Sample records for microwave background cmb

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James G. Bartlett

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

  2. The Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias Zaldarriaga

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the physical mechanism by which the Cosmic Microwave Background acquires a small degree of polarization. We discuss the imprint left by gravitational waves and the use of polarization as a test of the inflationary paradigm. We discuss some physical processes that affect the CMB polarization after recombination such as gravitational lensing and the reionization of the universe.

  3. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  4. Wavelet domain Bayesian denoising of string signal in the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. K. Hammond; Y. Wiaux; P. Vandergheynst

    2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An algorithm is proposed for denoising the signal induced by cosmic strings in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A Bayesian approach is taken, based on modeling the string signal in the wavelet domain with generalized Gaussian distributions. Good performance of the algorithm is demonstrated by simulated experiments at arcminute resolution under noise conditions including primary and secondary CMB anisotropies, as well as instrumental noise.

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  6. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccigalupi, C; De Zotti, G; Smoot, G F; Burigana, C; Maino, D; Bedini, L; Salerno, E

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis technique for blind component separation to polarised astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarised signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foregrounds and instrumental noise. We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated accordingly to the nominal performances of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the Planck satellite; the sky signal is modeled as a superposition of CMB, generated by a Gaussian, nearly scale invariant cosmological perturbation spectrum, and the existing simulated polarisation templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$ modes can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while $B$ modes can be detected, up to their turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$ if cosmological tensor amplitude...

  7. Delensing the CMB with the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwin, Blake D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As confusion with lensing B-modes begins to limit experiments that search for primordial B-mode polarization, robust methods for delensing the CMB polarization sky are becoming increasingly important. We investigate in detail the possibility of delensing the CMB with the cosmic infrared background (CIB), emission from dusty star-forming galaxies that is an excellent tracer of the CMB lensing signal, in order to improve constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$. We find that the maps of the CIB, such as current Planck satellite maps at 545 GHz, can be used to remove more than half of the lensing B-mode power. Calculating optimal combinations of different large-scale-structure tracers for delensing, we find that co-adding CIB data and external arcminute-resolution CMB lensing reconstruction can lead to significant additional improvements in delensing performance. We investigate whether measurement uncertainty in the CIB spectra will degrade the delensing performance if no model of the CIB spectra is assumed...

  8. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Baccigalupi; F. Perrotta; G. De Zotti; G. F. Smoot; C. Burigana; D. Maino; L. Bedini; E. Salerno

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis ({\\ica}) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. {We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to asses the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance.} We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated according to the {\\sc Planck} satellite capabilities, modelling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$-mode can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the $B$-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30%. The power spectrum of the cross correlation between total intensity and polarization, $TE$, can be recovered up to $\\ell\\simeq 1200$, corresponding to the seventh $TE$ acoustic oscillation.

  9. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarization from satelliteastrophysical maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccigalpi, C.; Perrotta, F.; Zotti, G.D.; Smoot, G.F.; Burigana,C.; Maino, D.; Bedini, L.; Salerno, E.

    2004-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the fast independent component analysis (FASTICA) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of E and B modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to assess the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance. We perform the analysis of all-sky maps simulated according to the Planck satellite capabilities, modeling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB E mode can be recovered on all scales up to lsimilar or equal to 1000, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the B-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at lsimilar or equal to 100, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30 per cent. The power spectrum of the cross-correlation between total intensity and polarization, TE, can be recovered up to lsimilar or equal to 1200, corresponding to the seventh TE acoustic oscillation.

  10. Global, exact cosmic microwave background data analysis using Gibbs sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Astronomy, UIUC, 1002 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Larson, David L.; Lakshminarayanan, Arun [Department of Physics, UIUC, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an efficient and exact method that enables global Bayesian analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. The method reveals the joint posterior density (or likelihood for flat priors) of the power spectrum C{sub l} and the CMB signal. Foregrounds and instrumental parameters can be simultaneously inferred from the data. The method allows the specification of a wide range of foreground priors. We explicitly show how to propagate the non-Gaussian dependency structure of the C{sub l} posterior through to the posterior density of the parameters. If desired, the analysis can be coupled to theoretical (cosmological) priors and can yield the posterior density of cosmological parameter estimates directly from the time-ordered data. The method does not hinge on special assumptions about the survey geometry or noise properties, etc., It is based on a Monte Carlo approach and hence parallelizes trivially. No trace or determinant evaluations are necessary. The feasibility of this approach rests on the ability to solve the systems of linear equations which arise. These are of the same size and computational complexity as the map-making equations. We describe a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique that solves this problem and demonstrate in a numerical example that the computational time required for each Monte Carlo sample scales as n{sub p}{sup 3/2} with the number of pixels n{sub p}. We use our method to analyze the data from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer and explore the non-Gaussian joint posterior density of the C{sub l} from the Differential Microwave Radiometer on the Cosmic Background Explorer in several projections.

  11. TACMB-1: The Theory of Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (Bibliographic Resource Letter)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin White; J. D. Cohn

    2002-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the theory of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. Journal articles, web pages, and books are cited for the following topics: discovery, cosmological origin, early work, recombination, general CMB anisotropy references, primary CMB anisotropies (numerical, analytical work), secondary effects, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect(s), lensing, reionization, polarization, gravity waves, defects, topology, origin of fluctuations, development of fluctuations, inflation and other ties to particle physics, parameter estimation, recent constraints, web resources, foregrounds, observations and observational issues, and gaussianity.

  12. B2FH, the Cosmic Microwave Background and Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Burbidge

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I shall start by describing how we set about and carried out the work which led to the publication of B2FH in 1957. I then shall try and relate this work and the circumstances that surrounded it to the larger problem of the origin and formation of the universe. Here it is necessary to look back at the way that ideas developed and how in many situations astronomers went astray. Of course this is a personal view, though I very strongly believe that if he were still here, it is the approach that Fred Hoyle would take. I start by describing the problems originally encountered by Gamow and his associates in trying to decide where the helium was made. This leads me to a modern discussion of the origin of 2D, 3He, 4He and 7Li, originally described by B2FH as due to the x-process. While it is generally argued, following Gamow, Alpher, and Herman, that these isotopes were synthesized in a big bang I shall show that it is equally likely that these isotopes were made in active galactic nuclei, as was the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in a cyclic universe model. The key piece of observational evidence is that the amount of energy carried by the CMB, namely about 4.5 x 10-13 erg cm-3

  13. A New Upper Limit on the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher O'Dell

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) is an invaluable probe of the conditions of the early universe. Recent measurements of its spatial anisotropy have allowed accurate determinations of several fundamental cosmological parameters, such as the curvature of the universe, the shape of the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations, and the contribution of baryons, dark matter, and dark energy to the overall energy density of the universe. In addition to being spatially non-uniform, the CMB is theorized to be slightly polarized. Measurements of this polarization, particularly at large angular scales, have the potential to provide information on primordial gravitational waves, theories of inflation, and the ionization history of the universe, as well as help further constrain cosmological parameters. Polarization has not yet been detected in the CMB. This thesis describes a recent search for CMB polarization at large angular scales, conducted in the spring of 2000 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. After a general introduction on both CMB polarization and general microwave polarimetry, details of the experiment itself are given, as well as a full description of the data selection and analysis techniques. Using these techniques, our data lead to a new upper limit on CMB polarization at large angular scales of 10 $\\mu$K in both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. If B-polarization is assumed to be zero, the limit for E-type polarization is lowered to 8 $\\mu$K. This experiment is the first of a new breed of highly-sensitive instruments that will one day map out this interesting property of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

  14. Neural networks and separation of Cosmic Microwave Background and astrophysical signals in sky maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Baccigalupi; L. Bedini; C. Burigana; G. De Zotti; A. Farusi; D. Maino; M. Maris; F. Perrotta; E. Salerno; L. Toffolatti; A. Tonazzini

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm is implemented as a neural network for separating signals of different origin in astrophysical sky maps. Due to its self-organizing capability, it works without prior assumptions on the signals, neither on their frequency scaling, nor on the signal maps themselves; instead, it learns directly from the input data how to separate the physical components, making use of their statistical independence. To test the capabilities of this approach, we apply the ICA algorithm on sky patches, taken from simulations and observations, at the microwave frequencies, that are going to be deeply explored in a few years on the whole sky, by the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and by the {\\sc Planck} Surveyor Satellite. The maps are at the frequencies of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the {\\sc Planck} satellite (30, 44, 70 and 100 GHz), and contain simulated astrophysical radio sources, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, and Galactic diffuse emissions from thermal dust and synchrotron. We show that the ICA algorithm is able to recover each signal, with precision going from 10% for the Galactic components to percent for CMB; radio sources are almost completely recovered down to a flux limit corresponding to $0.7\\sigma_{CMB}$, where $\\sigma_{CMB}$ is the rms level of CMB fluctuations. The signal recovering possesses equal quality on all the scales larger then the pixel size. In addition, we show that the frequency scalings of the input signals can be partially inferred from the ICA outputs, at the percent precision for the dominant components, radio sources and CMB.

  15. Nonlinear Evolution of Cosmic Magnetic Fields and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Naoshi Sugiyama; Robi Banerjee

    2006-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we investigate the effects of the primordial magnetic fields on cosmic microwave background anisotropies (CMB). Based on cosmological magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations we calculate the CMB anisotropy spectra and polarization induced by fluid fluctuations (Alfv\\'en modes) generated by primordial magnetic fields. The strongest effect on the CMB spectra comes from the transition epoch from a turbulent regime to a viscous regime. The balance between magnetic and kinetic energy until the onset of the viscous regime provides a one to one relation between the comoving coherence length $L$ and the comoving magnetic field strength $B$, such as $L \\sim 30 (B/10^{-9}{\\rm G})^3 \\rm pc$. The resulting CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies are somewhat different from the ones previously obtained by using linear perturbation theory. Our calculation gives a constraint on the magnetic field strength in the intermediate scale of CMB observations. Upper limits are set by WMAP and BOOMERANG results for comoving magnetic field strength of $B 0.7 \\rm Mpc$ for the most extreme case, or $B 0.8 \\rm Mpc$ for the most conservative case.

  16. The Second Peak: The Dark-Energy Density and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Kamionkowski; Ari Buchalter

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernova evidence for a negative-pressure dark energy (e.g., cosmological constant or quintessence) that contributes a fraction $\\Omega_\\Lambda\\simeq0.7$ of closure density has been bolstered by the discrepancy between the total density, $\\Omega_{\\rm tot}\\simeq1$, suggested by the location of the first peak in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum and the nonrelativistic-matter density $\\Omega_m\\simeq0.3$ obtained from dynamical measurements. Here we show that the impending identification of the location of the {\\it second} peak in the CMB power spectrum will provide an immediate and independent probe of the dark-energy density. As an aside, we show how the measured height of the first peak probably already points toward a low matter density and places upper limits to the reionization optical depth and gravitational-wave amplitude.

  17. Harmonic polynomials for expanding the fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background: The Poincare and the 3-sphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Kramer

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background CMB are observed by the WMAP. When expanded into the harmonic eigenmodes of the space part of a cosmological model, they provide insight into the large-scale topology of space. All harmonic polynomials on the multiply connected dodecahedral Poincare space are constructed. Strong and specific selection rules are given by comparing the polynomials to those on the 3-sphere, its simply connected cover.

  18. Cosmic microwave background constraints on dark energy dynamics: analysis beyond the power spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Giovi; Carlo Baccigalupi; Francesca Perrotta

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the distribution of the non-Gaussian signal induced by weak lensing on the primary total intensity cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Our study focuses on the three point statistics exploiting an harmonic analysis based on the CMB bispectrum. By considering the three multipoles as independent variables, we reveal a complex structure of peaks and valleys determined by the re-projection of the primordial acoustic oscillations through the lensing mechanism. We study the dependence of this system on the expansion rate at the epoch in which the weak lensing power injection is relevant, probing the dark energy equation of state at redshift corresponding to the equivalence with matter or higher ($w_\\infty$). We evaluate the impact of the bispectrum observable on the CMB capability of constraining the dark energy dynamics. We perform a maximum likelihood analysis by varying the dark energy abundance, the present equation of state $w_0$ and $w_\\infty$. We show that the projection degeneracy affecting a pure power spectrum analysis in total intensity is broken if the bispectrum is taken into account. For a Planck-like experiment, assuming nominal performance, no foregrounds or systematics, and fixing all the parameters except $w_0$, $w_\\infty$ and the dark energy abundance, a percent and ten percent precision measure of $w_0$ and $w_\\infty$ is achievable from CMB data only. These results indicate that the detection of the weak lensing signal by the forthcoming CMB probes may be relevant to gain insight into the dark energy dynamics at the onset of cosmic acceleration.

  19. MADmap: A Massively Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Cosmic Microwave Background Map-Maker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantalupo, Christopher; Borrill, Julian; Jaffe, Andrew; Kisner, Theodore; Stompor, Radoslaw

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(1011) time samples, O(108) pixels and O(104) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.

  20. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15208 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  1. A Statistic for the Detection of Long Strings in Microwave Background Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using analytical methods and Monte Carlo simulations, we analyze a new statistic designed to detect isolated step-like discontinuities which are coherent over large areas of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) pixel maps. Such coherent temperature discontinuities are predicted by the Kaiser-Stebbins effect to form due to long cosmic strings present in our present horizon. The background of the coherent step-like seed is assumed to be a scale invariant Gaussian random field which could have been produced by a superposition of seeds on smaller scales and/or by inflationary quantum fluctuations. The effects of uncorrelated Gaussian random noise are also studied. The statistical variable considered is the Sample Mean Difference (SMD) between large neighbouring sectors of CMB maps, separated by a straight line in two dimensional maps and a point in one dimensional maps. We find that including noise, the SMD statistics can detect at the $1 \\sigma$ to $2 \\sigma$ level the presense of a long string with $G\\mu (v_s \\gamma_s)= 1/(8\\pi) ((\\delta T)/T)_{rms} \\simeq 0.5 \\times 10^{-7}$ while more conventional statistics like the skewness or the kurtosis require a value of $G\\mu$ almost an order of magnitude larger for detectability at a comparable level.

  2. B polarization of the cosmic microwave background as a tracer of strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seljak, Uros [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08544 (United States); International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Slosar, Anze [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    String models can produce successful inflationary scenarios in the context of brane collisions, and in many of these models cosmic strings may also be produced. In scenarios such as Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Maldacena-McAllister-Trivedi (KKLMMT) scenario the string contribution is naturally predicted to be well below the inflationary signal for cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, in agreement with the existing limits. We find that for B type polarization of CMB the situation is reversed and the dominant signal comes from vector modes generated by cosmic strings, which exceeds the gravity wave signal from both inflation and strings. The signal can be detected for a broad range of parameter space; future polarization experiments may be able to detect the string signal down to the string tension G{mu}=10{sup -9}, although foregrounds and lensing are likely to worsen these limits. We argue that the optimal scale to search for the string signature is at l{approx}1000, but in models with high optical depth the signal from reionization peak at large scales is also significant. The shape of the power spectrum allows one to distinguish the string signature from the gravity waves from inflation, but only with a sufficiently high angular resolution experiment.

  3. Bayesian modeling of microwave foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahlin, Alexandra Sasha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, advances in precision cosmology have pushed our understanding of the evolving Universe to new limits. Since the discovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson, ...

  4. South Pole submillimeter isotropy measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragovan, M. (Joseph Henry Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (USA)); Platt, S.R.; Pernic, R.J. (The University of Chicago, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI 531191 (USA)); Stark, A.A. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ 07733 (USA))

    1990-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations were made from the United States Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the austral summer of 1988--89 to search for spatial anisotropy in the submillimeter Cosmic Microwave Background. Three 30{prime}{times}30{prime} regions of the sky were observed at 350 {mu}m, 450 {mu}m, and 600 {mu}m with the University of Chicago 32-Channel Submillimeter Photometer and a 1.2-meter off-axis parabolic telescope, designed and constructed at AT T Bell Laboratories. Reimaging optics gave each of the 32 bolometers in the array a 5-arc minute field of view. The search is sensitive to fluctuations on all angular scales between 5- and 30-arc minutes.

  5. Constraining invisible neutrino decays with the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision measurements of the acoustic peaks of the cosmic microwave background indicate that neutrinos must be freely streaming at the photon decoupling epoch when T{approx_equal}0.3 eV. This requirement implies restrictive limits on 'secret neutrino interactions', notably on neutrino Yukawa couplings with hypothetical low-mass (pseudo)scalars {phi}. For diagonal couplings in the neutrino mass basis we find g < or approx. 1x10{sup -7}, comparable to limits from supernova 1987A. For the off-diagonal couplings and assuming hierarchical neutrino masses we find g < or approx. 1x10{sup -11}(0.05 eV/m){sup 2} where m is the heavier mass of a given neutrino pair connected by g. This stringent limit excludes that the flavor content of high-energy neutrinos from cosmic-ray sources is modified by {nu}{yields}{nu}{sup '}+{phi} decays on their way to Earth.

  6. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Cosmic Background Radiation with the Cambridge CosmicCosmic Microwave Background Radiation arXiv:astro-ph/0004404Roma, Italy,. The blackbody radiation left over from the Big

  7. SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K.; Reeves, R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd M/C 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Monsalve, R.; Bustos, R. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bronfman, L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Church, S. E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Varian Physics Building, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dickinson, C. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gaier, T., E-mail: ibuder@uchicago.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  8. CMB probes on the correlated axion isocurvature perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Kadota; Jinn-Ouk Gong; Kiyotomo Ichiki; Takahiko Matsubara

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possible cosmological consequence of the gravitational coupling between the inflaton and axion-like fields. In view of the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and lensing data, we study the sensitivity of the CMB data on the cross-correlation between the curvature and axion isocurvature perturbations. Through a concrete example, we illustrate the explicit dependence of the scale dependent cross-correlation power spectrum on the axion parameters.

  9. Dark Energy Cosmology with the Alternative Cosmic Microwave Background Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao Wei

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, in a series of works by Liu and Li (L&L), they claimed that there exists a timing asynchrony of $-25.6\\,$ms between the spacecraft attitude and radiometer output timestamps in the original raw WMAP time-ordered data (TOD). L&L reprocessed the WMAP data while the aforementioned timing asynchrony has been corrected, and they obtained an alternative CMB map in which the quadrupole dropped to nearly zero. In the present work, we try to see the implications to dark energy cosmology if L&L are right. While L&L claimed that there is a bug in the WMAP pipeline which leads to significantly different cosmological parameters, an interesting question naturally arises, namely, how robust is the current dark energy cosmology with respect to systematic errors and bugs? So, in this work, we adopt the alternative CMB data of L&L as a strawman to study the robustness of dark energy predictions.

  10. COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    COMPASS: AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AT AN ANGULAR SCALE OF 200, 11 and Peter T. Timbie6 Receivved 2003 Auggust 19; accepted 2004 April 12 ABSTRACT COMPASS is an on with the Cosmic Microwave Polari- zation at Small Scales (COMPASS) telescope. Although this limit is about

  11. CMB Cold Spot from Inflationary Feature Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from {\\it WMAP} and {\\it Planck} maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at $\\ell \\sim 20$.

  12. How to fool CMB parameter estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Kinney

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With the release of the data from the Boomerang and MAXIMA-1 balloon flights, estimates of cosmological parameters based on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) have reached unprecedented precision. In this paper I show that it is possible for these estimates to be substantially biased by features in the primordial density power spectrum. I construct primordial power spectra which mimic to within cosmic variance errors the effect of changing parameters such as the baryon density and neutrino mass, meaning that even an ideal measurement would be unable to resolve the degeneracy. Complementary measurements are necessary to resolve this ambiguity in parameter estimation efforts based on CMB temperature fluctuations alone.

  13. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido, E-mail: jchluba@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of {mu} and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  14. Cosmic Microwave Background, Accelerating Universe and Inhomogeneous Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a cosmology in which a spherically symmetric large scale inhomogeneous enhancement or a void are described by an inhomogeneous metric and Einstein's gravitational equations. For a flat matter dominated universe the inhomogeneous equations lead to luminosity distance and Hubble constant formulas that depend on the location of the observer. For a general inhomogeneous solution, it is possible for the deceleration parameter to differ significantly from the FLRW result. The deceleration parameter $q_0$ can be interpreted as $q_0 > 0$ ($q_0=1/2$ for a flat matter dominated universe) in a FLRW universe and be $q_0 < 0$ as inferred from the inhomogeneous enhancement that is embedded in a FLRW universe. A spatial volume averaging of local regions in the backward light cone has to be performed for the inhomogeneous solution at late times to decide whether the decelerating parameter $q$ can be negative for a positive energy condition. The CMB temperature fluctuations across the sky can be unevenly distributed in the northern and southern hemispheres in the inhomogeneous matter dominated solution, in agreement with the analysis of the WMAP power spectrum data by several authors. The model can possibly explain the anomalous alignment of the quadrupole and octopole moments observed in the WMAP data.

  15. Fractal Structure of Isothermal Lines and Loops on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Lung-Yih

    Fractal Structure of Isothermal Lines and Loops on the Cosmic Microwave Background Naoki KOBAYASHI and the fractal structure is confirmed in the radiation temperature fluctuation. We estimate the fractal exponents, such as the fractal dimension De of the entire pattern of isothermal lines, the fractal dimension Dc of a single

  16. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slosar, A.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L.K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.; Kuo, C. -L.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  17. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slosar, A.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more »Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  18. A WAVELET-GALERKIN ALGORITHM OF THE E/B DECOMPOSITION OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Liang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop an algorithm of separating the E and B modes of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization from the noisy and discretized maps of Stokes parameters Q and U in a finite area. A key step of the algorithm is to take a wavelet-Galerkin discretization of the differential relation between the E, B and Q, U fields. This discretization allows derivative operator to be represented by a matrix, which is exactly diagonal in scale space, and narrowly banded in spatial space. We show that the effect of boundary can be eliminated by dropping a few discrete wavelet transform modes, located on or nearby the boundary. This method reveals that the derivative operators will cause large errors in the E and B power spectra on small scales if the Q and U maps contain Gaussian noise. It also reveals that if the Q and U maps are random, these fields lead to the mixing of E and B modes. Consequently, the B mode will be contaminated if the powers of E modes are much larger than that of B modes. Nevertheless, numerical tests show that the power spectra of both E and B on scales larger than the finest scale by a factor of 4 and higher can reasonably be recovered, even when the power ratio of E to B modes is as large as about 10{sup 2}, and the signal-to-noise ratio is equal to 10 and higher. This is because the Galerkin discretization is free of false correlations and keeps the contamination under control. As wavelet variables contain information of both spatial and scale spaces, the developed method is also effective to recover the spatial structures of the E and B mode fields.

  19. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  20. Maximum entropy method for reconstruction of the CMB images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Bajkova

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach for the accurate reconstruction of cosmic microwave background distributions from observations containing in addition to the primary fluctuations the radiation from unresolved extragalactic point sources and pixel noise. The approach uses some effective realizations of the well-known maximum entropy method and principally takes into account {\\it a priori} information about finiteness and spherical symmetry of the power spectrum of the CMB satisfying the Gaussian statistics.

