Sample records for microwave radiometer profiler

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  2. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  3. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  6. MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION USING THE VICARIOUS CALIBRATION METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION USING THE VICARIOUS CALIBRATION METHOD Darren McKague Chris Ruf John J. Puckett University of Michigan ABSTRACT The vicarious cold and warm calibration methods of Ruf, and Brown and Ruf, have been used to assess the calibration of the WindSat radiometer as well

  7. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  8. DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddedu, MP

    2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  10. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Charles Lindsey

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY J(ROLL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1973 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY KROLL Approved as to style and content by: man o Co mrtt Hca o D artmc c Ill l c r Mem e Member...

  11. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  12. Using a co-located GNSS radio occultation payload for microwave radiometer calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davé, Pratik K. (Pratik Kamlesh)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a new method of calibrating an orbital cross-track scanning microwave radiometer using a co-located radio occultation (RO) instrument with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The radiometer and ...

  13. Preliminary separation of galactic and cosmic microwave emission for the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennet, C.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Hinshaw, G.; Wright, E.L.; Kogut, A.; De Amici, G.; Meyer, S.S.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Gulkis, S. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States) California, University, Berkeley (United States) Universities Space Research Association, Boulder, CO (United States) California, University, Los Angeles (United States) MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States) Princeton University, NJ (United States) JPL, Pasadena, Ca (United States))

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary models of microwave emission from the Milky Way Galaxy based on COBE and other data are constructed for the purpose of distinguishing cosmic and Galactic signals. Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) maps, with the modeled Galactic emission removed, are fitted for a quadrupole distribution. Autocorrelation functions for individual Galactic components are presented. When Galactic emission is removed from the DMR data, the residual fluctuations are virtually unaffected, and therefore they are not dominated by any known Galactic emission component. 42 refs.

  14. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Siu Lim

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF' SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Approved as to style and content by: (C rman...

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) Campaign

  16. Calibration of a Fully Polarimetric Microwave Radiometer Using a Digital Polarimeric Noise Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Calibration of a Fully Polarimetric Microwave Radiometer Using a Digital Polarimeric Noise Source-936-0503 (F), bhlim@umich.edu / cruf@umich.edu (E) Abstract ­ The Correlated Noise Calibration Standard (CNCS polarization mixing calibration equation for AESMIR. Absolute calibration accuracy of AESMIR is estimated

  17. Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind Retrieval in the Great Lakes Using SSM/I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind, are typically unavailable within about 100km of any coastline. This paper presents methods of cor- recting land-contaminated radiometer data in order to extract the coastal information. The land contamination signals are estimated

  18. 3742 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference Detection Algorithms: A Comparative Study Sidharth Misra, Priscilla N is with Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 USA. J. R. Piepmeier is with the Microwave Instrument growth recently in satellite telecommunica- tion, in high-bandwidth point-to-point terrestrial wireless

  19. Design and implementation of a digitally controlled multi-frequency microwave radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Gary Lynn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 21. Task-Exchange Diagram for DVMAIN Page 14 16 17 24 . 29 32 34 36 48 56 59 62 64 91 92 93 . 105 LIST OF SCHEWLTICS Schematics 1. Switch Decoder and Driver. 2. Motor Controller Hoard . . 3. Cold Load Controller . . . 4. Hot... of the software for radiometer control and data recording. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . . . * TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES. LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SCHEMATICS. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. 1. 1 BACKGROUND . 1. 2 RADIOMETRY...

  20. Design and development of an airborne microwave radiometer for atmospheric sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarito, Michael P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite-based passive microwave remote sensing is a valuable tool for global weather monitoring and prediction. This thesis presents the design and development of a low-cost airborne weather sensing instrument to ...

  1. Hydrologic data assimilation of multi-resolution microwave radiometer and radar measurements using ensemble smoothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunne, Susan Catherine

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been used to estimate soil moisture and related fluxes by merging noisy low frequency microwave observations with forecasts from a conventional though uncertain land surface ...

  2. Surface soil moisture estimation with the electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theis, Sidney Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is important in determining the ability of a plant to uptake water and that determines the state of saturation of a soil. Matric potential is very important for crop modeling and runoff prediction. Roe et al. (1971) observed that the emissivity of a mooth... that were approximately 15 to 20 cm high. For an area covered with thick turfted grass to a height of 20 cm, Barton (1978) obtained a poor relationship between soil moisture and emissivity for both the ESHR and a 2. 65-cm radiometer. The ESHR response...

  3. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  4. A Cloud Detection Algorithm using the Downwelling Infrared Radiance Measured by an Infrared Pyrometer of the Ground-based Microwave Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of the clear sky condition. It is designated as cloud free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm a cloud free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully screened out by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are screened out by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for 6 months, from January 2013 to June 2013. The overall proportion correct is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8 %, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of failures occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not detect, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  5. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, V.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore »and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  6. MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  7. Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazmany, Andrew

    2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

  8. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |HotImpactControl

  9. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE) that measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft. This paper presents are presented, which illustrate wind speed and rain rate measurement spatial resolutions and swath coverage. 1

  10. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  11. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  12. Control of plasma profile in microwave discharges via inverse-problem approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Tobita, Naoki; Tsuji, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the manufacturing process of semiconductors, plasma processing is an essential technology, and the plasma used in the process is required to be of high density, low temperature, large diameter, and high uniformity. This research focuses on the microwave-excited plasma that meets these needs, and the research target is a spatial profile control. Two novel techniques are introduced to control the uniformity; one is a segmented slot antenna that can change radial distribution of the radiated field during operation, and the other is a hyper simulator that can predict microwave power distribution necessary for a desired radial density profile. The control system including these techniques provides a method of controlling radial profiles of the microwave plasma via inverse-problem approach, and is investigated numerically and experimentally.

  13. Selected applications of microwave radiometric techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean, Buford Randall

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detection capability is more promising. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines near Weslaco, Texas to deter- mine the capability of a microwave radiometer system to monitor soil moisture content. An extensive... was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NsG 239-62. The cooperation of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Dr. Thomas Schmugge in conducting the airborne microwave radiometer mission is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Craig L...

  14. Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

  15. advanced microwave scanning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on radiance) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 77 900 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND...

  16. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  17. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heaton Armed Services

  18. Microwave Sensors Active and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    waves up through high energy gamma waves. Microwaves extend over an important part of the elec be classified as either passive (radiometers) or active (radars). Each sensor class provides unique insight instruments can be divided into two broad classes: pas- sive, known as radiometers, and active, known

  19. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  20. 6, 54275456, 2006 Passive microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5427­5456, 2006 Passive microwave 3-D polarization effects from rainy clouds A. Battaglia radiometers A. Battaglia 1 , C. Simmer 1 , and H. Czekala 2 1 Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn April 2006 ­ Published: 27 June 2006 Correspondence to: A. Battaglia (batta@uni-bonn.de) 5427 #12;ACPD 6

  1. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  2. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  3. Christopher RUF EXTERNAL SPONSORED RESEARCH FUNDING HISTORY 06/30/1992 to 04/30/1996; "GEOSAT Follow-On water vapor radiometer engineering support,"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Calibration Standard for Interferometric and Polarimetric Microwave Radiometers," EMAG Technologies, Inc., Ann Cloud Radar Studies," Dept. of Energy; $500,000 ($75,000/yr to Ruf); Co-I (PI is T. Ackermann, PSU Dept/30/2000; "Conical-Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder Development Program," Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation

  4. Microwave emissivity of fresh water ice--Lake ice and Antarctic ice pack--Radiative transfer simulations versus satellite radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave emissivity models of sea ice are poorly validated empirically. Typical validation studies involve using averaged or stereotyped profiles of ice parameters against averaged radiance measurements. Measurement sites are rarely matched and even less often point-by-point. Because of saline content, complex permittivity of sea ice is highly variable and difficult to predict. Therefore, to check the validity of a typical, plane-parallel, radiative-transfer-based ice emissivity model, we apply it to fresh water ice instead of salt-water ice. Radiance simulations for lake ice are compared with measurements over Lake Superior from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E). AMSR-E measurements are also collected over Antarctic icepack. For each pixel, a thermodynamic model is driven by four years of European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and the resulting temperature profiles used to drive the emissivity model. The results suggest that the relatively simple ...

  5. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Charles Lindsey

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) site G (b) site H I V-6 i IV- 7 'IV- 8 iV- I iV- 2 ! iV-3 Chickasha test site I V-4 Ground cover for Chickasha sites: site A (b) site B 62 63 64 67 68 69 71 X1 I I' I giirc I';i g| c Ground cover I or Chickashn sites: (n) site C (b... /&[&9 T (~~)~n ~/h &. r) ryder)zn 7?'(i)? (I I-IS) ff?(~~)~a r/~ year) ~n where: V = vertical polarization H = horizontal polarization j = desired received polarization, either verti- cal or horizontal In well designed antennas, the design...

  6. Wheat stress measurement with the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richter, John Charles

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 35 0Hz, of some natural surfaces. They found ice had an emissivity of 0. 92 while for water it was 0. 4. Yfet soil, at field capacity, had an emissivity of 0. 6 while dry soil had a value of 0. 94. The values for dry and wet soil are for smooth... winter wheat were not used. This was to insure that wheat emission made a significant contribution to the brightness temperature. A further restriction was that the wheat fields comprising the 30 percent must be continuously cropped. This removed from...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8LigovCampaignsCLEX-5govCampaignsFall-CloudsgovCampaignsLong-Term

  8. Calibration of a 32 channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Z. B., E-mail: shizb@swip.ac.cn; Jiang, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Che, Y. L.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 32-channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer has been designed and tested for the measurement of electron temperature profiles on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the intermediate frequency filter detection technique, and has the features of wide working frequency range and high spatial resolution. Two relative calibration methods have been investigated: sweeping the toroidal magnetic field and hopping the output frequency of the local oscillator. Preliminary results show that both methods can ensure reasonable profiles.

  9. Development of microwave and millimeter-wave integrated-circuit stepped-frequency radar sensors for surface and subsurface profiling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Joongsuk

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ) for various surface and subsurface applications, such as profiling the surface and subsurface of pavements, detecting and localizing small buried Anti-Personnel (AP) mines and measuring the liquid level in a tank. These sensors meet the critical requirements...

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 1647 Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging for Early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yao

    , and the backscattered energy distribution is calculated coherently. The advantages of UWB CMI include high to the microwave radiometry [8], [9], which uses radiometers to measure temperature differences between the normal

  11. Retrieval of water vapor profiles over ocean using SSM/I and SSM/T-2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blankenship, Clay Bruce

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SSM/T-2 (Special Sensor Microwave Temperature-2) and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) are two microwave radiometers aboard the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Space Program) series of satellites. The SSM/T-2 was designed for retrieval...

  12. A dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR-E microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influences the partitioning of surface available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes and henceA dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR, we have designed a dual-pass assimilation (DP-En4DVar) framework to optimize the model state

  13. Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGrado, Timothy R. [Mayo Clinic] [Mayo Clinic (United States)

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

  14. A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan W. Ballmer

    2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the 3rd LIGO science Run (S3). Now I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits that the LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use for future LIGO science runs and that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer.

  15. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  16. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  17. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  18. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  19. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  20. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  1. active cavity radiometer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in North America from long-term records of the advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Interannual changes of active fire detectability in...

  2. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â�� 300 �¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  3. Development of multichannel intermediate frequency system for electron cyclotron emission radiometer on KSTAR Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogi, Yuichiro; Sakoda, Takuya; Mase, Atsushi; Ito, Naoki; Yokota, Yuya [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Nagayama, Yoshio; Kawahata, Kazuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Jeong, Seung H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Myeun [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma experiments on KSTAR are scheduled to start up this year (2008). We have developed an electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer to measure the radial electron temperature profiles in KSTAR experiments. The radiometer system consists, briefly, of two downconversion stages, amplifiers, bandpass filter banks, and video detectors. These components are made commercially or developed in house. The system detects ECE power in the frequency range from 110 to 196 GHz, the detected signal being resolved by means of 48 frequency windows. Before installation of this system on KSTAR, we installed a part of this system on large helical device (LHD) to study the system under similar plasma conditions. In this experiment, the signal amplitude, considered to be proportional to the electron temperature, is measured. The time-dependent traces of the electron temperature measured by this radiometer are in good agreement with those provided by the LHD Michelson spectrometer. The system noise level which limits the minimum measurable temperature (converted to the electron temperature) is about 30 eV.

  4. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  5. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  6. Analysis of mixing layer heights inferred from radiosonde, wind profiler, airborne lidar, airborne microwave temperature profiler, and in-situ aircraft data during the Texas 2000 air quality study in Houston, TX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Christina Lynn

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................................ 119 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 The diurnal evolution of the PBL modified from Stull, 1988........... 1 2 The Houston area with wind profiler and radiosonde sites............... 13... plot of wind profiler and lidar ML heights............................ 63 13 Standard Deviation between the MTP algorithm ML heights and wind profiler ML heights for all the sites combined .................. 70 14 Box and Whiskers Plots...

  7. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, Tom; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Anderberg, Mary; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  8. Satellite Microwave remote sensing of contrasting surface water inundation changes within the ArcticBoreal Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montana, University of

    -atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2, CH4) fluxes, and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we report fractional open water (Fw) cover from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). The AMSR ) of regions above 49°N (Brown et al., 1998). Although permafrost is widespread at high latitudes due to low

  9. Passive microwave soil moisture downscaling using evaporative fraction Olivier Merlin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stations (METFLUX) and six flights of the L-band Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR). For each PBMR fraction (EF), which is the ratio of the evapotranspiration to the total energy available at the surface, especially for high soil moisture values. Those results illustrate the potential use of high

  10. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  11. A new microwave spectroscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salis, Andrew E.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation By Andrew E. Sail* June 1951 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Com ttee A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical.... THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGNING OP A MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .................... 7 III. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .......................... 14 Microwave Source .............................. 17 Microwave Circuit...

  12. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Ferber, Mattison K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  13. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  14. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  15. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  16. Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

  17. Determination of an Amazon Hot Reference Target for the On-Orbit Calibration of Microwave Radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Manuscript received 12 May 2004, in final form 14 January 2005-surface winds, ocean surface roughness, sea ice concentration, land surface vegetation and soil mois- ture, Corresponding author address: Chris Ruf, University of Michi- gan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143. E

  18. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps toValidatingCloud Properties

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  20. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  1. Uncertainty of microwave radiative transfer computations in rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Sung Wook

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of the vertical resolution effect on the BT. Secondly, a new temperature profile based on observations was absorbed in the Texas A&M University (TAMU) algorithm. The Precipitation Radar (PR) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI...

