Toeplitz-LPN and Ring-LPN. Building a man-in-the-middle secure building a man-in-the- middle secure scheme based on any variant of the LPN problem solves the main open-cost devices, such as smart cards and RFID tags, in the real world. One of the most common cryptographic

  12. Organizing from the Middle Out Citizen Science in the National Parks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowston, Kevin

    Organizing from the Middle Out Citizen Science in the National Parks $ $ $ Bottom-Up Middle-Out Top virtually to create a regionally-coordinated citizen science project in the National Parks. RQ: What factors influence the way a citizen science project develops? Boston Harbor Islands No dominant stakeholder

  13. Two-band modeling of -prime phase formation in Fe-Cr Pr Olsson,1 Janne Wallenius,1,2 Christophe Domain,3 Kai Nordlund,4 and Lorenzo Malerba5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    of application to the Fe-Cr system, the basic component of ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Fe-Cr forms

  14. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  15. Review of The Middle Minoan Three-Sided Soft Stone Prism (CMS Beiheft 9), 2 vols., by Maria Anastasiadou.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younger, John G.

    2013-01-01

    A review of the two-volume work on Middle Minoan prisms, most by the Malia Workshop, by Maria Anastasiadou....

  16. Enhancing Middle East climate change monitoring and indexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sensoy, S. [Turkish State Meteorological Service, Ankara (Turkey); Peterson, T.C. [NOAA/National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Alexander, L.V. [Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Zhang, X. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Downsview, Ontario (Canada). Climate Research Branch

    2007-08-15

    Extreme climate events can have significant impacts on both natural and human systems, and therefore it is important to know if and how climate extremes are changing. Analysis of extremes requires long-term daily station data and, unfortunately, there are many regions in the world where these data are not internationally exchanged. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (Folland et al. 2001) relied heavily on the multinational analysis of Frich et al (2002). However, Frich et al. had no results from all of Central and South America, and most of Africa and southern Asia, including the Middle East. To remedy this situation for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, the joint World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology/World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) project on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring, and Indices (Zwiers et al. 2003) internationally coordinated a series of five regional climate change workshops and a set of indices for analyses of extremes. Two workshops covered the Americas, one in Brazil and one in Guatemala. One workshop addressed southern Africa. A workshop in India involved south and central Asia, while the workshop for the Middle East sought to address the region from Turkey to Iran and from Georgia to the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The key to a successful workshop is a collaborative approach between outside experts and regional participants. The participants here broght long-term daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature data, station history information, an understanding of their country's climate, and a willingness to analyze thse data under the tutelage of outside experts. The outside experts brought knowledge of the crucial data and climate change issues, presentations to explain these issues, and user-friendly software to aid the analyses. Xuebin Zhang of Environment Canada wrote the workshop software to perform quality control (QC) on the data, tst the time series homogeneity, and calculate the indices. The participants created presentations on how extremes were changing in their countries. The workshop is making a direct contribution to climate change research by initiating a peer-review paper on how extremes are changing in a region never before analyzed and where data exchange is rare.

  17. First-principles study of the structural and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui Shouxin; Wei Dongqing; Hu Haiquan; Feng Wenxia; Gong Zizheng

    2012-07-15

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of Cr{sub 2}AlX, with X=N, C, have been investigated at the density functional theory level by applying a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. The band structure and density of states reveal the metallic features of Cr{sub 2}AlX. The total and projected density of states indicate that the bonding is achieved through a hybridization of Cr 3d states with Al and X-atom p states. The Cr 3d-X2p bonds are lower in energy and are stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds. The charge density distributions indicate that there exist soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds, which might be responsible for their hardness. The elastic constants were obtained in the pressure range 0-100 GPa, and satisfy the stability conditions for hexagonal crystal, which indicates that these two compounds are stable in the pressure regime studied. By analyzing bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and Cauchy pressure, Cr{sub 2}AlC is predicted to be brittleness and Cr{sub 2}AlN is ductile. The Debye temperature was obtained from the average sound velocity. - Graphical abstract: The heterogeneity of chemical bonds in Cr{sub 2}AlX (X=N, C) is observed: soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds might be contributed to their hardness. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr 3d-X2p (X=N, C) bonds are lower in energy and stiffer than Cr 3d-Al 3p bonds for Cr{sub 2}AlX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of Cr{sub 2}AlX might be ascribed to soft Cr-Al and relatively strong Cr-X covalent bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predicted brittleness of Cr{sub 2}AlC and ductility of Cr{sub 2}AlN originated from their novel structure.

  18. Anharmonicity, mechanical instability, and thermodynamic properties of the Cr-Re ?-phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.palumbo@rub.de; Fries, Suzana G. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Universität Str. 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Universität Str. 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Pasturel, Alain [SIMAP, UMR CNRS-INPG-UJF 5266, BP 75, F-38402 Saint Martin d’Hères (France)] [SIMAP, UMR CNRS-INPG-UJF 5266, BP 75, F-38402 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Alfè, Dario [Department of Earth Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London Centre for Nanotechnology and Thomas Young Centre-UCL, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London Centre for Nanotechnology and Thomas Young Centre-UCL, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    Using density-functional theory in combination with the direct force method and molecular dynamics we investigate the vibrational properties of a binary Cr-Re ?-phase. In the harmonic approximation, we have computed phonon dispersion curves and density of states, evidencing structural and chemical effects. We found that the ?-phase is mechanically unstable in some configurations, for example, when all crystallographic sites are occupied by Re atoms. By using a molecular-dynamics-based method, we have analysed the anharmonicity in the system and found negligible effects (?0.5 kJ/mol) on the Helmholtz energy of the binary Cr-Re ?-phase up to 2000 K (?0.8T{sub m}). Finally, we show that the vibrational contribution has significant consequences on the disordering of the ?-phase at high temperature.

  19. Latitudinal survey of middle atmospheric water vapor revealed by shipboard microwave spectroscopy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrader, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important greenhouse gases and is an important tracer of atmospheric motions in the middle atmosphere. It also plays an important role in the chemistry of the middle atmosphere and through its photodissociation by solar radiation, it is the major source of hydrogen escaping to space. Ground-based microwave measurements conducted in the 1980s have provided a fair understanding of the seasonal variation of mesospheric water vapor in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, but the global distribution of water vapor in the middle atmosphere is only beginning to be revealed by space-based measurements.

  20. A High-resolution Spectrum of the R CrB Star V2552 Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2003-08-25

    Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy have added V2552 Oph to the rare class of R Coronae Borealis variables. We confirm this classification of V2552 Oph through a comparison of our high-resolution optical spectrum of this star and that of R CrB and other F-type members of the class. We show that V2552 Oph most closely resembles Y Mus and FH Sct, stars in which Sr, Y, and Zr are enhanced.

  1. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 ?{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 ?{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  2. Stability of precipitate phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the and phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the phase is stable at high temperature and transformed into the phase at lowmore »temperature. The other is that both the and phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  3. Field fabrication of heavy wall hydrocracking reactors made from advanced Cr-Mo steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, E.D. [Pemex, Huasteca (Mexico); Kao, T.; Tasker, K. [HRI, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Festa, F.; Pietrantonio, V. [Snamprogetti, S. Donato Milanese (Italy); Inoue, S.; Iga, H.; Tahara, T. [Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Muroran (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The manufacture of first commercial hydrocracking reactors made from 3Cr-Mo-1/4V-Ti-B steel was completed in August 1990. Since then, almost 30 units of heavy wall hydrocracking reactors made of the same material have been fabricated. These vessels have been applied to high temperature and high pressure operation of hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization units. The characteristics of advanced Cr-Mo steel, such as higher resistance to hydrogen atmosphere, higher creep rupture strength and lower susceptibility to long term degradation were verified through enough experiences based on the latest technology of manufacturing and operation of the vessels. Based on these experiences the first field fabrication of the vessels made from 3Cr-1Mo-1/4V-Ti-b steel was started in April, 1995 and successfully completed in October, 1995, at job site in Pemex Tula Refinery, Mexico. This paper is prepared to present the highlights of manufacturing technology for field fabrication based on the actual experience.

  4. Blending Cr2O3 into a NiO-Ni electrocatalyst for sustained water splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Kenney, Michael James; Kapusta, Rich; Cowley, Sam; Wu, Yingpeng; Lu, Bingan; Lin, Meng -Chang; Wang, Di -Yan; Yang, Jiang; et al

    2015-08-24

    The rising H2 economy demands active and durable electrocatalysts based on low-cost, earth-abundant materials for water electrolysis/photolysis. Here we report nanoscale Ni metal cores over-coated by a Cr2O3-blended NiO layer synthesized on metallic foam substrates. The Ni@NiO/Cr2O3 triphase material exhibits superior activity and stability similar to Pt for the hydrogen-evolution reaction in basic solutions. The chemically stable Cr2O3 is crucial for preventing oxidation of the Ni core, maintaining abundant NiO/Ni interfaces as catalytically active sites in the heterostructure and thus imparting high stability to the hydrogen-evolution catalyst. The highly active and stable electrocatalyst enables an alkaline electrolyzer operating at 20more »mA cm–2 at a voltage lower than 1.5 V, lasting longer than 3 weeks without decay. Thus, the non-precious metal catalysts afford a high efficiency of about 15 % for light-driven water splitting using GaAs solar cells.« less

  5. Thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the stability of precipitate phases in the Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical to the alloy design and application of Mo-containing Austenitic steels. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, stability of the chi and Laves phases in two Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 °C for different annealing time. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the matrix and precipitate phases were carefully examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Probe Microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The two key findings resulted from this work. One is that the chi phase is stable at high temperature and transformed intomore »the Laves phase at low temperature. The other is that both the chi and Laves phases have large solubilites of Cr, Mo and Ni, among which the Mo solubility has a major role on the relative stability of the precipitate phases. The developed thermodynamic models were then applied to evaluating the Mo effect on the stability of precipitate phases in AISI 316 and NF709 alloys.« less

  6. Effect of lattice deformation on exchange coupling constants in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kota, Yohei; Imamura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Munetaka

    2014-05-07

    We studied lattice deformation effect on exchange interaction in the corundum-type Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} theoretically. First-principles electronic structure calculations were performed to evaluate the total energy and exchange coupling constants of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} under lattice deformation. We found that a few percent elastic deformation is expected via misfit strain and that the first- and second-nearest neighbor exchange coupling constants of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} strongly depend on the lattice deformation. These results imply a possibility for improving the thermal stability of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} based magnetoelectric devices by lattice deformation.

  7. A study of CR-39 track response to charged particles from NOVA T. W. Phillips and M. D. Cable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the CR- 39. The manipulators permit the positioning of the package at various distances from the target enhanced image, and c tracks identified. Tracks labeled 6, 31, 35, and 48 are double and can

  8. Development of Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel for high pressure and high temperature hydrogenation reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Masato; Sakai, Tadamiti; Nose, Shiro [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Energy and Chemical Plant Group

    1995-12-31

    Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steels have been developed as materials for high temperature and high pressure hydrogenation reactors. Cr-Mo-V-Cb-Ca steels have high strength at elevated temperature. The addition of vanadium and columbium also improve the resistance against hydrogen attack and hydrogen embrittlement. Calcium addition, which is a unique feature of this material, effectively reduces the possibility of stress relief cracking in the heat affected zone of the weldment of which susceptibility is otherwise impaired by the addition of vanadium. In 1993, 3Cr-1Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel was approved by ASME as ASME Code Case 2151 and the first hydrocracking reactors made of 3Cr-1Mo-V-Cb-Ca steel were manufactured in 1994 at Kobe Steel, Takasago Works.

  9. Coordination and Haptotropic Rearrangement of Cr(CO)3 on (n,0) Nanotube Sidewalls: A Dynamical Density Functional Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannozzi, Paolo

    them ideal candidates for use in fuel cells (batteries), electron devices (semiconductors), catalysts optimizations have been performed on the Cr(CO)3-(C72H12) complex, pointing out the preferred coordination sites

  10. Course Course Title and Semester Offered Cr PhD in Public Health, CBHP Concentration, Curriculum (p 1 of 4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Course Course Title and Semester Offered Cr PhD in Public Health, CBHP) until the Biostatistics offerings are expanded to include 710 3 COMMUNITY of Community Interventions ­ Fall, Offered as PH 740 Topics in Fall 2013 3 #12;Ph

  11. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  12. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klueh, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high strength, high toughness Cr-W-V ferritic steel composition suitable for fast induced-radioactivity (FIRD) decay after irradiation in a fusion reactor comprises 2.5-3.5 wt % Cr, 2. This invention was made with Government support under contract DE-AC05-840R21400 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and the Government has certain rights in this invention.

  13. PREVIOUS NAME (last, first, middle) STUDENT/EMPLOYEE ID # SOCIAL SECURITY# ___________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCHOOL ATTENDED Allied Health Professions Dentistry Graduate Studies Medicine Nursing Public Health Previous Name __________________ __________________ __________________ Last First Middle New Name of name: 1. Certified copy of a court order, or dissolution decree reflecting the new name in full. 2

  14. Towards improved partnerships in the water sector in the Middle East : A case study of Jordan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odeh, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the use of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the water sector in Jordan, a Middle East pioneer with respect to experimenting with different approaches to delivering water services in both ...

  15. Middle ear pressure gain and cochlear input impedance in the chinchilla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slama, Michaël C. C. (Michaël Charles Chalom)

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of middle ear conducted sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV have been performed in only a few individuals from a few mammalian species. Simultaneous measurements of sound-induced stapes velocity VS are ...

  16. Risk analysis in oil and gas projects : a case study in the Middle East

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Emad Dolatshahi

    2009-01-01

    Global demand for energy is rising around the world. Middle East is a major supplier of oil and gas and remains an important region for any future oil and gas developments. Meanwhile, managing oil and gas projects are ...

  17. Relationship between Teachers’ Beliefs and Student Achievement in Middle School Mathematics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balzer, Jill Francene

    2014-12-08

    Assessment (PISA) in mathematics (OECD, 2010). In addition to international benchmarks, there is a consistent pattern of declining performance occurring in math scores from elementary school (K-5) to middle school (6-8) (Anderman et al., 1998...

  18. Jefferson Lab Hosts 23 Teams for Middle School Science Bowl on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Teams for Middle School Science Bowl on March 7 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., March 2, 2009 - The nation's future scientists, engineers and mathematicians may be found testing their mental...

  19. Early Channel Evolution in the Middle Permian Brushy Canyon Formation, West Texas, USA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunderson, Spencer

    2011-10-21

    measured at both locations. A total of 16 samples were collected for petrographic analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging. Spectacular outcrop quality makes the Middle Permian Brushy Canyon Formation in Guadalupe Mountains National Park an ideal...

  20. Aeolian Delivery of Organic Matter to a Middle Permian Deepwater Ramp 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artan, Sinem

    2012-07-16

    of the Brushy Canyon Formation sandstones and siltstones to evaluate the significance of windblown dust in delivery of sediment and terrestrial organic matter to the Middle Permian Delaware Basin. Ramp siltstones of the basin have been interpreted...

  1. ICONEA Conference 2012: AEROPHONES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST, EGYPT AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    ICONEA Conference 2012: AEROPHONES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST, EGYPT power, joy, freedom, victory, deliverance, national identity, moral virtue, repentance, and social have incorporated the shofar into their works as a powerfully eloquent musical resource, from Elgar

  2. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, CS; Beresford, L

    2015-01-01

    OUP CHANGES IN NETWORK INEQUALITY Suitor, J. J. , & Keeton,Key Words: Education—Gender—Inequality—Middle age—Networks—add a particular focus: inequalities in net- work change. We

  3. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleoecology of Eoseira wilsonii gen. et sp. nov., a Middle Eocene diatom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleoecology of Eoseira wilsonii gen. et sp. nov., a Middle Eocene diatom in western North America. Fur- thermore, paleoecological inferences based on Eoseira life strategy pertain

  4. Environmental and Pedogenic Change in the Central Great Plains from the Middle Wisconsinan to the Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willey, Karen Lynn

    2009-07-30

    During the middle Wisconsinan, the Gilman Canyon Formation (GCF), consisting of three loess units and three soils, formed on the loess plateaus of the central Great Plains about 40-25 ka. Stable carbon isotope analysis of ...

  5. Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings at the Dunbar Middle and Sims Elementary Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Houcek, J. K.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the potential cost savings which may be achieved by improving operational and maintenance (O&M) practices at Dunbar Middle School and Sims Elementary School in the Fort Worth ...

  6. Standard's Guide to Learning Middle School Hands-On Science Elective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Learning Middle School Hands-On Science Elective Class Student: Grade: Date: Math B Proficiency Levels PP P A Collect, organize, analyze, and graph (e.g., line plots,...

  7. Waterfront developments in the Middle East case study : the Golden Horn Project, Istanbul, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alamuddin, Hana S. (Hana Slieman)

    1987-01-01

    This thesis examines waterfront developments in the Middle East . It concentrates on the Golden Horn project in Istanbul as it raises a number of issues that are central to any such development in that region. In order for ...