  1. Which Fundamental Constants for CMB and BAO?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rich, James

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Cosmic Microwave Background using the three-scale framework of Hu et al. to derive the dependence of the CMB temperature anisotropy spectrum on the fundamental constants. We show that, as expected, the observed spectrum depends only on \\emph{dimensionless} combinations of the constants, and we emphasize the points that make this generally true for cosmological observations. Our analysis suggests that the CMB spectrum shape is mostly determined by $\\alpha^2m_e/m_p$ and the proton-CDM-particle mass ratio, $m_p/\\mchi$, with a sub-dominant dependence on $(G\\mchi m_e/\\hbar c)\\alpha^\\beta$ with $\\beta\\sim -7$. The distance to the last-scattering surface depends on $Gm_p\\mchi/\\hbar c$, so published CMB observational limits on time variations of the constants, besides making assumptions about the form of the dark-energy, implicitly assume the time-independence of this quantity. On the other hand, low-redshift $H_0$, BAO and large-scale structure data can be combined with the \\emph{shape} of the CMB spect...

  2. Cosmological Rotation of Quantum-Mechanical Origin and Anisotropy of the Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. P. Grishchuk

    1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that rotational cosmological perturbations can be generated in the early Universe, similarly to gravitational waves. The generating mechanism is quantum-mechanical in its nature, and the created perturbations should now be placed in squeezed vacuum quantum states. The physical conditions under which the phenomenon can occur are formulated. The generated perturbations can contribute to the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. An exact formula is derived for the angular correlation function of the temperature variations caused by the quantum-mechanically generated rotational perturbations. The multipole expansion begins from the dipole component. The comparison with the case of gravitational waves is made.

  3. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel, E-mail: jkim@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute and Discovery Center, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  4. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e sezione INFN, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle {delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}3.0 ({delta}{alpha}=-2.5{+-}6.0) at the one (two) {sigma} level, consistent with a null detection.

  5. The Standard Cosmological Model and CMB Anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James G. Bartlett

    1999-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a course on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in the standard cosmological model, designed for beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates. ``Standard cosmological model'' in this context means a Universe dominated by some form of cold dark matter (CDM) with adiabatic perturbations generated at some initial epoch, e.g., Inflation, and left to evolve under gravity alone (which distinguishes it from defect models). The course is primarily theoretical and concerned with the physics of CMB anisotropies in this context and their relation to structure formation. Brief presentations of the uniform Big Bang model and of the observed large--scale structure of the Universe are given. The bulk of the course then focuses on the evolution of small perturbations to the uniform model and on the generation of temperature anisotropies in the CMB. The theoretical development is performed in the (pseudo--)Newtonian gauge because it aids intuitive understanding by providing a quick reference to classical (Newtonian) concepts. The fundamental goal of the course is not to arrive at a highly exact nor exhaustive calculation of the anisotropies, but rather to a good understanding of the basic physics that goes into such calculations.

  6. Compensation for large tensor modes with iso-curvature perturbations in CMB anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro Kawasaki; Shuichiro Yokoyama

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, BICEP2 has reported the large tensor-to-scalar ratio $r=0.2^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ from the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode at degree-scales. Since tensor modes induce not only CMB B-mode but also the temperature fluctuations on large scales, to realize the consistent temperature fluctuations with the Planck result we should consider suppression of scalar perturbations on corresponding large scales. To realize such a suppression, we consider anti-correlated iso-curvature perturbations which could be realized in the simple curvaton model.

  7. Compensation for large tensor modes with iso-curvature perturbations in CMB anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, BICEP2 has reported the large tensor-to-scalar ratio $r=0.2^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ from the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode at degree-scales. Since tensor modes induce not only CMB B-mode but also the temperature fluctuations on large scales, to realize the consistent temperature fluctuations with the Planck result we should consider suppression of scalar perturbations on corresponding large scales. To realize such a suppression, we consider anti-correlated iso-curvature perturbations which could be realized in the simple curvaton model.

  8. Una revisi\\'on a la teor\\'ia b\\'asica del CMB (A review of the basic theory of CMB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mastache, Jorge

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spanish: La Cosmolog\\'ia esta progresando a pasos agigantados gracias a la cantidad espectacular de datos observacionales que se obtienen tanto de los experimentos en tierra como sat\\'elites. Un papel fundamental es desempe\\~ndo por las observaciones del Fondo C\\'osmico de Microondas (CMB por sus siglas en ingl\\'e, Cosmic Microwave Background), la cual nos proporciona la prueba observacional m\\'as directa de los inicios del Universo. Las observaciones de la temperatura y las anisotrop\\'ias en el CMB han jugado un papel fundamental en la definici\\'on del modelo cosmol\\'ogico. Esta contribuci\\'on tiene como objetivo resumir algunos de los conceptos b\\'asicos que hay detr\\'as de la f\\'isica del CMB. La mayor parte de los ingredientes del modelo cosmol\\'ogico est\\'andar son poco conocidos en t\\'erminos de la f\\'isica fundamental, por efemplo, la materia oscura y la energ\\'ia oscura. Se discute c\\'omo las observaciones actuales abordan algunas de estas cuestiones. English: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) pro...

  9. FIRST SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRA AT 43 GHz IN THE MULTIPOLE RANGE 25 {<=} l {<=} 475

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.; Smith, K. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K.; Reeves, R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Monsalve, R.; Bustos, R. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Zuntz, J. A. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bronfman, L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Church, S. E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Varian Physics Building, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dickinson, C., E-mail: akito@kicp.uchicago.edu [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43 GHz and 94 GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies gives sensitivity to foreground contributions from diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation. Between 2008 October and 2010 December, over 10,000 hr of data were collected, first with the 19 element 43 GHz array (3458 hr) and then with the 90 element 94 GHz array. Each array observes the same four fields, selected for low foregrounds, together covering Almost-Equal-To 1000 deg{sup 2}. This paper reports initial results from the 43 GHz receiver, which has an array sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of 69 {mu}K{radical}s. The data were extensively studied with a large suite of null tests before the power spectra, determined with two independent pipelines, were examined. Analysis choices, including data selection, were modified until the null tests passed. Cross-correlating maps with different telescope pointings is used to eliminate a bias. This paper reports the EE, BB, and EB power spectra in the multipole range l = 25-475. With the exception of the lowest multipole bin for one of the fields, where a polarized foreground, consistent with Galactic synchrotron radiation, is detected with 3{sigma} significance, the E-mode spectrum is consistent with the {Lambda}CDM model, confirming the only previous detection of the first acoustic peak. The B-mode spectrum is consistent with zero, leading to a measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.35{sup +1.06}{sub -0.87}. The combination of a new time-stream 'double-demodulation' technique, side-fed Dragonian optics, natural sky rotation, and frequent boresight rotation leads to the lowest level of systematic contamination in the B-mode power so far reported, below the level of r = 0.1.

  10. CMB Observations and the Production of Chemical Elements at the End of the Dark Ages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Basu; C. Hernandez-Monteagudo; R. Sunyaev

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The metallicity evolution and ionization history of the universe must leave its imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background through resonant scattering of CMB photons by atoms, ions and molecules. These transitions partially erase original temperature anisotropies of the CMB, and also generate new fluctuations. In this paper we propose a method to determine the abundance of these heavy species in low density (over-densities less than $10^4-10^5$) optically thin regions of the universe by using the unprecedented sensitivity of current and future CMB experiments. In particular, we focus our analysis on the sensitivity of the PLANCK HFI detectors in four spectral bands. We also present results for l=220 and 810 which are of interest for balloon and ground-based instruments, like ACT, APEX and SPT. We use the fine-structure transitions of atoms and ions as a source of frequency dependent optical depth ($\\tau_{\

  11. CMB B-modes, spinorial space-time and Pre-Big Bang (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

    2014-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The BICEP2 collaboration reported recently a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation inconsistent with the null hypothesis at a significance of > 5 {\\sigma}. This result has been often interpreted as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation, even if actually polarized dust emission may be at the origin of such a signal. Even assuming that part of this CMB B-mode polarization really corresponds to the early Universe dynamics, its interpretation in terms of inflation and primordial gravitational waves is not the only possible one. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally account for such CMB B-modes. In particular, the SST automatically generates a privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, it seems normal to infer that vector perturbations have been present in the early Universe leading to CMB B-modes in suitable cosmological patterns. Inflation would not be required to explain the BICEP2 result assuming it really contains a primordial signal. More generally, pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without any need for cosmic inflation. We further discuss here possible alternatives to the inflationary interpretation of a primordial B-mode polarization of cosmic microwave background radiation.

  12. On the detection of point sources in Planck LFI 70 GHz CMB maps based on cleaned K-map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khachatryan, H G; Poghosyan, E; Yegoryan, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the Planck LFI 70GHz data to further probe point source detection technique in the sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The method developed by Tegmark et al. for foreground reduced maps and the Kolmogorov parameter as the descriptor are adopted for the analysis of Planck satellite CMB temperature data. Most of the detected points coincide with point sources already revealed by other methods. However, we have also found 9 source candidates for which still no counterparts are known.

  13. Weak Lensing Detection in CMB Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bernardeau

    1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The weak lensing effects are known to change only weakly the shape of the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations. I show here that they nonetheless induce specific non-Gaussian effects that can be detectable with the four-point correlation function of the CMB anisotropies. The magnitude and geometrical dependences of this correlation function are investigated in detail. It is thus found to scale as the square of the derivative of the two-point correlation function and as the angular correlation function of the gravitational displacement field. It also contains specific dependences on the shape of the quadrangle formed by the four directions. When averaged at a given scale, the four-point function, that identifies with the connected part of the fourth moment of the probability distribution function of the local filtered temperature, scales as the square of logarithmic slope of its second moment, and as the variance of the gravitational magnification at the same angular scale. All these effects have been computed for specific cosmological models. It is worth noting that, as the amplitude of the gravitational lens effects has a specific dependence on the cosmological parameters, the detection of the four-point correlation function could provide precious complementary constraints to those brought by the temperature power spectrum.

  14. CMB ISW-lensing bispectrum from cosmic strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Yamauchi; Yuuiti Sendouda; Keitaro Takahashi

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of weak lensing by cosmic (super-)strings on the higher-order statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). A cosmic string segment is expected to cause weak lensing as well as an integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, the so-called Gott-Kaiser-Stebbins (GKS) effect, to the CMB temperature fluctuation, which are thus naturally cross-correlated. We point out that, in the presence of such a correlation, yet another kind of the post-recombination CMB temperature bispectra, the ISW-lensing bispectra, will arise in the form of products of the auto- and cross-power spectra. We first present an analytic method to calculate the autocorrelation of the temperature fluctuations induced by the strings, and the cross-correlation between the temperature fluctuation and the lensing potential both due to the string network. In our formulation, the evolution of the string network is assumed to be characterized by the simple analytic model, the velocity-dependent one scale model, and the intercommutation probability is properly incorporated in orderto characterize the possible superstringy nature. Furthermore, the obtained power spectra are dominated by the Poisson-distributed string segments, whose correlations are assumed to satisfy the simple relations. We then estimate the signal-to-noise ratios of the string-induced ISW-lensing bispectra and discuss the detectability of such CMB signals from the cosmic string network. It is found that in the case of the smaller string tension, $G\\mu\\ll 10^{-7}$\\,, the ISW-lensing bispectrum induced by a cosmic string network can constrain the string-model parameters even more tightly than the purely GKS-induced bispectrum in the ongoing and future CMB observations on small scales.

  15. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background Solar panels are designed as a photovoltaic module. The energy producing aspect of the photovoltaic module has two primary steps. The first is a semiconducting material...

  16. An IC/CMB interpretation for the large-scale jet X-ray emission of 3C 273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Po

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present that the model of inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) could well explain the large-scale jet X-ray radiation of 3C 273, and does not violate new Fermi observations. For the individual knots, the synchrotron spectrum of the low-energy electrons responsible for the IC/CMB X-ray emission may be different from the extrapolation of the 10GHz radio spectrum of knots. Based on the IC/CMB model for the 3C 273 large-scale jet, the Fermi observations may mainly come from the small-scale jet of 3C 273 (i.e., the core). Future observations could examine our interpretation on the spectral energy distributions (SED) of knots and large-scale jet in 3C 273.

  17. Impact of polarisation on the intrinsic CMB bispectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guido W. Pettinari; Christian Fidler; Robert Crittenden; Kazuya Koyama; Antony Lewis; David Wands

    2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the bispectrum induced in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarisation by the evolution of the primordial density perturbations using the second-order Boltzmann code SONG. We show that adding polarisation increases the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor four with respect to temperature alone and we estimate the observability of this intrinsic bispectrum and the bias it induces on measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity. When including all physical effects except the late-time non-linear evolution, we find for the intrinsic bispectrum a signal-to-noise of $S/N=3.8,\\,2.9,\\,1.6$ and $0.5$ for, respectively, an ideal experiment with an angular resolution of $\\ell_\\text{max}=3000$, the proposed CMB surveys PRISM and COrE, and Planck's polarised data; the bulk of this signal comes from the $E$-polarisation and from squeezed configurations. We discuss how CMB lensing is expected to reduce these estimates as it suppresses the bispectrum for squeezed configurations and contributes to the noise in the estimator. We find that the presence of the intrinsic bispectrum will bias a measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity of local type by $f_{NL}^\\text{bias}=0.66$ for an ideal experiment with $\\ell_\\text{max}=3000$. Finally, we verify the robustness of our results by reproducing the analytical approximation for the squeezed-limit bispectrum in the general polarised case.

  18. Scalar potential model of the CMB radiation temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C. Hodge

    2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A derivation of a theoretical, time average, cosmic microwave background (CMB), Planckian temperature V of the universe remains a challenge. A scalar potential model (SPM) that resulted from considerations of galaxy cells is applied to deriving a value for V. The heat equation is solved for a cell with the boundary conditions of SPM Source and Sink characteristics, with simplified cell characteristics, and with zero initial temperature. The universe is a collection of cells. The CMB radiation is black body radiation with the cells acting as radiators and absorbers. Conventional thermodynamics is applied to calculate V = 2.718 K. The temperature and matter content of cells are finely controlled by a feedback mechanism. Because time is required for matter to flow from Sources to Sinks, the radiation temperature of cells cycles about V after an initial growth phase. If the universe is like an ideal gas in free expansion and is not in thermal equilibrium, then the pressure and volume follow the measured CMB temperature vm = 2.725 K. Therefore, increasing vm >V equates to an expansion pressure on matter and expanding volume.

  19. Spherical Shell Cosmological Model and Uniformity of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Considered is spherical shell as a model for visible universe and parameters that such model must have to comply with the observable data. The topology of the model requires that motion of all galaxies and light must be confined inside a spherical shell. Consequently the observable universe cannot be defined as a sphere centered on the observer, rather it is an arc length within the volume of the spherical shell. The radius of the shell is 4.46 $\\pm$ 0.06 Gpc, which is for factor $\\pi$ smaller than radius of a corresponding 3-sphere. However the event horizon, defined as the arc length inside the shell, has the size of 14.0 $\\pm$ 0.2 Gpc, which is in agreement with the observable data. The model predicts, without inflation theory, the isotropy and uniformity of the CMB. It predicts the correct value for the Hubble constant $H_0$ = 67.26 $\\pm$ 0.90 km/s/Mpc, the cosmic expansion rate $H(z)$, and the speed of the event horizon in agreement with observations. The theoretical suport for shell model comes from general relativity, curvature of space by mass, and from holographic principle. The model explains the reason for the established discrepancy between the non-covariant version of the holographic principle and the calculated dimensionless entropy $(S/k)$ for the visible universe, which exceeds the entropy of a black hole. The model is in accordance with the distribution of radio sources in space, type Ia data, and data from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field optical and near-infrared survey.

  20. BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust AugustInstruments onG-I,AboutBACKGROUND The

  1. Oxygen Pumping: Mapping the Reionization Epoch with the CMB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Zoltan Haiman; Raul Jimenez; Licia Verde

    2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the pumping of the $63.2 \\mu$m fine structure line of neutral OI in the high--redshift intergalactic medium (IGM), in analogy with the Wouthuysen--Field effect for the 21cm line of cosmic HI. We show that the soft UV background at $\\sim 1300$\\AA can affect the population levels, and if a significant fraction of the IGM volume is filled with ``fossil HII regions'' containing neutral OI, then this can produce a non--negligible spectral distortion in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). OI from redshift $z$ is seen in emission at $(1+z)63.2\\mu$m, and between $7CMB with a $y$--parameter of $y=(10^{-9} - 3\\times10^{-8}) (Z/10^{-3}{\\rm Z_{\\odot}}) (I_{UV})$, where $Z$ is the mean metallicity of the IGM and $I_{UV}$ is the UV background at 1300\\AA in units of $10^{-20}$ erg/s/Hz/cm$^2$/sr. Because O is in charge exchange equilibrium with H, a measurement of this signature can trace the metallicity at the end of the dark ages, prior to the completion of cosmic reionization and is complementary to cosmological 21cm studies. While future CMB experiments, such as Planck could constrain the metallicity to the $10^{-2} Z_{\\odot}$ level, specifically designed experiments could potentially achieve a detection. Fluctuations of the distortion on small angular scale may also be detectable.

  2. CMB Maps at 0.5 Degree Resolution II: Unresolved Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kogut; G. Hinshaw; C. L. Bennett

    1994-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    High-contrast peaks in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy can appear as unresolved sources to observers. We fit simulated CMB maps generated with a cold dark matter model to a set of unresolved features at instrumental resolution 0.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees and present the integral density per steradian n(>|T|) of unresolved features brighter than threshold temperature |T|. A typical medium-scale experiment observing 0.001 sr at 0.5 degree resolution would expect to observe one unresolved feature brighter than 85 \\muK after convolution with the beam profile, with less than 5% probability to observe a source brighter than 150 \\muK. Increasing the power-law index of primordial density perturbations n from 1 to 1.5 raises these temperature limits |T| by a factor of 2. The results are only weakly dependent on the assumed values of the Hubble constant and baryon density.

  3. How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boriero, Daniel; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to $\\alpha < 0.17$ and $\\beta < 0.19$ using CMB data alone. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate $H_0$ tightens the bound on $\\alpha$ by a factor of two, although this apparent i...

  4. Using Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to Extend CMB Probes of Neutrino Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Shimon; N. J. Miller; C. T. Kishimoto; C. J. Smith; G. M. Fuller; B. G. Keating

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present calculations showing that upcoming Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments will have the power to improve on current constraints on neutrino masses and provide new limits on neutrino degeneracy parameters. The latter could surpass those derived from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the observationally-inferred primordial helium abundance. These conclusions derive from our Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations which incorporate a full BBN nuclear reaction network. This provides a self-consistent treatment of the helium abundance, the baryon number, the three individual neutrino degeneracy parameters and other cosmological parameters. Our analysis focuses on the effects of gravitational lensing on CMB constraints on neutrino rest mass and degeneracy parameter. We find for the PLANCK experiment that total (summed) neutrino mass $M_{\

  5. Using Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to Extend CMB Probes of Neutrino Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimon, M; Kishimoto, C T; Smith, C J; Fuller, G M; Keating, B G

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present calculations showing that upcoming Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments will have the power to improve on current constraints on neutrino masses and provide new limits on neutrino degeneracy parameters. The latter could surpass those derived from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the observationally-inferred primordial helium abundance. These conclusions derive from our Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations which incorporate a full BBN nuclear reaction network. This provides a self-consistent treatment of the helium abundance, the baryon number, the three individual neutrino degeneracy parameters and other cosmological parameters. Our analysis focuses on the effects of gravitational lensing on CMB constraints on neutrino rest mass and degeneracy parameter. We find for the PLANCK experiment that total (summed) neutrino mass $M_{\

  6. Prediction of the Virgo axis anisotropy: CMB radiation illuminates the nature of things

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Berkovich

    2005-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent findings of the anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation are confusing for standard cosmology. Remarkably, this fact has been predicted several years ago in the framework of our model of the physical world. Moreover, in exact agreement with our prediction the CMB has a preferred direction towards the Virgo Cluster. The transpired structure of the CMB shows workings of the suggested model of the physical world. Comprising the information processes of Nature, this model presents a high-tech version of the previous low-tech developments for mechanical ether and quantum vacuum. In the current model, the phenomenon of Life turns up as a collective effect on the "Internet of the Physical Universe" using DNA structures for access codes. Most convincingly, this construction points to a harmful analogy with so-called "identity theft" - improper manipulations with DNA of individual organisms can destroy these organisms from a remote location without any physical contact. Appearing incredible, such a possibility creates a superlative Experimentum Crucis. In a broad sense, this surmised biological effect is intimately related to the cosmological prediction of the structurization of the CMB, but it is more compelling.

  7. Primordial Helium And the Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Steigman

    2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The products of primordial nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons are relics from the early evolution of the Universe whose observations probe the standard model of cosmology and provide windows on new physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and of particle physics. In the standard, hot big bang cosmology, long before any stars have formed a significant fraction (~25%) of the baryonic mass in the Universe should be in the form of helium-4 nuclei. Since current 4He observations are restricted to low redshift regions where stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred, observations of high redshift, prestellar 4He would constitute a fundamental test of the hot, big bang cosmology. At recombination, long after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has ended, the temperature anisotropy spectrum imprinted on the CMB depends on the 4He abundance through its connection to the electron density and the effect of the electron density on Silk damping. Since the relic abundance of 4He is relatively insensitive to the universal density of baryons, but is sensitive to a non-standard, early Universe expansion rate, the primordial mass fraction of 4He, Yp, offers a test of the consistency of the standard models of BBN and the CMB and, provides constraints on non-standard physics. Here, the WMAP seven year data (supplemented by other CMB experiments), which lead to an indirect determination of Yp at high redshift, are compared to the BBN predictions and to the independent, direct observations of 4He in low redshift, extragalactic HII regions. At present, given the very large uncertainties in the CMB-determined primordial 4He abundance (as well as for the helium abundances inferred from H II region observations), any differences between the BBN predictions and the CMB observations are small, at a level < 1.5 sigma.

  8. Estimation of Inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suvodip Mukherjee; Santanu Das; Minu Joy; Tarun Souradeep

    2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass $m_{\\rm eff}$ for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation $\

  9. Estimation of Inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Joy, Minu; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass $m_{\\rm eff}$ for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation $\

  10. FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, E. L.; Chen, X. [UCLA Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L. [Adnet Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu (and others)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the list of point sources found in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year maps. The technique used in the first-year and three-year analyses now finds 390 point sources, and the five-year source catalog is complete for regions of the sky away from the Galactic plane to a 2 Jy limit, with SNR >4.7 in all bands in the least covered parts of the sky. The noise at high frequencies is still mainly radiometer noise, but at low frequencies the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is the largest uncertainty. A separate search of CMB-free V-W maps finds 99 sources of which all but one can be identified with known radio sources. The sources seen by WMAP are not strongly polarized. Many of the WMAP sources show significant variability from year to year, with more than a 2:1 range between the minimum and maximum fluxes.