  2. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  3. FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, E. L.; Chen, X. [UCLA Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L. [Adnet Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu (and others)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the list of point sources found in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analyses now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the Galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR >4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:1 range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  4. Correlation of globe thermometer response and a YSI radiometer response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franknecht, Robert Howard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the steel 57 in i; try. -' The radian+ heat coiinponon* ivas a major part o' Lhls heat s Lice . = ex'oosrir'e. iclschl mca. sul d the radio. i+ hc t txt Ej xsi Ly with " "ell ov! prir;. ?, s inst ament-:: e*t erin' (v. l' " odcl 653 Radiometer... This investigation developed two regression equations relating measurements of radiant heat, air velocity, and dry bulb temperature to black globe temperatures. The radiant heat energy was controlled over the range of 200 to 2000 Joules/cm sec, as measured by a...

  5. Design evaluation of a ground based radiometer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClellan, Wallace Roy

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer Total Power Receiver . . . . . . . . 57 IV-2 X-Band RF Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 IV-3 Insertion Loss Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . 69 IV-4 Hewlett-Packard 8410S-200 Network Analyzer S ystem. ~ s t ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 72... of the soil and surface parameters, i. e. , moisture ' C Data Set PD 2 Tape 065 7/28/75 Time-1108 Pond File Freq Polar Angle Average Maximum Minimum A. T. A. T. A. T. St'd Dev'n 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46...

  6. ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AUSTIN, ME; LOHR, J

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK A271 ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer diagnostic on DIII-D has been upgraded with the addition of eight channels for a total of 40. The new, higher frequency channels allow measurements of electron temperature into the magnetic axis in discharges at maximum field, 2.15 T. The complete set now extends over the full usable range of second harmonic emission frequencies at 2.0 T covering radii from the outer edge inward to the location of third harmonic overlap on the high field side. Full coverage permits the measurement of heat pulses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations on both sides of the magnetic axis. In addition, the symmetric measurements are used to fix the location of the magnetic axis in tokamak magnetic equilibrium reconstructions. Also, the new higher frequency channels have been used to determine central T{sub e} with good time resolution in low field, high density discharges using third harmonic ECE in the optically gray and optically thick regimes.

  7. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  8. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  9. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  10. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  11. The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

  12. Global, exact cosmic microwave background data analysis using Gibbs sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Astronomy, UIUC, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Larson, David L.; Lakshminarayanan, Arun [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an efficient and exact method that enables global Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. The method reveals the joint posterior density (or likelihood for flat priors) of the power spectrum C{sub l} and the CMB signal. Foregrounds and instrumental parameters can be simultaneously inferred from the data. The method allows the specification of a wide range of foreground priors. We explicitly show how to propagate the non-Gaussian dependency structure of the C{sub l} posterior through to the posterior density of the parameters. If desired, the analysis can be coupled to theoretical (cosmological) priors and can yield the posterior density of cosmological parameter estimates directly from the time-ordered data. The method does not hinge on special assumptions about the survey geometry or noise properties, etc., It is based on a Monte Carlo approach and hence parallelizes trivially. No trace or determinant evaluations are necessary. The feasibility of this approach rests on the ability to solve the systems of linear equations which arise. These are of the same size and computational complexity as the map-making equations. We describe a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique that solves this problem and demonstrate in a numerical example that the computational time required for each Monte Carlo sample scales as n{sub p}{sup 3/2} with the number of pixels n{sub p}. We use our method to analyze the data from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer and explore the non-Gaussian joint posterior density of the C{sub l} from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer in several projections.

  13. Sea surface temperature for climate from the along-track scanning radiometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Embury, Owen

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the construction of a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations suitable for climate applications. The algorithms presented here are now used at ...

  14. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  15. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  16. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  17. Microwave coupler and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  18. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121 H( 7 Be,Boundary-Layer

  19. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  20. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Duewer, Fred (Albany, CA); Yang, Hai Tao (Albany, CA); Lu, Yalin (Chelmsford, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  1. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  2. 1/f noise and other systematic effects in the Planck-LFI radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Seiffert; Aniello Mennella; Carlo Burigana; Nazzareno Mandolesi; Marco Bersanelli; Peter Meinhold; Phil Lubin

    2002-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We use an analytic approach to study the susceptibility of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument radiometers to various systematic effects. We examine the effects of fluctuations in amplifier gain, in amplifier noise temperature and in the reference load temperature. We also study the effect of imperfect gain modulation, non-ideal matching of radiometer parameters, imperfect isolation in the two legs of the radiometer and back-end 1/f noise. We find that with proper gain modulation 1/f gain fluctuations are suppressed, leaving fluctuations in amplifier noise temperature as the main source of 1/f noise. We estimate that with a gain modulation factor within +- 1% of its ideal value the overall 1/f knee frequency will be relatively small (< 0.1 Hz).

  3. Empirical Evaluation of Four Microwave Radiative Forward Models Based on Ground-Based Radiometer Data Near 20 and 30 GHz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwo States CARLSBAD,EmilioRon

  4. Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop (held in Long Beach, CA, on July 25, 2012), academic and industry experts discussed the existing and emerging electrotechnologies – such as microwave ...

  5. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  6. THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIDE SWATH SIMULATION AND WIND SPEED RETRIEVALS Ruba A. Amarin1 Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 4 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA ABSTRACT The knowledge of peak winds in hurricanes is critical to classification of hurricane intensity

  7. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  8. Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.

    MICRaVAVE ENHANCED SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-oIL EMULSIONS C.S. FANG DEPAR'lMENT OF rnEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA LAFAYE'ITE, IDUISIANA ABSTRACT The experimental data showed that viscous and stable water-in-oil.....rrental data also indicated that water-in-oil emulsion can be heated uniformly by microwaves, if the pathlength is not too long. Temperature profiles and microwave heating can be predicted reasonably well fran di electric properties and the theory...

  9. Alum Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alum Profile. Kathryn E. Brenan Engineering Specialist The Aerospace Corporation. Kathryn Brenan is an Engineering Specialist with the Engineering ...

  10. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  11. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  12. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  13. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  14. FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION Evgeny in the microwave range. Microwave-radar and microwave-induced thermoacoustic methods both struggle when-induced thermoacoustic (MIT) methods measure and process the acoustic signals induced by differential microwave heating

  15. A precise narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with lidar in the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first six months of the grant (December 1991--May 1992) have been taken up with the design and specification for the new narrow-beam radiometer. The radiometer will be built and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research over the next three months. Improved algorithms for obtaining cloud extinction have also been developed. It is proposed during 1993 to use the radiometer in conjunction with a new CSIRO 3-wavelength lidar in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Guinea, which is a test mission under tropical conditions for the ARM CART Tropical West Pacific site, and is part of the TOGA COARE experiment. During the latter part of 1992, the radiometer will be tested thoroughly and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale.

  16. Development of a new radiometer for the thermodynamic measurement of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dury, M. R.; Goodman, T. M.; Lowe, D. H.; Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a new radiometer to measure the thermodynamic melting point temperatures of high temperature fixed points with ultra-low uncertainties. In comparison with the NPL's Absolute Radiation Thermometer (ART), the 'THermodynamic Optical Radiometer' (THOR) is more portable and compact, with a much lower size-of-source effect and improved performance in other parameters such as temperature sensitivity. It has been designed for calibration as a whole instrument via the radiance method, removing the need to calibrate the individual subcomponents, as required by ART, and thereby reducing uncertainties. In addition, the calibration approach has been improved through a new integrating sphere that has been designed to have greater uniformity.

  17. Electron cyclotron emission radiometer upgrade on the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.; Tribaldos, V.; Conway, G.; Suttrop, W.; Fessey, J.; Prentice, R.; Gowers, C.; Chareau, J. M. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Associations, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capabilities of the Joint European Torus (JET) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics have recently been extended with an upgrading of the heterodyne radiometer. The number of channels has been doubled to 96 channels, with a frequency separation corresponding to <1 cm for JET magnetic field gradient, and with a frequency response of 1 MHz. This enhancement has increased the radial coverage of the ECE electron temperature measurements in JET to approximately the full plasma column (limited at R>2.6 m for the X-mode due to harmonic overlap) at almost all magnetic field values used at JET (1.7 Tradiometer is presented along with some results showing its performance.

  18. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P. [Cryogenics and Fluids Branch, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  19. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Togo, Hiroyoshi [Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Morinosato, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Kuninaka, Hitoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  20. Density profiles of plasmas confined by the field of a Levitating Dipole Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Alexander C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure the density profiles of plasmas confined within the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). LDX is the first and only experiment ...

  1. New Technique for Retrieving Liquid Water Path over Land using Satellite Microwave Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deeter, M.N.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for earth observing plan (EOS) (AMSR-E) polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz. Regression analysis performed on model simulations indicates that over variable atmospheric and surface conditions the polarization-difference signals can be simply parameterized in terms of the surface emissivity polarization difference ({Delta}{var_epsilon}), surface temperature, liquid water path (LWP), and precipitable water vapor (PWV). The resulting polarization-difference parameterization (PDP) enables fast and direct (noniterative) retrievals of LWP with minimal requirements for ancillary data. Single- and dual-channel retrieval methods are described and demonstrated. Data gridding is used to reduce the effects of instrumental noise. The methodology is demonstrated using AMSR-E observations over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during a six day period in November and December, 2003. Single- and dual-channel retrieval results mostly agree with ground-based microwave retrievals of LWP to within approximately 0.04 mm.

  2. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  3. Isoperimetric profile of algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Adderio, Michele

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.4 Isoperimetric profile of groups . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 The Isoperimetric Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 Isoperimetric profile and Amenability . . . . . . . .

  4. OAK 270 - The use of Lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) in the ARM program to obtain optical properties and microphysics of high and midlevel clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.M.R. Platt; R.T. Austin; S.A. Young; and G.L. Stephens

    2002-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK 270 - The use of Lidar/Radiometer (LIRAD) in the ARM program to obtain optical properties and microphysics of high and midlevel clouds

  5. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  6. Predictions of microwavePredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresbreakdown in rf structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    Predictions of microwave breakdownPredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresin rf structures #12;2 of the breakdown phenomenon). 2. Electron interaction with microwave field (rough estimates of parameters which in communication systems Predictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresPredictions of microwave breakdown

  7. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos, Dennis M. (Williamsburg, VA); Diggs, Jessie (Norfolk, VA); Ametepe, Joseph D. (Roanoke, VA)

    2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  8. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  9. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  10. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration...

  11. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  12. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Peter M. (611 Montclair, College Station, TX 77840)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James G. Bartlett

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

  14. Bayesian modeling of microwave foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahlin, Alexandra Sasha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, advances in precision cosmology have pushed our understanding of the evolving Universe to new limits. Since the discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson, ...

  15. Retrieval of Optical And Size Parameters of Aerosols Utilizing a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and MICROTOPS Sun Photometer Antonio Aguirre Radiometer (MFRSR) and comparing with data from a CIMEL Sun Photometer and a MICROTOPS Sun Photometer. Using the inverse cosine of the angle between the sun and the vertical. A Langley plot provides a linear regression

  16. Validation of satellite ozone profile retrievals using Beijing ozonesonde data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    year time period (September 2002 to July 2005) are used to evaluate the performance of ozone profile, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the NASA Aura satellite. Since the Global Positioning System ozone sensors (GPSO3) used in Beijing

  17. Increasing Temporal Resolution in Greenland Ablation Estimation Using Passive and Active Microwave Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Increasing Temporal Resolution in Greenland Ablation Estimation Using Passive and Active Microwave of these measurements provides an increased understanding of the diurnal melt cycle over Greenland and estimation of the melt profile. I. INTRODUCTION Accurate estimation of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet

  18. University Profile Profile 2006-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    University Profile 2006­2008 #12;Profile 2006-2008 #12;Page 2 University of Canterbury Profile 2006-2008 #12;University of Canterbury Profile 2006-2008 Page 3 Contents Part A: Strategic Direction Page 1. Appendix 1: Points of Connection between 18 STEP 2005-2007 and UC Profile Key Strategic Areas 12. Appendix

  19. Strong Interest Inventory Profile with College Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    Strong Interest Inventory ® Profile with College Profile College Profile developed by Jeffrey P Interest Inventory® Profile JANE SAMPLE Date taken 1.1.2005 F HOW THE STRONG CAN HELP YOU The Strong in your Strong results. Understanding your Strong Profile can help you identify a career focus and begin

  20. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  1. Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Wenhai Han Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode Application Note Introduction Mapping through" and meanwhile achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution. With the invention of scanning been developed to probe materials properties. These include scanning near-field to scanning microwave

  2. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  3. Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P.; Stejner, M. [Association EURATOM - DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Risoe Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bongers, W.; Moseev, D.; Westerhof, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM - FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong scattering of high-power millimeter waves at 140 GHz has been shown to take place in heating and current-drive experiments at TEXTOR when a tearing mode is present in the plasma. The scattering signal is at present supposed to be generated by the parametric decay instability. Here we describe the heterodyne detection system used to characterize the newly discovered signal measured at TEXTOR, and we present spectral shapes in which the signal can appear under different conditions. The radiation is collected by the receiver through a quasi-optical transmission line that is independent of the electron cyclotron resonance heating transmission line, and so the scattering geometry is variable. The signal is detected with 42 frequency channels ranging from 136 to 142 GHz. We demonstrate that the large signal does not originate from gyrotron spurious radiation. The measured signal agrees well with independent backscattering radiometer data.

  4. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  5. People Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear AstrophysicsPayroll, Taxes Payroll, TaxesPeople Profiles

  6. Mentor Profile

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,Department of EnergyMentor Profile

  7. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis M. (Oxford, NY); Darling, Timothy W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Rees, Daniel E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  8. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  9. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  10. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  11. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  12. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  13. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Folz, Diane C. (Gainesville, FL)

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  14. Microwave emissions from police radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, John Michael

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject...: Industrial Hygiene MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE John P. Wag (Chair of Committee) Jero e J. C...

  15. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  16. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  17. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  18. Global longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    with those observed in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) extending back to 1981. The NDVI is derived by subtracting in the hydrological, energy and carbon cycles, through influences of land cover change on hydrologic responses

  19. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  20. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  1. MMS 2007 Mediterranean Microwave Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the radiating slots. The design was based on electromagnetic simulations made using the CST Microwave Studio substrate metallization has been used to improve radiation properties. The simulated radiation efficiency is one of the possible solutions for the development of radiofrequency (RF) systems [1], for example

  2. A precise narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with lidar in the ARM Program. Progress report, 1 December 1991--31 May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first six months of the grant (December 1991--May 1992) have been taken up with the design and specification for the new narrow-beam radiometer. The radiometer will be built and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research over the next three months. Improved algorithms for obtaining cloud extinction have also been developed. It is proposed during 1993 to use the radiometer in conjunction with a new CSIRO 3-wavelength lidar in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Guinea, which is a test mission under tropical conditions for the ARM CART Tropical West Pacific site, and is part of the TOGA COARE experiment. During the latter part of 1992, the radiometer will be tested thoroughly and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale.