  8. The forgotten class : reconceptualizing contemporary middle-income housing in New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchman, Karina (Karina Faye)

    2013-01-01

    New York City's costly real estate poses housing affordability challenges for not only low- or even moderate-income households, but also for the so-called "middle class." Because New York is predominantly a renter's market, ...

  9. Using otoacoustic emissions to measure the transmission matrix of the middle-ear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Antonio John

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe an experimental method for measuring the acoustic transmission matrix of the middle-ear using otoacoustic emissions. The experiment builds on previous work that uses distortion product otoacoustic emissions ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Cr-doped ZnO nanorod-array photocatalysts with improved activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chi-Jung Yang, Tsung-Lin; Weng, Yu-Ching

    2014-06-01

    Immobilized photocatalysts with high catalytic activity under UV light were prepared by growing Cr-doped ZnO nanorods on glass substrates by a hydrothermal method. The effects of Cr dopant on the surface texture, crystallinity, surface chemistry, and photoinduced charge separation and their relation with the photocatalytic degradation of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectra, photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Adding the appropriate amount of Cr dopant is a powerful way to enhance the separation of charge carriers in ZnO photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was improved due to the increase in surface oxygen vacancies, the separation of charge carriers, modification of the band gap, and the large surface area of the doped ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: Photoinduced charge separation and its relation with the photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr-doped ZnO were investigated by photoelectrochemical scanning electrochemical microscopy. - Highlights: • Cr dopant enhances separation of charge carries in ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. • Photoinduced charge carries separation monitored by PEC-SECM. • The higher the photocurrent is, the higher the photocatalytic activity is. • Degradation of DB86 dye solutions under visible light finished within 50 min. • Higher activity due to more oxygen vacancy, tuned band gap and more surface area.

  11. Characterization of Cr poisoning in a solid oxide fuel cell cathode using a high-energy x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D. J.; Almer, J.; Cruse, T.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the feasibility of using metallic interconnects made of high temperature ferritic stainless steels, which reduce system cost while providing excellent electric conductivity. Such interconnects, however, contain high levels of chromium, which has been found to be associated with SOFC cathode performance degradation at SOFC operating temperatures; a phenomenon known as Cr poisoning. Here, we demonstrate an accurate measurement of the phase and concentration distributions of Cr species in a degraded SOFC, as well as related properties including deviatoric strain, integrated porosity, and lattice parameter variation, using high energy microbeam X-ray diffraction and radiography. We unambiguously identify (MnCr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the two main contaminant phases and find that their concentrations correlate strongly with the cathode layer composition. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition within the active cathode region reduces porosity and produces compressive residual strains, which hinders the reactant gas percolation and can cause structural breakdown of the SOFC cathode. The information obtained through this study can be used to better understand the Cr-poisoning mechanism and improve SOFC design.

  12. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  13. More soft-bodied animals and algae from the Middle Cambrian of Utah and British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conway Morris, S.; Robison, Richard A.

    1988-12-29

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS December 29, 1988 Paper 122 MORE SOFT-BODIED ANIMALS AND ALGAE FROM THE MIDDLE CAMBRIAN OF UTAH AND BRITISH COLUMBIA' Simon Conway Morris and R. A. Robison Department of Earth Sciences..., University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, and Department of Geology, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 Abstract—Remains of noncalcareous algae and soft-bodied metazoans from Middle Cambrian strata of Utah (Spence, Wheeler...

  14. The Most Essential Leadership Responsibilities: Perceptions of Principals of Successful Middle Level Schools in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Bebe B.

    2010-07-14

    -1 THE MOST ESSENTIAL LEADERSHIP RESPONSIBILITIES: PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPALS OF SUCCESSFUL MIDDLE LEVEL SCHOOLS IN TEXAS A Dissertation by BEBE BARBARA CARPENTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Educational Administration THE MOST ESSENTIAL LEADERSHIP RESPONSIBILITIES: PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPALS OF SUCCESSFUL MIDDLE LEVEL SCHOOLS IN TEXAS A Dissertation by BEBE BARBARA CARPENTER...

  15. Correlation between morphology, chemical environment, and ferromagnetism in the intrinsic-vacancy dilute magnetic semiconductor Cr-doped Ga2Se3/Si(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yitamben, E.N.; Arena, D.; Lovejoy, T.C.; Pakhomov, A.B.; Heald, S.M.; Negusse, E.; Ohuchi, F.S.; Olmstead, M.A.

    2011-01-28

    Chromium-doped gallium sesquiselenide, Cr:Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, is a member of a new class of dilute magnetic semiconductors exploiting intrinsic vacancies in the host material. The correlation among room-temperature ferromagnetism, surface morphology, electronic structure, chromium concentration, and local chemical and structural environments in Cr:Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films grown epitaxially on silicon is investigated with magnetometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Inclusion of a few percent chromium in Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} results in laminar, semiconducting films that are ferromagnetic at room temperature with a magnetic moment 4{micro}{sub B}/Cr. The intrinsic-vacancy structure of defected-zinc-blende {beta}-Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} enables Cr incorporation in a locally octahedral site without disrupting long-range order, determined by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as strong overlap between Cr 3d states and the Se 4p states lining the intrinsic-vacancy rows, observed with photoemission. The highest magnetic moment per Cr is observed near the solubility limit of roughly one Cr per three vacancies. At higher Cr concentrations, islanded, metallic films result, with a magnetic moment that depends strongly on surface morphology. The effective valence is Cr{sup 3+} in laminar films, with introduction of Cr{sup 0} upon islanding. A mechanism is proposed for laminar films whereby ordered intrinsic vacancies mediate ferromagnetism.

  16. Effect of annealing treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/Cr-embedded ZnO/Pt resistance random access memory devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Li-Chun; Kao, Hsuan-Ling; Liu, Keng-Hao

    2014-03-15

    ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched with Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. The threshold voltage of a ZnO device embedded with a 3-nm Cr interlayer was approximately 50% lower than that of a ZnO monolayer device. This study investigated threshold voltage as a function of Cr thickness. Both the ZnO monolayer device and the Cr-embedded ZnO device structures exhibited resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, but resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibited distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrated remarkable device parameter improvements, including a lower threshold voltage, a lower write current, and a higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio. Both transmission electron microscope observations and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the Cr charge trapping layer in Cr-embedded ZnO dispersed uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Cr atoms lost electrons to become Cr{sup 3+} ions after dispersion. These results indicated that the altered status of Cr in ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment was responsible for the switching mechanism transition.

  17. Reactive oxygen species mediate Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through PI3K/AKT-dependent activation of GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Young-Ok; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Fan, Jia; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-09-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens that primarily target the lungs. Cr(VI) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules involved in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis have not been extensively studied. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to Cr(VI) at nanomolar concentrations (10–100 nM) for 3 months not only induced cell transformation, but also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of Cr(VI)-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) increased levels of intracellular ROS and antiapoptotic proteins. Transfection with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevented Cr(VI)-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion, migration, and xenograft tumors. While chronic Cr(VI) exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin and PI3K/AKT/mTOR, transfection with catalase or SOD markedly inhibited Cr(VI)-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or ?-catenin almost completely suppressed the Cr(VI)-mediated increase in total and active ?-catenin proteins and colony formation. In particular, Cr(VI) suppressed autophagy of epithelial cells under nutrition deprivation. Furthermore, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3?, ?-catenin, mTOR, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that ROS is a key mediator of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis through the activation of PI3K/AKT-dependent GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling and the promotion of cell survival mechanisms via the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy. - Highlights: • Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) induces carcinogenic properties in BEAS-2B cells. • ROS play an important role in Cr(VI)-induced tumorigenicity of BEAS-2B cells. • PI3K/AKT/GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling involved in Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. • The inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy contributes to Cr(VI) carcinogenesis.

  18. Letter Report Documenting Progress of Second Generation ATF FeCrAl Alloy Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto,, Y.; Yang, Y.; Field, K. G.; Terrani, K.; Pint, B. A.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-06-10

    Development of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl alloy has been initiated, and a candidate alloy was selected for trial tube fabrication through hot-extrusion and gun-drilling processes. Four alloys based on Fe-13Cr-4.5Al-0.15Y in weight percent were newly cast with minor alloying additions of Mo, Si, Nb, and C to promote solid-solution and second-phase precipitate strengthening. The alloy compositions were selected with guidance from computational thermodynamic tools. The lab-scale heats of ~ 600g were arc-melted and drop-cast, homogenized, hot-forged and -rolled, and then annealed producing plate shape samples. An alloy with Mo and Nb additions (C35MN) processed at 800°C exhibits very fine sub-grain structure with the sub-grain size of 1-3?m which exhibited more than 25% better yield and tensile strengths together with decent ductility compared to the other FeCrAl alloys at room temperature. It was found that the Nb addition was key to improving thermal stability of the fine sub-grain structure. Optimally, grains of less than 30 microns are desired, with grains up to and order of magnitude in desired produced through Nb addition. Scale-up effort of the C35MN alloy was made in collaboration with a commercial cast company who has a capability of vacuum induction melting. A 39lb columnar ingot with ~81mm diameter and ~305mm height (with hot-top) was commercially cast, homogenized, hot-extruded, and annealed providing 10mm-diameter bar-shape samples with the fine sub-grain structure. This commercial heat proved consistent with materials produced at ORNL at the lab-scale. Tubes and end caps were machined from the bar sample and provided to another work package for the ATF-1 irradiation campaign in the milestone M3FT-14OR0202251.

  19. Thermal aging modeling and validation on the Mo containing Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Tan, Lizhen; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamics of intermetallic phases in Fe-rich Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys is critical knowledge to understand thermal aging effect on the phase stability of Mo-containing austenitic steels, which subsequently facilitates alloy design/improvement and degradation mitigation of these materials for reactor applications. Among the intermetallic phases, Chi (?), Laves, and Sigma (?) are often of concern because of their tendency to cause embrittlement of the materials. The focus of this study is thermal stability of the Chi and Laves phases as they were less studied compared to the Sigma phase. Coupled with thermodynamic modeling, thermal stability of intermetallic phases in Mo containing Fe-Cr-Ni alloys was investigated at 1000, 850 and 700 C for different annealing times. The morphologies, compositions and crystal structures of the precipitates of the intermetallic phases were carefully examined by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Three key findings resulted from this study. First, the Chi phase is stable at high temperature, and with decreasing temperature it transforms into the Laves phase that is stable at low temperature. Secondly, Cr, Mo, Ni are soluble in both the Chi and Laves phases, with the solubility of Mo playing a major role in the relative stability of the intermetallic phases. Thirdly, in situ transformation from Chi phase to Laves phase was directly observed, which increased the local strain field, generated dislocations in the intermetallic phases, and altered the precipitate phase orientation relationship with the austenitic matrix. The thermodynamic models that were developed and validated were then applied to evaluating the effect of Mo on the thermal stability of intermetallic phases in type 316 and NF709 stainless steels.

  20. Quantum spin coherence in halogen-modified Cr$_7$Ni molecular nanomagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielle Kaminski; Amy L. Webber; Christopher J. Wedge; Junjie Liu; Grigore A. Timco; Inigo J. Vitorica-Yrezabal; Eric J. L. McInnes; Richard E. P. Winpenny; Arzhang Ardavan

    2014-10-30

    Among the factors determining the quantum coherence of the spin in molecular magnets is the presence and the nature of nuclear spins in the molecule. We have explored modifying the nuclear spin environment in Cr$_7$Ni-based molecular nanomagnets by replacing hydrogen atoms with deuterium or the halogen atoms, fluorine or chlorine. We find that the spin coherence, studied at low temperatures by pulsed electron spin resonance, is modified by a range of factors, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, changes in dynamics owing to nuclear mass, and molecular morphology changes.

  1. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLing, Travis; Carpenter, Michael; Brandon, William; Zavala, Bernie

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these inexpensive detector-casing combinations statistical samples of the Rn-222 flux can be measured, elucidating the most communicative fractures (i.e. fractures that are actively transporting water and gasses). The Rn-222 measurements can then be used as an input to create a more accurate conceptual model to be used for transport modeling and related cleanup activities. If the team’s approach is demonstrated to be applicable to a wide variety of rock types and soil conditions it might potentially offer significant cost saving without a reduction in data quality at Monsanto Superfund and other sites underlain by fracture-dominated bedrock.

  2. Corrosion and degradation of a polyurethane/Co-Ni-Cr-Mo pacemaker lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, P.; Fraker, A.C.

    1987-12-01

    An investigation to study changes in the metal surfaces and the polyurethane insulation of heart pacemaker leads under controlled in vitro conditions was conducted. A polyurethane (Pellethane 2363-80A)/Co-Ni-Cr-Mo (MP35N) wire lead was exposed in Hanks' physiological saline solution for 14 months and then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive analysis, and small angle x-ray scattering. Results showed that some leakage of solution into the lead had occurred and changes were present on both the metal and the polyurethane surfaces.

  3. Model independent interpretation of recent CR lepton data after AMS-02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Maccione, Luca E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de

    2013-12-01

    We model the CR leptonic fluxes above 20 GeV in terms of a superposition of a standard and a charge symmetric extra component, which we generically describe as power-laws in momentum. We investigate under these hypotheses the compatibility between AMS-02, Fermi-LAT and PAMELA datasets on positron fraction, electron+positron spectrum and electron spectrum respectively. We find that it is possible to reconcile AMS and Fermi-LAT data within uncertainties, if energy-dependent effects are present in Fermi-LAT systematics. We also study possible deviations from charge symmetry in the extra component and find no compelling evidence for them.

  4. On the peculiar properties of triangular-chain EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondek, ?.; Szytu?a, A.; Przewo?nik, J.; ?ukrowski, J.; Prokhorov, A.; Chernush, L.; Zubov, E.; Dyakonov, V.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we report studies on EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} compound, that is a member of newly discovered family of huntite-related specimens for non-linear optics. For the first time, the uncommon temperature dependence of the EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} lattice parameters is reported. Additionally, the magnetism of this compound is extremely interesting. Namely, a possible interplay in between potentially magnetic rare-earth ions and 3d metal stacked within quasi-1D chain that can lead to a great variety of magnetic behaviour. Indeed, in our studies we have found 3D-long range ordering with metamagnetic behaviour, while at higher temperature the magnetic chains become uncoupled. - Graphical abstract: Torsion-like vibrations are the key to understand negative thermal expansion along the a-axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} is a peculiar triangular-chain antiferromagnet. • Rare earth sublattice is non-magnetic with Eu{sup 3+} configuration. • Cr{sup 3+} magnetic moments show 1-D behaviour along with spin fluctuations. • Torsion vibrations of Cr triangular tubes lead to anomalous expansion of unit cell.

  5. Optical properties of undoped and Mg doped CuCrO{sub 2} powders synthesized by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Bolloju, Satish [Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar Village, Shamirpet Mandal, R.R.District, Hyderabad - 500 078 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this work, CuCrO{sub 2} was synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a gelling agent. The different parameters like ratio of citric acid to metal ions, calcination temperature, and duration were studied. A green colored powder with particle size around 300 nm was formed at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for four hours duration. The increase in temperature has a profound impact on crystallite size and in turn effected the optical properties. Band gap of the obtained CuCrO{sub 2} has varied from 2.3 to 1.7 eV by increasing the temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C. Doping studies were performed by introducing Mg{sup 2+} ion to substitute Cr{sup 3+} in CuCrO{sub 2}. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM studies on 2% Mg doped samples indicated a clear formation of side phases. According to the X-ray powder patterns, the reflections from side phases were increasing with the increase in doping concentrations of Mg from 2 to 5%. The side phases were found to be MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and CuO. The band gap has decreased for doped samples in comparison to undoped one. In this paper, sol-gel synthesis and characterization by Xray powder diffraction, SEM studies and UV-Vis-Diffuse Reflectance spectra are presented.

  6. Stud. Geophys. Geod., 56 (2012), 677-704, DOI: 10.1007/s11200-011-9005-9 677 2012 Inst. Geophys. AS CR, Prague

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    2012-01-01

    . AS CR, Prague Magnetic susceptibility and its relationship with paleoenvironments, diagenesis, diagenesis 1. INTRODUCTION The use of initial magnetic susceptibility (in) records for high

  7. Magnetic Correlations in the Quasi-Two-Dimensional Semiconducting Ferromagnet CrSiTe3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Travis J.; Aczel, Adam A.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Nagler, Stephen E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Yan, Jiaqiang -Q.; Mandrus, D.