  11. Microwave Background John Carlstrom

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625Data ShowC -9

  12. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  13. Effect of noncircularity of experimental beam on CMB parameter estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Santanu; Paulson, Sonu Tabitha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies has been playing a lead role in precision cosmology by providing some of the tightest constrains on cosmological models and parameters. However, precision can only be meaningful when all major systematic effects are taken into account. Non-circular beams in CMB experiments can cause large systematic deviation in the angular power spectrum, not only by modifying the measurement at a given multipole, but also introducing coupling between different multipoles through a deterministic bias matrix. Here we add a mechanism for emulating the effect of a full bias matrix to the Planck likelihood code through the parameter estimation code SCoPE. We show that if the angular power spectrum was measured with a non-circular beam, the assumption of circular Gaussian beam or considering only the diagonal part of the bias matrix can lead to huge error in parameter estimation. We demonstrate that, at least for elliptical Gaussian beams, use of scalar beam window fun...

  14. Axion production and CMB spectral distortion in cosmological tangled magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damian Ejlli

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axion production due to photon-axion mixing in tangled magnetic field(s) prior to recombination epoch and magnetic field damping can generate cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In particular, contribution of both processes to CMB $\\mu$ distortion in the case of resonant photon-axion mixing is studied. Assuming that magnetic field power spectrum is approximated by a power law $P_B(k)\\propto k^n$ with spectral index $n$, it is shown that for magnetic field cut-off scales $172.5$ pc $\\leq \\lambda_B\\leq 4\\times 10^3$ pc, axion contribution to CMB $\\mu$ distortion is subdominant in comparison with magnetic field damping in the cosmological plasma. Using COBE upper limit on $\\mu$ and for magnetic field scale $\\lambda_B\\simeq 415$ pc, weaker limit in comparison with other studies on the magnetic field strength ($B_0\\leq 8.5\\times 10^{-8}$ G) up to a factor 10 for the DFSZ axion model and axion mass $m_a\\geq 2.6\\times 10^{-6}$ eV is found. A forecast for the expected sensitivity of PIXIE/PRISM on $\\mu$ is also presented.

  15. Axion production and CMB spectral distortion in cosmological tangled magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ejlli, Damian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axion production due to photon-axion mixing in tangled magnetic field(s) prior to recombination epoch and magnetic field damping can generate cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral distortions. In particular, contribution of both processes to CMB $\\mu$ distortion in the case of resonant photon-axion mixing is studied. Assuming that magnetic field power spectrum is approximated by a power law $P_B(k)\\propto k^n$ with spectral index $n$, it is shown that for magnetic field cut-off scales $172.5$ pc $\\leq \\lambda_B\\leq 4\\times 10^3$ pc, axion contribution to CMB $\\mu$ distortion is subdominant in comparison with magnetic field damping in the cosmological plasma. Using COBE upper limit on $\\mu$ and for magnetic field scale $\\lambda_B\\simeq 415$ pc, weaker limit in comparison with other studies on the magnetic field strength ($B_0\\leq 8.5\\times 10^{-8}$ G) up to a factor 10 for the DFSZ axion model and axion mass $m_a\\geq 2.6\\times 10^{-6}$ eV is found. A forecast for the expected sensitivity of PIXIE/PRISM on...

  16. Cross-correlation of Planck CMB Lensing and CFHTLenS Galaxy Weak Lensing Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We cross-correlate cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing and galaxy weak lensing maps using the Planck 2013 and 2015 data and the 154 deg^2 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). This measurement probes large-scale structure at intermediate redshifts ~0.9, between the high- and low-redshift peaks of the CMB and CFHTLenS lensing kernels, respectively. Using the noise properties of these data sets and standard Planck 2015 LCDM cosmological parameters, we forecast a signal-to-noise ratio ~4.6 for the cross-correlation. We find that the noise level of our actual measurement agrees well with this estimate, but the amplitude of the signal lies well below the theoretical prediction. The best-fit amplitudes of our measured cross-correlations are $A_{2013}=0.48\\pm0.26$ and $A_{2015}=0.44\\pm0.22$ using the 2013 and 2015 Planck CMB lensing maps, respectively, where $A=1$ corresponds to the fiducial Planck 2015 LCDM prediction. Due to the low measured amplitude, the detection significance is modera...

  17. Oxygen pumping II: Probing the Inhomogeneous Metal Enrichment at the Epoch of Reionization with High Frequency CMB Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Zoltan Haiman; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    At the epoch of reionization, when the high-redshift inter-galactic medium (IGM) is being enriched with metals, the 63.2 micron fine structure line of OI is pumped by the ~ 1300 AA soft UV background and introduces a spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Here we use a toy model for the spatial distribution of neutral oxygen, assuming metal bubbles surround dark matter halos, and compute the fluctuations of this distortion, and the angular power spectrum it imprints on the CMB. We discuss the dependence of the power spectrum on the velocity of the winds polluting the IGM with metals, the minimum mass of the halos producing these winds, and on the cosmic epoch when the OI pumping occurs. We find that, although the clustering signal of the CMB distortion is weak \\delta y_{rms} ~ 10^{-7} (roughly corresponding to a temperature anisotropy of few nK), it may be reachable in deep integrations with high-sensitivity infrared detectors. Even without a detection, these instruments should be able to useful constraints on the heavy element enrichment history of the IGM.

  18. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Mass And Annihilation Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Steigman

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose present (relic) abundance depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to its mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP that is a subdominant component of the dark matter density there is no bound on its mass and the upper bound to its annihilation cross section imposed by the CMB transforms into a lower bound to its annihilation cross section. These results are outlined and quantified here using the latest CMB constraints for a stable, symmetric (equal number of particles and antiparticles), WIMP whose annihilation is s-wave dominated, and for particles that are, or are not, their own antiparticle.

  19. A Non-parametric Analysis of the CMB Power Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Miller; Robert C. Nichol; Christopher Genovese; Larry Wasserman

    2001-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature power spectra from the BOOMERANG, MAXIMA, and DASI experiments. We non-parametrically estimate the true power spectrum with no model assumptions. This is a significant departure from previous research which used either cosmological models or some other parameterized form (e.g. parabolic fits). Our non-parametric estimate is practically indistinguishable from the best fit cosmological model, thus lending independent support to the underlying physics that governs these models. We also generate a confidence set for the non-parametric fit and extract confidence intervals for the numbers, locations, and heights of peaks and the successive peak-to-peak height ratios. At the 95%, 68%, and 40% confidence levels, we find functions that fit the data with one, two, and three peaks respectively (0 8 sigma level. If we assume that there are three peaks in the data, we find their locations to be within l_1 = (118,300), l_2 = (377,650), and l_3 = (597,900). We find the ratio of the first peak-height to the second (Delta T_1)/(Delta T_2)^2= (1.06, 4.27) and the second to the third (Delta T_2)/(Delta T_3)^2= (0.41, 2.5). All measurements are for 95% confidence. If the standard errors on the temperature measurements were reduced to a third of what they are currently, as we expect to be achieved by the MAP and Planck CMB experiments, we could eliminate two-peak models at the 95% confidence limit. The non-parametric methodology discussed in this paper has many astrophysical applications.

  20. CMB Maps at 0.5 degree Resolution I: Full-Sky Simulations and Basic Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Hinshaw; C. L. Bennett; A. Kogut

    1994-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have simulated full-sky maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy expected from Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models at 0.5 and 1.0 degree angular resolution. Statistical properties of the maps are presented as a function of sky coverage, angular resolution, and instrument noise, and the implications of these results for observability of the Doppler peak are discussed. The rms fluctuations in a map are not a particularly robust probe of the existence of a Doppler peak, however, a full correlation analysis can provide reasonable sensitivity. We find that sensitivity to the Doppler peak depends primarily on the fraction of sky covered, and only secondarily on the angular resolution and noise level. Color plates and one-dimensional scans of the maps are presented to visually illustrate the anisotropies.

  1. Neural networks and separation of background and foregrounds in astrophysical sky maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccigalupi, C; Burigana, C; De Zotti, G; Farusi, A; Maino, D; Maris, M; Perrotta, F; Salerno, E; Toffolatti, L; Tonazzini, A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm is implemented as a neuralnetwork for separating signals of different origin in astrophysical sky maps.Due to its self-organizing capability, it works without prior assumptions onthe signals, neither on their frequency scaling, nor on the signal mapsthemselves; instead, it learns directly from the input data how to separate thephysical components, making use of their statistical independence. To test thecapabilities of this approach, we apply the ICA algorithm on sky patches, takenfrom simulations and observations, at the microwave frequencies, that are goingto be deeply explored in a few years on the whole sky, by the MicrowaveAnisotropy Probe (MAP) and by the {\\sc Planck} Surveyor Satellite. The maps areat the frequencies of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the {\\scPlanck} satellite (30, 44, 70 and 100 GHz), and contain simulated astrophysicalradio sources, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, and Galacticdiffuse emissions from thermal dust...

  2. Constraining cosmic deceleration-acceleration transition with type Ia supernova, BAO/CMB and H(z) data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Marcelo Vargas dos; Waga, Ioav

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the kink-like parametrization of the deceleration parameter ($q(z)$) \\cite{ishida08}, which considers a transition, at redshift $z_t$, from cosmic deceleration to acceleration. In this parametrization the initial ($z \\gg z_t$) value of the q-parameter is $q_i$, its final ($z=-1$) value is $q_f$ and the duration of the transition is parametrized by $\\tau$. We obtain constraints on the free parameters of the model using recent data from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the Hubble parameter (H(z)). The use of H(z) data introduces an explicit dependence of the combined likelihood on the present value of the Hubble parameter ($H_0$), allowing us to explore the influence of different priors when marginalizing over this parameter. We also study the importance of the CMB information in the results by considering data from WMAP7, WMAP9 (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe - 7 and 9 years) and the Planck satellite. Assuming a flat space ge...

  3. A new map-making algorithm for CMB polarisation experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallis, Christopher G R; Brown, Michael L; Battye, Richard A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at least four orders of magnitude larger than the B-mode polarisation power spectrum, any instrumental imperfections that couple temperature to polarisation must be carefully controlled and/or removed. Here we present two new map-making algorithms that can create polarisation maps that are clean of temperature-to-polarisation leakage systematics due to differential gain and pointing between a detector pair. Where a half wave plate is used, we show that the spin-2 systematic due to differential ellipticity can also by removed using our algorithms. The algorithms require no prior knowledge of the imperfections or temperature sky to remove the temperature leakage. Instead, they calculate the systematic and polarisation maps in one step directly from the time ordered data (TOD). The first algorithm is designed to work with scan strategies that have a good range of crossing angles for each map pixel and the second for scan strategies that...

  4. MAPCUMBA : a fast iterative multi-grid map-making algorithm for CMB experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Doré; R. Teyssier; F. R. Bouchet; D. Vibert; S. Prunet

    2001-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The data analysis of current Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments like BOOMERanG or MAXIMA poses severe challenges which already stretch the limits of current (super-) computer capabilities, if brute force methods are used. In this paper we present a practical solution to the optimal map making problem which can be used directly for next generation CMB experiments like ARCHEOPS and TopHat, and can probably be extended relatively easily to the full PLANCK case. This solution is based on an iterative multi-grid Jacobi algorithm which is both fast and memory sparing. Indeed, if there are N_tod data points along the one dimensional timeline to analyse, the number of operations is O(N_tod ln N_tod) and the memory requirement is O(N_tod). Timing and accuracy issues have been analysed on simulated ARCHEOPS and TopHat data, and we discuss as well the issue of the joint evaluation of the signal and noise statistical properties.

  5. A First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follin, Brent; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The freestreaming of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature power spectrum. The magnitude of the shift is proportional to the fraction of the total radiation density in neutrinos. Parameterizing the shift via an effective number of neutrino species we find $1.9 < N_\

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE SPECTRAL RESPONSE OF AN ACHROMATIC HALF-WAVE PLATE ON THE MEASUREMENT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, C.; Gold, B.; Hanany, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Leach, S. [SISSA, Astrophysics Sector, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34136 (Italy); Didier, J.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, A. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Jaffe, A.; O'Dea, D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW72AZ (United Kingdom); Matsumura, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impact of the spectral dependence of the linear polarization rotation induced by an achromatic half-wave plate on measurements of cosmic microwave background polarization in the presence of astrophysical foregrounds. We focus on the systematic effects induced on the measurement of inflationary gravitational waves by uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. We find that for the experimental configuration and noise levels of the balloon-borne EBEX experiment, which has three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, a crude dust subtraction process mitigates systematic effects to below detectable levels for 10% polarized dust and tensor-to-scalar ratio of as low as r = 0.01. We also study the impact of uncertainties in the spectral response of the instrument. With a top-hat model of the spectral response for each band, characterized by band center and bandwidth, and with the same crude dust subtraction process, we find that these parameters need to be determined to within 1 and 0.8 GHz at 150 GHz; 9 and 2.0 GHz at 250 GHz; and 20 and 14 GHz at 410 GHz, respectively. The approach presented in this paper is applicable to other optical elements that exhibit polarization rotation as a function of frequency.

  7. CMB @ 50 & NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k CCLEAN ENERGY JOBS ANDCLOuDS:CMB @

  8. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Smoot; Douglas Scott

    1997-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

  9. Two Phase Dynamics as the Origin to: 0.25 keV and 0.1 keV X-ray Diffuse Backgrounds, CMB, Global Quantized Redshift, 10 Mpc Space distributions and 30 Myr Cycles at Earth Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo del Pozo Garcia

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An Alternative to explain the origin of matter-background connections from the paper "Do Cosmic Backgrounds Cyclical Renew by Matter and Quanta Emissions?..." proposed: A sequence of discontinuous small changes of light speed in time as the cause, which provoke that criticality processes take place every 26-30 million years. Then, matter particles and quanta reach at one threshold value, and are compelled to reorganize their internal energy and make emissions that later becomes in current cosmic backgrounds. The small discontinues relative decreasing of c of about 10 -5) should do some small effects on planet and living bodies. Cyclic small reorganization of matter particles is consider as the astrophysical origin of Earth cyclic catastrophes. And at space global distribution: quantized redshift, change of galaxy fractal distribution at 10 Mpc scale, galaxy average luminosity and the luminosity fluctuation of galaxy pairs are enhanced out to separations near 10 Mpc. Also proposed: Like the Universe is observed flat in distance and time, the gravitational constant G might decrease with time, which may originate the Earth orbit eccentricity cycle of 100000 yr and, provoke the former mentioned sequence of c decrease in time. And, every 6 million years, the accumulation of G relative decrease of about 10-5 in G compelled space-time to reach at one threshold value that, trigger small relative decrease of light speed c of about 10-5 cyclically. This is interpreted as the Universe has two dynamical phases following one each other cyclically with intervals of 26-30 million years respectively: One of about 0.1 million years, called "activation phase", at which the critical processes take place, follows by longer "inhibition phase". The present approach indicates the existence of a subtle non linear dynamics, which could also contribute to the origin of galaxy fractal distribution.

  10. Gravitational wave radiometry: Mapping a stochastic gravitational wave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, Sanjit [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Souradeep, Tarun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Lazzarini, Albert; Mandic, Vuk; Ballmer, Stefan [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Bose, Sukanta [Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of the detection and mapping of a stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB), either cosmological or astrophysical, bears a strong semblance to the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and polarization, which too is a stochastic field, statistically described in terms of its correlation properties. An astrophysical gravitational wave background (AGWB) will likely arise from an incoherent superposition of unmodelled and/or unresolved sources and cosmological gravitational wave backgrounds (CGWB) are also predicted in certain scenarios. The basic statistic we use is the cross correlation between the data from a pair of detectors. In order to ''point'' the pair of detectors at different locations one must suitably delay the signal by the amount it takes for the gravitational waves (GW) to travel to both detectors corresponding to a source direction. Then the raw (observed) sky map of the SGWB is the signal convolved with a beam response function that varies with location in the sky. We first present a thorough analytic understanding of the structure of the beam response function using an analytic approach employing the stationary phase approximation. The true sky map is obtained by numerically deconvolving the beam function in the integral (convolution) equation. We adopt the maximum likelihood framework to estimate the true sky map using the conjugate gradient method that has been successfully used in the broadly similar, well-studied CMB map-making problem. We numerically implement and demonstrate the method on signal generated by simulated (unpolarized) SGWB for the GW radiometer consisting of the LIGO pair of detectors at Hanford and Livingston. We include 'realistic' additive Gaussian noise in each data stream based on the LIGO-I noise power spectral density. The extension of the method to multiple baselines and polarized GWB is outlined. In the near future the network of GW detectors, including the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors that will be sensitive to sources within a thousand times larger spatial volume, could provide promising data sets for GW radiometry.

  11. The impact of dipole straylight contamination on the alignment of low multipoles of CMB anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gruppuso; C. Burigana; F. Finelli

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the impact of the Dipole Straylight Contamination (DSC) for the {\\it Planck} satellite on the alignments of vectors associated to the low multipoles of the pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In particular we study how the probability distributions of eighteen estimators for the alignments change when DSC is taken into account. We find that possible residual DSC should leave a non-negligible impact on low multipole alignments for effective values of the fractional far sidelobe integrated response, $p$, larger than $\\sim {\\rm few} \\times 10^{-3}$. The effect is strongly dependent on the intrinsic sky amplitude and weakly dependent on the considered scanning strategy. We find a decrease of the alignment probability between the quadrupole and the dipole and an increase of the alignment probability between the hexadecapole and the dipole (larger is the intrinsic sky amplitude and lower is the contamination). The remaining estimators do not exhibit clear signatures, except, in some cases, considering the largest values of $p$ and the lowest sky amplitudes. Provided that the real sidelobes of the {\\it Planck} receivers in flight conditions will correspond to $p \\lsim {\\rm few} \\times 10^{-3}$, as realistically expected at least in the cosmological frequency channels, and will be known with accuracies better than $\\sim {\\rm few} \\times 10$% allowing for a suitable cleaning during data reduction, {\\it Planck} will be very weakly affected from DSC on the alignments of low multipoles.

  12. CMB: The ultimate test for theoretical models aiming at describing the very early universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mairi Sakellariadou

    2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I will illustrate how one can use the cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements, in order to test theoretical models aiming at describing the early universe.

  13. The Microwave Thermal Emission from the Zodiacal Dust Cloud Predicted with Contemporary Meteoroid Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dikarev, Valery V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions of the microwave thermal emission from the interplanetary dust cloud are made using several contemporary meteoroid models to construct the distributions of cross-section area of dust in space, and applying the Mie light-scattering theory to estimate the temperatures and emissivities of dust particles in broad size and heliocentric distance ranges. In particular, the model of the interplanetary dust cloud by Kelsall et al. (1998, ApJ 508: 44-73), the five populations of interplanetary meteoroids of Divine (1993, JGR 98(E9): 17,029-17,048) and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM) by Dikarev et al. (2004, EMP 95: 109-122) are used in combination with the optical properties of olivine, carbonaceous and iron spherical particles. The Kelsall model has been widely accepted by the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) community. We show, however, that it predicts the microwave emission from interplanetary dust remarkably different from the results of application of the meteoroid engineering m...

  14. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Notari, Alessio, E-mail: riccardo.catena@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  15. Illuminating the background : topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nathan James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results in electric dipole radiation. For an unpolarizedincom- ing radiation. Because the electric field oscillates,

  16. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  17. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  18. Cosmic Microwave Background Project at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi Site Office (FSO)CorporateCosmic Frontier HighCosmic

  19. A new microwave spectroscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salis, Andrew E.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation By Andrew E. Sail* June 1951 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Com ttee A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical.... THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGNING OP A MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .................... 7 III. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .......................... 14 Microwave Source .............................. 17 Microwave Circuit...

  20. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Ferber, Mattison K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  1. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  2. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  3. Steerable wavelet analysis of CMB structures alignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Vielva; Y. Wiaux; E. Martinez-Gonzalez; P. Vandergheynst

    2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the application of a novel methodology for analysing the isotropy of the universe by probing the alignment of local structures in the CMB. The strength of the proposed methodology relies on the steerable wavelet filtering of the CMB signal. One the one hand, the filter steerability renders the computation of the local orientation of the CMB features affordable in terms of computation time. On the other hand, the scale-space nature of the wavelet filtering allows to explore the alignment of the local structures at different scales, probing possible different phenomena. We present the WMAP first-year data analysis recently performed by the same authors (Wiaux et al.), where an extremely significant anisotropy was found. In particular, a preferred plane was detected, having a normal direction with a northern end position close to the northern end of the CMB dipole axis. In addition, a most preferred direction was found in that plane, with a northern end direction very close to the north ecliptic pole. This result synthesised for the first time previously reported anomalies identified in the direction of the dipole and the ecliptic poles axes. In a forthcoming paper (Vielva et al.), we have extended our analysis to the study of individual frequency maps finding first indications for discarding foregrounds as the origin of the anomaly. We have also tested that the preferred orientations are defined by structures homogeneously distributed in the sky, rather than from localised regions. We have also analysed the WMAP 3-year data, finding the same anomaly pattern, although at a slightly lower significance level.

  4. An "Ultrasonic Image" of the Embryonic Universe: CMB Polarization Tests of the Inflationary Paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian G. Keating

    2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter describes how the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background induces a specific type of CMB polarization and describes the first experiment dedicated to testing this most-promising signature of inflation. This experiment, the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) project, has recently embarked on its third observing season. We show preliminary data from the BICEP's first season obtained with a novel polarization modulation mechanism called the "Faraday Rotation Modulator". Our discussion ends with a description of exciting new technology with the potential to probe inflation down to the GUT-scale.

  5. CMB Likelihood Functions for Beginners and Experts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew H. Jaffe; J. R. Bond; P. G. Ferreira; L. E. Knox

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the broad outlines of the appropriate pipeline for cosmological likelihood analysis with CMB data has been known for several years, only recently have we had to contend with the full, large-scale, computationally challenging problem involving both highly-correlated noise and extremely large datasets ($N > 1000$). In this talk we concentrate on the beginning and end of this process. First, we discuss estimating the noise covariance from the data itself in a rigorous and unbiased way; this is essentially an iterated minimum-variance mapmaking approach. We also discuss the unbiased determination of cosmological parameters from estimates of the power spectrum or experimental bandpowers.

  6. Heavy sterile neutrinos, entropy and relativistic energy production, and the relic neutrino background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, George M; Kusenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the implications of the existence of heavy neutral fermions (i.e., sterile neutrinos) for the thermal history of the early universe. In particular, we consider sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the 100 MeV to 500 MeV range, with couplings to ordinary active neutrinos large enough to guarantee thermal and chemical equilibrium at epochs in the early universe with temperatures T > 1 GeV, but in a range to give decay lifetimes from seconds to minutes. Such neutrinos would decouple early, with relic densities comparable to those of photons, but decay out of equilibrium, with consequent prodigious entropy generation prior to, or during, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). Most of the ranges of sterile neutrino rest mass and lifetime considered are at odds with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) limits on the relativistic particle contribution to energy density (e.g., as parameterized by N_eff). However, some sterile neutrino parameters can lead to an acceptable N_eff. These parameter ranges are accompanie...