  3. Influence of ponderomotive force on the microwave and plasma interaction in an elliptical waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdoli-Arani, A., E-mail: abdoliabbas@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction effect of a high-power microwave with the plasma in an elliptical waveguide taking into account the ponderomotive force is presented. Here, we assume the fundamental mode that propagates in an evacuated elliptical waveguide and encounters a plasma, which is filled in another elliptical waveguide of the same size. Here, we consider a balance between the effects of ponderomotive force and the electron pressure and consider the plasma effect through its dielectric permittivity because the electron density distribution of the plasma is modified. The propagation of the mode is described by two nonlinear coupled differential equations obtained using the Maxwell's equations. These equations are solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the field amplitude of the microwave in the waveguide considering the waveguide to be made up of a perfect conductor and filled with homogeneous plasma density distribution. The effects of the electron temperature, the microwave filed, and the frequency on the perturbed density profile are studied.

  4. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  5. Computing & Communications PROFILE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    Computing & Communications PROFILE MANAGEMENT What is a profile? If you use a SWGC computing account, a profile will be created for you. A profile is a special file which is used to store your are provided with a default profile which is the same for all users. Any changes you then make to your working

  6. Multichannel microwave interferometer with an antenna switching system for electron density measurement in a laboratory plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lin, Yu-Hsiang [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Mase, Atsushi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)] [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Nishida, Yasushi; Cheng, C. Z. [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a simple and powerful technique for multichannel measurements of the density profile in laboratory plasmas by microwave interferometry. This technique uses electromechanical microwave switches to temporally switch the connection between multiple receiver antennas and one phase-detection circuit. Using this method, the phase information detected at different positions is rearranged into a time series that can be acquired from a minimum number of data acquisition channels (e.g., two channels in the case of quadrature detection). Our successfully developed multichannel microwave interferometer that uses the antenna switching method was applied to measure the radial electron density profiles in a magnetized plasma experiment. The advantage of the proposed method is its compactness and scalability to multidimensional measurement systems at low cost.

  7. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  8. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.Solar Thermal Solar ThermalJul 13 1 2 3

  9. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  10. Scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Signal, resolution, and contrast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Signal, resolution, and contrast Geng Ku Scanning thermoacoustic tomography was explored in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum ultrasonic transducer detected the time-resolved thermoacoustic signals. Based on the microwave

  11. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  12. Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced...

  13. active microwave medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that silica shell addition through microwave synthesis Park, Jeong Chan; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y. 2012-01-01 149 MURI High Energy Microwave Sources...

  14. The R/V Discoverer cruise to Manus Island. The BNL Portable Radiometer Package (PRP) evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven National Laboratory installed and operated a Portable Radiation Package (PRP) on the NOAA ship R/V DISCOVERER as part of the Combined Sensor Program cruise in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean. The DISCOVERER transported a collection of radiation and atmospheric instrumentation to positions offshore of manus Island to compare cloud and radiation fields to like instruments measured from a station on the island. The ship sailed NW from Pago Pago, American Samoa, on 14 March 1996 to a latitude of 1{degree}S then due West until it approached manus Island (2{degree}S and 148{degree}E) on approximately 7 April. The ship then turned SW and approached Manus Island in three steps. This route was reversed during the ship`s return to Hawaii. The PRP package is a compact low-power integration of simple sensors that measure long- and short-wave irradiance from moving platforms. A rapid rotating shadowband radiometer that is designed to provide good estimates of diffuse (sky) radiation even from moving buoys or ships was being evaluated. The PRP provided the only means of making diffuse (sky) radiation measurements from the ship. The CSP cruise provided an excellent opportunity to intercompare the PRP with other like instruments in the TWP locale. The unit was located on the starboard flying bridge which was fully exposed to direct sunlight during the ship`s westward transit. When the ship was at its closest approach to manus, the PRP was moved to the island where careful intercomparison with the Manus instrumentation was conducted.

  15. Establishing a Pivot profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    Establishing a Pivot profile and finding funding opportunities PIVOT.COS.COM #12;Expertise Database with Researcher Profiles Approx. 3.2M scholarly profiles Created from publications, public web sites Claim your profile and expand it Funding Opportunities Database Approx. 28k opportunities 70% domestic, 30

  16. A precise passive narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with LIDAR in the ARM program. Progress report, 1 June 1992--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work done divides conveniently into two parts. First, the completion of the design and manufacture of the new narrow-beam radiometer, which occupied the period of July to December, 1992. The second part of the report concerns participation of the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research (DAR) Lidar/radiometer team in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea as part of the international TOGA COARE experiment. The DAR team participated for about one month from mid-January. The PROBE experiment allowed the new radiometer to be tested under field conditions, a test which was very successful, with very few teething problems. It is proposed during the rest of 1993 and during 1994 to make further tests with the radiometer and particularly to look at using a stirling cycle liquid nitrogen detector to obviate the need for supplies of liquid nitrogen. It is proposed further during 1994 to carry out a thorough analysis of the PROBE data and collaborate with other US PROBE participants in studying and interpreting the observations as a whole. Some further work with the new ARM radiometer will be done during the CSIRO SOCEX experiment.

  17. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  18. Microwave Meals in a Hurry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of time to prepare complete meals. Select dishes that are family favorites and use tested recipes . Learning to adapt recipes for microwave cooking comes. later with experience. In general, advance meal planning is the key to getting the most out.... For example, whole carrots stay hot longer than sliced carrots. Cooking and then serving food in the same dish extends holding time. So does wrapping or cov ering the food in plastic wrap or foil, or covering it with a lid. Cook foods with a long holding...

  19. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  20. Microwave cavity search for paraphotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povey, Rhys; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 WA (Australia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this proceeding we report the first results of a microwave cavity search for hidden sector photons. Using a pair of isolated resonant cavities we look for 'light shining through a wall' from photon--hidden sector photon oscillations. Our prototype experiment consists of two cylindrical, copper cavities stacked axially inside a single vacuum chamber. At a hidden sector photon mass of 39.58 mueV we place an upper limit on the kinetic mixing parameter chi at 7.8x10{sup -6}. Whilst this result is inside already established limits our experiment has great scope for improvement.

  1. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  2. Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra N.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    across spatial scales; accounting uncertainties in forcing data; and preserving interactions for spatially correlated pixels. The second study focused on spatial scaling properties of the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)-based remotely sensed...

  3. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  4. Electrodeless lamp energized by microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, R.M.; Perret, J.

    1990-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an electrodeless lamp. It comprises: a microwave cavity; a source of microwaves in communication with the cavity; a lamp envelope containing a plasma-forming medium mounted within the microwave cavity; a gas manifold for feeding gas to at least one gas passageway for directing a stream of gas to the outer surface of the envelope; a gas leak passageway leading from the gas manifold; a conductive mesh assembly for retaining microwaves within the cavity and permitting light to be emitted from the cavity. The assembly including gas flow blocking means for preventing the flow of gas through the gas leak passageway when the screen is in place in the lamp; and means for shutting off the source of microwaves when the gas pressure in the manifold drops below a predetermined value.

  5. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  6. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  7. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  8. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  9. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  10. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  11. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  13. Low density inorganic foams fabricated using microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Gregory, T.G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to determine if high temperature foams could be made using microwave heating; and if so, to investigate some of their properties. Several foams were made and their compressive strengths, tensile strengths and densities were determined. Foams were made of glass, metal-glass, glass-fiber, metal-glass-fiber, and fly ash. The microwave source used was a Litton model 1521 microwave oven which operated at 2.45 GHz and had an output of 700 watts.

  14. Accelerator beam profile analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godel, Julius B. (Bayport, NY); Guillaume, Marcel (Grivegnee, BE); Lambrecht, Richard M. (East Quogue, NY); Withnell, Ronald (East Setauket, NY)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beam profile analyzer employing sector or quadrant plates each servo controlled to outline the edge of a beam.

  15. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  16. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  17. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (4 Ledgewood Dr., Bedford, MA 01730); Smatlak, Donna L. (10 Village Hill Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Cohn, Daniel R. (26 Walnut Hill Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167); Wittle, J. Kenneth (1740 Conestoga Rd., Chester Springs, PA 19425); Titus, Charles H. (323 Echo Valley La., Newton Square, PA 19072); Surma, Jeffrey E. (806 Brian La., Kennewick, WA 99337)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  18. Microwave processing of tantalum capacitor anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R J; Hamby, C; Holcombe, C E [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vierow, W F [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)] [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous tantalum anodes were sintered at temperatures from 1600 to 1900{degrees}C using a conventional high-vacuum furnace as well as both 2.45 GHz fixed-frequency and 4--8 GHz variable-frequency microwave furnaces. Various insulation and casketing techniques were used to couple the microwave power to the tantalum compacts. Several types of tantalum powder were used to assess the effect of microwave processing on sintered surface area and impurity levels. Some microwave sintered anodes have an unusual surface rippling not seen on conventionally fired parts. The rippling suggests that a microscopic arcing or plasma might have been generated. Two important effects could be exploited if this phenomenon can be controlled. First, the effective tantalum surface area could be increased, yielding higher capacitance per volume. Second, surface impurities might be cleaned away, allowing the formation of a better dielectric film during the anodization process and, ultimately, higher working voltage.

  19. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  20. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  1. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  2. Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis Vladimir Cirkva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    563 14 Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis Vladim´ir C´irkva 14.1 Introduction photocatalysis. The energy of MW radia- tion (e.g., E = 0.98 J mol-1 at = 2.45 GHz) is considerably lower than by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. #12;564 14 Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis UV

  3. High Precision Noise Measurements at Microwave Frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Michael [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, 6009, WA (Australia)

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe microwave noise measurement system capable of detecting the phase fluctuations of rms amplitude of 2{center_dot}10{sup -11} rad/{radical}(Hz). Such resolution allows the study of intrinsic fluctuations in various microwave components and materials, as well as precise tests of fundamental physics. Employing this system we discovered a previously unknown phenomenon of down-conversion of pump oscillator phase noise into the low-frequency voltage fluctuations.

  4. COMMUNITY PROFILE Greenland, New Hampshire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    GREENLAND COMMUNITY PROFILE REPORT Greenland, New Hampshire February 3 & 4, 2006 #12;TABLE......................................................................................................................................3 Creating a Community Profile in Greenland

  5. NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    WEIF-49 NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC>;ics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2OY@-4lll, USA Abstract We describe the near-field scanning methods of scanning probe microscopy have been developed. Generally spea- king one can divide

  6. Texas Crop Profile: Onions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Smith, Dudley

    2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This profile of onion production in Texas gives an overview of basic commodity information; discusses insect, disease and weed pests; and covers cultural and chemical control methods....

  7. Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

  8. MICROWAVE PROCESSING OF LUNAR SOIL Lawrence A. Taylor1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    and microwave into hybrid heating can be used to form various structural and mechanical materials for use both

  9. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  10. Ion beams extraction and measurements of plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore ECRIS with permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozaki, Dai; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Yano, Keisuke; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an all-permanent magnet large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for broad ion beam processing. The cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic field configuration is adopted for efficient plasma production and good magnetic confinement. To compensate for disadvantages of fixed magnetic configuration, a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is used. In the comb-shaped ECRIS, it is difficult to achieve controlling ion beam profiles in the whole inside the chamber by using even single frequency-controllable TWTA (11-13GHz), because of large bore size with all-magnets. We have tried controlling profiles of plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beams by launching two largely different frequencies simultaneously, i.e., multi-frequencies microwaves. Here we report ion beam profiles and corresponding plasma parameters under various experimental conditions, dependence of ion beams against extraction voltages, and influence of different electrode positions on the electron density profile.

  11. Microwave dressing of Rydberg dark states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tanasittikosol; J. D. Pritchard; D. Maxwell; A. Gauguet; K. J. Weatherill; R. M. Potvliege; C. S. Adams

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the 5s$\\rightarrow$5p$\\rightarrow$46s ladder system of a cold $^{87}$Rb gas. We show that the resonant microwave coupling between the 46s and 45p states leads to an Autler-Townes splitting of the EIT resonance. This splitting can be employed to vary the group index by $\\pm 10^5$ allowing independent control of the propagation of dark state polaritons. We also demonstrate that microwave dressing leads to enhanced interaction effects. In particular, we present evidence for a $1/R^3$ energy shift between Rydberg states resonantly coupled by the microwave field and the ensuing breakdown of the pair-wise interaction approximation.

  12. Experimental investigation of a ``scanner`` microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velazco, J.E.; Ceperley, P.H.; Black, W.M.; Thomason, K. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Godlove, T.F.; Mako, F.M. [FM Technology, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on initial experimental results of a high-efficiency L-band proof-of-principle microwave amplifier experiment. The prototype under experimental investigation employs a 120 kV, 20A, 5mm diameter, 4 {mu}sec pencil beam. The pencil beam is made to spiral through the interaction with a rotating mode microwave cavity. Efficient energy extraction from the spiral beam is obtained in an output cavity also supporting a rotating mode. The system is immersed in a uniform magnetic field with its amplitude properly adjusted to permit synchronization between the temporal oscillations of the spiral beam and the fields of the rotating modes. This device should be capable of providing coherent, efficient, multimegawatt microwave radiation for a variety of applications appropriate to its frequency range.

  13. Microwave joining of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I.; Tian, Y.L. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on identification of the most effective joining methods for scale-up to large tube assemblies, including joining using SiC produced in situ from chemical precursors. During FY 1996, a new microwave applicator was designed, fabricated and tested that provides the capability for vacuum baking of the specimens and insulation and for processing under inert environment. This applicator was used to join continuous fiber-reinforced (CFCC) SiC/SiC composites using a polymer precursor to form a SiC interlayer in situ.