    2015-10-02

    Intrinsic, 2D ferromagnetic semiconductors are an important class of materials for overcoming dilute magnetic semiconductors’ limitations for spintronics. CrSiTe3 is a particularly interesting material of this class, since it can likely be exfoliated to single layers, for which Tc is predicted to increase dramatically. Establishing the nature of the bulk material’s magnetism is necessary for understanding the thin-film magnetic behavior and the material’s possible applications. In this work, we use elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to measure the magnetic properties of single crystalline CrSiTe3. We find a very small single ion anisotropy that favors magnetic ordering along the c-axis andmore »that the measured spin waves fit well to a model in which the moments are only weakly coupled along that direction. Then, we find that both static and dynamic correlations persist within the ab-plane up to at least 300 K, which is strong evidence of the material's 2D characteristics that are relevant for future studies on thin film and monolayer samples.« less

  8. Origin of spin gapless semiconductor behavior in CoFeCrGa. Theory and Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Raja, M. Manivel; Coelho, A. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-07-08

    Despite a plethora of materials suggested for spintronic applications, a new class of materials has emerged, namely spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), which offers potentially more advantageous properties than existing ones. These magnetic semiconductors exhibit a finite band gap for one spin channel and a closed gap for the other. Supported by electronic-structure calculations, we report evidence of SGS behavior in equiatomic quaternary CoFeCrGa, having a cubic Heusler (prototype LiMgPdSn) structure but exhibiting chemical disorder (DO3 structure). CoFeCrGa is found to transform from SGS to half-metallic phase under pressure, which is attributed to unique electronic-structure features. The saturation magnetization (MS) wasmore »obtained at 8K agrees with the Slater-Pauling rule and the Curie temperature (TC) is found to exceed 400K. Carrier concentration (up to 250K) and electrical conductivity are observed to be nearly temperature independent, prerequisites for SGS. The anomalous Hall coefficient is estimated to be 185S/cm at 5K. Considering the SGS properties and high TC, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.« less

  9. Origin of spin gapless semiconductor behavior in CoFeCrGa. Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bainsla, Lakhan; Mallick, A. I.; Raja, M. Manivel; Coelho, A. A.; Nigam, A. K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab; Suresh, K. G.

    2015-07-08

    Despite a plethora of materials suggested for spintronic applications, a new class of materials has emerged, namely spin gapless semiconductors (SGS), which offers potentially more advantageous properties than existing ones. These magnetic semiconductors exhibit a finite band gap for one spin channel and a closed gap for the other. Supported by electronic-structure calculations, we report evidence of SGS behavior in equiatomic quaternary CoFeCrGa, having a cubic Heusler (prototype LiMgPdSn) structure but exhibiting chemical disorder (DO3 structure). CoFeCrGa is found to transform from SGS to half-metallic phase under pressure, which is attributed to unique electronic-structure features. The saturation magnetization (MS) was obtained at 8K agrees with the Slater-Pauling rule and the Curie temperature (TC) is found to exceed 400K. Carrier concentration (up to 250K) and electrical conductivity are observed to be nearly temperature independent, prerequisites for SGS. The anomalous Hall coefficient is estimated to be 185S/cm at 5K. Considering the SGS properties and high TC, this material appears to be promising for spintronic applications.

  10. Magnetic Correlations in the Quasi-2D Semiconducting Ferromagnet CrSiTe3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Travis J.; Aczel, Adam A.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Nagler, Stephen E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, D.

    2015-10-02

    Intrinsic, two-dimensional ferromagnetic semiconductors are an important class of materials for overcoming the limitations of dilute magnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications. CrSiTe3 is a particularly interesting member of this class, since it can likely be exfoliated down to single layers, where Tc is predicted to increase dramatically. Establishing the nature of the magnetism in the bulk is a necessary precursor to understanding the magnetic behavior in thin film samples and the possible applications of this material. In this work, we use elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to measure the magnetic properties of single crystalline CrSiTe3. We find that there ismore »a very small single ion anisotropy favoring magnetic ordering along the c-axis and that the measured spin waves fit well to a model where the moments are only weakly coupled along that direction. Finally, we find that both static and dynamic correlations persist within the ab-plane up to at least 300 K, strong evidence of this material's two-dimensional characteristics that are relevant for future studies on thin film and monolayer samples.« less

  11. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  12. Black Moms and “White Motherhood Society”: African-American Middle-Class Mothers’ Perspectives on Work, Family and Identity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dow, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Forthcoming. “Crossing Class Boundaries: Race, Siblings andKaufman, Peter. 2005. “Middle-Class Social Reproduction. ”Ethnicity, Gender, and Class. ” Journal of Marriage and

  13. A Case Study of Five Urban Middle School Teachers Involved In A Culturally Responsive Teaching Teacher Study Group 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, Alicia Ann

    2011-08-08

    This qualitative study examined urban middle school teachers' participation in a teacher study group (TSG) focused on culturally responsive teaching (CRT) content. Specifically, the researcher investigated the professional ...

  14. At the Crossroads of Empire: The United States, the Middle East, and the Politics of Knowledge, 1902-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KHALIL, Osamah F.

    2011-01-01

    the Quest for a New World Order. Oxford: Oxford UniversityNew World Order .182 iv Chapter 6. The New World Order: The Decline of Middle

  15. Low voltage tunneling magnetoresistance in CuCrO{sub 2}-based semiconductor heterojunctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. R.; Han, M. J.; Shan, C.; Hu, Z. G. Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Wu, J. D.

    2014-12-14

    CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction diodes with rectifying characteristics have been fabricated by combining p-type Mg-doped CuCrO{sub 2} and n-type Al-doped ZnO. It was found that the current for the heterojunction in low bias voltage region is dominated by the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect for the heterojunction can be observed at room temperature due to the tunneling-induced antiparallel spin polarization near the heterostructure interface. The MR effect becomes enhanced with the magnetic field, and shows the maximum at a bias voltage around 0.5?V. The phenomena indicate that the CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction is a promising candidate for low-power semiconductor spintronic devices.

  16. Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V) Ferritic Steels for Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jawad, Mann; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2005-04-06

    The project described in this report dealt with improving the materials performance and fabrication for hydrotreating reactor vessels, heat recovery systems, and other components for the petroleum and chemical industries. These reactor vessels can approach ship weights of about 300 tons with vessel wall thicknesses of 3 to 8 inches. They are typically fabricated from Fe-Cr-Mo alloy steels, containing 1.25 to 12% chromium and 1 to 2% molybdenum. The goal of this project was to develop Fe-Cr-W(V) steels that can perform similar duties, in terms of strength at high temperatures, but will weigh less and thereby save energy.

  17. Oxidation of H2S by coadsorbed oxygen on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-03-01

    The interactions of H2S and oxygen have been explored on the a-Cr2O3(0001) surface using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and sticking coefficient measurements. H2S adsorbs with near unity sticking on the clean a-Cr2O3(0001) surface at 125 K up to a coverage of ~1.6 ML (where 1 ML is defined as the surface areal density of Cr3+ sites). Reversible adsorption is evidenced in TPD by three desorption states evolving between 150 and 315 K. Although no S-containing decomposition products were observed in TPD, AES detected S on the surface after TPD indicating that some degree of irreversible decomposition occurred. The level of H2S decomposition on the clean surface was estimated to be between 0.2-0.5 ML using water TPD as an indicator of S site blocking. In contrast, preadsorbed O2 at three temperatures (125, 400 and 800 K) exerted drastic changes on the surface chemistry of H2S seen on the clean surface. At 400 and 800 K, O2 adsorption on clean ?-Cr2O3(0001) is dissociative, populating the surface with chromyl groups (Cr=O) in the former case (corresponding to roughly 1 O per Cr3+ surface site) and resulting in a nearly complete O-termination sheet (~3 O per Cr3+) in the latter case. Little or no H2S chemistry is observed on the O-terminated surface based on TPD and AES. However, availability of Cr-coordination sites on the chromyl-terminated surface facilitated H2S adsorption and oxidation during TPD to SO2 (445-470 K) and H2O (320 K). Isotopic-labeling studies suggest that the oxygen atom in the water product originates from dosed oxygen whereas that in the SO2 product comes from the lattice. Similar results were obtained from H2S dosed on the surface pretreated with O2 at 125 K, where O2 adsorption is predominately molecular, except that S2 was also detected in TPD at 525 K and the amount of SO2 produced at 445 K decreased. These results suggest that atomically adsorbed oxygen effectively oxidizes H2S, but that molecularly adsorbed O2 is key to the partial oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur.

  18. MASS MEASUREMENT OF {sup 45}Cr AND ITS IMPACT ON THE Ca-Sc CYCLE IN X-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Xu, H. S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Zhou, X. H.; He, J. J.; Sun, Y.; Wang, M.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Yang, J. C.; Jia, G. B.; Hu, Z. G.; Ma, X. W.; Mao, R. S.; Schatz, H.; Blaum, K.; Sun, B. H.; Audi, G.; and others

    2013-03-20

    Masses of neutron-deficient {sup 58}Ni projectile fragments have been measured at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou, China employing the isochronous mass spectrometry technique. Masses of a series of short-lived T{sub z} = -3/2 nuclides including the {sup 45}Cr nucleus have been measured with a relative uncertainty of about 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7}. The new {sup 45}Cr mass turned out to be essential for modeling the astrophysical rp-process. In particular, we find that the formation of the predicted Ca-Sc cycle in X-ray bursts can be excluded.

  19. CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1/Fractalkine in the Bone Marrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatatis, Alessandro

    CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1 human osteoblasts in vitro. Thus, the interaction of fractalkine with its receptor CX3CR1 could play a crucial role in vivo by directing circulating prostate cancer cells to the bone. We found that although CX

  20. Implementing iCODE (Internet Community of Design Engineers): A Collaborative Engineering and Technology Project for Middle and High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Technology Project for Middle and High School Students in Urban Settings Michelle Scribner-MacLean, Fred that participating middle school and high school students will pursue IT and STEM careers, by engaging them-0624669 and Machine Science has award ESI-0624631. ABSTRACT: Teams from UMass Lowell and Machine Science

  1. Geophys.l. Int. (1995) 120, 111-131 Coincident conductive and reflective middle and lower crust in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    1995-01-01

    reveals: (a) high electrical conductivity in the middle and lower parts of the crust everywhere, and (b that the increased reflectivity and the high electrical conductivity observed in the middle crust may have a common of the Intermontane Superterrane accreted in the Mesozoic (e.g. Irving & Wynne 1991). The Omineca Belt is an uplifted

  2. Impact of a Mixed Oxide’s Surface Composition and Structure on Its Adsorptive Properties: Case of the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Termination of the ?-(Fe,Cr)2O3(0001) Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2014-12-18

    Characterization of an ?-(Fe0.75,Cr0.25)2O3(0001) mixed oxide single crystal surface was conducted using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). After sputter/anneal cleaning in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), the mixed oxide surface became terminated with a magnetite-(111) structure based on the presence of (2x2) spots in LEED and Fe2+ in XPS. The composition of the surface was close to that of M3O4 based on XPS, with the metal (M) content of Fe2+/3+ and Cr3+ being close to 1.4:1, despite the fact that the film’s bulk was 3:1 with respect to the metal cations. The enrichment of the surface with Cr was not altered by high temperature oxidation in UHV, but could be returned to that of the bulk film composition by exposure to the ambient. Adsorption of various probe molecules (NO, O2, CO2 and H2O) was used to identify the active cation sites present in the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) terminated surface. Although XPS and SIMS both indicated that the near-surface region was enriched in Cr3+, no adsorption states typically associated with Cr3+ sites on ?-Cr2O3 single crystal surfaces were detected. Instead, the TPD behaviors of O2 and CO2 pointed toward the main active sites being Fe2+ and Fe3+, with O2 preferentially adsorbing at the former and CO2 at the latter. NO was observed to bind at both Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites, and H2O TPD looked nearly identical to that for H2O on the Fe3O4(111) surface. Competition for adsorption sites between coadsorbed combinations of CO2, O2, H2O and NO corroborated these assignments. These results indicate that the surface composition of a mixed oxide can vary significantly from its bulk composition depending on the treatment conditions. Even then, the surface composition does not necessarily provide direct insight into the active adsorption sites. In the case of the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) termination of the ?-(Fe0.75,Cr0.25)2O3(0001) surface, Cr3+ cations in the near-surface region appear to be fully coordinated and unavailable for adsorbing molecules. The authors thank Drs. Sara Chamberlin and Scott Chambers for supplying the film used in this work. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Super-High Temperature Alloys and Composites from NbW-Cr Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shailendra Varma

    2008-12-31

    Nickel base superalloys must be replaced if the demand for the materials continues to rise for applications beyond 1000{sup o}C which is the upper limit for such alloys at this time. There are non-metallic materials available for such high temperature applications but they all present processing difficulties because of the lack of ductility. Metallic systems can present a chance to find materials with adequate room temperature ductility. Obviously the system must contain elements with high melting points. Nb has been chosen by many investigators which has a potential of being considered as a candidate if alloyed properly. This research is exploring the Nb-W-Cr system for the possible choice of alloys to be used as a high temperature material.

  4. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Tyler; Shirk, Matthew; Wishart, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  7. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; et al

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assistedmore »interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.« less

  8. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental validation of the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Zhenke; Zhang, F; Miller, Michael K; Liu, Chain T; Huang, Shenyan; Chou, Y.T.; Tien, R; Chang, Y A; Liaw, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    NiAl-type precipitate-strengthened ferritic steels have been known as potential materials for the steam turbine applications. In this study, thermodynamic descriptions of the B2-NiAl type nano-scaled precipitates and body-centered-cubic (BCC) Fe matrix phase for four alloys based on the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo system were developed as a function of the alloy composition at the aging temperature. The calculated phase structure, composition, and volume fraction were validated by the experimental investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. With the ability to accurately predict the key microstructural features related to the mechanical properties in a given alloy system, the established thermodynamic model in the current study may significantly accelerate the alloy design process of the NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels.

  9. Photo-transport properties of Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, P. S.; Okazaki, R. Taniguchi, H.; Terasaki, I.

    2014-11-21

    We report photo-thermoelectric transport phenomena in Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals. Without illumination, this material exhibits an insulating behavior characterized by an activation-type temperature variation of the electrical conductivity. The Seebeck coefficient contrastingly shows a crossover from high-temperature insulating to low-temperature metallic behavior, which is attributed to degenerate carriers in a donor level. We have found that under illumination, both the conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient increase in magnitude with increasing photon flux density in the degenerate-conduction regime. This result is difficult to understand within a simple photo-doping effect, which usually leads to a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient under illumination. The observed phenomenon is discussed in terms of a two-carrier contribution to the transport properties.

  10. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assisted interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.

  11. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Cr-like Co IV and Ni V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, K M; Karpuškien?, R; Keenan, F P; Kisielius, R; Stancalie, V

    2015-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels and radiative rates ($A$-values) for transitions in Cr-like Co IV and Ni V. The quasi-relativistic Hartree-Fock (QRHF) code is adopted for calculating the data although GRASP (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) and flexible atomic code (FAC) have also been employed for comparison purposes. No radiative rates are available in the literature to compare with our results, but our calculated energies are in close agreement with those compiled by NIST for a majority of the levels. However, there are discrepancies for a few levels of up to 3\\%. The $A$-values are listed for all significantly contributing E1, E2 and M1 transitions, and the corresponding lifetimes reported, although unfortunately no previous theoretical or experimental results exist to compare with our data.

  12. Tensile and fracture properties of EBR-II-irradiated V-15Cr-5Ti containing helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Horak, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The alloy V-15Cr-5Ti was cyclotron-implanted with 80 appM He and subsequently irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) to 30 dpa. The same alloy was also irradiated in the 10, 20, and 30% cold-worked conditions. Irradiation temperatures ranged from 400 to 700/sup 0/C. No significant effects of helium on mechanical properties were found in this temperature range although the neutron irradiation shifted the temperature of transition from cleavage to ductile fracture to about 625/sup 0/C. Ten percent cold work was found to have a beneficial effect in reducing the tendency for cleavage fracture following irradiation, but high levels (20%) were observed to reduce ductility. Still higher levels (30%) improved ductility by inducing recovery during the elevated-temperature irradiation. Swelling was found to be negligible, but precipitates - titanium oxides or carbonitrides - contained substantial cavities.

  13. Mn-Fe base and Mn-Cr-Fe base austenitic alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brager, Howard R. (Richland, WA); Garner, Francis A. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    Manganese-iron base and manganese-chromium-iron base austenitic alloys designed to have resistance to neutron irradiation induced swelling and low activation have the following compositions (in weight percent): 20 to 40 Mn; up to about 15 Cr; about 0.4 to about 3.0 Si; an austenite stabilizing element selected from C and N, alone or in combination with each other, and in an amount effective to substantially stabilize the austenite phase, but less than about 0.7 C, and less than about 0.3 N; up to about 2.5 V; up to about 0.1 P; up to about 0.01 B; up to about 3.0 Al; up to about 0.5 Ni; up to about 2.0 W; up to about 1.0 Ti; up to about 1.0 Ta; and with the remainder of the alloy being essentially iron.

  14. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  15. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of {gamma}-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation {gamma}-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaime, Marcelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kohama, Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aczel, A [MCMASTER UNIV; Ninios, K [UNIV OF FL; Chan, H [UNIV OF FL; Balicas, L [NHMFL; Dabkowska, H [MCMASTER UNIV; Like, G [MCMASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.

  17. Microstructural characterization of as-cast biocompatible Co-Cr-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacchi, J.V.; Morando, C.N.; Fornaro, O.; Palacio, H.A.