  7. A perspective on the CMB acoustic peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Marriage

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    CMB angular spectrum measurements suggest a flat universe. This paper clarifies the relation between geometry and the spherical harmonic index of the first acoustic peak ($\\ell_{peak}$). Numerical and analytic calculations show that $\\ell_{peak}$ is approximately a function of $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M$ where $\\Omega_K$ and $\\Omega_M$ are the curvature ($\\Omega_K > 0$ implies an open geometry) and mass density today in units of critical density. Assuming $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M \\ll 1$, one obtains a simple formula for $\\ell_{peak}$, the derivation of which gives another perspective on the widely-recognized $\\Omega_M$-$\\Omega_\\Lambda$ degeneracy in flat models. This formula for near-flat cosmogonies together with current angular spectrum data yields familiar parameter constraints.

  8. CMB non-gaussianity from vector fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peloso, Marco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Planck satellite has recently measured the CMB temperature anisotropies with unprecedented accuracy, and it has provided strong bounds on primordial non-gaussianity. Such bounds constrain models of inflation, and mechanisms that produce the primordial perturbations. We discuss the non-gaussian signatures from the interactions of the inflation ? with spin-1 fields. We study the two different cases in which the inflaton is (i) a pseudo-scalar field with a (?)/(fa) F·F interaction with a vector field, and (ii) a scalar field with a f (?)F{sup 2} interaction. In the first case we obtain the strong limit f{sub a} ? 10{sup 16}GeV on the decay constant. In the second case, specific choices of the function f (?) can lead to a non-gaussianity with a characteristic shape not encountered in standard models of scalar field inflation, and which has also been constrained by Planck.

  9. UV/IR mode mixing and the CMB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palma, Gonzalo A. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Physics Department, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Patil, Subodh P. [Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well understood that spatial noncommutativity, if indeed realized in nature, is a phenomenon whose effects are not just felt at energy scales comparable to the noncommutativity scale. Loop effects can transmit signatures of any underlying noncommutativity to macroscopic scales (a manifestation of a phenomenon that has come to be known as UV/IR mode mixing) and offer a potential lever to constrain the amount of noncommutativity present in nature, if present at all. Field theories defined on noncommutative spaces (realized in string theory when D-branes are coupled to backgrounds of nontrivial RR background flux), can exhibit strong UV/IR mode mixing, manifesting in a nonlocal one-loop effective action. In the context of inflation in the presence of any background noncommutativity, we demonstrate how this UV/IR mixing at the loop level can allow us to place severe constraints on the scale of noncommutativity if we presume inflation is responsible for large-scale structure. We demonstrate that any amount of noncommutativity greatly suppresses the cosmic microwave background power at all observable scales, independent of the scale of inflation, and independent of whether or not the noncommutativity tensor redshifts during inflation, therefore nullifying a very salient and successful prediction of inflation.

  10. CMB distortions from damping of acoustic waves produced by cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sabancilar, Eray; Vachaspati, Tanmay, E-mail: Hiroyuki.Tashiro@asu.edu, E-mail: Eray.Sabancilar@asu.edu, E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study diffusion damping of acoustic waves in the photon-baryon fluid due to cosmic strings, and calculate the induced ?- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background. For cosmic strings with tension within current bounds, their contribution to the spectral distortions is subdominant compared to the distortions from primordial density perturbations.

  11. Parameterization of temperature and spectral distortions in future CMB experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyril Pitrou; Albert Stebbins

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    CMB spectral distortions are induced by Compton collisions with electrons. We review the various schemes to characterize the anisotropic CMB with a non-Planckian spectrum. We advocate using logarithmically averaged temperature moments as the preferred language to describe these spectral distortions, both for theoretical modeling and observations. Numerical modeling is simpler, the moments are frame-independent, and in terms of scattering the mode truncation is exact.

  12. Fast optimal CMB power spectrum estimation with Hamiltonian sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Taylor; M. A. J. Ashdown; M. P. Hobson

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for fast optimal estimation of the temperature angular power spectrum from observations of the cosmic microwave background. We employ a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) sampler to obtain samples from the posterior probability distribution of all the power spectrum coefficients given a set of observations. We compare the properties of the HMC and the related Gibbs sampling approach on low-resolution simulations and find that the HMC method performs favourably even in the regime of relatively low signal-to-noise. We also demonstrate the method on high-resolution data by applying it to simulated WMAP data. Analysis of a WMAP-sized data set is possible in a around eighty hours on a high-end desktop computer. HMC imposes few conditions on the distribution to be sampled and provides us with an extremely flexible approach upon which to build.

  13. CMB multipole measurements in the presence of foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelica de Oliveira-Costa; Max Tegmark

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Most analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background spherical harmonic coefficients a_lm has focused on estimating the power spectrum C_l= rather than the coefficients themselves. We present a minimum-variance method for measuring a_lm given anisotropic noise, incomplete sky coverage and foreground contamination, and apply it to the WMAP data. Our method is shown to constitute lossless data compression in the sense that the widely used quadratic estimators of the power spectrum C_l can be computed directly from our a_lm-estimators. As the Galactic cut is increased, the error bars Delta-a_lm on low multipoles go from being dominated by foregrounds to being dominated by sample variance from other multipoles, with the intervening minimum defining the optimal cut. Applying our method to the WMAP quadrupole and octopole, we find that their previously reported "axis of evil" alignment appears to be rather robust to Galactic cut and foreground contamination.

  14. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  15. CMB and Molecules at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    1999-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It becomes possible now to detect cold molecules at high redshift in the millimeter domain. Since the first discovery in 1992 by Brown and van den Bout of CO lines at z=2.28 in a gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy, nearly ten objects are now known to possess large quantities of molecular gas beyond z=1 and up to z = 5, through millimeter and sub-millimeter emission lines. The continuum dust emission is the most easily detected: in the mm domain, the emission is stronger for the more redshifted objects. For the CO lines, the situation is less favorable, and the reported detections are helped by gravitational amplification. The increase of the CMB temperature T_{bg} with redshift helps the rotational line excitation (especially at high z), but not its detection. Absorption in front of quasars is a more sensitive probe of cold gas at high redshift, able to detect individual clouds of a few solar masses (instead of 10^{10} Mo for emission). From the diffuse components, one can measure the cosmic black body temperature as a function of redshift. The high column densities component allow to observe important molecules not observable from the ground, like O2, H2O and LiH for example.

  16. Heavy sterile neutrinos, entropy and relativistic energy production, and the relic neutrino background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George M. Fuller; Chad T. Kishimoto; Alexander Kusenko

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the implications of the existence of heavy neutral fermions (i.e., sterile neutrinos) for the thermal history of the early universe. In particular, we consider sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the 100 MeV to 500 MeV range, with couplings to ordinary active neutrinos large enough to guarantee thermal and chemical equilibrium at epochs in the early universe with temperatures T > 1 GeV, but in a range to give decay lifetimes from seconds to minutes. Such neutrinos would decouple early, with relic densities comparable to those of photons, but decay out of equilibrium, with consequent prodigious entropy generation prior to, or during, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). Most of the ranges of sterile neutrino rest mass and lifetime considered are at odds with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) limits on the relativistic particle contribution to energy density (e.g., as parameterized by N_eff). However, some sterile neutrino parameters can lead to an acceptable N_eff. These parameter ranges are accompanied by considerable dilution of the ordinary background relic neutrinos, possibly an adverse effect on BBN, but sometimes fall in a range which can explain measured neutrino masses in some particle physics models. A robust signature of these sterile neutrinos would be a measured N_eff not equal to 3 coupled with no cosmological signal for neutrino rest mass when the detection thresholds for these probes are below laboratory-established neutrino mass values, either as established by the atmospheric neutrino oscillation scale or direct measurements with, e.g., KATRIN or neutrino-less double beta decay experiments.

  17. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  18. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  19. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  20. CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps Rajib Saha,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souradeep, Tarun

    CMB anisotropy power spectrum using linear combinations of WMAP maps Rajib Saha,1,2,3 Simon Prunet year WMAP data by Saha et al. 2006. All previous estimates of the power spectrum of the CMB are based

  1. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bennett; R. S. Hill; G. Hinshaw; M. R. Nolta; N. Odegard; L. Page; D. N. Spergel; J. L. Weiland; E. L. Wright; M. Halpern; N. Jarosik; A. Kogut; M. Limon; S. S. Meyer; G. S. Tucker; E. Wollack

    2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the CMB from foreground emission. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We construct a model of the Galactic emission components. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta ~ -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta ~ -3) in the halo. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta < -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral index is also steep in the WMAP bands, with beta ~ 2.2. Microwave and H alpha measurements of the ionized gas agree. Spinning dust emission is limited to < ~5% of the Ka-band foreground emission. A catalog of 208 point sources is presented. Derived source counts suggest a contribution to the anisotropy power from unresolved sources of (15.0 +- 1.4) 10^{-3} microK^2 sr at Q-band and negligible levels at V-band and W-band.

  2. Nonisotropy in the CMB power spectrum in single field inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Dutta, Koushik [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Ross, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaldi et al.[C. R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, L. Kofman, and A. Linde, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 07 (2003) 002] have suggested that an initial period of kinetic energy domination in single field inflation may explain the lack of CMB power at large angular scales. We note that in this situation it is natural that there also be a spatial gradient in the initial value of the inflaton field, and that this can provide a spatial asymmetry in the observed CMB power spectrum, manifest at low values of l. We investigate the nature of this asymmetry and comment on its relation to possible anomalies at low l.

  3. Non Thermal Features in the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mangano

    2006-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I review some of the basic information on the Cosmic Neutrino Background momentum distribution. In particular, I discuss how present data from several cosmological observables such as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure power spectrum constrain possible deviations from a standard Fermi-Dirac thermal distribution.

  4. http://cmb.ornl.gov Center for Molecular Biophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the Biosciences Division of the Energy and Engineering Sciences Directorate at ORNL and with the Department, incorporating elements of theoretical physics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and simulation the Decades Five Germans in Tennessee Publications Staff CMB External Funding Supercomputer Allocations Awards

  5. Non-gaussianity in the foreground-reduced CMB maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bernui; M. J. Reboucas

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    [Abridged]: A detection or nondetection of primordial non-Gaussianity by using the CMB data is crucial not only to discriminate inflationary models but also to test alternative scenarios. Non-Gaussianity offers, therefore, a powerful probe of the physics of the primordial universe. The extraction of primordial non-Gaussianity is a difficult enterprise since several effects of non-primordial nature can produce non-Gaussianity. Most of the Gaussianity analyses of CMB data have been performed by using part-sky frequency, where masks are used to deal with the galactic diffuse foreground emission. However, full-sky map seems to be potentially more appropriate to test for Gaussianity of the CMB data. On the other hand, masks can induce bias in some non-Gaussianity analyses. Here we use two recent large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators, based on skewness and kurtosis of large-angle patches of CMB maps, to examine the question of non-Gaussianity in the available full-sky five-year and seven-year WMAP maps. We show that these full-sky foreground-reduced maps present a significant deviation from Gaussianity of different levels, which vary with the foreground-reducing procedures. We also make a Gaussianity analysis of the foreground-reduced five-year and seven-year WMAP maps with a KQ75 mask, and compare with the similar analysis performed with the full-sky foreground-reduced maps. This comparison shows a significant reduction in the levels of non-Gaussianity when the mask is employed, which provides indications on the suitability of the foreground-reduced maps as Gaussian reconstructions of the full-sky CMB.

  6. Tensor Microwave Background Fluctuations for Large Multipole Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Flauger; Steven Weinberg

    2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present approximate formulas for the tensor BB, EE, TT, and TE multipole coefficients for large multipole order l. The error in using the approximate formula for the BB multipole coefficients is less than cosmic variance for l>10. These approximate formulas make various qualitative properties of the calculated multipole coefficients transparent: specifically, they show that, whatever values are chosen for cosmological parameters, the tensor EE multipole coefficients will always be larger than the BB coefficients for all l>15, and that these coefficients will approach each other for lmultipole coefficients depend on cosmological parameters.

  7. The pre-inflationary vacuum in the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian A. Powell; William H. Kinney

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the effects on the primordial power spectrum of a period of radiation-dominated expansion prior to the inflationary era. If inflation lasts a total of only 60 e-folds or so, the boundary condition for quantum modes cannot be taken in the short-wavelength limit as in the standard perturbation calculation. Instead, the boundary condition is set by the vacuum state of the prior radiation-dominated epoch, which only corresponds to the inflationary vacuum state in the ultraviolet limit. This altered vacuum state results in a modulation of the inflationary power spectrum. We calculate the modification to a best-fit model from the WMAP3 data set, and find that power is suppressed at large scales. The modified power spectrum is favored only very weakly by the data.

  8. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options GaryandEnergy,science, and technology

  9. Constraints on dark matter annihilation from CMB observations before Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the bounds on the dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section using the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background measurements from WMAP9, SPT'11 and ACT'10. We consider DM with mass in the MeV–TeV range annihilating 100% into either an e{sup +}e{sup ?} or a ?{sup +}?{sup ?} pair. We consider a realistic energy deposition model, which includes the dependence on the redshift, DM mass and annihilation channel. We exclude the canonical thermal relic abundance cross section ((?v) = 3 × 10{sup ?26}cm{sup 3}s{sup ?1}) for DM masses below 30 GeV and 15 GeV for the e{sup +}e{sup ?} and ?{sup +}?{sup ?} channels, respectively. A priori, DM annihilating in halos could also modify the reionization history of the Universe at late times. We implement a realistic halo model taken from results of state-of-the-art N-body simulations and consider a mixed reionization mechanism, consisting on reionization from DM as well as from first stars. We find that the constraints on DM annihilation remain unchanged, even when large uncertainties on the halo model parameters are considered.

  10. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  11. Microwave coupler and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  12. BBN And The CMB Constrain Neutrino Coupled Light WIMPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nollett, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) In the presence of a light WIMP (mass m_chi 35 MeV, equivalent to no light WIMP at all. Without any light WIMP, BBN alone prefers Delta N_nu = 0.50 +- 0.23, favoring neither Delta N_nu = 0, nor a fully thermalized sterile neutrino (Delta N_nu = 1). This result is consistent with the CMB constraint, N_eff = 3.30 +- 0.27, limiting "new physics" between BBN and recombination. Combining BBN and CMB data gives Delta N_nu = 0.35 +- 0.16 and N_eff = 3.40 +- 0.16; while BBN and the CMB combined require Delta N_nu > 0 at ~98% confidence, they disfavor Delta N_nu > 1 at > 99% confidence. Allowing a neutrino-coupled light WIMP extends the allowed range slightly downward for Delta N_nu and slightly upward for N_eff simultaneously, leaving best-fit values unchanged.

  13. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  14. Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop (held in Long Beach, CA, on July 25, 2012), academic and industry experts discussed the existing and emerging electrotechnologies – such as microwave ...

  15. CMB constraint on non-Gaussianity in isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikage, Chiaki [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the CMB constraints on non-Gaussianity in CDM isocurvature perturbations. Non-Gaussian isocurvature perturbations can be produced in various models at the very early stage of the Universe. Since the isocurvature perturbations little affect the structure formation at late times, CMB is the best probe of isocurvature non-Gaussianity at least in the near future. In this paper, we focus on non-Gaussian curvature and isocurvature perturbations of the local-type, which are uncorrelated and in the form ? = ?{sub G}+(3/5)f{sub NL}(?{sub G}{sup 2}?(?{sub G}{sup 2})) and S = S{sub G}+f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}(S{sub G}?(S{sub G}{sup 2})), and constrain the non-linearity parameter of isocurvature perturbations, f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}, as well as the curvature one f{sub NL}. For this purpose, we employ several state-of-art techniques for the analysis of CMB data and simulation. Assuming that isocurvature perturbations are subdominant, we apply our method to the WMAP 7-year data of temperature anisotropy and obtain constraints on a combination ?{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}, where ? is the ratio of the power spectrum of isocurvature perturbations to that of the adiabatic ones. When the adiabatic perturbations are assumed to be Gaussian, we obtained a constraint ?{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)} = 40±66 assuming the power spectrum of isocurvature perturbations is scale-invariant. When we assume that the adiabatic perturbations can also be non-Gaussian, we obtain f{sub NL} = 38±24 and ?{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)} = ?8±72. We also discuss implications of our results for the axion CDM isocurvature model.

  16. Inflation and CMB Anisotropy from Quantum Metric Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonid Marochnik; Daniel Usikov

    2015-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a model of cosmological evolution of the early and late Universe which is consistent with observational data and naturally explains the origin of inflation and dark energy. We show that the de Sitter accelerated expansion of the FLRW space with no matter fields (hereinafter, empty space) is its natural state, and the model does not require either a scalar field or cosmological constant or any other hypotheses. This is due to the fact that the de Sitter state is an exact solution of the rigorous mathematically consistent equations of one-loop quantum gravity for the empty FLRW space that are finite off the mass shell. Space without matter fields is not empty, as it always has the natural quantum fluctuations of the metric, i.e. gravitons. Therefore, the empty (in this sense) space is filled with gravitons, which have the backreaction effect on its evolution over time forming a self-consistent de Sitter instanton leading to the exponentially accelerated expansion of the Universe. At the start and the end of cosmological evolution, the Universe is assumed to be empty, which explains the origin of inflation and dark energy. This scenario leads to the prediction that the signs of the parameter 1+w should be opposite in both cases, and this fact is consistent with observations. The fluctuations of the number of gravitons lead to fluctuations of their energy density which in turn leads to the observed CMB temperature anisotropy of the order of 10^-5 and CMB polarization. In the frame of this scenario, it is not a hypothetical scalar field that generates inflation and relic gravitational waves but on the contrary, the gravitational waves (gravitons) generate dark energy, inflation, CMB anisotropy and polarization.

  17. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Notari, Alessio, E-mail: riccardo.catena@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup ?3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance ? for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  18. Effect of radiation-like solid on CMB anisotropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Balek; Matej Škovran

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the power in the lowest multipoles of CMB anisotropies in the presence of radiation-like solid, a hypothetical new kind of radiation with nonzero shear modulus. If only the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe effect is taken into account, the shear modulus to energy density ratio must be in absolute value of order $10^{-5}$ or less for the theory to be consistent with observations within cosmic variance. With the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect switched on, the constraint is relaxed almost by two orders of magnitude.

  19. Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  1. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  2. Evidence of cross-correlation between the CMB lensing and the gamma-ray sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Fornengo; L. Perotto; M. Regis; S. Camera

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the measurement of the angular power spectrum of cross-correlation between the unresolved component of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray sky-maps and the CMB lensing potential map reconstructed by the Planck satellite. The matter distribution in the Universe determines the bending of light coming from the last scattering surface. At the same time, the matter density drives the growth history of astrophysical objects, including their capability at generating non-thermal phenomena, which in turn give rise to gamma-ray emissions. The Planck lensing map provides information on the integrated distribution of matter, while the integrated history of gamma-ray emitters is imprinted in the Fermi-LAT sky maps. We report here the first evidence of their correlation. We find that the multipole dependence of the cross-correlation measurement is in agreement with current models of the gamma-ray luminosity function for AGN and star forming galaxies, with a statistical evidence of 3.0$\\sigma$. Moreover, its amplitude can in general be matched only assuming that these extra-galactic emitters are also the bulk contribution of the measured isotopic gamma-ray background (IGRB) intensity. This leaves little room for a big contribution from galactic sources to the IGRB measured by Fermi-LAT, pointing toward a direct evidence of the extragalactic origin of the IGRB.

  3. FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUSING MICROWAVE RADAR AND MICROWAVE-INDUCED THERMOACOUSTICS FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION Evgeny in the microwave range. Microwave-radar and microwave-induced thermoacoustic methods both struggle when-induced thermoacoustic (MIT) methods measure and process the acoustic signals induced by differential microwave heating

  4. Low-l CMB Power Loss in String Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco G. Pedro; Alexander Westphal

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The lack of power on large scales (l < 40) might have been observed by the PLANCK satellite. We argue that this putative feature can be explained by a phase of fast roll at the onset of inflation. We show that in the context of single field models what is required is an asymmetric inflection point model of which fibre inflation is a string motivated example. We study the ability of fibre inflation to generate a suppression of the CMB 2-point function power at low l, finding that the potential derived from string loops is not steep enough for this purpose. We introduce a steeper contribution to the potential, that dominates away from the inflationary region, and show that if properly tuned it can indeed lead to a spectrum with lack of power at large scales.

  5. Dark energy rest frame and the CMB dipole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio L. Maroto

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark energy can be described as a perfect fluid, then, apart from its equation of state relating energy density and pressure, we should also especify the corresponding rest frame. Since dark energy is typically decoupled from the rest of components of the universe, in principle such a frame could be different from that of matter and radiation. In this work we consider the potential observable effects of the motion of dark energy and the possibility to measure the dark energy velocity relative to matter. In particular we consider the modification of the usual interpretation of the CMB dipole and its implications for the determination of matter bulk flows on very large scales. We also comment on the possible origin of a dark energy flow and its evolution in different models.

  6. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Francesca V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB) analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP-photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP-photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP-photon conversion prob...

  7. On the wavelet analysis of CMB time ordered data: application to Archeops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Macias-Perez; A. Bourrachot; the ARCHEOPS Collaboration

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an alternative analysis of CMB time ordered data (TOD) using a wavelet-based representation of the data time-frequency plane. We demonstrate that the wavelet transform decorrelates $1/f$-type Gaussian stationary noise and permits a simple and functional description of locally stationary processes. In particular, this makes possible the generalization of the classical algorithms of map making and CMB power spectrum estimation to the case of locally stationary 1/f type noise. As an example, we present a wavelet based algorithm for the destriping of CMB-like maps. In addition, we describe a wavelet-based analysis of the Archeops data including time-frequency visualization, wavelet destriping and filtering of the TOD. These filtered data was used to produce polarized maps of Galactic dust diffuse emission. Finally, we describe the modeling of the non-stationarity on the Archeops noise for the estimation of the CMB power spectrum.

  8. Observing the CMB at High-l using the VSA and AMI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela C. Taylor

    2003-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss two experiments - the Very Small Array (VSA) and the Arcminute MicroKelvin Imager (AMI) - and their prospects for observing the CMB at high angular multipoles. Whilst the VSA is primarily designed to observe primary anisotropies in the CMB, AMI is designed to image secondary anisotropies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The combined l-range of these two instruments is between l = 150 and ~10000.