  14. Name: ____________________ Stream Profile Lab 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Name: ____________________ Stream Profile Lab 1 LAB 4. Stream Profiles and Mass Balance: Supply vs hillslope diffusion experiments. We will now examine a slightly more complicated profile-evolution model on longitudinal channel profile shapes. The Questions: I. Why do streams generally have concave profiles

  15. The Effect of Profile Choice and Profile Gathering Methods on Profile-Driven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of Profile Choice and Profile Gathering Methods on Profile-Driven Optimization Systems;Keywords: Compilers, Optimization, Performance of systems, Modeling tech- niques #12;Abstract Profile-time optimizer. In this work, we ana- lyze several important aspects of profile-driven optimization. We examine

  16. IMPROVED CONSTRAINTS ON PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY FOR THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Barreiro, R. B., E-mail: curto@ifca.unican.e [IFCA, CSIC-Univ. de Cantabria, Avda. los Castros, s/n, E-39005-Santander (Spain)

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present constraints on the nonlinear coupling parameter f{sub nl} with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We use an updated method based on the spherical Mexican hat wavelet (SMHW) which provides improved constraints on the f{sub nl} parameter. This paper is a continuation of a previous work by Curto et al., where several third-order statistics based on the SMHW were considered. In this paper, we use all the possible third-order statistics computed from the wavelet coefficient maps evaluated at 12 angular scales. The scales are logarithmically distributed from 6.9 arcmin to 500 arcmin. Our analysis indicates that f{sub nl} is constrained to -18 < f{sub nl} < +80 at 95% confidence level (CL) for the combined V+W WMAP map. This value has been corrected by the presence of undetected point sources, which adds a positive contribution of DELTAf{sub nl} = 6 +- 5. Our result excludes at approx99% CL the best-fitting value f{sub nl} = 87 reported by Yadav and Wandelt. We have also constrained f{sub nl} for the Q, V, and W frequency bands separately, finding compatibility with zero at 95% CL for the Q and V bands but not for the W band. We have performed some further tests to understand the cause of this deviation which indicate that systematics associated with the W radiometers could be responsible for this result. Finally, we have performed a Galactic north-south analysis for f{sub nl}. We have not found any asymmetry, i.e., the best-fitting f{sub nl} for the northern pixels is compatible with the best-fitting f{sub nl} for the southern pixels.

  17. Planar controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxvlle, TN)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  18. The Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias Zaldarriaga

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the physical mechanism by which the Cosmic Microwave Background acquires a small degree of polarization. We discuss the imprint left by gravitational waves and the use of polarization as a test of the inflationary paradigm. We discuss some physical processes that affect the CMB polarization after recombination such as gravitational lensing and the reionization of the universe.

  19. Calculation of a coaxial microwave torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Kossyi, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters of an equilibrium microwave discharge in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow in a coaxial waveguide with a truncated inner electrode are calculated numerically by using a self-consistent two-dimensional MHD model. The results obtained agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  20. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  1. PHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    presents analysis and measurements of phase noise in oscilla- tors and amplifiers. Low phase noise- multaneous small size, low phase noise, DC power consumption and thermal drift is presented. Design stepsPHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS by MILOS JANKOVI´C B.E., University of Arkansas

  2. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. LANL Data Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Profile 2012-2013 Total: 10,407 Quick Facts FY2013 Operating Budget ..... 1.95 billion Operating costs 54% NNSA Weapons Programs 12% Work for other agencies 10%...

  4. Analysis of characteristic of microwave regeneration for diesel particulate filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning Zhi; Zhang Guanglong; Lu Yong; Liu Junmin; Gao Xiyan; Liang Iunhui; Chen Jiahua [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The mathematical model for the microwave regeneration of diesel particulate filter is proposed according to the characteristic of microwave regeneration process. The model is used to calculate the temperature field, distribution of particulate and density field of oxygen in the filter during the process of regeneration with typical ceramic foam particulate filter data. The parametric study demonstrates how some of the main parameters, such as microwave attenuation constant of the filter, filter particulate loading, the power and distribution of microwave energy and so on, affect the efficiency of regeneration, the maximum filter temperature and regeneration duration. The results show that it is possible to regenerate the diesel particulate filters in certain conditions by using microwave energy. This paper can give one a whole understanding to several main factors that have effects on the process of microwave regeneration and provide a theoretical basis for the optimal design of the microwave regeneration system.

  5. PROFILE SHAPE PARAMETERIZATION OF JET ELECTRON TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY PROFILES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROFILE SHAPE PARAMETERIZATION OF JET ELECTRON TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY PROFILES Beatrix Schunke JET Mercer St., New York NY 10012-1185 The temperature and density profiles of the Joint European Torus to determine which terms in the log-linear model to include. The density and temperature profiles

  6. PROFILE SHAPE PARAMETERIZATION OF JET ELECTRON TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY PROFILES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PROFILE SHAPE PARAMETERIZATION OF JET ELECTRON TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY PROFILES Beatrix Schunke JET Mercer St., New York NY 10012­1185 Abstract The temperature and density profiles of the Joint European are used to determine which terms in the log­linear model to include. The density and temperature profiles

  7. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Markunas, Robert J. (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus (10) is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity (34) depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece (36) is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  8. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.C.; Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Markunas, R.J.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a variable frequency microwave heating apparatus designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus includes a microwave signal generator and a high-power microwave amplifier or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A power supply is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator or microwave amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 10 figs.

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1224312253, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/12243/2012/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde. 1 Introduction Clouds strongly influence the energy budget of the Earth's atmosphere. Because of their high degree of temporal and spatial variability, and the complexity of cloud processes, it remains

  10. University Profile University of Canterbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    University Profile 2007­2009 #12;University of Canterbury PROFILE 2007 - 2009 Submitted to the Tertiary Education Commission, 31 October, 2006 #12;University of Canterbury Profile 2007-2009 Page 2 of 64 #12;Contents Page Profile Purpose and Structure 4 Part A: Strategic Direction 5 Part B: Key Strategic

  11. Connexxus Traveler Profile Arranger Assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Connexxus Traveler Profile Arranger Assignment Travelers have the option of submitting an email to UCTravel@ucop.edu authorizing UC Travel Management Services to access the traveler's profile and assign profile information. Specify permission options: Can Book Travel Can Access Traveler Profile Can Book

  12. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  13. Country profile: Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013Montana Electricity Profile

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvania Electricity Profile

  16. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  17. Quantum and Wave Dynamical Chaos in Superconducting Microwave Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dietz; A. Richter

    2015-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  18. Quantum and Wave Dynamical Chaos in Superconducting Microwave Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dietz; A. Richter

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  19. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongers, W. A.; Beveren, V. van; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A. P. H.; Krijger, B.; Berg, M. A. van den; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Thoen, D. J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Nuij, P. J. W. M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Control Systems Technology Group, and Applied Physics Department, PO Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baar, M. R. de; Donne, A. J. H.; Hennen, B. A. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Control Systems Technology Group, and Applied Physics Department, PO Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kantor, M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Forschungszentrum Juelich GMBH, Institute of Energy and Climate research, Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ioffe Institute, RAS, Saint-Petersburg, 195256 (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100-200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the full wave information of the mm-wave signals under investigation. The system is based on directly digitizing the IF band after down conversion. The enabling technology consists of a fast multi-giga sample analog to digital converter that has recently become available. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are implemented to accomplish versatile real-time data analysis. A prototype system has been developed and tested and its performance has been compared with conventional electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrometer systems. On the TEXTOR Tokamak a proof of principle shows that ECE, together with high power injected and scattered radiation, becomes amenable to measurement by this device. In particular, its capability to measure the phase of coherent signals in the spectrum offers important advantages in diagnostics and control. One case developed in detail employs the FPGA in real-time fast Fourier transform (FFT) and additional signal processing. The major benefit of such a FFT-based system is the real-time trade-off that can be made between frequency and time resolution. For ECE diagnostics this corresponds to a flexible spatial resolution in the plasma, with potential application in smart sensing of plasma instabilities such as the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) and sawtooth instabilities. The flexible resolution would allow for the measurement of the full mode content of plasma instabilities contained within the system bandwidth.

  20. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carosi, G; van Bibber, K

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter will cover the search for dark matter axions based on microwave cavity experiments proposed by Pierre Sikivie. We will start with a brief overview of halo dark matter and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described as well as practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of this chapter will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons--the 'photon-as-wave' approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon to be quantum-limited SQUID devices), and 'photon-as-particle' (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The section will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave cavity experiment.

  1. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  2. Issues in microwave power systems engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, R.M. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The key issues in microwave power system engineering are beam safety, frequency allocation, and affordability. These major issues are presented, discussed, and suggestions for resolving them are offered. The issue of beam safety can be captured in the phrase ``Fear of Frying.`` Can a properly engineered beamed power safety system allay the public perception of microwave radiation dangers? Openness, visibility, and education may be keys to resolving this issue satisfactorily. ``Not in my Spectrum`` is a phrase that is frequently encountered in connection with the issue of where can the microwave power beam frequency be located. International cooperation may provide a part of the solution to this issue. ``Wow, that much?`` is a phrase encountered when dealing with the issue of economic affordability of large beamed power systems. A phased engineering approach for multiple uses even during construction is presented to aid in garnering revenue during the system build phase. Also, dual mode dc-RF converters are encouraged for bi-directional power flow utility and economies of scale in production.

  3. Low profile thermite igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  4. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  5. Upper Atmospheric Density Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    · Uncertainties in aerodynamics, problems with signals from shaking solar panel, rotation of instrument about · Change in latitude per unit change in longitude along profile set by orbit inclination and latitude (not engineering) instrument, very high sensitivity, unseen part of 11-yr solar cycle · Current science

  6. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  7. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OH. ” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute: 32(2):3171-Thermochemical Database for Combustion. ” Argonne NationalMicrowave Radiation. ” Combustion Science and Technology:

  8. A Calibration of a Microwave Telescope Christopher Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Calibration of a Microwave Telescope Christopher Herzog February 27, 2004 1 Calculating the Polarization Change This calibration experiment relies on an ability to calculate what happens

  9. aces microwave link: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lan 2010-01-01 152 Engineering Research and Development Microwave Imaging Technology Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: Engineering Research and Development MVG Paris...

  10. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. B. (1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.novel microwave internal combustion engine ignition source,in the Internal Combustion Engine." SAE Technical Paper

  11. advanced microwave sounding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aires, Filipe 35 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 345 DC and RF Characteristics of Advanced MIM Engineering Websites Summary: of Advanced...

  12. Method and apparatus for thickness measurement using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul (Bedford, MA) [Bedford, MA; Lamar, David A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for measuring the thickness of a material which transmits a detectable amount of microwave radiation includes irradiating the material with coherent microwave radiation tuned over a frequency range. Reflected microwave radiation is detected, the reflected radiation having maxima and minima over the frequency range as a result of coherent interference of microwaves reflected from reflecting surfaces of the material. The thickness of the material is determined from the period of the maxima and minima along with knowledge of the index of refraction of the material.

  13. Hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, D.S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Feber, R.C. Jr.; Frost, H.M.; Meek, T.T.; Wallace, T.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of recovering hydrogen from extraterrestrial materials (lunar and Martian soils, asteroids) using microwave energy is presented. Reasons for harvesting and origins and locations of hydrogen are reviewed. Problems of hydrogen recovery are discussed in terms of hydrogen release characteristics and microwave coupling to insulating materials. From results of studies of hydrogen diffusivities (oxides, glasses) and tritium release (oxides) as well as studies of microwave coupling to ilmenite, alkali basalt and ceramic oxides it is concluded that using microwave energy in hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials could be the basis for a workable process.

  14. advanced microwave circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition of photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics electrodynamics QED , superconduct- ing qubits are coupled with microwave photons in a trans- mission line and a...

  15. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is more efficient? Tell Us Addthis Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance should win the honor of heating your water? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy...

  16. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperatures from microwave satellite measurements and Argo profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    measurements. [3] Satellites measure SST at the surface of the ocean. Infrared satellite sensors measure. Data pairs with time separations of up to Ć3 h are used to evaluate systematic differences between a net impact on the climate sys- tem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the character

  17. A New Microwave Temperature Profiler Â… First Measurements in Polar Regions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1A Month toA NewA NewNew

  18. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  19. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  20. International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating Nottingham, UK, September 2013 Underwater Microwave Ignition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    -cost operation [4, 5]. Thermite reaction as a self-propagated, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, Localized microwave heating, underwater ignition, combustion. INTRODUCTION Self-propagated thermite reactions between metal-oxide and metals typically burn at high flame temperatures, and require high

  1. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  2. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

  3. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  4. CAD OF MICROWAVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS FOR TIME&FREQUENCY APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or their impact on the phase noise. II- SIMULATION OF AN MZ BASED OPTICAL LINK: RF GAIN Microwave circuit designCAD OF MICROWAVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS FOR TIME&FREQUENCY APPLICATIONS Houda Brahimi, LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse are more and more involved in time and frequency applications. They may be used for frequency reference

  5. Temperature Modeling for Reaction Development in Microwave-Assisted Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    of exposure of the reactants to the electromagnetic (EM) field. The microwave parts of those systems are-scale resonator-type reactor in a 3D model capable of monitoring electromagnetic and thermal processes field. I. INTRODUCTION Microwave-assisted chemistry has recently emerged as a rapidly growing field

  6. Write an informative profile headline.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Write an informative profile headline. Your headline is a short, memorable professional slogan. For example, "Honors student seeking marketing position." Check out the profiles of students and recent alumni (your profile will be 7x more likely to be viewed) of you alone, professionally dressed. No party shots

  7. Microwaves and particle accelerators: a fundamental link

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan [Universities of Lancaster, Liverpool and Manchester and Cockcroft Institute, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. The development of radar and high power vacuum electronics, especially microwave power tubes like the magnetrons and the klystrons in the pre-second world war era, was instrumental in the rapid development of circular and linear charged particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century. We had harnessed the powerful microwave radio-frequency sources from few tens of MHz to up to 90 GHz spanning L-band to W-band frequencies. Simultaneously in the second half of the twentieth century, lasers began to offer very first opportunities of controlling charged particles at smaller resolutions on the scale of wavelengths of visible light. We also witnessed in this period the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. These developments depend crucially on yet further advancements in the production and control of high power and high frequency microwaves and light sources, often intricately coupled in their operation to the high energy beams themselves. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the electromagnetic production and control of charged particle beams in the service of science and society. (author)

  8. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  9. Deflection microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang., C.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Lau, Y.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Swyden, T.A. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers, called deflectron amplifiers, which are based on the deflection of low voltage electron beams in a microstructure were analyzed. This concept may be applied in two ways: as microelectronic amplifiers or as bunched beam cathodes to power conventional amplifier configurations such as klystrodes and traveling wave tubes. Estimates for gain and efficiency are obtained from a circuit analysis. Particle codes are used to test the viability of the concept. Frequencies of operation are projected up to a few tens of GHz for microelectronic amplifiers and up to {approx}80 GHz for power amplifiers 29 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Microwave Melting | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Revised:7, at 3:00 pmYourMicrowave Melting

  11. A Historical Profile of the Higgs Boson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanopoulos, A phenomenological profile of the Higgs boson,January 2012 A Historical Profile of the Higgs Boson Johnits phenomenolog- ical profile [12]. At the time, the Higgs

  12. Santa Cruz Harbor Commercial Fishing Community Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomeroy, Caroline

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002). Socio-economic profile of the California wetfishCommercial Fishing Community Profile, July 2008 Mangelsdorf,Commercial Fishing Community Profile, July 2008 Santa Cruz

  13. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Schaich, Charles R. (Lenoir City, TN); Foster, Jr., Don (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  14. Manipulating microwaves with magnetic-dipolar-mode vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenetskii, E. O.; Sigalov, M.; Shavit, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, IL-84 105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a surge of interest in the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields. It is well known that, in optics, subwavelength confinement can be obtained from surface plasmon (quasielectrostatic) oscillations. In this article, we propose to realize subwavelength confinement in microwaves by using dipolar-mode (quasimagnetostatic) magnon oscillations in ferrite particles. Our studies of interactions between microwave electromagnetic fields and small ferrite particles with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations show strong localization of electromagnetic energy. MDM oscillations in a ferrite disk are at the origin of topological singularities resulting in Poynting vector vortices and symmetry breakings of the microwave near fields. We show that new subwavelength microwave structures can be realized based on a system of interacting MDM ferrite disks. Wave propagation of electromagnetic signals in such structures is characterized by topological phase variations. Interactions of microwave fields with an MDM ferrite disk and MDM-disk arrays open a perspective for creating engineered electromagnetic fields with unique symmetry properties.