    2011-01-15

    The microstructure of a cobalt-base alloy (Co-Cr-Mo) obtained by the investment casting process was studied. This alloy complies with the ASTM F75 standard and is widely used in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants because of its high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility properties. This work focuses on the resulting microstructures arising from samples poured under industrial environment conditions, of three different Co-Cr-Mo alloys. For this purpose, we used: 1) an alloy built up from commercial purity constituents, 2) a remelted alloy and 3) a certified alloy for comparison. The characterization of the samples was achieved by using optical microscopy (OM) with a colorant etchant to identify the present phases and scanning electron microscopy (SE-SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) techniques for a better identification. In general the as-cast microstructure is a Co-fcc dendritic matrix with the presence of a secondary phase, such as the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides precipitated at grain boundaries and interdendritic zones. These precipitates are the main strengthening mechanism in this type of alloys. Other minority phases were also reported and their presence could be linked to the cooling rate and the manufacturing process variables and environment. - Research Highlights: {yields}The solidification microstructure of an ASTM-F75 type alloy were studied. {yields}The alloys were poured under an industrial environment. {yields}Carbides and sigma phase identified by color metallography and scanning microscopy (SEM and EDS). {yields}Two carbide morphologies were detected 'blocky type' and 'pearlite type'. {yields}Minority phases were also detected.

  18. Axial obliquity control on the greenhouse carbon budget through middle-to high-latitude reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Axial obliquity control on the greenhouse carbon budget through middle- to high-latitude reservoirs for past greenhouse climates. Carbon-isotope data indicate systematic, million-year-scale transfers-stable character, they might have provided an important control on the dynamics and stability of the greenhouse

  19. Final Thesis Submission Cover Sheet Last Name First Name Middle Name(s) UCID Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurer, Frank

    Final Thesis Submission Cover Sheet Last Name First Name Middle Name(s) UCID Number Graduate: Thesis title page (as it appears in the thesis) Thesis Approval Form (formerly Approval Page) [Updated Sep-29-2014] Notice of Completion for Thesis-based students (formerly Departmental Recommendation

  20. 16 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 21, No. 1, August 2015 DENISEL.MIRICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    16 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 21, No. 1, August 2015 DENISEL.MIRICH Lacing Copyright © 2015 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. www.nctm.org. All rights reserved from NCTM. #12;Mathematics KRISTINAGRUZDEVA/THINKSTOCK Vol. 21, No. 1, August 2015 MATHEMATICS

  1. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Middle Eocene Haymana sedimentary Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Central Anatolia, Turkey. S Nairn1 , A H F Robertson1 , M Hempton2 and UC Ünlügenç3 1 Grant Institute Shell UK 3 Çukurova Universitesi, Jeoloji Mühendisii Bölümü, Balcali, Adana, Turkey Steve of a study of the Late Cretaceous-Middle Eocene Haymana Basin in central Turkey. Based on detailed logging

  2. Roadmap: Middle Childhood Social Studies and Science Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Middle Childhood ­ Social Studies and Science ­ Bachelor of Science in Education [EH Childhood 1 C Fulfills experiential learning requirement HDFS 24013 Early Adolescence 3 C ECON 22060 Childhood ­ Social Studies and Science ­ Bachelor of Science in Education [EH-BSE-MCED-SSSC] College

  3. SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF MIDDLE ATMOSPHERIC IMPACTS BY SOLAR PROTON EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS OF MIDDLE ATMOSPHERIC IMPACTS BY SOLAR PROTON EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23 C. H) Abstract. Solar cycle 23 was extremely active with seven of the largest twelve solar proton events (SPEs for several months past the solar events in the winter polar regions because of the enhanced NOy. Keywords

  4. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Middle Riphean type section (Avzyan Formation, Southern Urals, Russia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kah, Linda

    Urals, Russia): Signal recovery in a fold-and-thrust belt Julie K. Bartley a,, Linda C. Kah b , Julie L The Avzyan Formation of the southern Ural Mountains, Russia, forms part of the Middle Riphean (1300­1000 Ma Mesoproterozoic age. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Mesoproterozoic; Russia; Urals; Carbonate

  5. Archosaur remains from the Otter Sandstone Formation (Middle Triassic, late Anisian) of Devon, southern UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    . Introduction The Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of the south coast of Devon has been a source-bearing maxilla and mandible are robust, and could survive transport in high-energy streams better than some The new jaw comes from the Otter Sandstone Formation (OSF) at Port Royal, Sidmouth (Fig. 1), one

  6. MIDDLE SACRAMENTO RIVER REFUGE: A FEASIBILITY STUDY1 Charles J. Houghten and Frank J. Michny2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIDDLE SACRAMENTO RIVER REFUGE: A FEASIBILITY STUDY1 Charles J. Houghten and Frank J. Michny2 1 Resources Specialist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Refuges and Wildlife Resources, Sacramento, Sacramento, California. The woodlands and other streamside habitat of the Sacramento River's riparian system

  7. Music in Middle Eastern Cinema Conference Tuesday 17th May and Wednesday 18th May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    Music in Middle Eastern Cinema Conference Tuesday 17th May and Wednesday 18th May Programme Tuesday Cinema: From Zeki Muren to Orhan Gencebay 12.50pm ­ 2pm Lunch break Session 3: 2pm ­ 4.30pm Due Cinema: Bashu, Little Stranger' 4.30 Tea/coffee Session 4: 5pm -7pm Chair: Stephen Cottrell (City

  8. Middle Tech: Blurring the Division Between High and Low Tech in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenberg, Michael A.

    Middle Tech: Blurring the Division Between High and Low Tech in Education Mike Eisenberg and Ann Science Competition [Berger 94] --was won by Adam Cohen, then a senior at Hunter High School in New York electronics. Looking at Cohen's project, it is hard to draw any firm lines between "high" and "low" tech

  9. 1. Please complete the following fields. First Name: _________________________ Middle Name: _______________________ Last Name: _________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    1. Please complete the following fields. First Name: _________________________ Middle Name and fees. Note: Registration is not complete until the parking permit is displayed in accordance-5914 · 910-962-3178 · WWW.UNCW.EDU/PARKING SUBMIT COMPLETED FORM TO THE PARKING & TRANSPORTATION SERVICES

  10. MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY NORTHERN CYPRUS CAMPUS SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY SYSTEMS GRADUATE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    March 20th Sustainable Urban Design Wolfgang Dickhaut HafenCity University Hamburg 6 March 25thMIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY NORTHERN CYPRUS CAMPUS SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY SYSTEMS Introduction to Universal & Sustainable Design Aysu Kentel METU Northern Cyprus Campus 7 April 1st Sustainable

  11. Issues and Progress in Transforming a Middle-division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    .30.Ib, 01.40.Di, 01.40.Fk, 01.40.G-, 01.40.gb INTRODUCTION The physics department at the University and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Abstract. The physics department course, a middle-division course taken primarily by sophomore physics majors. We discuss the process

  12. THESES NON-EXCLUSIVE LICENSE Family Name: Given Name, Middle Name (if applicable)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao "Howard"

    THESES NON-EXCLUSIVE LICENSE Family Name: Given Name, Middle Name (if applicable): Full Name, ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ hereby grant a non-exclusive license, for the full term of copyright protection, to Library and Archives conferred by this non-exclusive license. If third party copyrighted material was included in my thesis

  13. Long-term middle atmospheric influence of very large solar proton events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    011415. 1. Introduction [2] Large solar eruptions can cause huge fluxes of high- energy solar protonsLong-term middle atmospheric influence of very large solar proton events Charles H. Jackman,1-term (more than a few months) effects of solar proton events (SPEs). Extremely large solar proton events

  14. Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert Oglesby**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    , the massive Zagros, Tauros and other mountain ranges in the Middle East exert a dominant control over. · The Mediterannean coastal range including the hills of Lebanon · The Tauros mountains of Turkey, · The Zagros event on the Cilo- Sat Range (square box). Precipitation patterns in the Tauros, Zagros, and the high

  15. Geology and paleoecology of a Middle Wisconsin fossil occurrence in Zorra Township, southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    1 Geology and paleoecology of a Middle Wisconsin fossil occurrence in Zorra Township, southwestern of regional climatic and paleoecological environments is emerging. In this paper, we present the results of a sedimentological and paleoecological study of a sub-till organic deposit in Zorra Township, southwestern Ontario

  16. Paleoecology of benthic metazoans in the Early Cambrian Maotianshan Shale biota and the Middle Cambrian Burgess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dornbos, Stephen Q.

    Paleoecology of benthic metazoans in the Early Cambrian Maotianshan Shale biota and the Middle-existed with benthic metazoans adapted to more typical Phanerozoic-style soft substrates. Paleoecological examination of the paleoecological analysis indicate that the Maotianshan Shale and Burgess Shale biotas contain mobile and sessile

  17. Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Focal Species Information, Red-winged Blackbird

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix C Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Focal Species Information, Red-winged Blackbird Introduction The red-winged black bird is one of the most abundant birds in North America (Marshall et al. 2003). Red-winged Blackbirds are extremely adaptable; successfully colonizing many small

  18. Electromagnetic detection of plate hydration due to bending faults at the Middle America Trench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    images show that the extensive network of trench parallel normal faults penetrates the entire oceanic bending faults on the incoming oceanic plate of the Middle America Trench offshore Nicaragua have been observed to penetrate to mantle depths, suggesting a permeable pathway for hydration of the crust

  19. Middle Pleistocene glaciation in Patagonia dated by cosmogenic-nuclide measurements on outwash gravels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Middle Pleistocene glaciation in Patagonia dated by cosmogenic-nuclide measurements on outwash: cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating Marine Isotope Stage 8 glacial chronology southern South America terraces. The data demonstrate that nuclide inheritance is negligible and we therefore use the oldest

  20. Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected by Hydropower Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydroelectric projects are run-of-river facilities with very limited capability for storage and flow regulationAppendix E Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River Subbasin Water Quality Parameters Affected in the Columbia River was identified in the 1960's and 1970's as a potential detriment to salmon. Those concerns

  1. ASSESSING MIDDLE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS' CONCEPTIONS ABOUT TORNADOES AND OTHER WEATHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 P7.2 ASSESSING MIDDLE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS' CONCEPTIONS ABOUT TORNADOES AND OTHER WEATHER Francisco, CA 1. INTRODUCTION Weather impacts society on a fundamental level. Many people inquire about the weather conditions in their region every day. When the weather is extreme, it dominates the local

  2. Organizing from the Middle Out: Citizen Science in the National Parks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowston, Kevin

    Organizing from the Middle Out: Citizen Science in the National Parks Andrea Wiggins Syracuse from a dissertation pilot study on a citizen science project involving the public with scientists- ence citizen science project design, and in turn, observing how the design choices contribute

  3. Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks and Structural Analysis of Round-Reduced PRINCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks and Structural Analysis of Round-Reduced PRINCE Patrick Derbez and Léo cipher they designed, PRINCE. Instead of trying to attack as many rounds as possible using attacks which on round-reduced PRINCE includ- ing the ones which won the challenge in the 6 and 8-round categories

  4. Effect of Austenization Temperature on the Microstructure and Strength of 9% and 12% Cr Ferritic-Martensitic Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry C. Totemeier

    2004-10-01

    The effect of reduced-temperature austenization on the microstructure and strength of two ferritic-martensitic steels was studied. Prototypic 9% and 12% Cr steels, grade 91 (9Cr-1MoVNb) and type 422 stainless (12Cr-1MoVW), respectively, were austenized at 925°C and 1050°C and tempered at 760°C. The reduced austenization temperature was intended to simulate potential inadequate austenization during field construction of large structures and also the thermal cycle experienced in the Type IV region of weld heat affected zones (HAZ). The microstructure, tensile behavior, and creep strength were characterized for both steels treated at each condition. The reduced austenization temperature resulted in general coarsening of carbides in both steels and polygonization of the tempered martensite structure in type 422. For this steel, a marked reduction in microhardness was observed, while there was little change in microhardness for grade 91. Slight reductions in tensile strength were observed for both steels at room temperature and elevated temperatures of 450 and 550°C. The strength reduction was greater for type 422 than for grade 91. At 650°C the tensile strength reduction was minimal for both steels. Marked reductions in creep rupture lives were observed for both steels at 650°C; the reductions were less at 600°C and minimal at 550°C. Overall, the higher Cr content steel was observed to be more sensitive to variations in heat treatment conditions.

  5. ccsd00003882, Structural relaxations around Ti, Cr and Fe impurities in -Al 2 O 3 probed by x-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    improve the voltage holdo#11; capability of insulating materials 1 , they are critical for the optical of solids. In the case of dilute elements in single crystals, especially at the K edge of 3d transitionccsd­00003882, version 1 ­ 12 Jan 2005 Structural relaxations around Ti, Cr and Fe impurities

  6. Magnetic behavior in Cr{sub 2}@Ge{sub n} (1?n?12) clusters: A density functional investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhaka, Kapil Trivedi, Ravi Bandyopadhyay, Debashis

    2014-04-24

    With a goal to produce magnetic moment in Cr{sub 2} Doped Ge{sub n} clusters which will be useful for practical applications, we have considered the structure and magnetic properties of Pure Germanium clusters and substitutionally doped it with Cr dimer to produce Cr{sub 2}@Ge{sub n} clusters. As the first step of calculation, geometrical optimizations of the nanoclusters have been done. These optimized geometries have been used in calculate the average binding energy per atom (BE), HOMO-LUMO gap and hence the relative stability of the clusters. These parameters have been demonstrated as structural and electronic properties of the clusters. Gap between highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital indicate cluster to be a potential motif for generating magnetic cluster assembled materials. Based on these values a comparative study on different sized clusters has been done in order to understand the origin of structures, electronic and magnetic properties of Cr{sub 2}@Ge{sub n} nanoclusters.

  7. Re-Evaluation of Results in NUREG/CR-6674 for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Components (MRP-76)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Deardorff; D. Harris; D. Dedhia

    2002-11-30

    This report evaluates the conservatisms and uncertainties reported in NUREG/CR-6674 that lead to high probabilities of cracking in carbon and low-alloy steel for reactor piping. The report uses additional data generated since the completion of the report to eliminate uncertainties and show lower probabilities of cracking.

  8. Sputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    Sputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through for proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show manuscript received September 17, 2009. Published November 13, 2009. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells

  9. Tunable blue light source by intracavity frequency doubling of a Cr-LiSrAIF6 laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tunable blue light source by intracavity frequency doubling of a Cr- LiSrAIF6 laser Franqois-switched operation at 10 kHz was intracavity frequency doubled by using a LiIOl crystal. The 230 ns tunable blue lasers emitting in the blue-green wavelength range are expected to be the key components for optical

  10. Half-Metallicity and Efficient Spin Injection in AlN=GaN:Cr (0001) Heterostructure J. E. Medvedeva,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    V, so that the conduction electrons can tunnel into the semiconductor material with 100% spin, Australia 3 Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Cr-doped AlN=GaN (0001) heterostructures reveal

  11. Modulation of physical and photocatalytic properties of (Cr, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorods using soft solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wen-Chung [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Nguyen, Hoang-Diem; Wu, Chun-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kao-Shuo, E-mail: kschang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Yoshimura, Masahiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research (PCGMR), National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-14

    Facile polymerized complex reactions together with a hydrothermal reaction were implemented to make single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods for the first time. Chromium (Cr) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) co-doping was performed to tailor the physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction study illustrated that highly reactive facets of (101), (111), and (001) dominated rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods. A growth model, based on formation of complex species, was proposed to elucidate effectiveness of the soft solution processing in making TiO{sub 2} nanorods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and consideration of fundamentals of charge neutrality showed N{sub 2} doping could inhibit formation of Cr{sup 6+} and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}{sup 2+}). An investigation of the photocatalytic properties exhibited high efficiency of photodegradation of methylene blue in 15?min under pH?=?10, using a nanocomposite of (7% Cr, 0.0021% N) codoped and 3% Cr doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods.

  12. Creep-fatigue criteria and inelastic behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at elevated temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggles, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1994-02-01

    The ever increasing demand for safety requires that stringent and conservative methodology be developed for design and analysis of reactor components. At present modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a candidate material for construction of steam generators in fast breeder reactors. Therefore high-temperature material properties and extensive insight into deformation behavior and creep-fatigue life are required to develop design guidelines for use of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in actual plant components. However, existing information on creep-fatigue and deformation response of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is insufficient, and further experimental and modeling efforts are needed. A joint effort between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the United States and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan was started in 1991 to investigate the inelastic behavior of and to develop creep-fatigue criteria for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at elevated temperatures. The current program focuses on uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue tests. Results of this effort are presented in this report. Section 2 introduces the test material and experimental arrangement. Uniaxial exploratory deformation tests and unified constitutive equations for inelastic analysis of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel are presented in Sections 3 and 4, respectively. Axial fatigue and creep-fatigue test results are discussed in Section 5. Section 6 is devoted to constant stress creep tests. Biaxial fatigue and creep-fatigue tests are described in Section 7. Progress in creep-fatigue life evaluation is reported in Section 8.