  9. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  10. Predictions of microwavePredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresbreakdown in rf structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    Predictions of microwave breakdownPredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresin rf structures #12;2 of the breakdown phenomenon). 2. Electron interaction with microwave field (rough estimates of parameters which in communication systems Predictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresPredictions of microwave breakdown

  11. Towards a free-free template for CMB foregrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, C; Davis, R J

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-sky template map of the Galactic free-free foreground emission component is increasingly important for high sensitivity CMB experiments. We use the recently published \\ha data of both the northern and southern skies as the basis for such a template. The first step is to correct the \\ha maps for dust absorption using the 100 $\\mu$m dust maps of Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). We show that for a range of longitudes, the Galactic latitude distribution of absorption suggests that it is 33 per cent of the full extragalactic absorption. A reliable absorption-corrected \\ha map can be produced for $\\sim 95$ per cent of the sky; the area for which a template cannot be recovered is the Galactic plane area $|b| 5^{\\circ}$, $l=260^{\\circ}-0^{\\circ}-160^{\\circ}$ and some isolated dense dust clouds at intermediate latitudes. The second step is to convert the dust-corrected \\ha data into a predicted radio surface brightness. The free-free emission formula is revised to give an accurate expression (1 per...

  12. String Theory clues for the low-$\\ell$ CMB ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitazawa, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking" is a peculiar string-scale mechanism that can unpair Bose and Fermi excitations in orientifold models. It results from the simultaneous presence, in the vacuum, of collections of D-branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS, and is closely tied to the scale of string excitations. It also leaves behind, for a mixing of dilaton and internal breathing mode, an exponential potential that is just too steep for a scalar to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, in this class of models the scalar can generically bounce off the exponential wall, and this dynamics brings along, in the power spectrum, an infrared depression typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak. We elaborate on a possible link between this type of bounce and the low-$\\ell$ end of the CMB angular power spectrum. For the first 32 multipoles, one can reach a 50 % reduction in $\\chi^{\\,2}$ with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting.

  13. The CMB and the measure of the multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael P. Salem

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of eternal inflation, cosmological predictions depend on the choice of measure to regulate the diverging spacetime volume. The spectrum of inflationary perturbations is no exception, as we demonstrate by comparing the predictions of the fat geodesic and causal patch measures. To highlight the effect of the measure---as opposed to any effects related to a possible landscape of vacua---we take the cosmological model, including the model of inflation, to be fixed. We also condition on the average CMB temperature accompanying the measurement. Both measures predict a 1-point expectation value for the gauge-invariant Newtonian potential, which takes the form of a (scale-dependent) monopole, in addition to a related contribution to the 3-point correlation function, with the detailed form of these quantities differing between the measures. However, for both measures both effects are well within cosmic variance. Our results make clear the theoretical relevance of the measure, and at the same time validate the standard inflationary predictions in the context of eternal inflation.

  14. Oscillations in the CMB from Axion Monodromy Inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flauger, Raphael; /Texas U.; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xu, Gang; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.

  15. Oscillations in the CMB from axion monodromy inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; Xu, Gang [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: raphael.flauger@yale.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: ep295@cornell.edu, E-mail: awestpha@stanford.edu, E-mail: gx26@cornell.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.

  16. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos, Dennis M. (Williamsburg, VA); Diggs, Jessie (Norfolk, VA); Ametepe, Joseph D. (Roanoke, VA)

    2002-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  17. David Smith Academic background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

  18. Microsoft External Research Backgrounder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    are undeniable. M icrosoft Research believes that collaboration between the public and private sectors, combined with the power of computing, can help researchers as they work to solve the most urgent challenges in medicine, Building the Future of Technology Microsoft External Research Backgrounder #12;The team promotes research

  19. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration...

  20. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  1. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Peter M. (611 Montclair, College Station, TX 77840)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  2. Quantum backgrounds and QFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Suk Park; John Terilla; Thomas Tradler

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the concept of a quantum background and a functor QFT. In the case that the QFT moduli space is smooth formal, we construct a flat quantum superconnection on a bundle over QFT which defines algebraic structures relevant to correlation functions in quantum field theory. We go further and identify chain level generalizations of correlation functions which should be present in all quantum field theories.

  3. LTS Background - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home asLCLS Experimental RunProcedure Doc. ID:Background

  4. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  5. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  6. Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Wenhai Han Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode Application Note Introduction Mapping through" and meanwhile achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution. With the invention of scanning been developed to probe materials properties. These include scanning near-field to scanning microwave

  7. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  8. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis M. (Oxford, NY); Darling, Timothy W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Rees, Daniel E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  9. Dark world and the standard model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Gang

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    by the latest of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background). The reason for the accelerated universe is the existence of dark energy. In this dissertation, we discuss the relationship between dark matter, dark energy, reheating and the standard model, and we find...

  10. Dark world and the standard model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Gang

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    by the latest of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background). The reason for the accelerated universe is the existence of dark energy. In this dissertation, we discuss the relationship between dark matter, dark energy, reheating and the standard model, and we find...

  11. COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales 44106, USA Abstract COMPASS is an on-axis 2.6-m telescope coupled to a correlation polarimeter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Instrument design COMPASS was designed to measure the po

  12. Bounds on QCD axion mass and primordial magnetic field from CMB $?$-distortion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damian Ejlli

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The oscillation of the CMB photons into axions can cause CMB spectral distortion in the presence of large scale magnetic field. With the COBE limit on the $\\mu$ parameter and a homogeneous magnetic field with strength $B\\lesssim 3.2$ nG at the horizon scale, stronger lower limit on the axion mass in comparison with the limit of the ADMX experiment is found to be, $4.8\\times 10^{-5}$ eV $\\lesssim m_a$ for the KSVZ axion model. On the other hand, using the experimental limit on the axion mass $3.5\\times 10^{-6}$ eV $\\lesssim m_a$ from the ADMX experiment together with the COBE bound on $\\mu$, is found $B\\lesssim 53$ nG for the KSVZ axion model and $B\\lesssim 141$ nG for DFSZ axion model, for a homogeneous magnetic field with coherence length at the present epoch $\\lambda_B\\sim 1.3$ Mpc. Limits on $B$ and $m_a$ for PIXIE/PRISM expected sensitivity on $\\mu$ are derived. If CMB $\\mu$ distortion would be detected by the future space missions PIXIE/PRISM and assuming that the strength of the large scale magnetic field is close to its canonical value, $B\\sim 1-3$ nG, axions in the mass range $2\\, \\mu$eV - $3\\, \\mu$eV would be potential candidates of CMB $\\mu$-distortion.

  13. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  15. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  16. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  17. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Folz, Diane C. (Gainesville, FL)

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  18. Microwave emissions from police radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, John Michael

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1994 Major Subject...: Industrial Hygiene MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM POLICE RADAR A Thesis by JOHN MICHAEL FINK Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE John P. Wag (Chair of Committee) Jero e J. C...

  19. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with ?m{sub ?} = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ??} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (??0?) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ??0? experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ??0? events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  20. Power spectrum sensitivity of raster-scanned CMB experiments in the presence of 1/f noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Crawford

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of 1/f noise on the ability of a particular class of Cosmic Microwave Background experiments to measure the angular power spectrum of temperature anisotropy. We concentrate on experiments that operate primarily in raster-scan mode and develop formalism that allows us to calculate analytically the effect of 1/f noise on power spectrum sensitivity for this class of experiments and determine the benefits of raster-scanning at different angles relative to the sky field versus scanning at only a single angle (cross-linking versus not cross-linking). We find that the sensitivity of such experiments in the presence of 1/f noise is not significantly degraded at moderate spatial scales (l ~ 100) for reasonable values of scan speed and 1/f knee. We further find that the difference between cross-linked and non-cross-linked experiments is small in all cases and that the non-cross-linked experiments are preferred from a raw sensitivity standpoint in the noise-dominated regime -- i.e., in experiments in which the instrument noise is greater than the sample variance of the target power spectrum at the scales of interest. This analysis does not take into account systematic effects.

  1. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  2. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  3. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  4. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  5. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  6. MMS 2007 Mediterranean Microwave Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the radiating slots. The design was based on electromagnetic simulations made using the CST Microwave Studio substrate metallization has been used to improve radiation properties. The simulated radiation efficiency is one of the possible solutions for the development of radiofrequency (RF) systems [1], for example

  7. 6, 54275456, 2006 Passive microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5427­5456, 2006 Passive microwave 3-D polarization effects from rainy clouds A. Battaglia radiometers A. Battaglia 1 , C. Simmer 1 , and H. Czekala 2 1 Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn April 2006 ­ Published: 27 June 2006 Correspondence to: A. Battaglia (batta@uni-bonn.de) 5427 #12;ACPD 6

  8. Backgrounds of squeezed relic photons and their spatial correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Giovannini

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the production of multi-photons squeezed states induced by the time variation of the (Abelian) gauge coupling constant in a string cosmological context. Within a fully quantum mechanical approach we solve the time evolution of the mean number of produced photons in terms of the squeezing parameters and in terms of the gauge coupling. We compute the first (amplitude interference) and second order (intensity interference) correlation functions of the magnetic part of the photon background. The photons produced thanks to the variation of the dilaton coupling are strongly bunched for the realistic case where the growth of the dilaton coupling is required to explain the presence of large scale magnetic fields and, possibly of a Faraday rotation of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  9. A novel approach to reconstructing signals of isotropy violation from a masked CMB sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluri, Pavan K; Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical isotropy (SI) is one of the fundamental assumptions made in cosmological model building. This assumption is now being rigorously tested using the almost full sky measurements of the CMB anisotropies. A major hurdle in any such analysis is to handle the large biases induced due to the process of masking. We have developed a new method of analysis, using the bipolar spherical harmonic basis functions, in which we semi-analytically evaluate the modifications to SI violation induced by the mask. The method developed here is generic and can be potentially used to search for any arbitrary form of SI violation. We specifically demonstrate the working of this method by recovering the Doppler boost signal from a set of simulated, masked CMB skies.

  10. Foreground contamination of the WMAP CMB maps from the perspective of the matched circle test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Then

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    WMAP has provided CMB maps of the full sky. The raw data is subject to foreground contamination, in particular near to the Galactic plane. Foreground cleaned maps have been derived, e.g., the internal linear combination (ILC) map of Bennett et al. and the reduced foreground TOH map of Tegmark et al. Using S statistics we examine whether residual foreground contamination is left over in the foreground cleaned maps. In particular, we specify which parts of the foreground cleaned maps are sufficiently accurate for the circle-in-the-sky signature. We generalise the S statistic, called D statistic, such that the circle test can deal with CMB maps in which the contaminated regions of the sky are excluded with masks.

  11. CMB low multipole alignments in the $\\mathbf{\\Lambda}$CDM and Dipolar models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polastri, L; Natoli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dipolar model \\cite{Gordon:2005ai} has attracted much interest because it may phenomenologically explain the CMB hemispherical power asymmetry found in the WMAP and Planck data. Since such a model explicitly breaks isotropy at large angular scales it is natural to wonder whether it can also explain other CMB directional anomalies. Focusing on the low $\\ell$ alignments and assuming $\\Lambda$CDM, we confirm that the quadrupole/octupole and the dipole/quadrupole/octupole alignments are anomalous with a significance up to $99.9\\%$ C.L., for both WMAP and Planck data. Moreover, we show for the first time that such features are anomalous also in the dipolar model, roughly at the same level as in $\\Lambda$CDM. We conclude that the dipolar model does not provide a better fit to the data than the $\\Lambda$CDM.

  12. MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

  13. New mechanism for nonlocality from string theory: UV-IR quantum entanglement and its imprints on the CMB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minton, Gregory; Sahakian, Vatche [Harvey Mudd College, Physics Department, 241 Platt Boulevard, Claremont, California 91711 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Puff field theories (PFT) arise as the decoupling limits of D3 branes in a Melvin universe and exhibit spatially nonlocal dynamics. Unlike other realizations of nonlocality in string theory, PFTs have full SO(3) rotational symmetry. In this work, we analyze the strongly coupled regime of a PFT through gravitational holography. We find a novel mechanism at the heart of the phenomenon of nonlocality: a quantum entanglement of UV and IR dynamics. In the holographic bulk, this translates to an apparent horizon splitting the space into two regions--with the UV completion of the PFT sitting at the horizon. We unravel this intricate UV-IR setting and devise a prescription for computing correlators that extends the original dictionary of holographic renormalization group. We then implement a cosmological scenario where PFT correlators set the initial conditions for primordial fluctuations. We compute the associated power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and find that the scenario allows for a distinct stringy signature.

  14. Non-Gaussianity in the HILC foreground-reduced three-year WMAP CMB map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bernui; M. J. Reboucas

    2010-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A detection or nondetection of primordial non-Gaussianity in the CMB data is essential not only to test alternative models of the physics of the early universe but also to discriminate among classes of inflationary models. Given this far reaching consequences of such a non-Gaussianity detection for our understanding of the physics of the early universe, it is important to employ alternative indicators in order to have further information about the Gaussianity features of CMB that may be helpful for identifying their origins. In this way, a considerable effort has recently gone into the design of non-Gaussianity indicators, and in their application in the search for deviation from Gaussianity in the CMB data. Recently we have proposed two new large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators which provide measures of the departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. We have used these indicators to carry out analyses of Gaussianity of the single frequency bands and of the available foreground-reduced {\\it five-year} maps with and without the KQ75 mask. Here we extend and complement these studies by performing a new analysis of deviation from Gaussianity of the {\\it three-year} harmonic ILC (HILC) foreground-reduced full-sky and KQ75 masked maps obtained from WMAP data. We show that this full-sky foreground-reduced maps presents a significant deviation from Gaussianity, which is brought down to a level of consistency with Gaussianity when the KQ75 mask is employed.

  15. Distinguishing interacting dark energy from wCDM with CMB, lensing, and baryon acoustic oscillation data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valiviita, Jussi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the Planck 2013 CMB temperature anisotropy and lensing data, and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain a phenomenological $w$CDM model, where dark matter and dark energy interact. We assume time-dependent equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treat dark matter and dark energy as fluids whose energy-exchange rate is proportional to the dark-matter density. The CMB data alone leave a strong degeneracy between the interaction rate and the physical CDM density parameter today, $\\omega_c$, allowing a large interaction rate $|\\Gamma| \\sim H_0$. However, as has been known for a while, the BAO data break this degeneracy. Moreover, we exploit the CMB lensing potential likelihood, which probes the matter perturbations at redshift $z \\sim 2$ and is very sensitive to the growth of structure, and hence one of the tools for discerning between the $\\Lambda$CDM model and its alternatives. However, we find that in the non-phantom models ($w_{\\mathrm{de}}>-1$), the constraints remain unchange...

  16. Dark matter annihilation and its effect on CMB and Hydrogen 21 cm observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, the annihilation of these particles in halos results in energy being released, some of which is absorbed by gas, causing partial ionization and heating. It is shown that early ionization results in a transfer of power to higher multipoles in the large angle CMB polarization power spectra. Future CMB experiments may be able to detect this effect in the case of certain light dark matter models. We also investigate the effect of gas heating on the expected H21 cm power spectrum. Heating by particle annihilation results in a decrease in the amplitude of the H21 cm power spectrum as the gas temperature $T$ becomes comparable to the CMB temperature $T_\\gamma$, and then an increase as $T > T_\\gamma$. The result is a minimum in the power spectrum at the redshift for which $T \\approx T_\\gamma$. Only certain models (low particle masses $\\sim$ 10 GeV, or favorable halo parameters) show this effect. Within these models, observations of the H21 cm power sp...

  17. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  18. Selected applications of microwave radiometric techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean, Buford Randall

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detection capability is more promising. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines near Weslaco, Texas to deter- mine the capability of a microwave radiometer system to monitor soil moisture content. An extensive... was supported by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant NsG 239-62. The cooperation of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Dr. Thomas Schmugge in conducting the airborne microwave radiometer mission is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Craig L...

  19. Scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Signal, resolution, and contrast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Signal, resolution, and contrast Geng Ku Scanning thermoacoustic tomography was explored in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum ultrasonic transducer detected the time-resolved thermoacoustic signals. Based on the microwave

  20. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (440 Sugarwood Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Morrow, Marvin S. (Rte. #3, Box 113, Kingston, TN 37763)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build a facility in the Sandia Science & Technology Park (SS&TP) in 1998 for their Photovoltaics Division, which builds solar cells for the space industry. This division is built...

  2. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    files in future will now work correctly with that setting. (back to TOC) Importing the SSL Certificate in MSIE7 on Windows Vista Connecting to a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) enabled...

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intalco Plant in Ferndale, Washington. This Agreement obligates BPA to supply 300 MW of electric power to Alcoa's Intalco Plant for a term of nine years and nine months, from...

  4. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell...

  5. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    workers, airport maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile lighting units are powered...

  6. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas price forecast on the values of the secondary energy revenue credits, balancing power purchase expenses, augmentation expenses and 4(h)(10)(c) credits used when...

  7. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meeting of short-term load. BPA will look continuously for marketing opportunities in power-related trading and financial transactions. BPA's objective will be to improve net...

  8. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solutions in the area to meet its space needs and increase employee efficiency and productivity For the past 10 years, BPA has provided work space for area employees through a...

  9. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Bureau of Reclamation signed 10-year agreements - known as the Columbia Basin Fish Accords - with four Northwest tribes and two states on May 2, 2008. These historic...

  10. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PTPC's WTL given the relevant specific information about the load, outages, and load profile of PTPC. PTPC and Jefferson PUD are receiving no benefit other than that...

  11. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnE P T E M B E R 20

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Background

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  18. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  19. Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  20. Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOEprogramJ U LY 2Babbage

  2. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  5. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  6. Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced...

  7. active microwave medium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that silica shell addition through microwave synthesis Park, Jeong Chan; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y. 2012-01-01 149 MURI High Energy Microwave Sources...

  8. Constraining SUSY with Heavy Scalars -- using the CMB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Iliesiu; David J. E. Marsh; Kavilan Moodley; Scott Watson

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    If low-energy SUSY exists, LHC data favors a high mass scale for scalar superpartners (above a TeV), while sfermions and the dark matter can be parametrically lighter -- leading to a so-called split-spectrum. When combining this fact with the motivation from fundamental theory for shift-symmetric scalars (moduli) prior to SUSY breaking, this leads to a non-thermal history for the early universe. Such a history implies different expectations for the microscopic properties of dark matter, as well as the possibility of dark radiation and a cosmic axion background. In this paper we examine how correlated and mixed isocurvature perturbations are generated in such models, as well as the connection to dark radiation. WMAP constraints on multiple correlated isocurvature modes allow up to half of the primordial perturbations to be isocurvature, contrary to the case of a single isocurvature mode where perturbations must be dominantly adiabatic. However, such bounds are strongly prior dependent, and have not been investigated with the latest Planck data. In this paper we use the example of a SUSY non-thermal history to establish theoretical priors on cosmological parameters. Of particular interest, we find that priors on dark radiation are degenerate with those on the total amount of isocurvature -- they are inversely correlated. Dark radiation is tightly constrained in the early universe and has been used recently to place stringent constraints on string-based approaches to beyond the standard model. Our results suggest such constraints can require more input from theory. Data from cosmological probes -- such as Planck -- can help guide model building in models of the MSSM, split-SUSY, and beyond. Our model also demonstrates the utility of UV models in constructing cosmological priors. (abridged)

  9. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  10. Microwave Meals in a Hurry.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of time to prepare complete meals. Select dishes that are family favorites and use tested recipes . Learning to adapt recipes for microwave cooking comes. later with experience. In general, advance meal planning is the key to getting the most out.... For example, whole carrots stay hot longer than sliced carrots. Cooking and then serving food in the same dish extends holding time. So does wrapping or cov ering the food in plastic wrap or foil, or covering it with a lid. Cook foods with a long holding...

  11. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  12. Microwave cavity search for paraphotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povey, Rhys; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 WA (Australia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this proceeding we report the first results of a microwave cavity search for hidden sector photons. Using a pair of isolated resonant cavities we look for 'light shining through a wall' from photon--hidden sector photon oscillations. Our prototype experiment consists of two cylindrical, copper cavities stacked axially inside a single vacuum chamber. At a hidden sector photon mass of 39.58 mueV we place an upper limit on the kinetic mixing parameter chi at 7.8x10{sup -6}. Whilst this result is inside already established limits our experiment has great scope for improvement.

  13. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  14. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with the BICEP Telescope at the South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Yuki David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loss tangent ? 0.01 a PETP (Mylar) PTFE (Teflon) Thicknessaluminum, but fortunately PP and PETP had higher contractionand made both the PP and PETP sheets loose even though these

  15. The Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background At Degree Angular Scales.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are 36­39.5, 39.5­43, 43­46 GHz. The six channels in each radiometer view the sky in a single­axis parabola. The FWHM beam in K a band is 1:42 \\Sigma 0:02 ffi and in Q band is 1:04 \\Sigma 0:02 ffi . After

  16. THE WHITE MOUNTAIN POLARIMETER TELESCOPE AND AN UPPER LIMIT ON COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    . 2005; O'Dwyer et al. 2005; Donzelli 2006), and uses iden- tical aluminum coated carbon fiber reflectors gear.12 This table, as described in Mei

  17. A New Upper Limit on the Large Angular Scale Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    , dark matter, and dark energy to the overall energy density of the universe. In addition to being of a new breed of highly-sensitive instruments that will one day map out this interesting property knowledge, Brian Keat- ing, also deserves much credit. Thanks to him I have finally memorized the radiometer

  18. Detec%on of compact sources in complex microwave and submillimeter backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    to learn things about the origin the Universe, it's age, matter and energy content, geometry, dynamics, etc beams (non- gaussianity and non-circularity of the detectors), scanning strategy, calibration sources the detection and the characterization of a compact sources (shape, position angle, flux density estimation

  19. Cosmological Perturbations of Quantum-Mechanical Origin and Anisotropy of the Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. P. Grishchuk

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmological perturbations generated quantum-mechanically (as a particular case, during inflation) possess statistical properties of squeezed quantum states. The power spectra of the perturbations are modulated and the angular distribution of the produced temperature fluctuations of the CMBR is quite specific. An exact formula is derived for the angular correlation function of the temperature fluctuations caused by squeezed gravitational waves. The predicted angular pattern can, in principle, be revealed by the COBE-type observations.