  15. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  16. Radiometer Calibration Trends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Radiometer Characterization System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  18. A Novel Retrieval Algorithm for Cloud Optical Properties from the Atmopsheric Radiation Measurement Program's Two-Channel Narrow-Field-of-View Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.; Marshak, A.; Chiu, J.-Y. C.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Barnard, James C.; Luo, Yi

    2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud optical depth is the most important of all cloud optical properties, and vital for any cloud-radiation parameterization. To estimate cloud optical depth, the atmospheric science community has widely used ground-based flux measurements from either broadband or narrowband radiometers in the past decade. However, this type of technique is limited to overcast conditions and, at best, gives us an "effective" cloud optical depth instead of its "local" value. Unlike flux observations, monochromatic narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) radiance measurements contain information of local cloud properties, but unfortunately, the use of radiance to interpret optical depth suffers from retrieval ambiguity. We have pioneered an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth in a fully three-dimensional cloud situation using new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) ground-based passive two-channel (673 and 870 nm) NFOV measurements. The underlying principle of the algorithm is that these two channels have similar cloud properties but strong spectral contrast in surface reflectance. This algorthm offers the first opportunity to illustrate cloud evolution with high temporal resolution retrievals. A combination of two-channel NFOV radiances with multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) fluxes for the retrieval of cloud optical properties is also discussed.

  19. Airborne microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Quentin Robert

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Studies of Sampling Accuracy Soil Type Variation . Surface Conditions. Lawrence, 1976 Experiment. Finney County, 1976 Experiment Hand County, 1976 Experiment . 1 1 3 4 4 5 7 15 16 16 21 28 31 33 33 33 35 36 36 37 38 39 41 42... 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 0. 5 cm thick 56 22 Comparison of the response of coherent and noncoherent emissions models for several 1971 soil and temperature profiles using surface layers 1. 0 cm thick . . . . . . . . 57...

  20. Performance and data analysis aspects of the new DIII-D monostatic profile reflectometer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, L., E-mail: zeng@fusion.gat.com; Peebles, W. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N.; Nguyen, X.; Wannberg, C. W.; Wang, G. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new frequency-modulated profile reflectometer system, featuring a monostatic antenna geometry (using one microwave antenna for both launch and receive), has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak, providing a first experimental test of this measurement approach for profile reflectometry. Significant features of the new system are briefly described in this paper, including the new monostatic arrangement, use of overmoded, broadband transmission waveguide, and dual-polarization combination/demultiplexing. Updated data processing and analysis, and in-service performance aspects of the new monostatic profile reflectometer system are also presented. By using a raytracing code (GENRAY) to determine the approximate trajectory of the probe beam, the electron density (n{sub e}) profile can be successfully reconstructed with L-mode plasmas vertically shifted by more than 10 cm off the vessel midplane. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the new system has a capability to measure n{sub e} profiles with plasma vertical offsets of up to ±17 cm. Examples are also presented of accurate, high time and spatial resolution density profile measurements made over a wide range of DIII-D conditions, e.g., the measured temporal evolution of the density profile across a L-H transition.

  1. Microwave electrode discharge in nitrogen: Structure and characteristics of the electrode region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, Yu. A.; Solomakhin, P. V.; Shakhatov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The parameters of the electrode region of an electrode microwave discharge in nitrogen are studied by emission spectroscopy. The radial and axial distributions of the intensities of the bands of the second (N{sub 2}(C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} {sup {yields}}B{sup 3{Pi}}{sub g})) and first (N{sub 2}(B{sup 3{Pi}}{sub g} {sup {yields}}A{sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +})) positive systems of molecular nitrogen and the first negative system of nitrogen ions (N{sub 2}{sup +} (B{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +} {sup {yields}}X{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +})), the radial profiles of the electric field E and the electron density N{sub e}, and the absolute populations of the vibrational levels v{sub C} = 0-4 of the C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} excited state of N{sub 2} and the vibrational level v{sub Bi} = 0 of the B{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +} excited state of a molecular nitrogen ion are determined. The population temperature of the first vibrational level T{sub V} of the ground electronic state X{sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} of N{sub 2} and the excitation temperature T{sub C} of the C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} state in the electrode region of the discharge are measured. The radius of the spherical region and the spatially integrated plasma emission spectra are studied as functions of the incident microwave power and gas pressure. A method for determining the electron density and the microwave field strength from the plasma emission characteristics is described in detail.

  2. Pattern formation and propagation during microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhu, Guo Qiang [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Northwestern Polytechnique University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure, a sharp plasma front forms and propagates toward the microwave source at high velocities. Experiments show that the plasma front may exhibit a complex dynamical structure or pattern composed of plasma filaments aligned with the wave electric field and apparently moving toward the source. In this paper, we present a model of the pattern formation and propagation under conditions close to recent experiments. Maxwell's equations are solved together with plasma fluid equations in two dimensions to describe the space and time evolution of the wave field and plasma density. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The model provides a physical interpretation of the pattern formation and dynamics in terms of ionization-diffusion and absorption-reflection mechanisms. The simulations allow a good qualitative and quantitative understanding of different features such as plasma front velocity, spacing between filaments, maximum plasma density in the filaments, and influence of the discharge parameters on the development of well-defined filamentary plasma arrays or more diffuse plasma fronts.

  3. Microwaves, hyperthermia, and human leukocyte function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, N.J. Jr; Lu, S.; Michaelson, S.M.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide exposure facility for in vitro irradiation of human leukocytes. Calorimetric determinations of specific absorption rates (SAR) were made using heating curves measured with a microwave transparent Vitek 101 Electrothermia Monitor. The correlation between SAR and forward power was highly significant (r=0.95). At a forward power of 0.55 W the average SAR was approximately 33 mW/ml. However, inhomogeneity and significant resonance absorption were noted in the dual vial waveguide exposure facility. A 30-point measurement of SAR distribution revealed that the SAR at any of the measured points could range between 0.12- and 3.94-fold of the average SAR within the given vial. Measurements indicated that this variability in SAR values did not create significant thermal gradients within the vials when external agitation was applied.

  4. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  5. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  8. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

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  11. EIA - State Nuclear Profiles

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  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013MontanaJersey

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013MontanaJerseyNorth Carolina

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013MontanaJerseyNorth

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013MontanaJerseyNorthOhio

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile 2013MontanaJerseyNorthOhioOklahoma

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity Profile

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvania Electricity

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvania ElectricityCarolina

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvania

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvaniaTennessee Electricity

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvaniaTennessee

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvaniaTennesseeUnited States

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvaniaTennesseeUnited

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida Electricity ProfilePennsylvaniaTennesseeUnitedVermont

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida ElectricityWashington Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1.

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida ElectricityWashington Electricity Profile 2013 Table

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida ElectricityWashington Electricity Profile 2013

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0EFlorida ElectricityWashington Electricity Profile 2013Wyoming

  12. Tools for Profiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances Tips:Harper receivesRecipientProfiling

  13. Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating Changjun Liu of the dielectrics during microwave heating, in which there is a big jump of the steady-state temperature while the applied microwave power varies slightly. It hinders engineers in the applications of microwave heating

  14. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  15. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Crutcher, Richard I. (Knoxville, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Maddox, Stephen R. (Loudon, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member.

  16. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sohns, C.W.; Maddox, S.R.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member. 6 figures.

  17. Beam Profile Monitor With Accurate Horizontal And Vertical Beam Profiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Havener, Charles C [Knoxville, TN; Al-Rejoub, Riad [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A widely used scanner device that rotates a single helically shaped wire probe in and out of a particle beam at different beamline positions to give a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is modified by the addition of a second wire probe. As a result, a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a first beamline position, and a second pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a second beamline position. The simple modification not only provides more accurate beam profiles, but also provides a measurement of the beam divergence and quality in a single compact device.

  18. Method and apparatus for component separation using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Schechter, Donald E. (Ten Mile, TN); Calhoun, Jr., Clyde L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating and recovering components includes the steps of providing at least a first component bonded to a second component by a microwave absorbent adhesive bonding material at a bonding area to form an assembly, the bonding material disposed between the components. Microwave energy is directly and selectively applied to the assembly so that substantially only the bonding material absorbs the microwave energy until the bonding material is at a debonding state. A separation force is applied while the bonding material is at the debonding state to permit disengaging and recovering the components. In addition, an apparatus for practicing the method includes holders for the components.

  19. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  20. Electrical detection of microwave assisted magnetization reversal by spin pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Siddharth; Subhra Mukherjee, Sankha; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Singh Bhatia, Charanjit; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and NUSNNI, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave assisted magnetization reversal has been investigated in a bilayer system of Pt/ferromagnet by detecting a change in the polarity of the spin pumping signal. The reversal process is studied in two material systems, Pt/CoFeB and Pt/NiFe, for different aspect ratios. The onset of the switching behavior is indicated by a sharp transition in the spin pumping voltage. At a threshold value of the external field, the switching process changes from partial to full reversal with increasing microwave power. The proposed method provides a simple way to detect microwave assisted magnetization reversal.

  1. Shipboard measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are reported on measurements of the cloud-capped marine boundary layer during FIRE/ASTEX. A method was developed from the ASTEX dataset for measuring profiles of liquid water content, droplet size and concentration from cloud radar/microwave radiometer data in marine boundary layer clouds. Profiles were also determined from the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum measured in drizzle with the ETL cloud radar during ASTEX.

  2. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  3. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  4. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, William F. (Oakland, CA); Leskovar, Branko (Moraga, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  5. Quantum chaotic scattering in microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietz, B.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Schaefer, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Friedrich, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Harney, H. L.; Weidenmueller, H. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); ECT, Villa Tambosi, I-38100 Villazzano (Trento) (Italy)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a frequency range where a microwave resonator simulates a chaotic quantum billiard, we have measured moduli and phases of reflection and transmission amplitudes in the regimes of both isolated and of weakly overlapping resonances and for resonators with and without time-reversal invariance. Statistical measures for S-matrix fluctuations were determined from the data and compared with extant and/or newly derived theoretical results obtained from the random-matrix approach to quantum chaotic scattering. The latter contained a small number of fit parameters. The large data sets taken made it possible to test the theoretical expressions with unprecedented accuracy. The theory is confirmed by both a goodness-of-fit-test and the agreement of predicted values for those statistical measures that were not used for the fits, with the data.

  6. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  7. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  8. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bonnie

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . Here, we explore an innovative and simple microwave-assisted synthesis for the production of CNPs from glucose. This method can control tunable emission and the excitation wavelength of CNPs by manufacturing of output energy during synthesis. Moreover...

  9. analogue microwave photonics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the AWA...

  10. assisted microwave synthesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , and Y. Aharonia,b a Faculty of Engineering, Tel (such as cutting, joining, combustion, plasma generation, etc.) in a wider scope of localized microwave Jerby, Eli 38 Elemental...

  11. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dazi

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was applied for image reconstruction. We greatly improved the lateral resolution of images and acquired a clear view of the circular boundaries of buried cylindrical objects, which could not be obtained in conventional linear-scanning microwave...

  12. Compact hot-nozzle fourier-transform microwave spectormeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmony, Marlin D.; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L.; Angst, D. M.; Beren, K. A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly constructed pulsed nozzle, Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer utilizes a Fabry-Perot cavity consisting of spherical resonators having diameters of only 10 cm. Tests of this very compact-cavity system show ...

  13. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  14. An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron Laser Afterburner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Block diagram of the free-electron laser afterburner. The2. The particular free-electron laser afterburner with aMicrowave Power Source: Free-Electron Laser Afterburner c.

  15. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: reconstruction by synthetic aperture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dazi

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied the synthetic-aperture method to linear-scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography in biological tissues. A non-focused ultrasonic transducer was used to receive thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm...

  16. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our-compression/expansion refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration exhibits the advantages of high energy efficiency and environment

  17. Investigation of Nanoparticles for Use in Microwave Systems in Biomedicine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taghavi, Houra

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on the microwave properties of nanoparticles for use as contrast and hyperthermia agents. Currently, visible light is used for irradiation of nanoparticles as hyperthermia agents. Additionally, visible/Near-infrared light...

  18. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  19. Two-port microwave calibration at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranzani, Leonardo; Spietz, Lafe; Aumentado, Jose [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Popovic, Zoya [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we introduce a system for 2-port microwave calibration at millikelvin temperatures operating at the coldest stage of a dilution refrigerator by use of an adapted thru-reflect-line algorithm. We show that this can be an effective tool for characterizing common 50 {Omega} microwave components with better than 0.1 dB accuracy at temperatures that are relevant to many current experiments in superconducting quantum information.

  20. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  1. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A., E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B. [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation)] [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)] [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  2. Industrial applications of variable frequency microwave energy in materials processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fathi, Z.; Tucker, D.A.; Lewis, W.A.; Wei, J.B. [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of some market-driven research, process applications and systems development is provided. The variable frequency microwave processing concepts are briefly described. Industrial processing using variable frequency microwave energy in the areas of polymerization, composite processing, bonding and plasma is discussed. Analytical applications inherent in the use of variable frequency and its control are demonstrated in the areas of materials signature analysis for volumetric cure monitoring.

  3. Proposal for an Optomechanical Microwave Sensor at the Subphoton Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Ying Dong; Weiping Zhang; Pierre Meystre

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their low energy content, microwave signals at the single-photon level are extremely challenging to measure. Guided by recent progress in single-photon optomechanics and hybrid optomechanical systems, we propose a multimode optomechanical transducer that can detect intensities significantly below the single-photon level via adiabatic transfer of the microwave signal to the optical frequency domain where the measurement is then performed. The influence of intrinsic quantum and thermal fluctuations is also discussed.