  13. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics #12;fielded at inertial con#12;nement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K?#11; and K#12;? x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed tomore »x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0#6; ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± #6;2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± #6;1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± #6;5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual eff#11;ect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.« less

  14. Synthesis and mechanical properties of CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings deposited by a hybrid coating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ji Hwan; Heo, Su Jeong; Kim, Kwang Ryul; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2008-01-15

    Quaternary CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings were deposited on steel substrates (AISI D2) and Si wafers by a hybrid coating system combining an arc-ion plating technique and a dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique using Cr and Mo targets in an Ar/N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gaseous mixture. The carbon content of CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings was linearly increased with increasing CH{sub 4}/(CH{sub 4}+N{sub 2}) gas flow rate ratio. The maximum hardness of 44 GPa was obtained from the CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings containing a carbon content of x=0.33 with a residual stress of -4.4 GPa. The average friction coefficient of Cr-Mo-N coatings was 0.42, and it is decreased to 0.31 after applying CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings. This result was caused by the formation of a carbon-rich transfer layer that acted as a solid lubricant to reduce contact between the coating surface and steel ball. The microstructure of the coatings was investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the CrMoC{sub x}N{sub 1-x} coatings were systematically investigated with the instrumental analyses.

  15. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1-5.5 MeV alphas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rojas-Herrera, J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Orozco, D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics #12;fielded at inertial con#12;nement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K?#11; and K#12;? x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0#6; ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± #6;2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± #6;1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± #6;5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual eff#11;ect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  16. Formation of less-known structurally complex ?{sub b} and orthorhombic quasicrystalline approximant ?{sub n} on solidification of selected Al–Pd–Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamech, M.; ?erni?ková, I.; ?uriška, L.; Kolesár, V.; Drienovský, M.; Bednar?ík, J.; Svoboda, M.; Janovec, J.

    2014-11-15

    The evolution of phases was investigated on cooling of Al{sub 71}Pd{sub 24}Cr{sub 5}, Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 20}Cr{sub 7}, and Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 23}Cr{sub 4} alloys from 1350 °C down to ambient temperature with the rate of 10 °C·min{sup ?1}. To perform the investigation, differential thermal analysis, synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used. In all the investigated alloys structurally complex phases ?{sub n} (?{sub 6} + ?{sub 28}) and ?{sub b}, as well as the ?-phase were identified. Based on the results of differential thermal analysis, sequences of phase transformations were determined. The Al{sub 71}Pd{sub 24}Cr{sub 5} alloy started to solidify at 1031.4 °C through ?. Primary dendrites of ?{sub b} were observed in Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 20}Cr{sub 7} and Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 23}Cr{sub 4} alloys. In the second step of solidification ? and/or ?{sub b} were formed. The peritectic reaction, liquid + ?{sub b} + ? ? ?{sub n} + ?{sub b} + ?, leading to the formation of the quasicrystalline approximant ?{sub n} (?{sub 6} + ?{sub 28}) took place in the final step of solidification at approximately 792 °C. - Highlights: • Structurally complex ?{sub n} (?{sub 6} + ?{sub 28}), ?{sub b} and ?-phases were identified. • The Al{sub 71}Pd{sub 24}Cr{sub 5} alloy started to solidify at 1031.4 °C through the primary ? phase. • The Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 20}Cr{sub 7} and Al{sub 73}Pd{sub 23}Cr{sub 4} alloys solidified in the same way. • The quasicrystalline approximant ?{sub n} (?{sub 6} + ?{sub 28}) was formed at approximately 792 °C.

  17. Microstructural evolution during solution treatment of Co-Cr-Mo-C biocompatible alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacchi, J.V.; Fornaro, O.; Palacio, H.

    2012-06-15

    Three different Co-Cr-Mo-C alloys conforming to ASTM F75 standard were poured in an industrial environment and subjected to a conventional solution treatment at 1225 Degree-Sign C for several time intervals. The microstructural changes and transformations were studied in each case in order to evaluate the way in which treatment time influences the secondary phase fraction and clarify the microstructural changes that could occur. To assess how treatment time affects microstructure, optical microscopy and image analyzer software, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry analysis were employed. The main phases detected in the as-cast state were: {sigma}-phase, M{sub 6}C, and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides. The latter presented two different morphologies, blocky type and lamellar type. Despite being considered the most detrimental feature to mechanical properties, {sigma}-phase and lamellar carbides dissolution took place in the early stages of solution treatment. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides featured two different behaviors. In the alloy obtained by melting an appropriate quantity of alloyed commercial materials, a decrease in size, spheroidization and transformation into M{sub 6}C carbides were simultaneously observed. In the commercial ASTM F75 alloy, in turn, despite being the same phase, only a marked decrease in precipitates size was noticed. These different behaviors could be ascribed to the initial presence of other phases in the alloy obtained from alloyed materials, such as {sigma}-phase and 'pearlitic' carbides, or to the initial precipitate size which was much larger in the first than in the commercial ASTM F75 alloy studied. M{sub 6}C carbides dissolved directly in the matrix as they could not be detected in samples solution-treated for 15 min. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three different Co-Cr-Mo alloys were poured under an industrial environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation of existing phases followed during conventional solution treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In as-cast/treated samples, phases were identified by color metallography, SEM and EDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M{sub 23}C{sub 6} {yields} M{sub 6}C transformation was corroborated by SEM and EDS analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbide spheroidization was also detected prior a noticeably carbide size decreasing.

  18. High field magnetotransport and point contact Andreev reflection measurements on CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br—Degenerate magnetic semiconductor single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, K. Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.; Alaria, J.

    2014-05-07

    Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (?{sub 0}H? 14?T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time  10{sup ?13}?s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.

  19. Method for enriching a middle isotope using vibration-vibration pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rich, Joseph W. (East Aurora, NY); Homicz, Gregory F. (Getzville, NY); Bergman, Richard C. (Corfu, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Method for producing isotopically enriched material by vibration-vibration excitation of gaseous molecules wherein a middle mass isotope of an isotopic mixture including lighter and heavier mass isotopes preferentially populates a higher vibrational mode and chemically reacts to provide a product in which it is enriched. The method can be used for vibration-vibration enrichment of .sup.17 O in a CO reactant mixture.

  20. Coprolites in a Middle Triassic cycad pollen cone: evidence for insect pollination in early cycads?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavins, Sharon D.; Kellogg, Derek W.; Krings, Michael; Taylor, Edith L.; Taylor, Thomas N.

    2005-01-01

    and Biodiversity Research Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7534, USA and 2Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie & Geologie und GeoBio-CenterLMU, Richard-Wagner-Straße 10, 80333 München, Germany ABSTRACT Question: What evidence... document the presence of pollen-laden coprolites in pollen sacs of a Middle Triassic cycad. Conclusions: These coprolites are comparable with fecal pellets of modern arthropods and we suggest that they were produced by beetles. This provides the oldest...

  1. Middle Cambrian priapulids and other soft-bodied fossils from Utah and Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conway Morris, S.; Robison, Richard A.

    1986-01-09

    THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS January 9, 1986 Paper 117 MIDDLE CAMBRIAN PRIAPULIDS AND OTHER SOFT-BODIED FOSSILS FROM UTAH AND SPAIN' S. CONWAY MORRIS and R. A. ROBISON Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge...- tion rather than the original biotic assemblage (Conway Morris, 1981; Conway Morris and Robison, 1982). If this is correct then such soft- bodied faunas may provide a guide to original diversity and paleoecologic insights more reli- able than those...

  2. Taxonomy and paleobiology of some Middle Cambrian Scenella (Cnidaria) and Hyolithids (Mollusca) from western North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babcock, Loren E.; Robison, Richard A.

    1988-12-29

    (1979), Robison and Richards (1981), Conway Morris and Robison (1982, 1986, 1988), Briggs and Robison (1984), Robison (1984b, 1985, 1986, 1987), Sprinkle (1985), and Ubaghs and Robison (1985, 1988). New specimens are described from the Spence Shale... for the Middle Cambrian in preservation only, not in general taxonomic content (e.g., Conway Morris, 1981, 1986; Conway Morris and Robison, 1982, 1986, 1988; Robison, 1986). The pres- ence of the same chondrophorine and hyolith genera in the Burgess shale...

  3. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Middle Ordovician Siliciclastic Sediment on the Southern Laurentian Shelf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickell, Michael

    2012-11-20

    DETRITAL ZIRCON GEOCHRONOLOGY OF MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN SILICICLASTIC SEDIMENT ON THE SOUTHERN LAURENTIAN SHELF A Thesis by MICHAEL JOHN PICKELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Schechter and Dr. Brent Miller. Dr. Miller?s geochronology class was the foundation for my understanding what my research actually meant. I would also like to thank Dr. Renald ?Ray? Guillemette, whose assistance with the imaging of zircon grains...

  4. Nature of =~SiOCrO(2)CI And (=~SiO)(2)CrO(2) Sites Prepared By Grafting CrO(2)CI(2) Onto Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmelmaier, C.A.; White, R.E.; Bokhoven, J.A.van; Scott, S.L.

    2009-05-14

    The room-temperature reaction between chromyl chloride and Sylopol 952 silicas pretreated at 200, 450, and 800 C was investigated using IR, XANES, and EXAFS spectroscopy, as well as by DFT modeling. On the silicas pretreated at 200 and 450 C, the structurally uniform sites formed by the reaction with one surface hydroxyl group are described as {triple_bond}SiOCrO{sub 2}Cl. Unreacted silanols persist on these silicas even in the presence of excess CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and on the silica pretreated at 200 C some participate in hydrogen bonding with the grafted monochlorochromate sites. On the silica pretreated at 800 C, both {triple_bond}SiOCrO{sub 2}Cl and ({triple_bond}SiO){sub 2}CrO{sub 2} sites are formed. The latter are produced despite the absence of hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl pairs on the support. The origin of the chromate sites is proposed to be the reaction between CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and hydroxyl-substituted siloxane 2-rings. These rings are likely formed at 800 C by condensation between a pair of vicinal silanols in which one of the silanols is also a member of a geminal pair.

  5. Phase diagram and magnetocaloric effects in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}(In{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}){sub 15} and (Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x})NiGe{sub 1.05} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quetz, Abdiel Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Dubenko, Igor; Talapatra, Saikat; Ali, Naushad; Samanta, Tapas; Stadler, Shane

    2014-05-07

    The magnetocaloric and thermomagnetic properties of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}(In{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}){sub 15} and (Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}) NiGe{sub 1.05} systems for 0???x???0.105 and 0???x???0.1, respectively, have been studied by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and magnetization measurements. Partial substitution of Cr for Mn in (Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x})NiGe{sub 1.05} results in a first order magnetostructural transition from a hexagonal paramagnetic to an orthorhombic paramagnetic phase near T{sub M}???380?K (for x?=?0.07). Partial substitution of Cr for In in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}(In{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}){sub 15} shifts the magnetostructural transition to a higher temperature (T?=?T{sub M}???450?K) for x?=?0.1. Large magnetic entropy changes of ?S?=??12 (J/(kgK)) and ?S?=??11 (J/(kgK)), both for a magnetic field change of 5?T, were observed in the vicinity of T{sub M} for (Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x})NiGe{sub 1.05} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}(In{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}){sub 15}, respectively.

  6. Star formation in z>1 3CR host galaxies as seen by Herschel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podigachoski, P; Haas, M; Leipski, C; Wilkes, B; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Westhues, C; Willner, S P; Ashby, M L N; Chini, R; Clements, D L; Fazio, G G; Labiano, A; Lawrence, C; Meisenheimer, K; Peletier, R F; Siebenmorgen, R; Kleijn, G Verdoes

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) far-infrared (FIR) photometry of a complete sample of z>1 3CR sources, from the Herschel GT project The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN (PI: Barthel). Combining these with existing Spitzer photometric data, we perform an infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of these landmark objects in extragalactic research to study the star formation in the hosts of some of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) known at any epoch. Accounting for the contribution from an AGN-powered warm dust component to the IR SED, about 40% of our objects undergo episodes of prodigious, ULIRG-strength star formation, with rates of hundreds of solar masses per year, coeval with the growth of the central supermassive black hole. Median SEDs imply that the quasar and radio galaxy hosts have similar FIR properties, in agreement with the orientation-based unification for radio-loud AGN. The star-forming properties of the AGN hosts are similar to those of the general popul...

  7. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  8. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  9. Evaluation of dynamical parameters with a three-dimensional mechanistic model of the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouker, W. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere is introduced. The model is based on the full set of the primitive equations. It is designed to simulate a yearly cycle of the middle atmosphere. Results are presented for the solstice and equinox conditions. The model reproduces the main observed features of the middle atmospheric circulation: the stratospheric-mesospheric jet streams and the cold summer mesopause region at solstice with reversed zonal wind especially in the summer mesosphere, and the weak westerly circulation at equinox. The parameterized effects of breaking gravity waves in the mesosphere drive the atmosphere out of radiative balance. They lead to a meridional circulation with a one-cell structure at solstice with upward (downward) motion over the summer (winter) pole and a meridional flow towards the winter hemisphere and a two-cell structure at equinox with upward motion over the tropics and downward motion over the polar regions. Potential fields are presented for horizontal vector fields. They suggest that the stratospheric circulation can is dominated by horizontally nondivergent flow. This is modified by the results of a more quantitative view at the interaction of planetary waves on the zonal mean flow, which clearly identifies the essential role of horizontal divergence on the stratospheric circulation.

  10. Measurement of the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 259}Sg excitation function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folden III, C. M.; Dragojevic, I.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nelson, S. L.; Hoffman, D. C.; Nitsche, H.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Sudowe, R.; Gregorich, K. E.; Eichler, R.

    2009-02-15

    The excitation function for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 259}Sg reaction has been measured using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. The maximum cross section of 320{sub -100}{sup +110} pb is observed at a center-of-target laboratory-frame energy of 253.0 MeV. In total, 25 decay chains originating from {sup 259}Sg were observed and the measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. In addition, a partial excitation function for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 52}Cr,2n){sup 258}Sg reaction was obtained, and an improved {sup 258}Sg half-life of 2.6{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6} ms was calculated by combining all available experimental data.

  11. Development of A New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V)Ferritic Steels for Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikka, V.J.; Jawad, M.H. (Nooter Corp.)

    2005-06-15

    The project, 'Development of a New Class of Fe-Cr-W(V) Ferritic Steels for Industrial Process Applications', was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nooter Corporation. This project dealt with improving the materials performance and fabrication for the hydrotreating reactor vessels, heat recovery systems, and other components for the petroleum and chemical industries. The petroleum and chemical industries use reactor vessels that can approach the ship weights of approximately 300 tons with vessel wall thicknesses of 3 to 8 in. These vessels are typically fabricated from Fe-Cr-Mo steels with chromium ranging from 1.25 to 12% and molybdenum from 1 to 2%. Steels in this composition have great advantages of high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, low cost, and properties obtainable by heat treatment. With all of the advantages of Fe-Cr-Mo steels, several issues are faced in design and fabrication of vessels and related components. These issues include the following: (1) low strength properties of current alloys require thicker sections; (2) increased thickness causes heat-treatment issues related to nonuniformity across the thickness and thus not achieving the optimum properties; (3) fracture toughness (ductile-to-brittle transition ) is a critical safety issue for these vessels, and it is affected in thick sections due to nonuniformity of microstructure; (4) PWHT needed after welding and makes fabrication more time-consuming with increased cost; and (5) PWHT needed after welding also limits any modifications of the large vessels in service. The goal of this project was to reduce the weight of large-pressure vessel components (ranging from 100 to 300 tons) by approximately 25% and reduce fabrication cost and improve in-service modification feasibility through development of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels with combination of nearly a 50% higher strength, a lower DBTT and a higher upper-shelf energy, ease of heat treating, and a strong potential for not requiring PWHT.

  12. Temperature dependence of dynamic Young's modulus and internal friction in three plasma sprayed NiCrAlY coating alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Lloyd Steven

    1989-01-01

    for internal friction 6. 3 The corstant C TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CONCLUSIONS Page 17 REFERENCES VITA 00 LIST OF TABLES Table l. Alloy Compositions . 2. Measured Densities of Specimens 3. Polynomials for CTE Data 4. Dynamic Young's Modulus... in failure, the mechanical properties of coatings have not been a subject of much concern. Recently, however, plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings have been used as "bond coats", intermediate between an insulating top coat and the protected structural member...

  13. Principals' adoption of abstinence-only-until-marriage education as an innovation in Texas public middle schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Kelly Lynn

    2005-08-29

    This study assessed indicators of adoption of abstinence-only-until-marriage education as an innovation by middle school principals in the state of Texas. It also assessed school principals?? likelihood of adopting such programs. This study...

  14. The relationship between verve and the academic achievement of African American and European American middle school students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Torrance N.

    2006-04-12

    between African American and European American students? 2. Is there a significant difference in verve levels of African American male and African American female students in middle school? 3. Is there a significant difference in the academic achievement...