  20. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with the BICEP Telescope at the South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Yuki David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics design for the South Pole involved considerations somewhat similar to those for space missions, including reliability,

  1. Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with the BICEP Telescope at the South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Yuki David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14] A. H. Guth. Inflationary universe: A possible solutionGraviton creation in the inflationary universe and the grandD. Linde. A new inflationary universe scenario: A possible

  2. Effects of Mass Varying Neutrinos on Cosmological Parameters as determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akshay Ghalsasi; Ann E. Nelson

    2014-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In models with a light scalar field (the `acceleron') coupled to neutrinos, neutrino masses depend on neutrino density. The resulting coupled system of mass varying neutrinos (MaVaNs) and the acceleron can act as a negative pressure fluid and is a candidate for dark energy \\cite{Fardon:2003eh} . MaVaNs also allow for higher $\\Sigma$m$_\

  3. Implications about the large scale properties of the universe from the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslanyan, Grigor; Aslanyan, Grigor

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JCAP 06 (2012) 003, arXiv:1104.0015 N. Akopov, Z.Akopov, G. Aslanyan, L. Grigoryan “A-dependence of coherent

  4. Implications about the large scale properties of the universe from the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslanyan, Grigor; Aslanyan, Grigor

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    790, [gr-qc/0105049]. [3] A. D. Linde, Creation of a compactastro-ph/0505426]. [46] A. D. Linde and V. F. Mukhanov,Wheeler-DeWitt equation, Linde has argued [3] that compact

  5. Antenna-coupled Superconducting Bolometers for Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Michael James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.3.2 Superconducting microstrip simulations 4.4 Impedance4.3 Superconducting microstrip . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1Principles of superconductive devices and circuits, (second

  6. Antenna-coupled Superconducting Bolometers for Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Michael James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a compensated “double-bowtie” crossover . . . . . . . .where they cross. 7.5. This double-bowtie geometry keeps theof the crossover. The bowtie crossover, shown in figure 7.5,

  7. Antenna-coupled Superconducting Bolometers for Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Michael James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ment with Newton’s law of gravitation. Only in cases ofpublished his Law of Universal Gravitation. This theory

  8. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  9. Electrodeless lamp energized by microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, R.M.; Perret, J.

    1990-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an electrodeless lamp. It comprises: a microwave cavity; a source of microwaves in communication with the cavity; a lamp envelope containing a plasma-forming medium mounted within the microwave cavity; a gas manifold for feeding gas to at least one gas passageway for directing a stream of gas to the outer surface of the envelope; a gas leak passageway leading from the gas manifold; a conductive mesh assembly for retaining microwaves within the cavity and permitting light to be emitted from the cavity. The assembly including gas flow blocking means for preventing the flow of gas through the gas leak passageway when the screen is in place in the lamp; and means for shutting off the source of microwaves when the gas pressure in the manifold drops below a predetermined value.

  10. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  11. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  12. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  13. Pure pseudo-C_l estimators for CMB B-modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendrick M. Smith

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast heuristically weighted, or pseudo-C_l, estimators are a frequently used method for estimating power spectra in CMB surveys with large numbers of pixels. Recently, Challinor & Chon showed that the E-B mixing in these estimators can become a dominant contaminant at low noise levels, ultimately limiting the gravity wave signal which can be detected on a finite patch of sky. We define a modified version of the estimators which eliminates E-B mixing and is near-optimal at all noise levels.

  14. Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing energies. With the current large mixing angle-MSW oscillation parameters, Borexino expects to observe 0.35 neutrino events per day per ton from 7Be in the energy window. Because there are so few events

  15. Low density inorganic foams fabricated using microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Gregory, T.G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to determine if high temperature foams could be made using microwave heating; and if so, to investigate some of their properties. Several foams were made and their compressive strengths, tensile strengths and densities were determined. Foams were made of glass, metal-glass, glass-fiber, metal-glass-fiber, and fly ash. The microwave source used was a Litton model 1521 microwave oven which operated at 2.45 GHz and had an output of 700 watts.

  16. On the dipole straylight contamination in spinning space missions dedicated to CMB anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Burigana; Alessandro Gruppuso; Fabio Finelli

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the dipole straylight contamination (DSC) for spinning space-missions designed to measure CMB anisotropies. Although this work is mainly devoted to the {\\sc Planck} project, it is relatively general and allows to focus on the most relevant DSC implications. We first study a simple analytical model for the DSC in which the pointing direction of the main spillover can be assumed parallel or not to the spacecraft spin axis direction and compute the time ordered data and map. The map is then analysed paying particular attention to the DSC of the low multipole coefficients of the map. Through dedicated numerical simulations we verify the analytical results and extend the analysis to higher multipoles and to more complex (and realistic) cases by relaxing some of the simple assumptions adopted in the analytical approach. We find that the systematic effect averages out in an even number of surveys, except for a contamination of the dipole itself that survives when spin axis and spillover directions are not parallel and for a contamination of the other multipoles in the case of complex scanning strategies. In particular, the observed quadrupole can be affected by the DSC in an odd number of surveys or in the presence of survey uncompleteness or over-completeness. Various aspects relevant in CMB space projects (such as implications for calibration, impact on polarization measurements, accuracy requirement in the far beam knowledge for data analysis applications, scanning strategy dependence) are discussed.

  17. Likelihood methods for the combined analysis of CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Will J. Percival; Michael L. Brown

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the shape of the likelihood and posterior surfaces to be used when fitting cosmological models to CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra measured from experiments. In the limit of an all-sky survey with Gaussian distributed pixel noise we show that the true combined likelihood of the four CMB power spectra (TT, TE, EE & BB) has a Wishart distribution and we discuss the properties of this function. We compare various fits to the posterior surface of the Cls, both in the case of a single auto-power spectrum and for a combination of temperature and polarisation data. In the latter case, it is important that the fits can accurately match the Wishart distribution in the limit of near full-sky coverage. Simple extensions of auto-power spectrum fits to include polarisation data generally fail to match correlations between the different power spectra in this limit. Directly fitting pixel values on large scales, as undertaken by the WMAP team in their analysis of the 3 year data, avoids the complications of characterising the shape of the posterior for the power spectra. Finally we demonstrate the importance of the likelihood distribution on analytic marginalisation, and provide a formula for analytic marginalisation over a calibration error given an all-sky survey.

  18. A test of the Poincare dodecahedral space topology hypothesis with the WMAP CMB data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. S. Lew; B. F. Roukema

    2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested by Roukema and coworkers (hereafter R04) that the topology of the Universe as probed by the ``matched circles'' method using the first year release of the WMAP CMB data, might be that of the Poincar\\'e dodecahedral space (PDS) model. An excess in the correlation of the ``identified circles'' was reported by R04, for circles of angular radius of ~11 deg for a relative phase twist -36deg, hinting that this could be due to a Clifford translation, if the hypothesized model were true. R04 did not however specify the statistical significance of the correlation signal. We investigate the statistical significance of the signal using Monte Carlo CMB simulations in a simply connected Universe, and present an updated analysis using the three-year WMAP data. We find that our analyses of the first and three year WMAP data provide results that are consistent with the simply connected space at a confidence level as low as 68%.

  19. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  20. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  1. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (4 Ledgewood Dr., Bedford, MA 01730); Smatlak, Donna L. (10 Village Hill Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Cohn, Daniel R. (26 Walnut Hill Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167); Wittle, J. Kenneth (1740 Conestoga Rd., Chester Springs, PA 19425); Titus, Charles H. (323 Echo Valley La., Newton Square, PA 19072); Surma, Jeffrey E. (806 Brian La., Kennewick, WA 99337)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  2. Microwave processing of tantalum capacitor anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R J; Hamby, C; Holcombe, C E [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vierow, W F [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)] [AVX Tantalum Corp., Biddeford, ME (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous tantalum anodes were sintered at temperatures from 1600 to 1900{degrees}C using a conventional high-vacuum furnace as well as both 2.45 GHz fixed-frequency and 4--8 GHz variable-frequency microwave furnaces. Various insulation and casketing techniques were used to couple the microwave power to the tantalum compacts. Several types of tantalum powder were used to assess the effect of microwave processing on sintered surface area and impurity levels. Some microwave sintered anodes have an unusual surface rippling not seen on conventionally fired parts. The rippling suggests that a microscopic arcing or plasma might have been generated. Two important effects could be exploited if this phenomenon can be controlled. First, the effective tantalum surface area could be increased, yielding higher capacitance per volume. Second, surface impurities might be cleaned away, allowing the formation of a better dielectric film during the anodization process and, ultimately, higher working voltage.

  3. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  4. BEDES Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind Siting ArticlesAugust 2014Background BEDES

  5. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  6. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  7. Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis Vladimir Cirkva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    563 14 Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis Vladim´ir C´irkva 14.1 Introduction photocatalysis. The energy of MW radia- tion (e.g., E = 0.98 J mol-1 at = 2.45 GHz) is considerably lower than by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. #12;564 14 Microwaves in Photochemistry and Photocatalysis UV

  8. High Precision Noise Measurements at Microwave Frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Eugene; Tobar, Michael [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, 6009, WA (Australia)

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe microwave noise measurement system capable of detecting the phase fluctuations of rms amplitude of 2{center_dot}10{sup -11} rad/{radical}(Hz). Such resolution allows the study of intrinsic fluctuations in various microwave components and materials, as well as precise tests of fundamental physics. Employing this system we discovered a previously unknown phenomenon of down-conversion of pump oscillator phase noise into the low-frequency voltage fluctuations.

  9. Echo of the Big Bang Anisotropies in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    : Some Facts 7) CMB highly (impressively) Isotropic: - in each direction on the sky the radiation has Microwave Radiometer Cosmic Microwave Background #12;7/1/2009 6 Spectrum Blackbody Radiation John Mather: - photon energy 4) Energy Density Radiation evolves: Cosmic Radiation 44 )1()( ztarad 3 )(tanrad 1 )(tarad

  10. Planck 2015 results. XVIII. Background geometry & topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Feeney, S; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McEwen, J D; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Peiris, H V; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pogosyan, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Full-sky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio $\\Delta\\ln{L}>-5$ relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matched-circles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\\chi_{rec}...

  11. The Microwave Air Yield Beam Experiment (MAYBE): measurement of GHz radiation for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Monasor; M. Bohacova; C. Bonifazi; G. Cataldi; S. Chemerisov; J. R. T. De Mello Neto; P. Facal San Luis; B. Fox; P. W. Gorham; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; R. Meyhandan; L. C. Reyes; B. Rouille D'Orfeuil; E. M. Santos; J. Pochez; P. Privitera; H. Spinka; V. Verzi; C. Williams; J. Zhou

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first measurements by MAYBE of microwave emission from an electron beam induced air plasma, performed at the electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Coherent radio Cherenkov, a major background in a previous beam experiment, is not produced by the 3 MeV beam, which simplifies the interpretation of the data. Radio emission is studied over a wide range of frequencies between 3 and 12 GHz. This measurement provides further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  12. NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    WEIF-49 NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC>;ics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2OY@-4lll, USA Abstract We describe the near-field scanning methods of scanning probe microscopy have been developed. Generally spea- king one can divide

  13. Paducah Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMakeEducation ProgramsTourPPPO Website Directory|Background

  14. Portsmouth Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602Policy_Flash_2011-85__Attachment_2.pdfPollution PreventionBackground

  15. Nonparametric test of consistency between cosmological models and multiband CMB measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aghamousa, Amir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel approach to test the consistency of the cosmological models with multiband CMB data using a nonparametric approach. In our analysis we calibrate the REACT (Risk Estimation and Adaptation after Coordinate Transformation) confidence levels associated with distances in function space (confidence distances) based on the Monte Carlo simulations in order to test the consistency of an assumed cosmological model with observation. To show the applicability of our algorithm, we confront Planck 2013 temperature data with concordance model of cosmology considering two different Planck spectra combination. In order to have an accurate quantitative statistical measure to compare between the data and the theoretical expectations, we calibrate REACT confidence distances and perform a bias control using many realizations of the data. Our results in this work using Planck 2013 temperature data put the best fit $\\Lambda$CDM model at $95\\% (\\sim 2\\sigma)$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametri...

  16. CMB constraints on mass and coupling constant of light pseudoscalar particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damian Ejlli; Alexander D. Dolgov

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformation of CMB photons into light pseudoscalar particles at post big bang nucleosynthesis epoch is considered. Using the present day value of a large scale magnetic field to estimate it at earlier cosmological epochs, the oscillation probability of photons into light pseudoscalar particles with an account of coherence breaking in cosmological plasma is calculated. Demanding that the photon transformation does not lead to an exceedingly large CMB spectral distortion and temperature anisotropy, the constraints on the coupling constant of axion like particles to photons, $ g_{\\phi\\gamma} B \\lesssim (10^{-15} - 10^{-12}) \\textrm{nG}\\times \\textrm{GeV}^{-1}$, are found for the axion like particle mass in the interval $10^{-25}$ eV $\\lesssim m_{\\phi}\\lesssim 10^{-5}$ eV, where $B$ is the strength of the large scale magnetic field at the present time. Our results update the previously obtained ones since we use the density matrix formalism which is more accurate than the wave function approximation for the description of oscillations with an essential coherence breaking. In the axion like particle mass range $10^{-25}$ eV $\\lesssim m_{\\phi}\\lesssim 10^{-14}$ eV, weaker limits, by at least 2 orders of magnitude $g_{\\phi\\gamma} B \\lesssim 10^{-11}\\textrm{nG}\\times \\textrm{GeV}^{-1}$, are obtained in comparison with the wave function approximation. In the mass range $10^{-14}$ eV $\\lesssim m_{\\phi}\\lesssim 10^{-5}$ eV, on the other hand, limits that are stronger, by more than an order of magnitude are obtained. Our results are derived by using upper limits on spectral distortion parameter $\\mu$ and temperature anisotropy $\\Delta T/T$ found by COBE and expected sensitivities by PIXIE/PRISM.

  17. Numerical simulations of output pulse extraction from a high-power microwave compressor with a plasma switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, Anatoli; Beilin, Leonid; Bliokh, Yuri; Donskoy, Moshe; Krasik, Yakov E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Hadas, Yoav [Department of Applied Physics, Rafael, PO Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel); Schamiloglu, Edl [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of the process of electromagnetic energy release from a high-power microwave pulse compressor comprising a gas-filled cavity and interference switch were carried out. A microwave plasma discharge in a rectangular waveguide H-plane tee was modeled with the use of the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAGIC. The gas ionization, plasma evolution, and interaction with RF fields accumulated within the compressor were simulated using different approaches provided by the MAGIC code: particle-in-cell approach accounting for electron-neutral collisions, gas conductivity model based on the concept of mobility, and hybrid modeling. The dependences of the microwave output pulse peak power and waveform on parameters that can be controlled in experiments, such as an external ionization rate, RF field amplitude, and background gas pressure, were investigated.

  18. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  19. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  20. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  1. Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

  2. MICROWAVE PROCESSING OF LUNAR SOIL Lawrence A. Taylor1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    and microwave into hybrid heating can be used to form various structural and mechanical materials for use both

  3. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  4. Microwave dressing of Rydberg dark states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tanasittikosol; J. D. Pritchard; D. Maxwell; A. Gauguet; K. J. Weatherill; R. M. Potvliege; C. S. Adams

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the 5s$\\rightarrow$5p$\\rightarrow$46s ladder system of a cold $^{87}$Rb gas. We show that the resonant microwave coupling between the 46s and 45p states leads to an Autler-Townes splitting of the EIT resonance. This splitting can be employed to vary the group index by $\\pm 10^5$ allowing independent control of the propagation of dark state polaritons. We also demonstrate that microwave dressing leads to enhanced interaction effects. In particular, we present evidence for a $1/R^3$ energy shift between Rydberg states resonantly coupled by the microwave field and the ensuing breakdown of the pair-wise interaction approximation.

  5. Experimental investigation of a ``scanner`` microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velazco, J.E.; Ceperley, P.H.; Black, W.M.; Thomason, K. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Godlove, T.F.; Mako, F.M. [FM Technology, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on initial experimental results of a high-efficiency L-band proof-of-principle microwave amplifier experiment. The prototype under experimental investigation employs a 120 kV, 20A, 5mm diameter, 4 {mu}sec pencil beam. The pencil beam is made to spiral through the interaction with a rotating mode microwave cavity. Efficient energy extraction from the spiral beam is obtained in an output cavity also supporting a rotating mode. The system is immersed in a uniform magnetic field with its amplitude properly adjusted to permit synchronization between the temporal oscillations of the spiral beam and the fields of the rotating modes. This device should be capable of providing coherent, efficient, multimegawatt microwave radiation for a variety of applications appropriate to its frequency range.

  6. Microwave joining of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I.; Tian, Y.L. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on identification of the most effective joining methods for scale-up to large tube assemblies, including joining using SiC produced in situ from chemical precursors. During FY 1996, a new microwave applicator was designed, fabricated and tested that provides the capability for vacuum baking of the specimens and insulation and for processing under inert environment. This applicator was used to join continuous fiber-reinforced (CFCC) SiC/SiC composites using a polymer precursor to form a SiC interlayer in situ.

  7. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  8. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  9. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  10. Chameleon-like cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled; Aghamohammadi, Ali

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this work an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD data sets is investigated. Some cosmological parameters includes of Hubble, deceleration and coincidence parameters in such mechanism are analysed. It is realized for estimation the free parameters of a theoretical model, it is better all mentioned observational data sets be considered. In fact if one considers SNeIa, CMB and BAO but ignores OHD it maybe leads to an incorrect result. Also it will find out, when we margin the free parameters, the $\\chi _{\\rm{T}}^2$ function should be re-weighted, this fact arises from the abundance of SNeIa and OHD sources in comparison to CMB and BAO data sets. We margin the likelihood $\\mathcal{L} (\\Omega_{\\rm{m0}} ,\\omega_1 , \\beta)$ with respect to $\\omega_1$, $\\beta$ and $\\Omega_{\\rm{m0}}$ respectively and by means of two dimensional confidence levels $68.3\\%$, $90\\%$ and $95.4\\%$, the relative probability functions are plotted. Also the quantities which maximize t...

  11. Missing Gamma-Rays from kpc-scale AGN Jets: A Test of the IC/CMB Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Eileen T; Sparks, William B; Godfrey, Leith; Perlman, Eric

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical origin of the X-ray emission in powerful quasar jets has been a long-standing mystery. Though these jets start out on the sub-pc scale as highly relativistic flows, we do not have any direct measurement of their speeds on the kpc scale, where the vast distances from the core necessitate in situ particle acceleration. If the jets remain highly relativistic on kpc scales, then the X-rays could be due to inverse-Compton upscattering of CMB photons. However, the IC/CMB explanation predicts a high level of gamma-ray emission, which should be detectible by the Fermi/LAT. We have searched for and ruled out this emission at a high level of significance for the well-known sources 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752, suggesting the X-rays are synchrotron, though of unknown origin. These recent results with Fermi also suggest that the kpc-scale jets in powerful quasars are significantly slower than have been presumed under the IC/CMB model. I will discuss the surprising implications of these findings for the energetics...

  12. Preliminary separation of galactic and cosmic microwave emission for the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennet, C.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Hinshaw, G.; Wright, E.L.; Kogut, A.; De Amici, G.; Meyer, S.S.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Gulkis, S. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States) California, University, Berkeley (United States) Universities Space Research Association, Boulder, CO (United States) California, University, Los Angeles (United States) MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States) Princeton University, NJ (United States) JPL, Pasadena, Ca (United States))

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary models of microwave emission from the Milky Way Galaxy based on COBE and other data are constructed for the purpose of distinguishing cosmic and Galactic signals. Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) maps, with the modeled Galactic emission removed, are fitted for a quadrupole distribution. Autocorrelation functions for individual Galactic components are presented. When Galactic emission is removed from the DMR data, the residual fluctuations are virtually unaffected, and therefore they are not dominated by any known Galactic emission component. 42 refs.

  13. Planar controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxvlle, TN)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  14. Microwave Sensors Active and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    waves up through high energy gamma waves. Microwaves extend over an important part of the elec be classified as either passive (radiometers) or active (radars). Each sensor class provides unique insight instruments can be divided into two broad classes: pas- sive, known as radiometers, and active, known

  15. Calculation of a coaxial microwave torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Kossyi, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters of an equilibrium microwave discharge in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow in a coaxial waveguide with a truncated inner electrode are calculated numerically by using a self-consistent two-dimensional MHD model. The results obtained agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  16. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  17. PHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    presents analysis and measurements of phase noise in oscilla- tors and amplifiers. Low phase noise- multaneous small size, low phase noise, DC power consumption and thermal drift is presented. Design stepsPHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS by MILOS JANKOVI´C B.E., University of Arkansas

  18. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Analysis of characteristic of microwave regeneration for diesel particulate filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning Zhi; Zhang Guanglong; Lu Yong; Liu Junmin; Gao Xiyan; Liang Iunhui; Chen Jiahua [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The mathematical model for the microwave regeneration of diesel particulate filter is proposed according to the characteristic of microwave regeneration process. The model is used to calculate the temperature field, distribution of particulate and density field of oxygen in the filter during the process of regeneration with typical ceramic foam particulate filter data. The parametric study demonstrates how some of the main parameters, such as microwave attenuation constant of the filter, filter particulate loading, the power and distribution of microwave energy and so on, affect the efficiency of regeneration, the maximum filter temperature and regeneration duration. The results show that it is possible to regenerate the diesel particulate filters in certain conditions by using microwave energy. This paper can give one a whole understanding to several main factors that have effects on the process of microwave regeneration and provide a theoretical basis for the optimal design of the microwave regeneration system.

  20. Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

  1. A String-Inspired Model for the Low-$\\ell$ CMB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitazawa, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed exploration of a family of low--$\\ell$ angular power spectra inspired by "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking". This mechanism splits Bose and Fermi excitations in String Theory and leaves behind \\emph{an exponential potential that is just too steep for the inflaton to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it}. As a result, the scalar generically bounces against the exponential wall, which typically introduces \\emph{an infrared depression and a pre--inflationary peak} in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We elaborate on a possible link between this phenomenon and the low--$\\ell$ CMB. For the first 32 multipoles, combining the hard exponential with a milder one leading to $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ and with a small gaussian bump we have attained a reduction of $\\chi^{\\,2}$ to about 46\\% of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting, with both WMAP9 and PLANCK 2013 data. This result corresponds to a $\\chi^{\\,2}/DOF$ of about 0.45, to be compared with a $\\Lambda$CDM value of about 0.85. The ...

  2. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Markunas, Robert J. (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus (10) is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity (34) depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece (36) is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  3. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.C.; Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Markunas, R.J.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a variable frequency microwave heating apparatus designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus includes a microwave signal generator and a high-power microwave amplifier or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A power supply is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator or microwave amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 10 figs.

  4. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Arendt, R.G. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reach, W.T. [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pei, Y.C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubin, P. [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weiss, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wilkinson, D.T. [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wright, E.L. [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)] [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  5. A semi-analytical approach to perturbations in mutated hilltop inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barun Kumar Pal; Supratik Pal; B. Basu

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study cosmological perturbations and observational aspects for mutated hilltop model of inflation. Employing mostly analytical treatment, we evaluate observable parameters during inflation as well as post-inflationary perturbations. This further leads to exploring observational aspects related to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This semi-analytical treatment reduces complications related to numerical computation to some extent for studying the different phenomena related to CMB angular power spectrum for mutated hilltop inflation.

  6. Universes with and without a center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yukio Tomozawa

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two types of universe, with and without a center, are discussed; and their implications for the observed cmb (cosmic microwave background radiation) dipole are described. Theorems useful for understanding the cause for a cmb dipole are presented. Using the theorems stated and all existing data, a computation for the location of the center of the universe has been performed. In the universe without center, however, a complication arises by the appearance of the apparent center after the expansion of the universe has proceeded.