  4. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  5. Mathematical and experimental modelling of heat pump assisted microwave drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiguo Jia (Univ. of Queensland (Australia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying is one of the most energy intensive operations in industry and agriculture. In the quest to increase drying efficiency and product quality, new technologies and methods are constantly being sought. Of these technologies, heat pump assisted drying and microwave drying have proved to be the most promising contenders. In order to achieve a better understanding and provide a computer design tool for heat pump assisted convective and microwave drying, both mathematical modelling and experimental investigations of heat pump assisted microwave dryers have been undertaken in this study. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of a heat pump assisted continuous microwave dryer, with emphasis on the simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the evaporator and drying chamber. The model is intend to serve as a design tool in the study of heat pump dryers. To achieve the optimum design, the influences of the key design and operating parameters, as well as the comparison of different drying configurations, have been examined. Based on investigation results, several methods have been proposed to improve the performance of heat pump assisted microwave drying, such as the use of a recuperator. To validate the above mathematical model, extensive drying tests using foam rubber as the test material have been conducted on a prototype heat pump assisted microwave dryer. The prototype heat pump input power was 5 kW with a maximum microwave input power of 10 kW. The experimental performance data confirmed the veracity of the simulation model. The experimental results on drying test materials indicate that with careful design heat pump assisted microwave drying is comparable to convective drying in energy consumption while with a much higher drying speed.

  6. Microwaves and Chemistry: The Catalysis of an Exciting Marriage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    been the bias of chemists, raised on the principles of quantum mechanics, who concluded that the energy provided by microwave radiation was too low to cause bond breaking or electron transfer reactions. In the past ten years we have adapted a... surfaces, the peak power and the duration of the microwave pulses, and the thermal conductivity of the catalyst. For each chemicaL system there exists a unique activation energy barrier for the forward reaction to proceed. A corresponding activation...

  7. Radio Frequency and Microwave Hazards Radio frequency (rf) and microwaves occur within the range 10 kHz to 300,000 MHz and are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    kHz to 300,000 MHz and are used in rf ovens and furnaces, induction heaters, and microwave ovens. Microwave ovens are increasingly being used in laboratories for organic synthesis and digestion of analytical samples. Only microwave ovens designed for laboratory or industrial use should be used

  8. Research Profile a Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    in this area embraces fundamentals and applications, including work on novel materials synthesis (including characterization and applications of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic framework materials), on corrosionResearch Profile a Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Research Profile #12;b Research

  9. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi (Los Alamos, NM); Vaughn, Worth E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  10. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments. Annual report, FY1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company. Continuous ceramic filaments are a principal component in many advanced high temperature materials like continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) and woven ceramic textiles. The use of continuous ceramic filaments in CFCC radiant burners, gas turbines, waste incineration, and hot gas filters in U.S. industry and power generation is estimated to save at least 2.16 quad/yr by year 2010 with energy cost savings of at least $8.1 billion. By year 2010, continuous ceramic filaments and CFCC`s have the potential to abate pollution emissions by 917,000 tons annually of nitrous oxide and 118 million tons annually of carbon dioxide (DOE Report OR-2002, February, 1994).

  11. Development and research of a coaxial microwave plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Juan; Xu Yingqiao; Tang Jinlan; Mao Genwang; Yang Tielian [College of Astronautics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Tan Xiaoquen [School of Mechatronics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the research on a coaxial microwave plasma thruster at Northwestern Polytechnic University is presented. Emphasis is put on the development and research on key components of the thruster system, a microthrust balance, plasma plume diagnostics, and a numerical simulation of the plasma flow field inside the thruster cavity. The developed thruster cavity is chosen from a coaxial resonant cavity with concentrated capacitance, which can operate well in atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The development of a microwave source shows that a magnetron powered by a switch power supply has advantages in the power level and efficiency, but a solid state microwave source synthesized from the arsenide field effect transistor is superior in weight and volume. Through elimination of the effect of large gravity and resistance force induced by a gas pipe line and a microwave transmitting line on the microthrust, 15 mN and 340 s in the performance of the microwave plasma thruster at 70 W and with helium gas are measured. Diagnosing experiment shows that the plasma plume density is in the range of (1-7.2)x10{sup 16}/m{sup 3}. Numerical simulation of the plasma flow field inside the coaxial thruster cavity shows that there is a good match between the microwave power and gas flow rate.

  12. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  13. 1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Recycling Ambient Microwave Energy With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Recycling are in wireless powering of industrial sensors and recycling of ambient RF energy. A 64-el- ement dual

  14. Downstream Heat Flux Profile vs. Midplane T Profile in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the midplane scrape-off-layer electron temperature profile and the parallel heat flux profile at the divertor in tokamaks is investigated. A model is applied which takes into account anisotropic thermal diffusion, in a rectilinear geometry with constant density. Eigenmode analysis is applied to the simplified problem with constant thermal diffusivities. A self-similar nonlinear solution is found for the more realistic problem with anisotropically temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities. Numerical solutions are developed for both cases, with spatially dependent heat flux emerging from the plasma. For both constant and temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities it is found that, below about one-half of its peak, the heat flux profile shape at the divertor, compared with the midplane temperature profile shape, is robustly described by the simplest two-point model. However the physical processes are not those assumed in the simplest two-point model, nor is the numerical coefficient relating q||div to Tmp ?||mp/L|| as predicted. For realistic parameters the peak in the heat flux, moreover, can be reduced by a factor of two or more from the two-point model scaling which fits the remaining profile. For temperature profiles in the SOL region above the x-point set by marginal stability, the heat flux profile to the divertor can be largely decoupled from the prediction of the two-point model. These results suggest caveats for data interpretation, and possibly favorable outcomes for divertor configurations with extended field lines.

  15. University Profile The University of Canterbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    05 University Profile 2005-2007 #12;The University of Canterbury Te Whare Wnanga o Waitaha PROFILE Profile 2005-2007 Page 1 of 66 #12;University of Canterbury Profile 2005-2007 Page 2 of 66 #12;University of Canterbury PROFILE 2005-2007 Part A Overview of Strategic Direction and relationship to the Tertiary

  16. Accelerated Profile HMM Searches Sean R. Eddy *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, Sean

    Accelerated Profile HMM Searches Sean R. Eddy * Abstract Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs

  17. Microwave processing of Tantalum capacitors. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Vierow, W.F.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and AVX Tantalum Corporation (AVX) of Biddeford, Maine, was initiated in October 1991. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion date for the Agreement was March 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of an advanced microwave processing concept to develop higher capacitance tantalum anodes. Tantalum capacitors are used where high reliability is needed (e.g., pacemakers, hearing aids, and military devices). Two types of tantalum powder are used: sodium-reduced powder and electron beam-refined powder. Sodium-reduced powder has higher surface area, but lower purity; electron beam-refined powder has higher purity for working voltages, but somewhat lower surface area. The powder is pressed into pellets using traditional methods and then placed in the microwave furnace for processing. It is of interest to determine if variable-frequency microwave sintering can increase quality while decreasing processing time and decreasing or eliminating surface contamination; these issues must be addressed while retaining the maximum surface area of the anode. Meeting each of these needs will result in a higher quality anodic film, which will thereby increase the dielectric strength. Additionally, microwave sintering might enable the authors to develop a strong sintered anode without excessive grain growth. The variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF), located at the Y-12 Plant, allows the authors to study the effects of sintering over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT), originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  18. Physical principles of microwave assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, Kirill; Benakli, Mourad; Yin, Huaqing [Seagate Technology, Edina, Minnesota 55435 (United States); Tabat, Ned [Semaphore Scientific Inc., Chanhassen, Minnesota 55317 (United States)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While the basic physics of Microwave Assisted Magnetization Reversal (MAMR) phenomenon is well established both theoretically and experimentally, its application in a practical magnetic recording environment was so far studied primarily with the help of micromagnetic recording models. In this work, we instead attempt to use analytical formulation and simple numerical models to understand the main challenges as well as benefits that are associated with such a system. It appears that the main difference between the previously introduced theory [G. Bertotti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 724 (2001); K. Rivkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153104 (2008); S. Okamoto et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123914 (2010).] and recording environment is that both the RF and DC magnetic fields are applied at a substantial angle to the anisotropy axis. While the associated symmetry breaking prevents one from describing the reversal process explicitly, it is possible to approximate the solutions well enough to satisfactorily match numerical models both in the case of wire and Spin Torque Oscillator generated RF fields. This approach allows for physical explanation of various effects associated with MAMR such as high gradient of writeable anisotropy and reduction of track width, and offers a clear guidance regarding future optimization of MAMR recording.

  19. Characterization of melter slurries vitrified by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In this facility, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. As part of the DWPF process control strategy, the glass redox expected in the melter will be determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in vitrified slurry from the slurry mix evaporator (SME). Chemical analysis of this vitrified feed will also be used for other process control constraints which are related to glass viscosity, liquidus, and waste component solubility. In addition, the canisters of borosilicate waste glass produced in the DWPF must comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) established by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Specification 1.1.2 requires that the elemental composition of the glass be reported. The elemental analyses will be performed on vitrified melter feed taken from the melter feed tank (MFT). Conventional vitrification of SME/MFT slurries takes 4 hours at the DWPF melt temperature of 1150{degrees}C. Microwave vitrification of melter feed slurries has been shown to significantly reduce the time required to vitrify slurry samples.

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  1. Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) ohmic heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ohmic heating system for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides both the voltage for the initial breakdown phase and the energy to drive the plasma current to a value of 400 kA or greater. Providing this voltage and flux swing requires a one-turn loop voltage of about 25 volts (11 kV across the coil) and a magnetic flux swing of 2 volt- seconds. This voltage and flux swing are accomplished by charging the ohmic heating coils to 20 kA, at which point the current is commutated off into a resistor generating the 11 kV across the coil. When the current passes through zero, another power supply drives the current in the opposite polarity to 20 kA, thus completing the full 2 volt-second flux swing. This paper describes the design features and performance of the ohmic heating circuit, with emphasis on the commutation circuit. In addition, the paper describes the use of the ohmic heating system for discharge cleaning and the changeover procedure. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. JOBAID-ACCESSING AND MODIFYING TALENT PROFILE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this job aid is to guide users through the step-by-step process of accessing their talent profiles, adding information to their profiles, and editing existing talent profile...

  3. Profiles in Leadership: Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiles in Leadership: Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Profiles in Leadership: Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy July 15, 2015 -...

  4. Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrabo, Leik N. [Lightcraft Technologies, Inc., Bennington, VT (United States)

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

  5. Techniques for Probing the Processes by Which Microwaves Interact with Chemical and Biological Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Philip E

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave heating is a relatively mature field and is theoretically well understood. However, recently there has been debate as to whether microwaves can interact with chemical and biological systems by means other than ...

  6. Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide yet versatile method to simultaneously achieve the exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide of crumpled, few-layer thick and electronically conductive graphitic sheets. Using the microwave exfoliated

  7. be virtually impossible to construct land lines and microwave networks in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eric A.

    ) with a microwave radio transmission tail is not suit- able for very harsh terrain, or for locations that are more. The use of microwave repeater towers, requiring line- of-sight from one tower to the next, was ruled out

  8. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Alan Donald

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    away” into a landfill after a single use. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a recycling technique that allows the recovery of chemical value from plastic waste by breaking down polymers into useful smaller hydrocarbons using microwave heat in the absence...

  9. Attosecond timing jitter modelocked lasers and ultralow phase noise photonic microwave oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Duo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic microwave oscillator based on optical frequency comb and ultrastable optical reference cavity represents the state-of-the-art solution to generate X-band microwaves of ultralow phase noise. Such high-quality ...

  10. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Haijun; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio [Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPVs), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kuraseko, Hiroshi [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Production Technology Development Center, 6 Yawata-Kaigandori, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical emission behaviors of Ar, He, and Ar+He plasmas generated in air using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source have been studied employing optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Emissions from various source gas species and air were observed. The variations in the intensities and intensity ratios of specific emissions as functions of the microwave power and gas flow rate were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the emission behavior and the plasma properties. We find that dependence of the emission behavior on the input microwave power is mainly determined by variations in electron density and electron temperature in the plasmas. On the other hand, under different gas flow rate conditions, changes in the density of the source gas atoms also significantly affect the emissions. Interestingly, when plasma is generated using an Ar+He mixture, emissions from excited He atoms disappear while a strong H{sub {alpha}} signal appears. The physics behind these behaviors is discussed in detail.

  12. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15208 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  13. Microwave guiding in air along single femtosecond laser filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren Yu; Alshershby, Mostafa; Qin Jiang; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave guiding along single plasma filament generated through the propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in air has been demonstrated over a distance of about 6.5 cm, corresponding to a microwave signal intensity enhancement of more than 3-fold over free space propagation. The current propagation distance along the fs laser filament is in agreement with the calculations and limited by the relatively high resistance of the single plasma filament. Using a single fs laser filament to channel microwave radiation considerably alleviate requirements to the power of fs laser pulses compared to the case of the circular filaments waveguide. In addition, it can be used as a simple and non-intrusive method to obtain the basic parameters of laser-generated plasma filament.

  14. Spectral properties of microwave graphs with local absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Allgaier; S. Gehler; S. Barkhofen; H. -J. Stöckmann; U. Kuhl

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of absorption on the spectra of microwave graphs has been studied experimentally. The microwave networks were made up of coaxial cables and T junctions. First, absorption was introduced by attaching a 50 Ohm load to an additional vertex for graphs with and without time-reversal symmetry. The resulting level-spacing distributions were compared with a generalization of the Wigner surmise in the presence of open channels proposed recently by Poli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 174101 (2012)]. Good agreement was found using an effective coupling parameter. Second, absorption was introduced along one individual bond via a variable microwave attenuator, and the influence of absorption on the length spectrum was studied. The peak heights in the length spectra corresponding to orbits avoiding the absorber were found to be independent of the attenuation, whereas, the heights of the peaks belonging to orbits passing the absorber once or twice showed the expected decrease with increasing attenuation.

  15. Proceedings of the 36th Microwave Power Symposium, San Francisco, April 18-20, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    of microwave heating. Conventional impossibility to convert all microwave energy into heat leads in one of the waveguide arms of the three-port circulator. This load is also available in the market modeling of microwave heating [1]. The goal was to identify the circumstances of the stable and efficient

  16. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  17. TGRS-2009-00082.R2 1 Abstract--The emission of bare soils at microwave L-band (1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    will use a combined radiometer and high- resolution radar to measure surface soil moisture and freeze- thaw with sparse or no vegetation, the amount of this energy exchange is fundamentally linked with the moisture

  18. Applications for Microwave Generators in the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.; Vasilakos, N. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 14. Fix, S. R. "Microwave Devulcanization of Rub ber." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., lincoln, NE, USA). US 4,104,205, Elastomerics, Vol. 112, No.6, pp. 1980, 38-40 (Eng). 15. Yamashita, I., Yamamoto, N., and Mima, S., "Decomposition of Waste... August 1978. 18. Novotny, D. S., et al. "Devulcanization of Sulfer-Vulcanized Elastomers." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.) Ger. Offen. 2,700,306, 18 August 1977, US Appl. 646,821, 6 January 1976. 19. "Microwave Hardenable Molding Sand." (Ko matsu...