  15. How rise of middle class activism in Indian cities is changing the face of local governance : [case of Delhi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Poulomi Dhar

    2007-01-01

    Neighborhood Associations, called Resident Welfare Associations (RWAs), have assumed an important role in public policy decision making in Delhi as the principal voice of the middle class. This represents a departure from ...

  16. Intermediate to felsic middle crust in the accreted Talkeetna arc, the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island, Alaska: An analogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    Matthew Rioux,1,2 James Mattinson,1 Bradley Hacker,1 Peter Kelemen,3 Jurek Blusztajn,4 Karen Hanghøj,3. Hacker, P. Kelemen, J. Blusztajn, K. Hanghøj, and G. Gehrels (2010), Intermediate to felsic middle crust

  17. Self Concept As A Mediator Of Effect Of Extracurricular Activities On Academic Engagement in Middle School Students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper-Tarantolo, Rachel

    2009-06-09

    The following study examined the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and academic outcomes, such as achievement and behavioral engagement and self-concept, in an at-risk group of middle school students. The researchers...

  18. Provenance of middle to late Miocene clastic sedimentary rocks in the central to eastern Cibao basin, northern Hispaniola 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Meng

    1997-01-01

    The provenance of middle to late Miocene clastic sediments of Cibao basin in northern Hispaniola has been assessed via integrated methods including detrital framework modes, clay mineral assemblages and ratios, the composition of individual feldspar...

  19. Facies Distribution, Sequence Stratigraphy, Chemostratigraphy, and Diagenesis of the Middle-Late Triassic Al Aziziyah Formation, Jifarah Basin, NW Libya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moustafa, Mohamed Salem Hamadi

    2015-05-13

    This study presents the depositional facies, sequence stratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and diagenetic evolution of the Middle-Late Triassic Al Aziziyah Formation, Jifarah Basin northwest Libya. Eight measured sections were sampled and analyzed. High...

  20. Structural and optical characterization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures: Evaluation of its dielectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, M. M., E-mail: abdullahphyzia@gmail.com [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rajab, Fahd M. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia) [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbas, Saleh M. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia)] [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran, 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-15

    The structural, optical and dielectric properties of as-grown Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures are demonstrated in this paper. Powder X-ray diffractometry analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of the material with lattice parameter, a = b = 4.953 Å; c = 13.578 Å, and average crystallize size (62.40 ± 21.3) nm. FE-SEM image illustrated the mixture of different shapes (disk, particle and rod) of as-grown nanostructures whereas; EDS spectrum confirmed the elemental purity of the material. FTIR spectroscopy, revealed the characteristic peaks of Cr–O bond stretching vibrations. Energy band gap (3.2 eV) of the nanostructures has been determined using the results of UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The dielectric properties of the material were checked in the wide frequency region (100Hz-30 MHz). In the low frequency region, the matrix of the dielectric behaves like source as well as sink of electrical energy within the relaxation time. Low value of dielectric loss exhibits that the materials posses good optical quality with lesser defects. The ac conductivity of the material in the high frequency region was found according to frequency power law. The physical-mechanism and the theoretical-interpretation of dielectric-properties of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures attest the potential candidature of the material as an efficient dielectric medium.

  1. Deformation Behavior of Laser Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Fuel Cladding Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Gussev, Maxim N; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al in weight percent with a minor addition of yttrium using laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions for all alloys studied. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. No significant correlation was found between the deformation behavior/mechanical performance of welds and the level of Cr or Al in the alloy ranges studied.

  2. Comparison of Crevice Corrosion of Fe-Based Amorphous Metal and Crystalline Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, X; Ha, H; Payer, J H

    2008-07-24

    The crevice corrosion behaviors of an Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloy (SAM1651) and a Ni-Cr-Mo crystalline alloy (C-22) were studied in 4M NaCl at 100 C with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and constant potential tests. The corrosion damage morphologies, corrosion products and the compositions of corroded surfaces of these two alloys were studied with optical 3D reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). It was found that the Fe-based bulk metallic glass (amorphous alloy) SAM1651 had a more positive breakdown potential and repassivation potential than crystalline alloy C-22 in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests and required a more positive oxidizing potential to initiate crevice corrosion in constant potential test. Once crevice corrosion initiated, the corrosion propagation of C-22 was more localized near the crevice border compared to SAM1651, and SAM1651 repassivated more readily than C-22. The EDS results indicated that the corrosion products of both alloys contained high amount of O and were enriched in Mo and Cr. The AES results indicated that a Cr-rich oxide passive film was formed on the surfaces of both alloys, and both alloys were corroded congruently.

  3. Collective efficacy as identified by teachers at Heritage Middle School, East Central Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naumann, Luisa Maria

    2008-10-10

    the 10 years that the Heritage Middle School has been in operation, there have been six different principals resulting in six different approaches to the management of the school. No research was found that explains how a school’s collective efficacy... Based on Ethnicity ............................................................................................. 64 10 Independent Samples t-test of the White and Hispanic Teachers From Heritage Middle School in the Perceived Collective Efficacy Survey...

  4. Sequence Stratigraphy and Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Middle-Late Ordovician Mt. Wilson Quartzite, British Columbia, Canada 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutto, Andrew Paul

    2012-07-16

    STRATIGRAPHY AND DETRITAL ZIRCON GEOCHRONOLOGY OF MIDDLE-LATE ORDOVICIAN MT. WILSON QUARTZITE, BRITISH COLUMBIA CANADA A Thesis by ANDREW PAUL HUTTO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Geology Sequence Stratigraphy and Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Middle-Late Ordovician Mt. Wilson...

  5. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard A.J.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-07-20

    2), although not without exceptions. In other words, in general, models based on known HPAI- their environmental attributes. The details of these test results follow. Predictivity across study region The model based on all OIE points showed...- fying the poultry industry of North Africa and the Middle East [19]. Regional projection across the Middle East and northeastern Africa of HPAI-H5N1 ecological niche model results based on all OIE case occurrence pointsFigure 2 Regional projection across...

  6. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Registration and payment should be received in our office by the third class meeting. CRN# Subject Course# Section# VR/CR Hrs Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    class meeting. CRN# Subject Course# Section# VR/CR Hrs Title I affirm that the information I have and should be received in our office by the third class meeting. Forms received without payment can

  7. Properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} films (transition metals: Mn, Cr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balin, K.; Nowak, A.; Gibaud, A.; Szade, J.; Celinski, Z.

    2011-04-01

    The electronic and crystallographic structures, as well as the magnetic properties, of Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} (transition metals: Mn, Cr) thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. Relative changes of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr ratios derived from the XPS lines, as well as x-ray reflectivity, indicate mixing of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr layers. Valency transitions from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} were observed in both systems for most studied stoichiometries. A transition to a magnetically ordered phase was observed at 15 K, 40 K, and 62 K for selected films in the Eu-Mn system, and at 50 K for the film with a Eu/Cr ratio of 0.5.

  8. High temperature oxidation and NaCl-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

    2005-02-17

    The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were...

  9. Generation of 15-nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr[superscript 3+]:LiCAF laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirbas, Umit

    We describe the generation of enhanced pulse energies using a multipass-cavity (MPC) Cr[superscript3] +:LiCAF laser, pumped by inexpensive, single spatial mode laser diodes. A semiconductor saturable absorber was used for ...

  10. Sol-Gel Synthesis of KVII[CrIII(CN)6],2H2O: A Crystalline Molecule-Based Magnet with a Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    of VII(OTf)2 9 with [NEt4]3- [CrIII (CN)6]10 under anaerobic conditions affords a dark blue gel after(ethyl)ammonium, NEt4 + .6-8 These counterions were initially chosen because they are too large to be incorporated to afford VII[CrIII(CN)6]0.66,3.5H2O,0.1[NEt4][OTf] (1).11 Addition of alkali metal cations to the reaction

  11. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-frequency electromagnetic properties of epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films grown by pulsed laser on the electromagnetic (EM) properties in high-frequency domain (HF) of multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO) thin films. The films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser ablation. Typical 50 nm-thick BFCO

  12. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.

    2012-04-03

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  13. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  14. Category:Wind for Schools Middle School Curricula | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient Holes Jump to:Middle School Curricula Jump

  15. Los Alamos Middle School team wins regional MathCounts competition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChinaC LLosLos Alamos Middle School

  16. Simple bond-order-type interatomic potential for an intermixed Fe-Cr-C system of metallic and covalent bondings in heat-resistant ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomohisa Nakamura, Kaoru; Yamada, Susumu; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2014-12-28

    It is known that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M?=?Cr/Fe) behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels affects the strength of the material at high temperature. The ability to garner direct information regarding the atomic motion using classical molecular dynamics simulations is useful for investigating the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels. For such classical molecular dynamics calculations, a suitable interatomic potential is needed. To satisfy this requirement, an empirical bond-order-type interatomic potential for Fe-Cr-C systems was developed because the three main elements to simulate the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels are Fe, Cr, and C. The angular-dependent term, which applies only in non-metallic systems, was determined based on the similarity between a Finnis-Sinclair-type embedded-atom-method interatomic potential and a Tersoff-type bond-order potential. The potential parameters were determined such that the material properties of Fe-Cr-C systems were reproduced. These properties include the energy and lattice constants of 89 crystal structures; the elastic constants of four realistic precipitates; the bulk moduli of B1, B2, and B3 crystals; the surface energies of B1 and B2 crystals; and the defect-formation energies and atomic configurations of 66 Fe-Cr-C complexes. Most of these material properties were found to be reproduced by our proposed empirical bond-order potentials. The formation energies and lattice constants of randomly mixed Fe-Cr alloys calculated using the interatomic potentials were comparable to those obtained through experiments and first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the energies and structures of interfaces between Cr carbide and ?-Fe as predicted through first-principles calculations were well reproduced using these interatomic potentials.

  17. Fission decay of Cr-48 at E*{sub CN} approximate to 60 MeV.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, K. A.; Sanders, S. J.; Dummer, A. K.; Hasan, A. T.; Prosser, F. W.; Back, B. B.; Bearden, I. G.; Betts, R. R.; Carpenter, M. P.; Crowell, B.; Freer, M.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Liang, Y.; Nisius, D.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Beck, C.; Freeman, R. M.; Cavallaro, S.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Physics; Univ. of Kansas; Univ. Louis Pasteur; Univ. di Catania; Univ. de Sao Paulo

    1996-09-01

    The fully energy-damped yields for the {sup 36}Ar + {sup 12}C and {sup 20}Ne + {sup 28}Si reactions at E{sub c.m.}=47.0 MeV and 45.5 MeV, respectively, are explored using particle-particle-{gamma} coincidence data. These reactions reach a similar excitation energy of E{sub CN}*=59.5 MeV in the {sup 48}Cr compound nucleus as was obtained in an earlier particle-particle coincidence study of the {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg reaction. The overall mass and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be well reproduced by statistical-model calculations. These calculations are also found to reproduce structure seen in the excitation-energy spectra for the {sup 20}Ne + {sup 28}Si and {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg exit channels for all three reactions. In previous excitation-function measurements, strong heavy-ion resonance behavior has been observed in elastic and inelastic cross sections for the {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg system. There has been speculation that peaks observed in the corresponding excitation-energy spectra at more negative Q values may also be a consequence of this resonance phenomenon. The observation of very similar behavior with the asymmetric-mass entrance channels makes it less likely, though, that the peaks arise from any special configuration of the compound system. Instead, an analysis of the {gamma}-ray data and the results of statistical-model calculations support the conclusion that most of the observed high-lying structure can be accounted for in terms of statistical fission from a fully energy- and shape-equilibrated compound nucleus. For the {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg entrance channel, however, comparisons with the statistical model indicate a reduction of high-angular-momentum partial cross sections, leading to the {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg fission channel. For the first time, we are able to deduce the nature of the competition between the resonance and statistical-fission mechanisms in this mass region.

  18. AREVA NP Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped fuel development for BWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delafoy, C.; Dewes, P.; Miles, T.

    2007-07-01

    The search for improvements in nuclear fuel cycle economics results in increasing demands for fuel discharged burnup and reliability, plant maneuverability and power up-rating. To achieve these objectives without any reduction of safety margins, fuel design and materials that enable enhanced performance capabilities have been developed or are under investigations. Research on fuel pellets focuses on the modification of the microstructure to increase fission product retention and pellet mechanical compliance. Currently, production of the desired large grain viscoplastic UO{sub 2} fuel microstructures has been extensively investigated by AREVA NP through the use of doping elements. This track is nowadays a worldwide working field. In this area, AREVA NP has launched the development of a new UO{sub 2} fuel pellet obtained by optimum chromium oxide doping. The purpose of this paper is first to present the current results with the AREVA NP optimized chromia doped fuel and to discuss the key advantages in terms of fuel performance for BWR applications. In particular, the development relies on ramp testing results, fuel temperature and fission gas release values acquired at high burnup and high power levels. Second, the paper focuses on the qualification process implemented by AREVA NP to assess the margins of the optimized Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped UO{sub 2} fuel towards safety criteria at high burnup and the risk of PCI failure, as well as to develop calculation tools to support design. The driving force in this qualification plan is to gain the accurate knowledge of the optimized doped fuel behavior under normal, transient and anticipated accident conditions. To support this effort, irradiation campaigns are under progress in PWR and BWR plants to cover a wide range of existing operating conditions and to anticipate future demands. Considering only the BWR part, the program has successfully run since 2005 and is designed to obtain data up to high burnup, at least 70 GWd/tU. The aim is to define the range of operational conditions for application of chromia-doped fuel in combination with LTP2 non-liner cladding as an alternative to the present standard Fe-enhanced Zr liner cladding. (authors)

  19. Development of a New Class of Fe-3Cr-W(V)Ferritic STeels for Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jawad, M.

    2005-03-31

    The project described in this report dealt with improving the materials performance and fabrication for hydrotreating reactor vessels, heat recovery systems, and other components for the petroleum and chemical industries. The petroleum and chemical industries use reactor vessels that can approach ship weights of approximately 300 tons with vessel wall thicknesses of 3-8 in. These vessels are typically fabricated from Fe-Cr-Mo steels with chromium ranging from 1.25 to 12% and molybdenum from 1 to 2%. Steels in this composition range have great advantages of high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, low cost, and good properties obtainable by heat treatment. With all of the advantages of Fe-Cr-Mo steels, several issues are faced in design and fabrication of vessels and related components. These issues include the following: 1. The low strengths of current alloys require thicker sections. 2. Increased thickness causes heat-treatment issues related to nonuniformity across the thickness and thus a failure to achieve optimum properties. 3. Fracture toughness (ductile-to-brittle transition) is a critical safety issue for these vessels, especially in thick sections because of the nonuniformity of the microstructure. 4. The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) needed after welding makes fabrication more timeconsuming with increased cost. 5. PWHT needed after welding also limits any modifications of the large vessels in service. The goal of this project was to reduce the weight of large-pressure-vessel components (ranging from 100 to 300 tons) by approximately 25%, reduce fabrication cost, and improve in-service modification feasibility through development of Fe-3Cr-W(V) steels with a combination of nearly a 50% higher strength, a lower ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), a higher upper-shelf energy, ease of heat treating, and a strong potential for not requiring PWHT.

  20. Prediction and Monitoring Systems of Creep-Fracture Behavior of 9Cr-1Mo Steels for Teactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potirniche, Gabriel; Barlow, Fred D.; Charit, Indrajit; Rink, Karl

    2013-11-26

    A recent workshop on next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) topics underscored the need for research studies on the creep fracture behavior of two materials under consideration for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) applications: 9Cr-1Mo and SA-5XX steels. This research project will provide a fundamental understanding of creep fracture behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel welds for through modeling and experimentation and will recommend a design for an RPV structural health monitoring system. Following are the specific objectives of this research project: • Characterize metallurgical degradation in welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel resulting from aging processes and creep service conditions. • Perform creep tests and characterize the mechanisms of creep fracture process. • Quantify how the microstructure degradation controls the creep strength of welded steel specimens. • Perform finite element (FE) simulations using polycrystal plasticity to understand how grain texture affects the creep fracture properties of welds. • Develop a microstructure-based creep fracture model to estimate RPVs service life . • Manufacture small, prototypic, cylindrical pressure vessels, subject them to degradation by aging, and measure their leak rates. • Simulate damage evolution in creep specimens by FE analyses. • Develop a model that correlates gas leak rates from welded pressure vessels with the amount of microstructural damage. • Perform large-scale FE simulations with a realistic microstructure to evaluate RPV performance at elevated temperatures and creep strength. • Develop a fracture model for the structural integrity of RPVs subjected to creep loads. • Develop a plan for a non-destructive structural health monitoring technique and damage detection device for RPVs.

  1. Electrical spin injection using GaCrN in a GaN based spin light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, D.; Ganguly, S.; Saha, D.; Adari, R.; Sankaranarayan, S.; Kumar, A.; Aldhaheri, R. W.; Hussain, M. A.; Balamesh, A. S.