  7. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  8. Quantum and Wave Dynamical Chaos in Superconducting Microwave Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dietz; A. Richter

    2015-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  9. Quantum and Wave Dynamical Chaos in Superconducting Microwave Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dietz; A. Richter

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with superconducting microwave cavities have been performed in our laboratory for more than two decades. The purpose of the present article is to recapitulate some of the highlights achieved. We briefly review (i) results obtained with flat, cylindrical microwave resonators, so-called microwave billiards, concerning the universal fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues of classically chaotic systems with no, a threefold and a broken symmetry; (ii) summarize our findings concerning the wave-dynamical chaos in three-dimensional microwave cavities; (iii) present a new approach for the understanding of the phenomenon of dynamical tunneling which was developed on the basis of experiments that were performed recently with unprecedented precision, and finally, (iv) give an insight into an ongoing project, where we investigate universal properties of (artificial) graphene with superconducting microwave photonic crystals that are enclosed in a microwave resonator, i.e., so-called Dirac billiards.

  10. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  11. Constraints on the primordial gravitational waves with variable sound speed from current CMB data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Cheng; Qing-Guo Huang; Xiao-Dong Li; Yin-Zhe Ma

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We make a comprehensive investigation of the observational effect of the inflation consistency relation. We focus on the general single-field inflation model with the consistency relation $r=-8c_s n_t$, and investigate the observational constraints of sound speed $c_s$ by using the Seven-Year WMAP data, the BICEP tensor power spectrum data, and the constraints on $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm equil.}$ and $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm orth.}$ from the Five-Year WMAP observations. We find that the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ is much tighter if $c_s$ is small, since a large tilt $n_t$ is strongly constrained by the observations. We obtain $rsound speed $c_s$, it is not well constrained if only the CMB power spectrum data is used, while the constraints are obtainable by taking $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm equil.}$ and $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm orth.}$ priors into account. With the constraining data of $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm equil.}$ and $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm orth.}$, we find that, $c_s\\lesssim 0.01$ region is excluded at 99.7% CL, and the $c_s=1$ case (the single-field slow-roll inflation) is slightly disfavored at 68.3% CL. In addition, the inclusion of $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm equil.}$ and $f_{\\rm NL}^{\\rm orth.}$ into the analysis can improve the constraints on $r$ and $n_s$. We further discuss the implications of our constraints on the test of inflation models.

  12. Cavity Microwave Searches for Cosmological Axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carosi, G; van Bibber, K

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter will cover the search for dark matter axions based on microwave cavity experiments proposed by Pierre Sikivie. We will start with a brief overview of halo dark matter and the axion as a candidate. The principle of resonant conversion of axions in an external magnetic field will be described as well as practical considerations in optimizing the experiment as a signal-to-noise problem. A major focus of this chapter will be the two complementary strategies for ultra-low noise detection of the microwave photons--the 'photon-as-wave' approach (i.e. conventional heterojunction amplifiers and soon to be quantum-limited SQUID devices), and 'photon-as-particle' (i.e. Rydberg-atom single-quantum detection). Experimental results will be presented; these experiments have already reached well into the range of sensitivity to exclude plausible axion models, for limited ranges of mass. The section will conclude with a discussion of future plans and challenges for the microwave cavity experiment.

  13. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  14. Issues in microwave power systems engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, R.M. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The key issues in microwave power system engineering are beam safety, frequency allocation, and affordability. These major issues are presented, discussed, and suggestions for resolving them are offered. The issue of beam safety can be captured in the phrase ``Fear of Frying.`` Can a properly engineered beamed power safety system allay the public perception of microwave radiation dangers? Openness, visibility, and education may be keys to resolving this issue satisfactorily. ``Not in my Spectrum`` is a phrase that is frequently encountered in connection with the issue of where can the microwave power beam frequency be located. International cooperation may provide a part of the solution to this issue. ``Wow, that much?`` is a phrase encountered when dealing with the issue of economic affordability of large beamed power systems. A phased engineering approach for multiple uses even during construction is presented to aid in garnering revenue during the system build phase. Also, dual mode dc-RF converters are encouraged for bi-directional power flow utility and economies of scale in production.

  15. Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2014 Page 1 Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background and Need: This Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement describes how Bonneville Power...

  16. Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 5 "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Dams and Energy Sectors...

  17. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OH. ” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute: 32(2):3171-Thermochemical Database for Combustion. ” Argonne NationalMicrowave Radiation. ” Combustion Science and Technology:

  18. A Calibration of a Microwave Telescope Christopher Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Calibration of a Microwave Telescope Christopher Herzog February 27, 2004 1 Calculating the Polarization Change This calibration experiment relies on an ability to calculate what happens

  19. advanced microwave scanning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on radiance) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 77 900 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND...

  20. aces microwave link: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lan 2010-01-01 152 Engineering Research and Development Microwave Imaging Technology Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: Engineering Research and Development MVG Paris...

  1. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. B. (1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.novel microwave internal combustion engine ignition source,in the Internal Combustion Engine." SAE Technical Paper

  2. advanced microwave sounding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aires, Filipe 35 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 345 DC and RF Characteristics of Advanced MIM Engineering Websites Summary: of Advanced...

  3. Method and apparatus for thickness measurement using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul (Bedford, MA) [Bedford, MA; Lamar, David A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method for measuring the thickness of a material which transmits a detectable amount of microwave radiation includes irradiating the material with coherent microwave radiation tuned over a frequency range. Reflected microwave radiation is detected, the reflected radiation having maxima and minima over the frequency range as a result of coherent interference of microwaves reflected from reflecting surfaces of the material. The thickness of the material is determined from the period of the maxima and minima along with knowledge of the index of refraction of the material.

  4. Hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, D.S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Feber, R.C. Jr.; Frost, H.M.; Meek, T.T.; Wallace, T.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of recovering hydrogen from extraterrestrial materials (lunar and Martian soils, asteroids) using microwave energy is presented. Reasons for harvesting and origins and locations of hydrogen are reviewed. Problems of hydrogen recovery are discussed in terms of hydrogen release characteristics and microwave coupling to insulating materials. From results of studies of hydrogen diffusivities (oxides, glasses) and tritium release (oxides) as well as studies of microwave coupling to ilmenite, alkali basalt and ceramic oxides it is concluded that using microwave energy in hydrogen recovery from extraterrestrial materials could be the basis for a workable process.

  5. advanced microwave circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition of photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics electrodynamics QED , superconduct- ing qubits are coupled with microwave photons in a trans- mission line and a...

  6. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is more efficient? Tell Us Addthis Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance should win the honor of heating your water? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy...

  7. CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 9 CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds The preceding chapter included Contamination and External Backgrounds 424 it can do so), leading to a low-energy tail of events in the energy Runs 2300­2563 unless stated otherwise. #12;Chapter 9. CTF Surface Contamination and External

  8. M2-Branes and Background Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Lambert; Paul Richmond

    2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the coupling of multiple M2-branes to the background 3-form and 6-form gauge fields of eleven-dimensional supergravity, including the coupling of the Fermions. In particular we show in detail how a natural generalization of the Myers flux-terms, along with the resulting curvature of the background metric, leads to mass terms in the effective field theory.

  9. The cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala, Jesus; Slatyer, Tracy R; Loeb, Abraham; Springel, Volker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abridged) The extragalactic background light (EBL) observed at multiple wavelengths is a promising tool to probe the nature of dark matter since it might contain a significant contribution from gamma-rays produced promptly by dark matter annihilation. Additionally, the electrons and positrons produced in the annihilation give energy to the CMB photons to populate the EBL with X-rays and gamma-rays. We here create full-sky maps of the radiation from both of these contributions using the high-resolution Millennium-II simulation. We use upper limits on the contributions of unknown sources to the EBL to constrain the intrinsic properties of dark matter using a model-independent approach that can be employed as a template to test different particle physics models (including those with a Sommerfeld enhancement). These upper limits are based on observations spanning eight orders of magnitude in energy (from soft X-rays measured by CHANDRA to gamma-rays measured by Fermi), and on expectations for the contributions f...

  10. International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating Nottingham, UK, September 2013 Underwater Microwave Ignition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    -cost operation [4, 5]. Thermite reaction as a self-propagated, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, Localized microwave heating, underwater ignition, combustion. INTRODUCTION Self-propagated thermite reactions between metal-oxide and metals typically burn at high flame temperatures, and require high

  11. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  12. First Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of CMB Polarization Power Spectra at 43 GHz in the Multipole Range 25 <= ell <= 475

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bischoff, C; Buder, I; Chinone, Y; Cleary, K; Dumoulin, R N; Kusaka, A; Monsalve, R; Næss, S K; Newburgh, L B; Reeves, R; Smith, K M; Wehus, I K; Zuntz, J A; Zwart, J T L; Bronfman, L; Bustos, R; Church, S E; Dickinson, C; Eriksen, H K; Ferreira, P G; Gaier, T; Gundersen, J O; Hasegawa, M; Hazumi, M; Huffenberger, K M; Jones, M E; Kangaslahti, P; Kapner, D J; Lawrence, C R; Limon, M; May, J; McMahon, J J; Miller, A D; Nguyen, H; Nixon, G W; Pearson, T J; Piccirillo, L; Radford, S J E; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Samtleben, D; Seiffert, M; Shepherd, M C; Staggs, S T; Tajima, O; Thompson, K L; Vanderlinde, K; Williamson, R; Winstein, B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43GHz and 95GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the CMB. QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies gives sensitivity to foreground contributions from diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation. Between 2008 October and 2010 December, >10,000hours of data were collected, first with the 19-element 43GHz array (3458hours) and then with the 90-element 95GHz array. Each array observes the same four fields, selected for low foregrounds, together covering ~1000deg^2. This paper reports initial results from the 43GHz receiver which has an array sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of 69uK sqrt(s). The data were extensively studied with a large suite of null tests before the power spectra, determined with two independent pipelines, were examined. Analysis choices, including data selection, were modified until th...

  13. An angular power spectrum analysis of the DRAO 1.4 GHz polarization survey: implications for CMB observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Porta, L; Reich, W; Reich, P

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the present analysis is to improve the knowledge of the statistical properties of the Galactic diffuse synchrotron emission, which constrains sensitive CMB anisotropy measurements. We have analysed the new DRAO 1.4 GHz polarization survey together with the Stockert 1.4 GHz total intensity survey and derived the angular power spectra (APSs) of the total intensity, the polarized emission, and their cross-correlation for the entire surveys and for three low-intensity regions. The APSs of the diffuse synchrotron emission are modelled by power laws. For the $E$ and $B$ modes, a slope of $\\alpha \\sim [-3.0,-2.5]$ for the multipole range $\\sim [30,300]$ is found. By the extrapolation of these results to 70 GHz, we can estimate the Galactic synchrotron contamination of CMB anisotropies, and we find results that are compatible with the ones coming from WMAP 3-yr data. In the low-intensity regions, the cosmological primordial B~mode peak at $\\ell \\sim 100$ should be clearly observable for a tensor-to-scalar ...

  14. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  15. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  16. CAD OF MICROWAVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS FOR TIME&FREQUENCY APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or their impact on the phase noise. II- SIMULATION OF AN MZ BASED OPTICAL LINK: RF GAIN Microwave circuit designCAD OF MICROWAVE OPTICAL SYSTEMS FOR TIME&FREQUENCY APPLICATIONS Houda Brahimi, LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse are more and more involved in time and frequency applications. They may be used for frequency reference

  17. Temperature Modeling for Reaction Development in Microwave-Assisted Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    of exposure of the reactants to the electromagnetic (EM) field. The microwave parts of those systems are-scale resonator-type reactor in a 3D model capable of monitoring electromagnetic and thermal processes field. I. INTRODUCTION Microwave-assisted chemistry has recently emerged as a rapidly growing field

  18. Microwaves and particle accelerators: a fundamental link

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Swapan [Universities of Lancaster, Liverpool and Manchester and Cockcroft Institute, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    John Cockcroft's splitting of the atom and Ernest Lawrence's invention of the cyclotron in the first half of the twentieth century ushered in the grand era of ever higher energy particle accelerators to probe deeper into matter. It also forged a link, bonding scientific discovery with technological innovation that continues today in the twenty first century. The development of radar and high power vacuum electronics, especially microwave power tubes like the magnetrons and the klystrons in the pre-second world war era, was instrumental in the rapid development of circular and linear charged particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century. We had harnessed the powerful microwave radio-frequency sources from few tens of MHz to up to 90 GHz spanning L-band to W-band frequencies. Simultaneously in the second half of the twentieth century, lasers began to offer very first opportunities of controlling charged particles at smaller resolutions on the scale of wavelengths of visible light. We also witnessed in this period the emergence of the photon and neutron sciences driven by accelerators built-by-design producing tailored and ultra-bright pulses of bright photons and neutrons to probe structure and function of matter from aggregate to individual molecular and atomic scales in unexplored territories in material and life sciences. As we enter the twenty first century, the race for ever higher energies, brightness and luminosity to probe atto-metric and atto-second domains of the ultra-small structures and ultra-fast processes continues. These developments depend crucially on yet further advancements in the production and control of high power and high frequency microwaves and light sources, often intricately coupled in their operation to the high energy beams themselves. We give a glimpse of the recent developments and innovations in the electromagnetic production and control of charged particle beams in the service of science and society. (author)

  19. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  20. Deflection microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang., C.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Lau, Y.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Swyden, T.A. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)] [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of microwave and millimeter-wave amplifiers, called deflectron amplifiers, which are based on the deflection of low voltage electron beams in a microstructure were analyzed. This concept may be applied in two ways: as microelectronic amplifiers or as bunched beam cathodes to power conventional amplifier configurations such as klystrodes and traveling wave tubes. Estimates for gain and efficiency are obtained from a circuit analysis. Particle codes are used to test the viability of the concept. Frequencies of operation are projected up to a few tens of GHz for microelectronic amplifiers and up to {approx}80 GHz for power amplifiers 29 refs., 5 figs.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) CampaigngovCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler

  2. Microwave Melting | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Revised:7, at 3:00 pmYourMicrowave Melting

  3. Precision Cosmology and the Density of Baryons in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kaplinghat; M. S. Turner

    2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Big-bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements give independent, accurate measurements of the baryon density and can test the framework of the standard cosmology. Early CMB data are consistent with the longstanding conclusion from BBN that baryons constitute a small fraction of matter in the Universe, but may indicate a slightly higher value for the baryon density. We clarify precisely what the two methods determine, and point out that differing values for the baryon density can indicate either an inconsistency or physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and particle physics. We discuss other signatures of the new physics in CMB anisotropy.

  4. Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net backg...

  5. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  6. Ablation Plume Dynamics in a Background Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, Salvatore [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Schou, Joergen [Deparment of Photonics Engineering, Risoe Campus, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lunney, James G. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected.

  7. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Schaich, Charles R. (Lenoir City, TN); Foster, Jr., Don (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  8. Manipulating microwaves with magnetic-dipolar-mode vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenetskii, E. O.; Sigalov, M.; Shavit, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, IL-84 105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a surge of interest in the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields. It is well known that, in optics, subwavelength confinement can be obtained from surface plasmon (quasielectrostatic) oscillations. In this article, we propose to realize subwavelength confinement in microwaves by using dipolar-mode (quasimagnetostatic) magnon oscillations in ferrite particles. Our studies of interactions between microwave electromagnetic fields and small ferrite particles with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations show strong localization of electromagnetic energy. MDM oscillations in a ferrite disk are at the origin of topological singularities resulting in Poynting vector vortices and symmetry breakings of the microwave near fields. We show that new subwavelength microwave structures can be realized based on a system of interacting MDM ferrite disks. Wave propagation of electromagnetic signals in such structures is characterized by topological phase variations. Interactions of microwave fields with an MDM ferrite disk and MDM-disk arrays open a perspective for creating engineered electromagnetic fields with unique symmetry properties.

  9. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  10. Fractal generation of textures and backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reuter, Kevin Duane

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Subtnitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1999... Major Subject; Visualization Sciences FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  11. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  12. The South Pole Telescope bolometer array and the measurement of secondary Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy at small angular scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirokoff, Erik D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPIE Conf. Series, Vol. 7741 Battaglia, N. , Bond, J. R. ,The bottom right shows the Battaglia et al. (2010) adiabaticThe second recent model, by Battaglia et al. (2010), is the

  13. Holographic Thermalization in Quark Confining Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Ageev; I. Ya. Aref'eva

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact a trapped surface formation. As a vacuum confining background we considered a well know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential as well as reproduces QCD beta-function. We perturb vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves, that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of a trapped surface production that makes a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain one can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. In this intermediate background a dependence of the produced entropy on colliding energy is very similar to the experimental dependence of particles multiplicities on colliding ions energy obtained from RHIC and LHC. This permits us to conclude that the entropy produced in collisions of domain shock waves during a short time models rather well the experimental data.

  14. Pattern formation and propagation during microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhu, Guo Qiang [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Northwestern Polytechnique University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure, a sharp plasma front forms and propagates toward the microwave source at high velocities. Experiments show that the plasma front may exhibit a complex dynamical structure or pattern composed of plasma filaments aligned with the wave electric field and apparently moving toward the source. In this paper, we present a model of the pattern formation and propagation under conditions close to recent experiments. Maxwell's equations are solved together with plasma fluid equations in two dimensions to describe the space and time evolution of the wave field and plasma density. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The model provides a physical interpretation of the pattern formation and dynamics in terms of ionization-diffusion and absorption-reflection mechanisms. The simulations allow a good qualitative and quantitative understanding of different features such as plasma front velocity, spacing between filaments, maximum plasma density in the filaments, and influence of the discharge parameters on the development of well-defined filamentary plasma arrays or more diffuse plasma fronts.

  15. Microwaves, hyperthermia, and human leukocyte function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, N.J. Jr; Lu, S.; Michaelson, S.M.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide exposure facility for in vitro irradiation of human leukocytes. Calorimetric determinations of specific absorption rates (SAR) were made using heating curves measured with a microwave transparent Vitek 101 Electrothermia Monitor. The correlation between SAR and forward power was highly significant (r=0.95). At a forward power of 0.55 W the average SAR was approximately 33 mW/ml. However, inhomogeneity and significant resonance absorption were noted in the dual vial waveguide exposure facility. A 30-point measurement of SAR distribution revealed that the SAR at any of the measured points could range between 0.12- and 3.94-fold of the average SAR within the given vial. Measurements indicated that this variability in SAR values did not create significant thermal gradients within the vials when external agitation was applied.

  16. Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    Analysis and control of the thermal runaway of ceramic slab under microwave heating Changjun Liu of the dielectrics during microwave heating, in which there is a big jump of the steady-state temperature while the applied microwave power varies slightly. It hinders engineers in the applications of microwave heating

  17. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  18. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Crutcher, Richard I. (Knoxville, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Maddox, Stephen R. (Loudon, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member.

  19. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sohns, C.W.; Maddox, S.R.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member. 6 figures.

  20. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  1. Method and apparatus for component separation using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Schechter, Donald E. (Ten Mile, TN); Calhoun, Jr., Clyde L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating and recovering components includes the steps of providing at least a first component bonded to a second component by a microwave absorbent adhesive bonding material at a bonding area to form an assembly, the bonding material disposed between the components. Microwave energy is directly and selectively applied to the assembly so that substantially only the bonding material absorbs the microwave energy until the bonding material is at a debonding state. A separation force is applied while the bonding material is at the debonding state to permit disengaging and recovering the components. In addition, an apparatus for practicing the method includes holders for the components.

  2. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  3. Electrical detection of microwave assisted magnetization reversal by spin pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Siddharth; Subhra Mukherjee, Sankha; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Singh Bhatia, Charanjit; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and NUSNNI, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave assisted magnetization reversal has been investigated in a bilayer system of Pt/ferromagnet by detecting a change in the polarity of the spin pumping signal. The reversal process is studied in two material systems, Pt/CoFeB and Pt/NiFe, for different aspect ratios. The onset of the switching behavior is indicated by a sharp transition in the spin pumping voltage. At a threshold value of the external field, the switching process changes from partial to full reversal with increasing microwave power. The proposed method provides a simple way to detect microwave assisted magnetization reversal.

  4. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  5. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  6. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, William F. (Oakland, CA); Leskovar, Branko (Moraga, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  7. Quantum chaotic scattering in microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietz, B.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Schaefer, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Friedrich, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Harney, H. L.; Weidenmueller, H. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); ECT, Villa Tambosi, I-38100 Villazzano (Trento) (Italy)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a frequency range where a microwave resonator simulates a chaotic quantum billiard, we have measured moduli and phases of reflection and transmission amplitudes in the regimes of both isolated and of weakly overlapping resonances and for resonators with and without time-reversal invariance. Statistical measures for S-matrix fluctuations were determined from the data and compared with extant and/or newly derived theoretical results obtained from the random-matrix approach to quantum chaotic scattering. The latter contained a small number of fit parameters. The large data sets taken made it possible to test the theoretical expressions with unprecedented accuracy. The theory is confirmed by both a goodness-of-fit-test and the agreement of predicted values for those statistical measures that were not used for the fits, with the data.

  8. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  9. Perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Srivastava

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background, at both DBI and supergravity levels. We analyse both NS1-P as well as D0-F1 duality frames and study different profiles. This illuminates certain aspects of bound states of KK monopoles with supertubes.

  10. Interstellar Hydrogen and Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint in terms of the radiation due to fluctuations in interstellar Hydrogen.

  11. EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME BACKGROUND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenny, Paraic

    EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME 1 BACKGROUND: The System of Appointments with the rules and regulations prescribed by the College of Medicine from time to time." The Albert Einstein to the management of professional fees or other outside income earned by individuals holding Einstein faculty

  12. UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy (4/09) Background: This safety policy is applicable to all Health Center: Lockout will be utilized for equipment which is designed with a lockout capability. A valve that can be locked out with a chain is considered as having a lockout capability. Only the Office of Research Safety

  13. 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    1 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background: The 2013 National Geothermal Student, is designed to advance the understanding of geothermal energy as a valued resource by promoting innovation to engage students in a collaborative exercise to develop a business plan for developing a geothermal

  14. Background field method and nonrelativistic QED matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong-Wan Lee; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the resolution of an inconsistency between lattice background field methods and nonrelativistic QED matching conditions. In particular, we show that lack of on-shell conditions in lattice QCD with time-dependent background fields generally requires that certain operators related by equations of motion should be retained in an effective field theory to correctly describe the behavior of Green's functions. The coefficients of such operators in a nonrelativistic hadronic theory are determined by performing a robust nonrelativistic expansion of QED for relativistic scalar and spin-half hadrons including nonminimal electromagnetic couplings. Provided that nonrelativistic QED is augmented with equation-of-motion operators, we find that the background field method can be reconciled with the nonrelativistic QED matching conditions without any inconsistency. We further investigate whether nonrelativistic QED can be employed in the analysis of lattice QCD correlation function in background fields, but we are confronted with difficulties. Instead, we argue that the most desirable approach is a hybrid one which relies on a relativistic hadronic theory with operators chosen based on their relevance in the nonrelativistic limit. Using this hybrid framework, we obtain practically useful forms of correlation functions for scalar and spin-half hadrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields.