  19. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  20. Quantum networking of microwave photons using optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. D. Clader

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an adiabatic state transfer mechanism that allows for high-fidelity transfer of a microwave quantum state from one cavity to another through an optical fiber. The conversion from microwave frequency to optical frequency is enabled by an optomechanical transducer. The transfer process utilizes a combined dark state of the mechanical oscillator and fiber modes, making it robust against both mechanical and fiber loss. We anticipate this scheme being an enabling component of a hybrid quantum computing architecture consisting of superconducting qubits with optical interconnects.

  1. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  2. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  3. A spinning mirror for fast angular scans of EBW emission for magnetic pitch profile measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, Francesco [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12 000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10 ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  4. UTS GRADUATE PROFILE FRAMEWORK August 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    UTS GRADUATE PROFILE FRAMEWORK August 2011 Approved by Academic Board (AB 11.79.2) meeting 11. What is a UTS Graduate Profile Each course (or suite of courses) at UTS will have a graduate profile that describes the intended capability of a graduate from the course. The graduate profile includes the graduate

  5. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  6. Creating and Managing Your COS Expertise Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    Creating and Managing Your COS Expertise Profile Managing Your CV and Promoting Your Work ® #12;Contents: · Creating your COS Expertise profile · Updating your COS Expertise profile · Managing your CV · Using your COS Workbench #12;Contents: · Creating your COS Expertise profile -benefits of creating

  7. Dark Energy Cosmology with the Alternative Cosmic Microwave Background Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao Wei

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, in a series of works by Liu and Li (L&L), they claimed that there exists a timing asynchrony of $-25.6\\,$ms between the spacecraft attitude and radiometer output timestamps in the original raw WMAP time-ordered data (TOD). L&L reprocessed the WMAP data while the aforementioned timing asynchrony has been corrected, and they obtained an alternative CMB map in which the quadrupole dropped to nearly zero. In the present work, we try to see the implications to dark energy cosmology if L&L are right. While L&L claimed that there is a bug in the WMAP pipeline which leads to significantly different cosmological parameters, an interesting question naturally arises, namely, how robust is the current dark energy cosmology with respect to systematic errors and bugs? So, in this work, we adopt the alternative CMB data of L&L as a strawman to study the robustness of dark energy predictions.

  8. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  9. The Profile Editor: Designing a direct manipulative tool for assembling profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudisch, Patrick

    1 The Profile Editor: Designing a direct manipulative tool for assembling profiles Patrick Baudisch interests represented by so-called profiles. The Profile Editor proposed in this article allows the in- teractive, direct manipulative construction of profiles. It takes a set of ranked queries and compiles them

  10. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  11. Microwave properties of nanodiamond particles Daniel Slocombe,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at microwave frequencies using a cavity perturbation technique, and results were compared with UV Raman detonation nanodiamond powders were sourced from PlasmaChem GmbH (G01 grade). This mate- rial is purified measured, designated U in what follows. Samples were then oxidised by burning the powders in air

  12. Broadband microwave imaging spectroscopy with a solardedicated array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere, and to study energy release and particle energization the range 1-- 26.5 GHz. Keywords: Radio interferometry, spectroscopy, optical fiber, correlator 1Broad­band microwave imaging spectroscopy with a solar­dedicated array T.S. Bastian a , D.E. Gary b

  13. ECRH microwave beam broadening in the edge turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sysoeva, E. V.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia and RL PAT SPbSPU, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Silva, F. da [Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Heuraux, S. [IJL UMR-7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of turbulent plasma density fluctuations on angular and spatial beam width is treated analytically in the framework of WKB based eikonal method. Reasonable agreement of analytical and numerical treatment results is demonstrated within the domain of quasi-optical approximation validity. Significant broadening of microwave beams is predicted for future ECRH experiments at ITER.

  14. A NOVEL MICROWAVE CAMERA FOR NDE OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    A NOVEL MICROWAVE CAMERA FOR NDE OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES By Maria Q. Feng1 , Yoo Jin Kim2 , Franco De Flaviis3 , and Luis Jofre 4 ABSTRACT: Nondestructive assessment of concrete structures heavily and cracks inside concrete caused by aging, deterioration, and seismic loading. The authors have developed

  15. Engineering of Ferrite-Graphite Composite Media for Microwave Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Engineering of Ferrite-Graphite Composite Media for Microwave Shields Marina Koledintseva, PoornaAA@mpei.ru Abstract-- An electromagnetic shielding of objects using ferrite-graphite composites is considered- shielding; dielectric base material; ferrite- graphite composite, Maxwell Garnett formulation I

  16. Azimuth Variation in Microwave Backscatter over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Azimuth Variation in Microwave Backscatter over the Greenland Ice Sheet Ivan S. Ashcraft and David backscatter measurements are becoming an important tool for monitoring the dynamic behavior of the Greenland ice sheet. However, most Greenland studies assume constant backscatter for varying azimuth angles

  17. Photonic microwave oscillator based on monolithic DFB lasers with frequency-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic microwave oscillator based on monolithic DFB lasers with frequency- shifted feedback L, was built by using a monolithic dual-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser submitted to a frequency: measured data; dashed line: Lorentzian fit a Free running, RBW: 30 kHz, span: 50 MHz b With feedback, RBW

  18. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture Dazi Feng, Yuan thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm was applied for image reconstruc- tion. We greatly-induced thermoacoustic tomography based on focused transducers. Two mi- crowave sources, which had frequencies of 9 and 3

  19. A SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    and wireless diplexers. An exact analysis of the voltage/power distribution inside a filter involves the 3D is derived. This transformation is then used to relate the actual voltage distribution inside a transmissionA SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES Apu Sivadas, Ming Yu

  20. Flexible Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Microwave Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    Flexible Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Microwave Electronics Inanc Meric , Nicholas Petrone-frequency characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) has received significant interest due the very high carrier velocities in graphene. In addition to excellent electronic performance, graphene possesses

  1. Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) for sintering of ceramic composites [14]. The magnetic (H, the microwave energy is supplied locally to the powder. It creates a confined hotspot, and initiates a self-propagating the powder prior to its ignition is simulated theoretically, taking into account the powder's temperature

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  3. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a ``smart tube'' HPM source. By smart

  4. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart

  5. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Present day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot], [2]. There are however commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples repetition* * rate is attractive for practical implementation of an HPM system. The physics

  6. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Present day high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based implementation of an HPM system. The physics of the interaction between a relativistic electron beam and various

  7. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of* * which include a system the control algorithms on a * *physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart tube we

  8. Microwave-driven breakdown: from dielectric surface multipactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    .85 GHz)Experimental Setup (2.85 GHz) HPM Load Directional Coupler Directional Coupler Rear Viewing Port HPM from Test Section Front Viewing Port HPM from Source Test Section Features ·WR284-WR650 StandardsRF Window Flashover > MW transmitted power (High Power Microwaves, HPM) Field amplitudes in excess

  9. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  10. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  11. The Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background At Degree Angular Scales.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are 36­39.5, 39.5­43, 43­46 GHz. The six channels in each radiometer view the sky in a single­axis parabola. The FWHM beam in K a band is 1:42 \\Sigma 0:02 ffi and in Q band is 1:04 \\Sigma 0:02 ffi . After

  12. Comparing Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing-based Vegetation Density over Mongolia for 1988-2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series.vandijk@csiro.au Abstract ­ Vegetation density plays an important role in water and energy balance. Satellite-based optical product (Tucker et al., 2005). It can provide a relatively high spatial resolution product (up to 1km

  13. Single scattering parameters of randomly oriented snow particles at microwave frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    can affect earth energy balance through the surface albedo change. Ground-based radars have been used] Millimeter-wave radiometers operating at frequencies greater than 90 GHz have been employed to estimate, 2004; Kim, 2004] because of their high sensitivity to scattering by snow in the atmosphere

  14. A New Upper Limit on the Large Angular Scale Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    , dark matter, and dark energy to the overall energy density of the universe. In addition to being of a new breed of highly-sensitive instruments that will one day map out this interesting property knowledge, Brian Keat- ing, also deserves much credit. Thanks to him I have finally memorized the radiometer

  15. Role Profile Head of School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Role Profile Head of School Purpose of the Role The Head of School is accountable for:- · The provision of academic leadership, developing and delivering School objectives for, in particular, teaching, · The effective governance and management of the School and all of its resources. Context of the Role

  16. Microfluidics and Nanoscale Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microfluidics and Nanoscale Science Research Profile Our research group is engaged in a broad range of activities in the general area of microfluidics and nanoscale science. At a primary level, our interest that when compared to macroscale tech- nology, microfluidic systems engender a number of distinct advantages

  17. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  18. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  19. 422 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    . I. INTRODUCTION MICROWAVE receiver for radar and other electronic warfare applications require of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China (e-mail: chihao@zju.edu.cn). J. Yao is with the Department of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University

  20. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

  1. Ultrahigh-speed etching of organic films using microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Depertment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., 3-5-34 Shitte Tsurumu-Ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0003 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza Kurozasa Aza Umazutsumi Miyoshi-cho Nishikamo-gun Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (24 {mu}m/min at 155 deg. C and 0.3 mm/min at 325 deg. C) of an organic film was successfully achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma source employing He and O{sub 2} gases. This has the potential to be applied to various kinds of fabrication of structures for microelectromechanical systems and bionanotechnology. A stable glow discharge was realized between the narrow gap (200 {mu}m) electrodes covered with a dielectric film in atmospheric pressure. The etching characteristics were investigated by changing the O{sub 2} flow rate and the distance of the substrate from the electrode. In order to clarify the ultrahigh etching mechanism, in situ diagnostic methods, including two-dimensional imaging of optical emissions in the plasma with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, electron-density evaluation using the Stark-broadened profile of the hydrogen Balmer beta line in optical emission spectroscopy, and two dimensional spatial distribution of ozone density measured with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, have been performed. It was found that O atoms were the dominant etching species for ultrahigh-speed etching of the organic film, and the effect of ozone on the etching process was negligible.

  2. Plasma Physics Challenges of MMPlasma Physics Challenges of MM--toto--THz and High Power MicrowaveTHz and High Power Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid StateSolid State Microwave Power ElectronicsMicrowave Power Electronics · Both convert kinetic Devices (Avg) Vacuum HPM (Peak) Solid State Lasers (Peak) Solid State Devices (Avg) Power(W) (Single ...BUT ... For f > 100 GHz VEDs frontier 1/f2P High power limit for Solid State 1/f 2 and HPM Frontier

  3. 314 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 39-GHz GaN-Based Microwave Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    314 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 3­9-GHz GaN-Based Microwave. P. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--We present an initial demonstration of GaN-band network. Using 0.7-m gate-length GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) with current

  4. Surface Brightness Profiles of Seyfert Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tugay, A V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We built r-band surface brightness profiles by SDSS data for 16 Seyfert galaxies observed in Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Obtained profiles can be used for finding more accurate lightcurves for these galaxies.

  5. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  6. Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage with Anhydrous Ammonia: Optimizing the Synthesis Reactor for Direct Production of Supercritical Steam Project Profile: Thermochemical Storage with Anhydrous...

  7. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  8. Preferential Path Profiling: Compactly Numbering Interesting Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilimbi, Trishul

    preferential path profiling (PPP), that reduces the overhead of path profiling. PPP leverages the observation that most consumers of path profiles are only inter- ested in a subset of all program paths. PPP achieves produced by PPP. This compact path numbering enables our PPP implementation to record path information

  9. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Tshepo Sehole David Modise A thesis or in combination, such as distillation, extraction, crystallization, ect. Among these, distillation is by far profiles for the preliminary design of distillation columns. Residue curves and column profile are not only

  10. GLOBAL LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES IN DISK GALAXIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    GLOBAL LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES IN DISK GALAXIES David R. Andersen1, Matthew A. Bershady2 1NRC profiles of 39 disk galaxies with H i and H ii data. We find good agreement between the first and second mo- ments of the profiles and recession and rotation velocities, respectively. The shapes of H i and H ii

  11. Discrete profile alignment via constrained information bottleneck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chechik, Gal

    Discrete profile alignment via constrained information bottleneck Sean O'Rourke seano@cs.ucsd.edu Abstract Amino acid profiles, which capture position-specific mutation prob- abilities, are a richer encoding of biological sequences than the in- dividual sequences themselves. However, profile comparisons

  12. Profile hidden Markov models Sean R. Eddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, Sean

    Profile hidden Markov models Sean R. Eddy Dept. of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine 4566 Scott Ave., St. Louis MO 63110 USA eddy@genetics.wustl.edu keywords: profiles, hidden Markov models, protein families Abstract Summary: I review the recent literature on profile hid­ den Markov

  13. Discrete profile alignment via constrained information bottleneck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chechik, Gal

    Discrete profile alignment via constrained information bottleneck Sean O'Rourke # seano@cs.ucsd.edu Abstract Amino acid profiles, which capture position­specific mutation prob­ abilities, are a richer encoding of biological sequences than the in­ dividual sequences themselves. However, profile comparisons

  14. Restricting profile function of hedgehog Skyrmion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yamashita; Minoru Hirayama

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The profile function for the hedgehog Skyrmion is investigated. After discussing how the form of the profile function is restricted by the field equation, the s tatic energy is numerically calculated. It is found that the profile functions c onsidered here sometimes give the static energy smaller than previous ones.

  15. Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda IBRAHIM MATTA y the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling

  16. Doppler Radar Wind Profiles Iwan Holleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    ). The potential impact of a network of boundary layer wind profilers and sodars for mesoscale wind analysisDoppler Radar Wind Profiles Iwan Holleman Scientific Report, KNMI WR-2003-02, 2003 #12;2 #12 Strategy 18 3 Methods for Wind Profile Retrieval 25 3.1 Radial Velocity from Local Wind Model 25 3

  17. S162 july 2008| AcknowledgmentS. Over 300 individuals from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acquisition System AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer AVISO Archiving, Validating: Acronyms A Anticyclonic days ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current ACE NOAA's Accumulated Cyclone Energy Index Multidecadal Mode AMO Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth

  18. Microwave generated electrodeless lamp for producing bright output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Ch. H.; Ury, M. G.