    2013-12-09

    We have demonstrated electrical spin-injection from GaCrN dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) in a GaN-based spin light emitting diode (spin-LED). The remanent in-plane magnetization of the thin-film semiconducting ferromagnet has been used for introducing the spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic InGaN quantum well. The output circular polarization obtained from the spin-LED closely follows the normalized in-plane magnetization curve of the DMS. A saturation circular polarization of ?2.5% is obtained at 200?K.

  2. Investigations of protons passing through the CR-39/PM-355 type of solid state nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowska, A.; Szyd?owski, A.; Jaskó?a, M.; Korman, A.; Kuk, M.; Sartowska, B.; Kuehn, T.

    2013-07-15

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors of the CR-39/PM-355 type were irradiated with protons with energies in the range from 0.2 to 8.5 MeV. Their intensities and energies were controlled by a Si surface barrier detector located in an accelerator scattering chamber. The ranges of protons with energies of 6–7 MeV were comparable to the thickness of the PM-355 track detectors. Latent tracks in the polymeric detectors were chemically etched under standard conditions to develop the tracks. Standard optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for surface morphology characterization.

  3. Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, Zhinan; Jia, Haoling; Wu, Yueying; Rack, Philip D.; Patchen, Allan D.; Liu, Yuzi; Ren, Yang; Li, Nan; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-05-04

    The concept of high configurational entropy requires that the high-entropy alloys (HEAs) yield single-phase solid solutions. However, phase separations are quite common in bulk HEAs. A five-element alloy, CrCoCuFeNi, was deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering and confirmed to be a single-phase solid solution through the high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the solid-solution phase is presumed to be due to the high cooling rate of the sputter-deposition process.

  4. Application of USNRC NUREG/CR-6661 and draft DG-1108 to evolutionary and advanced reactor designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang 'Apollo', Chen

    2006-07-01

    For the seismic design of evolutionary and advanced nuclear reactor power plants, there are definite financial advantages in the application of USNRC NUREG/CR-6661 and draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108. NUREG/CR-6661, 'Benchmark Program for the Evaluation of Methods to Analyze Non-Classically Damped Coupled Systems', was by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the USNRC, and Draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 is the proposed revision to the current Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.92, Revision 1, 'Combining Modal Responses and Spatial Components in Seismic Response Analysis'. The draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 is available at http://members.cox.net/apolloconsulting, which also provides a link to the USNRC ADAMS site to search for NUREG/CR-6661 in text file or image file. The draft Regulatory Guide DG-1108 removes unnecessary conservatism in the modal combinations for closely spaced modes in seismic response spectrum analysis. Its application will be very helpful in coupled seismic analysis for structures and heavy equipment to reduce seismic responses and in piping system seismic design. In the NUREG/CR-6661 benchmark program, which investigated coupled seismic analysis of structures and equipment or piping systems with different damping values, three of the four participants applied the complex mode solution method to handle different damping values for structures, equipment, and piping systems. The fourth participant applied the classical normal mode method with equivalent weighted damping values to handle differences in structural, equipment, and piping system damping values. Coupled analysis will reduce the equipment responses when equipment, or piping system and structure are in or close to resonance. However, this reduction in responses occurs only if the realistic DG-1108 modal response combination method is applied, because closely spaced modes will be produced when structure and equipment or piping systems are in or close to resonance. Otherwise, the conservatism in the current Regulatory Guide 1.92, Revision 1, will overshadow the advantage of coupled analysis. All four participants applied the realistic modal combination method of DG-1108. Consequently, more realistic and reduced responses were obtained. (authors)

  5. Phase equilibria of an Al0.5CrFeCoNiCu High Entropy Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, N. G.; Frezza, A.; Stone, H. J.

    2014-07-27

    evidence of shrinkage porosity. Bulk compositional assess- ment showed that each of the constituent elements were within 1 at% of the nominal composition. The distribution of each element in the as-cast state is shown in Fig. 2. Cr, Fe and Co were observed... ,2]. Traditional metallurgical wisdom would expect the microstructure of these materials to contain a number of intermetallic phases, yet surprisingly, this has not been the case. Experimental studies have reported single or dual phase as-cast microstructures [2...

  6. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and Engineering Fair (NAISEF) and EXPO at the Albuquerque, NM Convention Center. Albuquerque is also the home of the AISES national office. The AISES staff also recruits volunteers to assist with implementation of the science and math bowl event. In 2011, there were 7 volunteers; in 2012, 15 volunteers, and in 2013, 19 volunteers. Volunteers are recruited from a variety of local sources, including Sandia Laboratories, Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institute students, Department of Defense, as well as family members of AISES staff. For AISES, the goals of the Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl project are to have more Native students learn science, for them to gain confidence in competing, and to reward their effort in order to motivate them to pursue studies in the sciences and engineering. For DOE, the goals of the project are to get more Native students to compete at the National Science Bowl, held in Washington, DC.

  7. Roles of Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cr3+ Surface Sites in the Oxidation of NO on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(1 1 1) Surface Termination of an ?-(Fe,Cr)2O3(0 0 0 1) Mixed Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2014-10-01

    The oxidation and photooxidation reactions of nitric oxide were explored on a mixed Fe and Cr mixed oxide surface using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The mixed oxide surface examined initially had a corundum (0001) structure with a nominal cation composition of 75% Fe and 25% Cr, but after sputter/anneal cleaning was transformed into a magnetite-like (111) surface structure enriched with Cr (~40%). TPD studies of nitric oxide on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) surface revealed two main desorption states at 220 and 370 K, along with a third minor desorption state at ~310 K. Similarly, O2 TPD occurred in two main TPD states (100 and 230 K) and a minor state (155 K). The more strongly and weakly bound NO and O2 molecules were assigned to adsorption at Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites, respectively, with the minor desorption states assigned to Cr3+ sites. No thermal decomposition or surface chemistry was detected in TPD for adsorbed NO (e.g., no N2 or N2O formation), whereas ~10% of the adsorbed O2 irreversibly dissociated at Fe2+ sites. These dissociated oxygen species did not react with coadsorbed NO, but instead blocked NO adsorption at the Fe2+ sites, but had no effect on NO adsorption at Fe3+ sites. In contrast, NO reacted with preadsorbed O2 molecules to generate an adsorbed nitrate/nitrite species that decomposed in TPD to liberate NO at 425 K, leaving an O atom on the surface. Coadsorption of 15N18O with 16O2 suggests the oxidized species was a nitrate based on the detected level of oxygen scrambling. Preadsorption of O2 was required for nitrate formation as preadsorbed NO blocked both O2 adsorption and the oxidation reaction. Irradiation of adsorbed NO with 460 nm light at 40 K resulted in rapid photodesorption of NO without generation of any new surface species. Irradiation of the coadsorbed NO+O2 system did not promote additional NO oxidation, but limited the extent of thermal NO oxidation (in subsequent TPD) by photodepleting the surface of adsorbed NO. Preheating the NO+O2 adlayer to 250 K prior to 460 nm light irradiation restored the level of thermal NO oxidation, revealing both that thermal activation is required for NO oxidation on the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) surface and that the nitrate product was insensitive to 460 nm light. The author thanks Drs. Sara Chamberlin and Scott Chambers for supplying the film used in this work. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  8. Effect of Cr substitution on the magnetic and magnetic-transport properties of Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}Si alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Lakhan; Gupta, Sachin; Suresh, K. G.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-05-07

    Fe{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}Si (x?=?0, 0.1, and 0.2) alloys were investigated for their magnetic and transport properties in view of the expected half metallicity. It is found that Cr substitution suppresses the antiferromagnetic phase present in parent Fe{sub 2}MnSi, which completely disappears for x?=?0.2. Curie temperature of the alloys increases from 230?K to 299?K as x is increased from 0 to 0.2. The value of the Rhodes-Wohlfarth ratio indicates that the system shows iterant magnetism. Resistivity measurements also show absence of antiferromagnetic phase for x?=?0.2. Resistivity data have been fitted by considering the electron-phonon and electron-magnon scattering contributions, which indicates the presence of half metallicity in these compounds. Temperature dependence of resistivity data shows magnetoresistance of ?3% and ?2.5% at Curie temperature with applied field of 50 kOe for x?=?0.1 and 0.2, respectively.

  9. Ferromagnetism of magnetically doped topological insulators in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z. Hadimani, R. L.; Tuttle, G.; Jiles, D. C.; Nlebedim, I. C.

    2015-05-07

    We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films with x?=?0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (?0.4?nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and increases the magnetization of Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3}. When x?=?0.14 and 0.29, ferromagnetism appears in Cr{sub x}Bi{sub 2?x}Te{sub 3} thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration. The Arrott-Noakes plot demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described better with 3D-Heisenberg model than with mean field model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of magnetic topological insulators in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices.

  10. Study the effect of mechanical alloying parameters on synthesis of Cr{sub 2}Nb–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shayesteh, Payam Mirdamadi, Shamseddin; Razavi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}Nb–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite synthesized through MA. • Effect of BPR, rotating speed, milling time and PCA concentration investigated. • After annealing at 1100 °C crystalline phase were appeared. • Williamson–Hall analysis was used in order to study the grain size of nano composite. - Abstract: In this study, Cr{sub 2}Nb–20 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite was prepared successfully by mechanochemical reaction between Al, Nb and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. Amorphization of powder occurred during mechanical alloying because of high energy collisions between powders and steel balls in milling container which transfer high degree of energy to powders. Therefore, annealing was needed to form crystalline phases. The influence of different mechanical alloying parameters such as BPR, rotating speed, milling time and PCA concentration on synthesis of composite material were investigated. After mechanical alloying, the powder was encapsulated in quartz and then annealed at 1100 °C for 3 h. After annealing, 3 different phases were appeared (Cr{sub 2}Nb (cubic), Cr{sub 2}Nb (hexagonal) and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  11. Influence of Cr and W alloying on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength in cast and directionally solidified sapphire NiAl composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asthana, R.; Tiwari, R.; Tewari, S.N.

    1995-08-01

    Sapphire-reinforced NiAl matrix composites with chromium or tungsten as alloying additions were synthesized using casting and zone directional solidification (DS) techniques and characterized by a fiber pushout test as well as by microhardness measurements. The sapphire-NiAl(Cr) specimens exhibited an interlayer of Cr rich eutectic at the fiber-matrix interface and a higher interfacial shear strength compared to unalloyed sapphire-NiAl specimens processed under identical conditions. In contrast, the sapphire-NiAl(W) specimens did not show interfacial excess of tungsten rich phases, although the interfacial shear strength was high and comparable to that of sapphire-NiAl(Cr). The postdebond sliding stress was higher in sapphire-NiAl(Cr) than in sapphire-NiAl(W) due to interface enrichment with chromium particles. The matrix microhardness progressively decreased with increasing distance from the interface in both DS NiAl and NiAl(Cr) specimens. The study highlights the potential of casting and DS techniques to improve the toughness and strength of NiAl by designing dual-phase microstructures in NiAl alloys reinforced with sapphire fibers.

  12. Wind measurements in Mars' middle atmosphere at equinox and solstice: IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric CO observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, R; Encrenaz, T; Forget, F; Chassefière, E; Hourdin, F; Guilloteau, S; Guilloteau, St\\'{e}phane

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing the Martian atmosphere is an essential objective to understand its meteorology and its climate. The lower atmosphere (< 40 km) and middle atmosphere (40-80 km) of Mars appear dynamically coupled at much higher levels than in the case of the Earth. The vertical extension of the weather phenomena is considerable with for example Hadley's cells reaching the top of the neutral atmosphere (120 km). The circulation in the middle atmosphere modifies the meteorology of the lower atmosphere, affecting the transport and climatic processes Observations of the CO rotational lines at millimeter (mm) wavelengths (Clancy et al 1990) have strongly contributed in the study of the vertical distribution of this compound and the thermal profile in the atmosphere of Mars over 0-70 km. Singledish observations of the CO Doppler lineshift have allowed direct wind measurements in the martian middle atmosphere near 50 km altitude (Lellouch et al 1991), but at a low spatial resolution (12'') enabling only an essential...

  13. Tribological properties of CrN coatings deposited by nitro-chromizing treatment on AISI D2 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durmaz, M. Abakay, E.; Sen, U.; Sen, S.; Kilinc, B.

    2015-03-30

    In this work, the wear test of uncoated and chromium nitride coated AISI D2 cold work tool steel against alumina ball realized at 0.1?m/s sliding speeds and under the loads of 2.5N, 5N and 10N. Steel samples were nitrided at 575°C for 8?h in the first step of the coating process, and then chromium nitride coating was performed thermo-reactive deposition technique (TRD) in a powder mixture consisting of ferro-chromium, ammonium chloride and alumina at 1000°C for 2?h. Nitro-chromized samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and ball on disk wear tests. The coating layer formed on the AISI D2 steel was compact and homogeneous. X-ray studies showed that the phase formed in the coated layer is Cr{sub 2}N. The depth of the layer was 8.15?µm. The average hardness of the layer was 2160±15 HV{sub 0.025}. For uncoated and chromium nitride materials, wear rate increased with increasing load. The results of friction coefficient and wear rate of the tested materials showed that the CrN coating presents the lowest results.

  14. Multiferroic CuCrO? under high pressure: In situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, Alka B. Mishra, A. K.; Pandey, K. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2014-10-07

    The compression behavior of delafossite compound CuCrO? has been investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic measurements up to 23.2 and 34 GPa, respectively. X-ray diffraction data show the stability of ambient rhombohedral structure up to ~23 GPa. Material shows large anisotropy in axial compression with c-axis compressibility, ?{sub c} = 1.26 × 10?³(1) GPa?¹ and a-axis compressibility, ?{sub a} = 8.90 × 10?³(6) GPa?¹. Our XRD data show an irreversible broadening of diffraction peaks. Pressure volume data when fitted to 3rd order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state give the value of bulk modulus, B? = 156.7(2.8) GPa with its pressure derivative, B?{sup ’} as 5.3(0.5). All the observed vibrational modes in Raman measurements show hardening with pressure. Appearance of a new mode at ~24 GPa indicates the structural phase transition in the compound. Our XRD and Raman results indicate that CuCrO{sub 2} may be transforming to an ordered rocksalt type structure under compression.

  15. Magnetic Correlations in the Quasi-Two-Dimensional Semiconducting Ferromagnet CrSiTe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Travis J.; Aczel, Adam A.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Nagler, Stephen E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Yan, Jiaqiang -Q.; Mandrus, D.

    2015-10-02

    Intrinsic, 2D ferromagnetic semiconductors are an important class of materials for overcoming dilute magnetic semiconductors’ limitations for spintronics. CrSiTe3 is a particularly interesting material of this class, since it can likely be exfoliated to single layers, for which Tc is predicted to increase dramatically. Establishing the nature of the bulk material’s magnetism is necessary for understanding the thin-film magnetic behavior and the material’s possible applications. In this work, we use elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to measure the magnetic properties of single crystalline CrSiTe3. We find a very small single ion anisotropy that favors magnetic ordering along the c-axis and that the measured spin waves fit well to a model in which the moments are only weakly coupled along that direction. Then, we find that both static and dynamic correlations persist within the ab-plane up to at least 300 K, which is strong evidence of the material's 2D characteristics that are relevant for future studies on thin film and monolayer samples.

  16. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late Middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Bridget S.; Norris, Richard D.; Kroom, Dick

    2000-01-01

    , A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Volume 171B 5. DATA REPORT: HIGH-RESOLUTION STABLE ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LATE MIDDLE EOCENE AT SITE 1051, BLAKE NOSE 1 Bridget S. Wade, 2 Richard D. Norris, 3 and Dick....D., and Kroon, D., 2000. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose. In Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 171B, 1?14 [Online]. Available from World Wide...

  17. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard A.J.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-07-20

    2), although not without exceptions. In other words, in general, models based on known HPAI- their environmental attributes. The details of these test results follow. Predictivity across study region The model based on all OIE points showed...- fying the poultry industry of North Africa and the Middle East [19]. Regional projection across the Middle East and northeastern Africa of HPAI-H5N1 ecological nich model results b ed on all OIE case occurr nce pointsFigure 2 Regional projection across...

  18. Reactions of methyl groups on a non-reducible metal oxide: The reaction of iodomethane on stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John D.; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R.; Cox, David F.

    2015-06-10

    The reaction of iodomethane on the nearly stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane, and surface iodine adatoms. The reaction is first initiated by the dissociation of iodomethane into surface methyl fragments, -CH3, and iodine adatoms. Methyl fragments bound at surface Cr cation sites undergo a rate-limiting dehydrogenation reaction to methylene, =CH2. The methylene intermediates formed from methyl dehydrogenation can then undergo coupling reactions to produce ethylene via two principle reaction pathways: (1) direct coupling of methylene and (2) methylene insertion into the methyl surface bond to form surface ethyl groups which undergo ?-H elimination to produce ethylene. Themore »liberated hydrogen also combines with methyl groups to form methane. Iodine adatoms from the dissociation of iodomethane deactivate the surface by simple site blocking of the surface Cr3+ cations.« less

  19. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.