    1985-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated electrodeless light source for producing a bright output comprising a lamp structure including a microwave chamber and a plasma medium-containing lamp envelope having a maximum dimension which is substantially less than a wavelength disposed therein. To provide the desired radiation output the interior of the chamber is coated with a UV-reflective material and the chamber has an opening for allowing UV radiation to exit, which is covered with a metallic mesh. The chamber is arranged to be near-resonant at a single wavelength, and the lamp envelope has a fill including mercury at an operating pressure of 1-2 atmospheres, while a power density of at least 250-300 (watts/cm/sup 3/) is coupled to the envelope to result in a relatively high deep UV output at a relatively high brightness.

  19. Microwave measurement of the mass of frozen hydrogen pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talanker, Vera (Golden, CO); Greenwald, Martin (Belmont, MA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nondestructive apparatus and method for measuring the mass of a moving object, based on the perturbation of the dielectric character of a resonant microwave cavity caused by the object passing through the cavity. An oscillator circuit is formed with a resonant cavity in a positive feedback loop of a microwave power amplifier. The moving object perturbs the resonant characteristics of the cavity causing a shift in the operating frequency of the oscillator proportional to the ratio of the pellet volume to the volume of the cavity. Signals from the cavity oscillation are mixed with a local oscillator. Then the IF frequency from the mixer is measured thereby providing a direct measurement of pellet mass based upon known physical properties and relationships. This apparatus and method is particularly adapted for the measurement of frozen hydrogen pellets.

  20. Anatomy of a disruption in MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E.B.; Casper, T.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.; Oasa, K.; Rice, B.W.; Wood, R.D.

    1990-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disruptions are observed in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment, MTX (nee Alcator C), over a wide range of plasma parameters. Indeed, disruptions often occur far from the boundaries of the operating space as defined by Hugill and l{sub i}-q plots. Despite this, the general behavior during the disruptive process is generally similar whatever the operating parameters. This report will describe one disruption in detail in order to provide a detailed anatomy of the event.

  1. Rydberg Atoms Ionisation by Microwave Field and Electromagnetic Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kaulakys; G. Vilutis

    1995-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionisation by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionisation of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionisation theory.

  2. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marcinek, Marek (Warszawa, PL); Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Proposed Microwave Transmission Facility, Malta, Phillips County, Montana: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western proposes to construct a microwave communications facility at the Malta site consisting of a 175 foot to 200 foot tall, guyed, lattice-type steel tower, a building approximately 10' x 16' x 8' in size to house electrical and electronic equipment, an approximately 400 square feet graveled parking area for motor vehicles, and a graveled access road about 300 feet in length and about 20 feet ot 30 feet wide. 1 fig.

  4. Hemodynamic profile, compensation deficit, and ambulatory blood pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottaviani, C; Shapiro, D; Goldstein, I B; James, J E; Weiss, R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1999). Hemodynamic profile of stress-induced anticipationdifferences in hemodynamic profile and blood pressureG. A. (1995). Circadian profile of systemic hemodynamics.

  5. Novel transcriptional profile in wrist muscles from cerebral palsy patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    article Novel transcriptional profile in wrist muscles fromMethod: The transcriptional profile of spastic muscles werefirst transcriptional profile performed on spastic muscle of

  6. aerial density profiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    present an analytic approach to predict gas density and temperature profiles in dark matter haloes. We assume that the gas density profile traces the dark matter density profile...

  7. C-V Profiling of Ultrashallow Junctions using a Step-Like Background Doping Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    C-V Profiling of Ultrashallow Junctions using a Step-Like Background Doping Profile Milos Popadi, Delft, The Netherlands m.popadic@tudelft.nl Abstract--A novel C-V profiling method that enables profiling of ultrashallow and ultra-abrupt junctions is described. The method takes advantage of a peculiar

  8. Researcher Profile This cheatsheet will briefly explain how to utilise your Researcher Profile in IRMA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Researcher Profile This cheatsheet will briefly explain how to utilise your Researcher Profile Username (MAIS ID (Staff, Student or MAIS other number)) and MAIS Password. Researcher Profile 1) After straightaway, click on Home in the top right corner, then click on Researcher Profile. #12;Printed: 17 December

  9. To apply for positions, you will create a profile. Your profile will save your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    To apply for positions, you will create a profile. Your profile will save your information including contact, education, experience, etc. After setting up your profile, you can update regularly · Track Career Search · Manage Profile http://www.jobs.uconn.edu Website: #12;The most recent postings

  10. ATHENA Student Account Refund Profile ATHENA Student Account Refund Profile Setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Daniel

    ATHENA Student Account Refund Profile ATHENA Student Account Refund Profile Setup What is a Refund Profile? UGA allows for online viewing and refunding of a student's account for payments and Financial Aid up a Refund Profile? Refunds that you receive can be direct deposited into the bank account of your

  11. Microstructural parameters from Multiple Whole Profile (MWP) or Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balzar, Davor

    Microstructural parameters from Multiple Whole Profile (MWP) or Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) computer programs 54th Annual Denver X-ray Conference Line Profile Analysis Workshop system, 2) hexagonal crystal system, 4) MWP (Multiple Whole Profile Fitting), 5) CMWP (Convolutional

  12. Experimental test of a microwave ion beam source in oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asmussen, J.; Dahimene, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma disk ion source operating with inert gases both with and without an applied static magnetic field. Earlier results were reported using a preliminary, multicusp static magnetic field configuration produced by alternating pole, small, --2.5 kG rare earth magnets surrounding the microwave discharge zone. This electrodeless ion source has been rebuilt incorporating several improvements and has been experimentally tested with different discharge diffusion lengths. The improvements include removing the rare earth magnets from the inside of the microwave cavity and embedding them in the cavity walls. The placement and strength of the magnets allows electron cyclotron resonant surfaces (--875 G) to lie entirely within the discharge zone. Discharges with different diffusion lengths were created by varying the thickness of the disk-shaped discharge zone. The experimental performance with and without a static magnetic field is discussed at the low flow rates of 2--10 sccm and using a 2.5 cm diam double grid set. Experimental test results are compared to similar ion beam sources in oxygen that employ a dc discharge. The expected lifetime, startup, and shutdown problems and maintenance are also reviewed.

  13. Plasma relaxation mechanics of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, S.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave transmission and reflection characteristics of pulsed radio frequency field generated plasmas are elucidated for air, N{sub 2}, and He environments under pressure conditions ranging from 10 to 600 torr. The pulsed, low temperature plasma is generated along the atmospheric side of the dielectric boundary between the source (under vacuum) and the radiating environment with a thickness on the order of 5 mm and a cross sectional area just smaller than that of the waveguide. Utilizing custom multi-standard waveguide couplers and a continuous low power probing source, the scattering parameters were measured before, during, and after the high power microwave pulse with emphasis on the latter. From these scattering parameters, temporal electron density estimations (specifically the longitudinal integral of the density) were calculated using a 1D plane wave-excited model for analysis of the relaxation processes associated. These relaxation characteristics ultimately determine the maximum repetition rate for many pulsed electric field applications and thus are applicable to a much larger scope in the plasma community than just those related to high power microwaves. This manuscript discusses the diagnostic setup for acquiring the power measurements along with a detailed description of the kinematic and chemical behavior of the plasma as it decays down to its undisturbed state under various gas type and pressure conditions.

  14. Microwave magnetic dynamics in highly conducting magnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostylev, M.; Ivanov, E.; Samarin, S. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed low-noise broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements of the resonant modes of an array of metallic ferromagnetic nanostripes. In addition to a strong signal of the fundamental mode, we observed up to five weak-amplitude peaks in the field-resolved FMR traces, depending on the frequency. These higher-order absorption peaks have been theoretically identified as due to resonant excitation of odd and even standing spin waves across the direction of confinement in array plane (i.e., across the stripe width). The theory we developed suggests that the odd modes become excited in the spatially uniform microwave field of the FMR setup due to the large conductivity of metals. This promotes excitation of large-amplitude eddy currents in the sample by the incident microwave magnetic field and ultimately results in excitation of these modes. Following this theory, we found that the eddy current contribution is present only for patterned materials and when the microwave magnetic field is incident on one surface of sample surface, as it is in the case of a microstrip FMR.

  15. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  16. Development of microwave and millimeter-wave integrated-circuit stepped-frequency radar sensors for surface and subsurface profiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Joongsuk

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    for subsurface and surface measurements including small size, light weight, good accuracy, fine resolution and deep penetration. In addition, two novel wideband microstrip quasi-TEM horn antennae that are capable of integration with a seamless connection have...

  17. Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scan...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation ProtectionRaising

  18. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  19. Electric Kettle Takes Down Microwave in Final Round of #EnergyFaceoff...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Electric Blanket Delivers K.O. to Space Heater During EnergyFaceoff Round Three Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance...

  20. Experimental study on the emission spectra of microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liao, Shanshan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Power Supply Co. Ltd., Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure was conducted by employing optical emission spectroscopy. Based on a microwave plasma generation device developed for nanoparticle synthesis, we studied the influence of input microwave power and gas flow rate on the optical emission behaviors and electron temperature of plasma using Ar, He, and N{sub 2} as working gas, respectively. The physics behind these behaviors was discussed. The results are useful in characterizing microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure and can be used for improving nanoparticle synthesis system for commercial use in the future.

  1. Assessment of microwave power flow for reflectometry measurements in tokamak plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourdain, P-A; Peebles, W. A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements in tokamak plasmas P. -A. Gourdain a , W. A.are widely employed in tokamak fusion plasmas, and are alsoresearch devices, such as tokamaks, microwave reflectometry

  2. Electron cyclotron resonant multicusp magnetic field microwave plasma source for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahimene, M.; Mahoney, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of electrodeless microwave ion and plasma sources has been a recent, very active research project at Michigan State University. The results are efficient, compact microwave discharge configurations that operate at low pressures (0.5 mtorr to 100 mtorr) and efficiently produce low energy ions and free radicals and broad ion beams for oxidation, deposition, and etching experiments. The microwave discharge technology developed for these applications may be useful for application in electric propulsion. This paper reviews this microwave applicator technology and indicates how it may be extended to higher power levels and applied to electric propulsion systems. 12 references.

  3. RAPID FORMATION OF HIGH DENSITY MICROWAVE DISCHARGES FOR APPLICATION IN COUNTERHPM PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Building Abstract Recent decades of research on high power microwave (HPM) sources for nonlethal discharges as a means of protect ing sensitive electronics from HPM irradiation. Collectively

  4. IP Profiling via Service Cluster Membership Vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartoletti, A

    2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a system of compact IP behavioral profiles as a robust means of computer anomaly definition and detection. These profiles are based upon the degree to which a system's (IP's) network traffic is distributed among stable characteristic clusters derived of the aggregate session traffic generated by each of the major network services. In short, an IP's profile represents its degree of membership in these derived service clusters. The goal is to quantify and rank behaviors that are outside of the statistical norm for the services in question, or present significant deviation from profile for individual client IPs. Herein, we establish stable clusters for accessible features of common session traffic, migrate these clusters over time, define IP behavior profiles with respect to these clusters, migrate individual IP profiles over time, and demonstrate the detection of IP behavioral changes in terms of deviation from profile.

  5. Fermilab Today - Experiment Profiles Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FYU.S. DOEFigure 1. The2015JulyProfiles

  6. ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

  7. PIERS Draft Abstracts, Moscow, Russia, August 1821, 2009 629 Optimization of Complex Microwave Systems with CORS RBF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    of an inductively coupled waveguide band-pass filter, a microwave oven with a cylindrical load, and a dielectric

  8. 2068 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 54, NO. 5, MAY 2006 Modeling of Realistic Rectangular -Coaxial Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    the microwave spectrum can benefit from such lines. For example, Alessandri et al. [5] demonstrated a high

  9. Orbifold resolutions with general profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Wulzer

    2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A very general class of resolved versions of the C/Z_N, T^2/Z_N and S^1/Z_2 orbifolds is considered and the free theory of 6D chiral fermions studied on it. As the orbifold limit is taken, localized 4D chiral massless fermions are seen to arise at the fixed points. Their number, location and chirality is found to be independent on the detailed profile of the resolving space and to agree with the result of hep-th/0409229, in which a particular resolution was employed. As a consistency check of the resolution procedure, the massive equation is numerically studied. In particular, for S^1/Z_2, the "resolved" mass--spectrum and wave functions in the internal space are seen to correctly reproduce the usual orbifold ones, as the orbifold limit is taken.

  10. Modeling pulse profiles of accreting millisecond pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juri Poutanen

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the basic observational properties of accreting millisecond pulsars that are important for understanding the physics involved in formation of their pulse profiles. I then discuss main effects responsible for shaping these profiles. Some analytical results that help to understand the results of simulations are presented. Constraints on the pulsar geometry and the neutron star equation of state obtained from the analysis of the pulse profiles are discussed.

  11. COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200, 11 and Peter T. Timbie6 Receivved 2003 Auggust 19; accepted 2004 April 12 ABSTRACT COMPASS is an on with the Cosmic Microwave Polari- zation at Small Scales (COMPASS) telescope. Although this limit is about

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryer, Michael O. (Roberts, ID); Hills, Andrea J. (Iowa City, IA); Morrison, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  13. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  14. 1174 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Microwave Drilling of Bones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gefen, Amit

    1174 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Microwave Drilling*, Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al., 2002], toward testing its applicability

  15. Shaped angular dependence of the spin-transfer torque and microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    precessions and voltage oscillations in the microwave frequency range6,7 . In the most usual situations with generation of voltage oscillations is mainly observed above some threshold field8 . We will show that a new The generation of oscillations in the microwave frequency range is one of the most important applications

  16. Eric Moulton, Ferri Hassani, Pejman Nekoovaght Microwave-Assisted Heating in Rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Eric Moulton, Ferri Hassani, Pejman Nekoovaght Microwave-Assisted Heating in Rock INTRODUCTION to expensive replacements. Expansive heating through microwaves breaks up the rock, which reduces the stress the mechanisms and parameters governing the heating rate of a material. Department of Mining and Materials

  17. Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water-hydrophobe system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex: A prototypical water) The Fourier transform microwave spectrum of the propane-water complex (C3H,-H,O) has been observed and analyzed. This spectrum includes transitions assigned to propane complexed with both the ortho and para

  18. A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    A Modeling-Based Technique for Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Powders Undergoing Microwave of sensors and probes (see, e.g., [9]) is very limited here because of high (up to hundreds degrees Celsius the development of suitable means of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of powder samples under microwave 978

  19. Evaluating specific error characteristics of microwave-derived cloud liquid water products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    of cloud LWP products globally using concurrent data from visible/ infrared satellite sensors. The approachEvaluating specific error characteristics of microwave-derived cloud liquid water products Thomas J microwave satellite measurements. Using coincident visible/infrared satellite data, errors are isolated

  20. Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP conditions. Ts estimates from infrared satellite observations can only be derived under clear sky. Passive from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements, with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°, at least