  20. Structure and magnetic interactions in the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grundmann, Henrik; Schilling, Andreas; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Dabkowska, Hanna A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • We describe for the first time the preparation of single- and polycrystalline members of the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. • We report on the structural changes in the solid solution at room temperature depending on the stoichiometry. • We describe the peculiar change of the magnetic behavior in the solid solution with the stoichiometry. - Abstract: Solid solutions of the magnetic insulators Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Sr{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}) have been prepared in polycrystalline form for the first time. Single crystalline material was obtained using a mirror image floating zone technique. X-ray diffraction data taken at room temperature indicate that the space group of Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} remains unchanged for all values of x, while the cell parameters depend on the chemical composition, as expected. Magnetization data, measured from 300 K down to 2 K, suggest that the interaction constant J{sub d} within the Cr{sup 5+} dimers varies in a peculiar way as a function of x, starting at J{sub d} = 25 K for x = 0, then first slightly dropping to J{sub d} = 18 K for x ? 0.75, before reaching J{sub d} = 62 K for x = 3.

  1. The Cr-substitution concentration dependence of the structural, electric and magnetic behaviors for Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} multiferroic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Bai, Wei E-mail: xdtang@sist.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Jing; Xu, Wenfei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tang, Xiaodong E-mail: xdtang@sist.ecnu.edu.cn; Lin, Tie; Meng, Xiangjian; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Junhao

    2013-12-21

    Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} (BTFO) multiferroic ceramics with different Cr-doped concentrations have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. The influences of Cr-doping concentrations on the structural, magnetic, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of BTFO ceramics are investigated in detail. All these sintered Cr-substituted BTFO ceramics are determined to be layered perovskite Aurivillius structure by X-ray diffraction, as well as the lattice parameters a, b, and c are in good accordance with Vegard's law along with the Cr-doping concentration. The lattice distortion a/b for Aurivillius family decreases with increasing Cr-doping concentration. Moreover, Cr-doping can promote greatly the grain growth of BTFO samples confirmed from field emission scanning electron microscopy characterization. However, no obvious signs of the improvement in ferroelectric properties are found in Cr-doped BTFO ceramics, and abnormal ferroelectric polarization versus electric field (P-E) loops are observed as Cr-doping content is beyond 0.1. Similar ? (tan?) versus frequency plots to those of the BTFO sample are exhibited when Cr-doping concentration is less than 0.1. Nevertheless, obvious dielectric dispersion phenomena are shown as the Cr-doping concentration is beyond 0.1, and this dispersion behavior becomes strong with further increasing Cr-doping concentration, which are clearly indicated by the appearance of dielectric loss relaxation peaks in the measurement frequency from 10{sup 2} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz. In addition, the corresponding frequency to relaxation peak shifts towards high frequencies with the Cr-doping concentration. Finally, the same magnetic orderings for all these Cr-doped BTFO ceramics as those of the BTFO one, i.e., superparamagnetic state dominated with antiferromagnetic interaction, are unambiguously found, signifying that the predicted Fe{sup 3+}-O-Cr{sup 3+} 180° ferromagnetic superexchange interaction based on the Goodenough-Kanamori (G-K) rule might not be achieved in BTFO ceramics through Cr substitution by the conventional solid state reaction.

  2. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WATER VAPOR ON THE INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE AIR IN CONTACT WITH Fe20Cr SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to provide an atomistic view, via molecular dynamic simulation, of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high temperature dry- and (10-40 vol%) wet-air in contact with stainless steels as represented by Fe20Cr. It was found that H2O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal/fluid interface. Comparison of these findings with experimental studies reported in the literature is discussed. Keywords: Fe-Cr alloys, metal-fluid interfacial behavior, wet-air, molecular simulation

  3. Fragmentation cross sections of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} ions of 0.3-10 A GeV on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cecchini; T. Chiarusi; G. Giacomelli; M. Giorgini; A. Kumar; G. Mandrioli; S. Manzoor; A. R. Margiotta; E. Medinaceli; L. Patrizii; V. Popa; I. E. Qureshi; G. Sirri; M. Spurio; V. Togo

    2008-01-21

    We present new measurements of the total and partial fragmentation cross sections in the energy range 0.3-10 A GeV of 56Fe, 28Si and 12C beams on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets. The exposures were made at BNL, USA and HIMAC, Japan. The CR39 nuclear track detectors were used to identify the incident and survived beams and their fragments. The total fragmentation cross sections for all targets are almost energy independent while they depend on the target mass. The measured partial fragmentation cross sections are also discussed.

  4. Fragmentation cross sections of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} ions of 0.3-10 A GeV on CR39, polyethylene and aluminum targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miriam Giorgini

    2008-12-01

    New measurements of the total and partial fragmentation cross sections in the energy range 0.3-10 A GeV of Fe^{26+}, Si^{14+} and C^{6+} beams on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets are presented. The exposures were made at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), USA, and Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), Japan. The CR39 nuclear track detectors were used to identify the incident and survived beams and their fragments. The total fragmentation cross sections for all targets are almost energy independent while they depend on the target mass. The measured partial fragmentation cross sections are also discussed.

  5. Ga, Ca, and 3d transition element (Cr through Zn) partitioning among spinel-lherzolite phases from the Lanzo massif, Italy: Analytical results and crystal chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogelius, R.A.; Fraser, D.G.

    1994-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks exposed in Lanzo massif, Italy is a record of mantle geochemistry, melting, sub-solidus re-equilibration. Plagioclase(+ spinel)-lherzolite samples were analyzed by Scanning Proton Microscopy, other techniques. Previous work postulated partial melting events and a two-stage sub-solidus cooling history; this paper notes Ga enrichment on spinel-clinopyroxene grain boundaries, high Ga and transition element content of spinel, and pyroxene zonation in Ca and Al. Trace element levels in olivine and orthopyroxene are also presented. Zoning trends are interpreted as due to diffusion during cooling. Olivine-clinopyroxene Cr and Ca exchange as well as clinopyroxene and spinel zonation trends indicate that the massif experienced at least two sub-solidus cooling episodes, one at 20 kbar to 1000 C and one at 8 kbar <750C. Ga levels in cores of Lanzo high-Cr spinels are high (82-66 ppM) relative to other mantle spinels (66-40 ppM), indicating enrichment. Ga content of ultramafic spinels apparently increases with Cr content; this may be due to: increased Ga solubility stemming from crystal chemical effects and/or higher Ga activities in associated silicate melts. Thus, during melting, high-Cr residual spinel may tend to buffer solid-phase Ga level. These spinels are not only rich in Ga and Cr (max 26.37 el. wt %), but also in Fe (max 21.07 el. wt %), Mn (max 3400 ppM), and Zn (max 2430 ppM). These enrichments are again due to melt extraction and partitioning into spinel structure. Low Ni (min 1050 ppM) levels are due to unsuccessful competition of Ni with Cr for octahedral structural sites caused by crystal field. Comparisons of change in partitioning vs Cr content among several 3d transition elements for spinels from Lanzo, other localities allow us to separate crystal field effects from bulk chemical effects and to show that in typical assemblages, inversion of olivine-spinel partition coefficient for Ni from <1 to >1 should occur at 11% el. wt. Cr in spinel.

  6. Comparison of hydrocarbon production trends in Middle and Upper members of Minnelusa formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reel, C.L.; Horne, J.C.; Kelly, A.O.

    1985-05-01

    The main reservoir rocks in the upper and middle members of the Minnelusa Formation consist of wind blown dunal sands in the area surrounding the Lusk embayment. Changes in the local depositional setting, tectonic framework, and eustatic sea level controlled the distribution and reservior quality of these sandstones. The middle member exhibits two production trends. Age-equivalent Tensleep rocks deposited along the western margin of the embayment produce from sandstones accumulated in a sand sea paleoenvironment. Structure is atnececessary for trapping owing to permeability continuity. Along the eastern margin of the embayment, production comes from isolated accumulations of sandstone deposited as dunes on broad coastal sabkhas. Fields in these sandstones define a linear trend due to the coast-parallel alignment of these dunes. Production from the upper member defines four major trends. Upper member sandstones in the southern part of the basin, similar to Leo reservoirs, produce from sediments deposited as coast-parallel dunes in a northwest-southeast alignment. In the northern portion of the basin, production is from sandstones deposited in broad, flat eolian sand seas. Because of the permeability continuity of these sandstones, structural closure is necessary for trapping hydrocarbons. Upper member production has been influenced by the unconformity developed at the top of the Minnelusa. Movement along the Rosebud arch resulted in a southwest-northeast production trend apparent in each sandstone unit reflecting their northwestward erosional limits. The last, and most apparent, production trend, results from the Opeche Shale infilling of northwest-southeast-oriented stream valleys. Most production to date has been from sandstones following this alignment juxta-posed downdip of these impermeable shales.

  7. Use of a dynamic simulation model to understand nitrogen cycling in the middle Rio Grande, NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meixner, Tom (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Oelsner, Gretchen (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Paul (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Roach, Jesse D.

    2008-08-01

    Water quality often limits the potential uses of scarce water resources in semiarid and arid regions. To best manage water quality one must understand the sources and sinks of both solutes and water to the river system. Nutrient concentration patterns can identify source and sink locations, but cannot always determine biotic processes that affect nutrient concentrations. Modeling tools can provide insight into these large-scale processes. To address questions about large-scale nitrogen removal in the Middle Rio Grande, NM, we created a system dynamics nitrate model using an existing integrated surface water--groundwater model of the region to evaluate our conceptual models of uptake and denitrification as potential nitrate removal mechanisms. We modeled denitrification in groundwater as a first-order process dependent only on concentration and used a 5% denitrification rate. Uptake was assumed to be proportional to transpiration and was modeled as a percentage of the evapotranspiration calculated within the model multiplied by the nitrate concentration in the water being transpired. We modeled riparian uptake as 90% and agricultural uptake as 50% of the respective evapotranspiration rates. Using these removal rates, our model results suggest that riparian uptake, agricultural uptake and denitrification in groundwater are all needed to produce the observed nitrate concentrations in the groundwater, conveyance channels, and river as well as the seasonal concentration patterns. The model results indicate that a total of 497 metric tons of nitrate-N are removed from the Middle Rio Grande annually. Where river nitrate concentrations are low and there are no large nitrate sources, nitrate behaves nearly conservatively and riparian and agricultural uptake are the most important removal mechanisms. Downstream of a large wastewater nitrate source, denitrification and agricultural uptake were responsible for approximately 90% of the nitrogen removal.

  8. The Potential Uses of Commercial Satellite Imagery in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vannoni, M.G.

    1999-06-08

    It became clear during the workshop that the applicability of commercial satellite imagery to the verification of future regional arms control agreements is limited at this time. Non-traditional security topics such as environmental protection, natural resource management, and the development of infrastructure offer the more promising applications for commercial satellite imagery in the short-term. Many problems and opportunities in these topics are regional, or at least multilateral, in nature. A further advantage is that, unlike arms control and nonproliferation applications, cooperative use of imagery in these topics can be done independently of the formal Middle East Peace Process. The value of commercial satellite imagery to regional arms control and nonproliferation, however, will increase during the next three years as new, more capable satellite systems are launched. Aerial imagery, such as that used in the Open Skies Treaty, can also make significant contributions to both traditional and non-traditional security applications but has the disadvantage of requiring access to national airspace and potentially higher cost. There was general consensus that commercial satellite imagery is under-utilized in the Middle East and resources for remote sensing, both human and institutional, are limited. This relative scarcity, however, provides a natural motivation for collaboration in non-traditional security topics. Collaborations between scientists, businesses, universities, and non-governmental organizations can work at the grass-roots level and yield contributions to confidence building as well as scientific and economic results. Joint analysis projects would benefit the region as well as establish precedents for cooperation.

  9. Isotope compositions (C, O, Sr, Nd) of vertebrate fossils from the Middle Eocene oil shale of Messel, Germany: Implications for their taphonomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    Isotope compositions (C, O, Sr, Nd) of vertebrate fossils from the Middle Eocene oil shale isotopes Diagenesis Enamel Messel Propalaeotherium The Middle Eocene oil shale deposits of Messel (~0.706) due to diagenetic Sr uptake from the lake water/oil shale. Enamel 18 Op values (~18 ± 0

  10. Geo-Information Systems for the Middle EastGeoArabia, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2000 Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    295 Geo-Information Systems for the Middle EastGeoArabia, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2000 Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain Design and Development of Information Systems for the Geosciences: An Application to the Middle are developing a comprehensive Solid Earth Information System (SEIS). The complex nature of the solid earth

  11. Ideas and Technology of Control Systems NSF Workshop for Middle School and High School Students and Teachers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Ideas and Technology of Control Systems NSF Workshop for Middle School and High School Students on Control Education strives to bring control system concepts and technologies to the awareness of high-disciplinary nature of control and systems technology. To help meet these objectives, a workshop was held at the 42nd

  12. Mathematics in the Middle: Enhancing Teachers' Understanding of the Interplay Between "School Math" and Professional Uses of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    Mathematics in the Middle: Enhancing Teachers' Understanding of the Interplay Between "School Math" and Professional Uses of Mathematics Barbara Garii, Assistant Professor of Curriculum and Instruction (garii-Oswego Abstract As American society becomes more technologically reliant, applications of mathematics are less

  13. Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Kathleen

    Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency Typically, teachers use tests to evaluate students' knowledge acquisition. In a novel experimental study, we examined whether low-stakes testing (quizzing) can be used to foster students' learning of course content

  14. Fractions of proton, helium, middle and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays at energy 10**16eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maia Kalmakhelidze; Nina Roinishvili; Manana Svanidze

    2001-07-06

    Classification of gamma-hadron families, registered by the Pamir collaboration, on four groups of nuclei (P, He, middle and heavy), responsible for their generation, is made, and fractions of families in each of the groups are estimated. Results show, that below the knee of the energy spectrum the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays remains close to the normal one.

  15. SEPTEMBER 29, 2009 COVERING ISRAEL, THE MIDDLE EAST & THE JEWISH WORLD Ethiopian kids `not at our school!' Hungary's martyred poet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEPTEMBER 29, 2009 COVERING ISRAEL, THE MIDDLE EAST & THE JEWISH WORLD Ethiopian kids ­ `not at our school!' · Hungary's martyred poet Brain Power Israeli researchers make waves Love affair with Kazakhstan scientists like Segev are an ambi- tious bunch. Cheerleading, or even playing on the support teams

  16. Wind measurements in Mars' middle atmosphere at equinox and solstice: IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric CO observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Moreno; E. Lellouch; T. Encrenaz; F. Forget; E. Chassefiere; F. Hourdin; Stéphane Guilloteau

    2007-01-31

    Characterizing the Martian atmosphere is an essential objective to understand its meteorology and its climate. The lower atmosphere (< 40 km) and middle atmosphere (40-80 km) of Mars appear dynamically coupled at much higher levels than in the case of the Earth. The vertical extension of the weather phenomena is considerable with for example Hadley's cells reaching the top of the neutral atmosphere (120 km). The circulation in the middle atmosphere modifies the meteorology of the lower atmosphere, affecting the transport and climatic processes Observations of the CO rotational lines at millimeter (mm) wavelengths (Clancy et al 1990) have strongly contributed in the study of the vertical distribution of this compound and the thermal profile in the atmosphere of Mars over 0-70 km. Singledish observations of the CO Doppler lineshift have allowed direct wind measurements in the martian middle atmosphere near 50 km altitude (Lellouch et al 1991), but at a low spatial resolution (12'') enabling only an essentially hemispheric resolution of the martian disk. The use of mm interferometry has allowed us to better spatially resolve the Martian disk, in order to obtain wind maps of the middle atmosphere (Moreno et al 2001).

  17. Architecture of the Middle Devonian Kvamshesten Group, western Norway: sedimentary response to deformation above a ramp-flat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    Architecture of the Middle Devonian Kvamshesten Group, western Norway: sedimentary response. ANDERSEN 1 1Department of Geology, University of Oslo, Pb 1047 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway 2present address." Geological Survey of Norway, 7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The Mid-Devonian Kvamshesten basin in western

  18. Timing of Late Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene tectonic events in Rhodes (Greece) inferred from magneto-biostratigraphy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Timing of Late Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene tectonic events in Rhodes (Greece) inferred from sequences on the island of Rhodes (Aegean fore-arc, Greece). Here, we present an integrated isotopic; Pliocene; Pleistocene; Rhodes; Greece; Mediterranean Sea 1. Introduction The island of Rhodes (Greece

  19. Unintended Consequences: How the U.S.’s Fear of Socialism Affected Policy Decisions in the Middle East 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, Rebecca S

    2013-02-04

    and Amman, Jordan. The retrospective research covers U.S. policy in the Middle East with a focus on Egypt, the leading Arab country at the time, from 1952-1967 to include the ramifications that became manifest after Eisenhower’s term in the White House...

  20. GK-12 Math at Doolen Middle SchoolDavid Herzog My main goals were to learn how to reach a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    GK-12 Math at Doolen Middle SchoolDavid Herzog Goals My main goals were to learn how to reach a wider audience of math students, to have a better understanding of the educational sys- tem, and to enjoy interacting with a non-math crowd. Big Surprise For an expert in the field of math, I thought