  15. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connor, Rory

    1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This thesis describes a multi-agent based architecture of the research and an outline plan for the rest of this thesis complete the chapter. 1.2 Software Project and monitor progress to check the development is on time and within budget. #12;3 1.3 Software Project

  16. 1 Introduction 1.1 Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stølen, Ketil

    #12;#12;3 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Research method is a relevant topic to anybody performing. 1.2 Classical Research, Technology and Technology Research The term research is defined in several different ways. According to Merriam-Webster [1], research is "investigation or experimentation aimed

  17. Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

  18. Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism: 1) What is Magnetism?Magnetism is a force or repulsion due to charge is called the electric force. But what about magnetism, is there a fundamental property of some matter that makes things magnetic? The answer is: "sort of." Electric current

  19. Background and Motivation Biomass derived syngas contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Background and Motivation · Biomass derived syngas contains: CO, H2, small hydrocarbons, H2S shown to be effective for syngas conditioning 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 1 2 3 Co2+(molm-2

  20. Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background: The Turbine Technologies Turbojet engine of the turbine and check a few items: o Open keyed access door on rear of Turbine enclosure o Check Jet A fuel valve ­ turn on, (Drain water separator if turbine has not been run in the last week,) check pressure

  1. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  2. Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha Moskovic

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

  3. Multipole analysis in cosmic topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Kramer

    2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Low multipole amplitudes in the Cosmic Microwave Background CMB radiation can be explained by selection rules from the underlying multiply-connected homotopy. We apply a multipole analysis to the harmonic bases and introduce point symmetry.We give explicit results for two cubic 3-spherical manifolds and lowest polynomial degrees, and derive three new spherical 3-manifolds.

  4. Inverse Problems 15 (1999) 329341. Printed in the UK PII: S0266-5611(99)97635-9 Bigger uncertainties and the Big Bang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    and energy in the Universe. Evidence of this heterogeneity is the non-zero quadrupole term in the CMB, or on modelling the effect of unestimated high-frequency terms, without accounting for model uncertainty Background Explorer (COBE), carrying the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on 0266

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 17, NO. 2, JUNE 2007 241 Ultrasensitive Quantum-Limited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoret, Michel H.

    for the RF-SET. For calibration of the detector, we have developed an in-situ, on-chip, hot-cold photon future application is the measurement of the Cosmic-Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropy [3 are created in a normal or gapless metal. The readout we have recently developed, a rf-resonant impedance

  6. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bonnie

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . Here, we explore an innovative and simple microwave-assisted synthesis for the production of CNPs from glucose. This method can control tunable emission and the excitation wavelength of CNPs by manufacturing of output energy during synthesis. Moreover...

  7. analogue microwave photonics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the AWA...

  8. assisted microwave synthesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , and Y. Aharonia,b a Faculty of Engineering, Tel (such as cutting, joining, combustion, plasma generation, etc.) in a wider scope of localized microwave Jerby, Eli 38 Elemental...

  9. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dazi

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was applied for image reconstruction. We greatly improved the lateral resolution of images and acquired a clear view of the circular boundaries of buried cylindrical objects, which could not be obtained in conventional linear-scanning microwave...

  10. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  11. Uncertainty of microwave radiative transfer computations in rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Sung Wook

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of the vertical resolution effect on the BT. Secondly, a new temperature profile based on observations was absorbed in the Texas A&M University (TAMU) algorithm. The Precipitation Radar (PR) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI...

  12. Compact hot-nozzle fourier-transform microwave spectormeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmony, Marlin D.; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L.; Angst, D. M.; Beren, K. A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly constructed pulsed nozzle, Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer utilizes a Fabry-Perot cavity consisting of spherical resonators having diameters of only 10 cm. Tests of this very compact-cavity system show ...

  13. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  14. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Duewer, Fred (Albany, CA); Yang, Hai Tao (Albany, CA); Lu, Yalin (Chelmsford, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  15. An Efficient Microwave Power Source: Free-electron Laser Afterburner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Block diagram of the free-electron laser afterburner. The2. The particular free-electron laser afterburner with aMicrowave Power Source: Free-Electron Laser Afterburner c.

  16. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: reconstruction by synthetic aperture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dazi

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied the synthetic-aperture method to linear-scanning microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography in biological tissues. A non-focused ultrasonic transducer was used to receive thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm...

  17. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our-compression/expansion refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration exhibits the advantages of high energy efficiency and environment

  18. Investigation of Nanoparticles for Use in Microwave Systems in Biomedicine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taghavi, Houra

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on the microwave properties of nanoparticles for use as contrast and hyperthermia agents. Currently, visible light is used for irradiation of nanoparticles as hyperthermia agents. Additionally, visible/Near-infrared light...

  19. Two-port microwave calibration at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranzani, Leonardo; Spietz, Lafe; Aumentado, Jose [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Popovic, Zoya [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we introduce a system for 2-port microwave calibration at millikelvin temperatures operating at the coldest stage of a dilution refrigerator by use of an adapted thru-reflect-line algorithm. We show that this can be an effective tool for characterizing common 50 {Omega} microwave components with better than 0.1 dB accuracy at temperatures that are relevant to many current experiments in superconducting quantum information.

  20. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  1. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A., E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B. [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation)] [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)] [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  2. Industrial applications of variable frequency microwave energy in materials processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fathi, Z.; Tucker, D.A.; Lewis, W.A.; Wei, J.B. [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of some market-driven research, process applications and systems development is provided. The variable frequency microwave processing concepts are briefly described. Industrial processing using variable frequency microwave energy in the areas of polymerization, composite processing, bonding and plasma is discussed. Analytical applications inherent in the use of variable frequency and its control are demonstrated in the areas of materials signature analysis for volumetric cure monitoring.

  3. Proposal for an Optomechanical Microwave Sensor at the Subphoton Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keye Zhang; Francesco Bariani; Ying Dong; Weiping Zhang; Pierre Meystre

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their low energy content, microwave signals at the single-photon level are extremely challenging to measure. Guided by recent progress in single-photon optomechanics and hybrid optomechanical systems, we propose a multimode optomechanical transducer that can detect intensities significantly below the single-photon level via adiabatic transfer of the microwave signal to the optical frequency domain where the measurement is then performed. The influence of intrinsic quantum and thermal fluctuations is also discussed.

  4. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  5. Mathematical and experimental modelling of heat pump assisted microwave drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiguo Jia (Univ. of Queensland (Australia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying is one of the most energy intensive operations in industry and agriculture. In the quest to increase drying efficiency and product quality, new technologies and methods are constantly being sought. Of these technologies, heat pump assisted drying and microwave drying have proved to be the most promising contenders. In order to achieve a better understanding and provide a computer design tool for heat pump assisted convective and microwave drying, both mathematical modelling and experimental investigations of heat pump assisted microwave dryers have been undertaken in this study. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of a heat pump assisted continuous microwave dryer, with emphasis on the simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the evaporator and drying chamber. The model is intend to serve as a design tool in the study of heat pump dryers. To achieve the optimum design, the influences of the key design and operating parameters, as well as the comparison of different drying configurations, have been examined. Based on investigation results, several methods have been proposed to improve the performance of heat pump assisted microwave drying, such as the use of a recuperator. To validate the above mathematical model, extensive drying tests using foam rubber as the test material have been conducted on a prototype heat pump assisted microwave dryer. The prototype heat pump input power was 5 kW with a maximum microwave input power of 10 kW. The experimental performance data confirmed the veracity of the simulation model. The experimental results on drying test materials indicate that with careful design heat pump assisted microwave drying is comparable to convective drying in energy consumption while with a much higher drying speed.

  6. Microwaves and Chemistry: The Catalysis of an Exciting Marriage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    been the bias of chemists, raised on the principles of quantum mechanics, who concluded that the energy provided by microwave radiation was too low to cause bond breaking or electron transfer reactions. In the past ten years we have adapted a... surfaces, the peak power and the duration of the microwave pulses, and the thermal conductivity of the catalyst. For each chemicaL system there exists a unique activation energy barrier for the forward reaction to proceed. A corresponding activation...

  7. Radio Frequency and Microwave Hazards Radio frequency (rf) and microwaves occur within the range 10 kHz to 300,000 MHz and are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    kHz to 300,000 MHz and are used in rf ovens and furnaces, induction heaters, and microwave ovens. Microwave ovens are increasingly being used in laboratories for organic synthesis and digestion of analytical samples. Only microwave ovens designed for laboratory or industrial use should be used

  8. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi (Los Alamos, NM); Vaughn, Worth E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  9. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments. Annual report, FY1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company. Continuous ceramic filaments are a principal component in many advanced high temperature materials like continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) and woven ceramic textiles. The use of continuous ceramic filaments in CFCC radiant burners, gas turbines, waste incineration, and hot gas filters in U.S. industry and power generation is estimated to save at least 2.16 quad/yr by year 2010 with energy cost savings of at least $8.1 billion. By year 2010, continuous ceramic filaments and CFCC`s have the potential to abate pollution emissions by 917,000 tons annually of nitrous oxide and 118 million tons annually of carbon dioxide (DOE Report OR-2002, February, 1994).

  10. Development and research of a coaxial microwave plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Juan; Xu Yingqiao; Tang Jinlan; Mao Genwang; Yang Tielian [College of Astronautics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Tan Xiaoquen [School of Mechatronics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the research on a coaxial microwave plasma thruster at Northwestern Polytechnic University is presented. Emphasis is put on the development and research on key components of the thruster system, a microthrust balance, plasma plume diagnostics, and a numerical simulation of the plasma flow field inside the thruster cavity. The developed thruster cavity is chosen from a coaxial resonant cavity with concentrated capacitance, which can operate well in atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The development of a microwave source shows that a magnetron powered by a switch power supply has advantages in the power level and efficiency, but a solid state microwave source synthesized from the arsenide field effect transistor is superior in weight and volume. Through elimination of the effect of large gravity and resistance force induced by a gas pipe line and a microwave transmitting line on the microthrust, 15 mN and 340 s in the performance of the microwave plasma thruster at 70 W and with helium gas are measured. Diagnosing experiment shows that the plasma plume density is in the range of (1-7.2)x10{sup 16}/m{sup 3}. Numerical simulation of the plasma flow field inside the coaxial thruster cavity shows that there is a good match between the microwave power and gas flow rate.

  11. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  12. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  13. Sideband Mixing in Intense Laser Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution on the sidebands. We show that the gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles. The identification of the propagator from the two-point function is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

  14. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  15. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  16. 1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Recycling Ambient Microwave Energy With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1014 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 52, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Recycling are in wireless powering of industrial sensors and recycling of ambient RF energy. A 64-el- ement dual

  17. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  18. Predictions on the angular power spectrum of clustered extragalactic point sources at CMB frequencies from flat and all--sky 2D-simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. González-Nuevo; L. Toffolatti; F. Argüeso

    2004-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present predictions on the angular power spectrum of CMB fluctuations due to extragalactic point sources (EPS) by using a method for simulating realistic 2D distributions of clustered EPS. Both radio and far--IR selected source populations are taken into account. To analyze different clustering scenarios, we exploit angular power spectra of EPS, $P(k)$, estimated either by data coming from currently available surveys or by means of theoretical predictions. By adopting the source number counts predicted by the Toffolatti et al. (1998) evolution model -- capable of accounting well for the available data at radio cm wavelengths -- we are able to reproduce current data on the two--point angular correlation functions, $w(\\theta)$, of radio sources. We can confirm that the detection of primordial CMB anisotropies is not hampered by undetected clustered sources at frequencies $\\leq 150-200$ GHz. On the other hand, our current findings show that at higher frequencies the clustering signal could severely reduce the detectability of intrinsic CMB anisotropies, thus confirming previous theoretical predictions. We also show that unsubtracted EPS can account for the excess signal at high multipoles detected by recent CMB anisotropy experiments. Moreover, the additional power due to the clustering of sources gives rise to a small but not negligible contribution to the same excess signal. As a final result, we also present an example of a currently feasible {\\it realistic map} of EPS at 70 GHz, by taking into account data on bright detected sources as well as the previously quoted model for number counts.

  19. Microwave processing of Tantalum capacitors. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Vierow, W.F.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and AVX Tantalum Corporation (AVX) of Biddeford, Maine, was initiated in October 1991. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion date for the Agreement was March 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of an advanced microwave processing concept to develop higher capacitance tantalum anodes. Tantalum capacitors are used where high reliability is needed (e.g., pacemakers, hearing aids, and military devices). Two types of tantalum powder are used: sodium-reduced powder and electron beam-refined powder. Sodium-reduced powder has higher surface area, but lower purity; electron beam-refined powder has higher purity for working voltages, but somewhat lower surface area. The powder is pressed into pellets using traditional methods and then placed in the microwave furnace for processing. It is of interest to determine if variable-frequency microwave sintering can increase quality while decreasing processing time and decreasing or eliminating surface contamination; these issues must be addressed while retaining the maximum surface area of the anode. Meeting each of these needs will result in a higher quality anodic film, which will thereby increase the dielectric strength. Additionally, microwave sintering might enable the authors to develop a strong sintered anode without excessive grain growth. The variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF), located at the Y-12 Plant, allows the authors to study the effects of sintering over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT), originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  20. Chiral transition in a strong magnetic background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo S. Fraga; Ana Júlia Mizher

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a strong magnetic background can modify the nature and the dynamics of the chiral phase transition at finite temperature. We compute the modified effective potential in the linear sigma model with quarks to one loop in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme for $N_{f}=2$. For fields $eB\\sim 5 m_{\\pi}^{2}$ and larger a crossover is turned into a weak first-order transition. We discuss possible implications for non-central heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC, and for the primordial QCD transition.

  1. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  2. Physical principles of microwave assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, Kirill; Benakli, Mourad; Yin, Huaqing [Seagate Technology, Edina, Minnesota 55435 (United States); Tabat, Ned [Semaphore Scientific Inc., Chanhassen, Minnesota 55317 (United States)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While the basic physics of Microwave Assisted Magnetization Reversal (MAMR) phenomenon is well established both theoretically and experimentally, its application in a practical magnetic recording environment was so far studied primarily with the help of micromagnetic recording models. In this work, we instead attempt to use analytical formulation and simple numerical models to understand the main challenges as well as benefits that are associated with such a system. It appears that the main difference between the previously introduced theory [G. Bertotti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 724 (2001); K. Rivkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153104 (2008); S. Okamoto et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123914 (2010).] and recording environment is that both the RF and DC magnetic fields are applied at a substantial angle to the anisotropy axis. While the associated symmetry breaking prevents one from describing the reversal process explicitly, it is possible to approximate the solutions well enough to satisfactorily match numerical models both in the case of wire and Spin Torque Oscillator generated RF fields. This approach allows for physical explanation of various effects associated with MAMR such as high gradient of writeable anisotropy and reduction of track width, and offers a clear guidance regarding future optimization of MAMR recording.

  3. Characterization of melter slurries vitrified by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In this facility, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. As part of the DWPF process control strategy, the glass redox expected in the melter will be determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in vitrified slurry from the slurry mix evaporator (SME). Chemical analysis of this vitrified feed will also be used for other process control constraints which are related to glass viscosity, liquidus, and waste component solubility. In addition, the canisters of borosilicate waste glass produced in the DWPF must comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) established by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Specification 1.1.2 requires that the elemental composition of the glass be reported. The elemental analyses will be performed on vitrified melter feed taken from the melter feed tank (MFT). Conventional vitrification of SME/MFT slurries takes 4 hours at the DWPF melt temperature of 1150{degrees}C. Microwave vitrification of melter feed slurries has been shown to significantly reduce the time required to vitrify slurry samples.

  4. Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) ohmic heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The ohmic heating system for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides both the voltage for the initial breakdown phase and the energy to drive the plasma current to a value of 400 kA or greater. Providing this voltage and flux swing requires a one-turn loop voltage of about 25 volts (11 kV across the coil) and a magnetic flux swing of 2 volt- seconds. This voltage and flux swing are accomplished by charging the ohmic heating coils to 20 kA, at which point the current is commutated off into a resistor generating the 11 kV across the coil. When the current passes through zero, another power supply drives the current in the opposite polarity to 20 kA, thus completing the full 2 volt-second flux swing. This paper describes the design features and performance of the ohmic heating circuit, with emphasis on the commutation circuit. In addition, the paper describes the use of the ohmic heating system for discharge cleaning and the changeover procedure. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. apm background radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extragalactic Background Radiation Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: Attenuation of high--energy gamma rays by pair--production with UV, optical and IR background photons provides a...

  6. Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrabo, Leik N. [Lightcraft Technologies, Inc., Bennington, VT (United States)

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past {approx}7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future.

  7. Techniques for Probing the Processes by Which Microwaves Interact with Chemical and Biological Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Philip E

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave heating is a relatively mature field and is theoretically well understood. However, recently there has been debate as to whether microwaves can interact with chemical and biological systems by means other than ...

  8. Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letter to the Editor Microwave assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide yet versatile method to simultaneously achieve the exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide of crumpled, few-layer thick and electronically conductive graphitic sheets. Using the microwave exfoliated

  9. be virtually impossible to construct land lines and microwave networks in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eric A.

    ) with a microwave radio transmission tail is not suit- able for very harsh terrain, or for locations that are more. The use of microwave repeater towers, requiring line- of-sight from one tower to the next, was ruled out

  10. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Alan Donald

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    away” into a landfill after a single use. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a recycling technique that allows the recovery of chemical value from plastic waste by breaking down polymers into useful smaller hydrocarbons using microwave heat in the absence...

  11. Attosecond timing jitter modelocked lasers and ultralow phase noise photonic microwave oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Duo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic microwave oscillator based on optical frequency comb and ultrastable optical reference cavity represents the state-of-the-art solution to generate X-band microwaves of ultralow phase noise. Such high-quality ...

  12. Collective neutrino oscillations in turbulent backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Giles; Adams, Jenni; Seunarine, Suruj [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a Kolmogorov turbulence model, we investigate the effects of fluctuations in matter and neutrino density in the region near a supernova core on the flavor oscillations of neutrinos emitted in the core collapse in a single-angle, two-flavor approximation. Deviation from a smooth background neutrino density causes significant alterations in the final flavor state of the neutrino ensemble after 400 km, but even very large fluctuations in the matter density do not strongly affect the state of the neutrinos after the collective phase. In both cases, there is a strong effect on the neutrino flavor evolution at intermediate radii, with the flavor evolution becoming much more chaotic. The effect of fluctuations also depends strongly on the initial neutrino spectra. We conclude that the true neutrino fluxes arriving at Earth from core-collapse supernova could differ considerably from predictions of neutrino fluxes based on approximate models with smoothly decreasing matter and neutrino densities.

  13. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  14. RPV stops bump off the background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Franceschini; Riccardo Torre

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the 8 TeV LHC reach on pair produced heavy flavored di-jet resonances. Motivated by theories of R-parity violation in supersymmetry we concentrate on a final state with two b-jets and two light jets. We exploit b-tagging to reject the background and discuss its importance at the trigger level to probe light stops. We present kinematical selections that can be used to isolate the signal as a bump in the mass distribution of the candidate resonances. We find that stops with R-parity violating couplings giving rise to fully hadronic final states can be observed in the current run of the LHC. Remarkably, the LHC can probe stop masses well within the range predicted by naturalness.

  15. Self-Calibration of Neutrino Detectors using characteristic Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Kopp; Manfred Lindner; Alexander Merle

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the possibility to use characteristic natural neutrino backgrounds, such as Geoneutrinos (\\bar{\

  16. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  17. Optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Haijun; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio [Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPVs), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kuraseko, Hiroshi [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Production Technology Development Center, 6 Yawata-Kaigandori, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical emission behaviors of Ar, He, and Ar+He plasmas generated in air using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source have been studied employing optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Emissions from various source gas species and air were observed. The variations in the intensities and intensity ratios of specific emissions as functions of the microwave power and gas flow rate were analyzed to investigate the relationship between the emission behavior and the plasma properties. We find that dependence of the emission behavior on the input microwave power is mainly determined by variations in electron density and electron temperature in the plasmas. On the other hand, under different gas flow rate conditions, changes in the density of the source gas atoms also significantly affect the emissions. Interestingly, when plasma is generated using an Ar+He mixture, emissions from excited He atoms disappear while a strong H{sub {alpha}} signal appears. The physics behind these behaviors is discussed in detail.

  18. Microwave guiding in air along single femtosecond laser filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren Yu; Alshershby, Mostafa; Qin Jiang; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave guiding along single plasma filament generated through the propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in air has been demonstrated over a distance of about 6.5 cm, corresponding to a microwave signal intensity enhancement of more than 3-fold over free space propagation. The current propagation distance along the fs laser filament is in agreement with the calculations and limited by the relatively high resistance of the single plasma filament. Using a single fs laser filament to channel microwave radiation considerably alleviate requirements to the power of fs laser pulses compared to the case of the circular filaments waveguide. In addition, it can be used as a simple and non-intrusive method to obtain the basic parameters of laser-generated plasma filament.

  19. Spectral properties of microwave graphs with local absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Allgaier; S. Gehler; S. Barkhofen; H. -J. Stöckmann; U. Kuhl

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of absorption on the spectra of microwave graphs has been studied experimentally. The microwave networks were made up of coaxial cables and T junctions. First, absorption was introduced by attaching a 50 Ohm load to an additional vertex for graphs with and without time-reversal symmetry. The resulting level-spacing distributions were compared with a generalization of the Wigner surmise in the presence of open channels proposed recently by Poli et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 174101 (2012)]. Good agreement was found using an effective coupling parameter. Second, absorption was introduced along one individual bond via a variable microwave attenuator, and the influence of absorption on the length spectrum was studied. The peak heights in the length spectra corresponding to orbits avoiding the absorber were found to be independent of the attenuation, whereas, the heights of the peaks belonging to orbits passing the absorber once or twice showed the expected decrease with increasing attenuation.

  20. Proceedings of the 36th Microwave Power Symposium, San Francisco, April 18-20, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    of microwave heating. Conventional impossibility to convert all microwave energy into heat leads in one of the waveguide arms of the three-port circulator. This load is also available in the market modeling of microwave heating [1]. The goal was to identify the circumstances of the stable and efficient

  1. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  2. Applications for Microwave Generators in the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.; Vasilakos, N. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 14. Fix, S. R. "Microwave Devulcanization of Rub ber." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., lincoln, NE, USA). US 4,104,205, Elastomerics, Vol. 112, No.6, pp. 1980, 38-40 (Eng). 15. Yamashita, I., Yamamoto, N., and Mima, S., "Decomposition of Waste... August 1978. 18. Novotny, D. S., et al. "Devulcanization of Sulfer-Vulcanized Elastomers." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.) Ger. Offen. 2,700,306, 18 August 1977, US Appl. 646,821, 6 January 1976. 19. "Microwave Hardenable Molding Sand." (Ko matsu...

  3. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  4. Microwave Enhanced Separation of Water-In-Oil Emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, C. S.; Lai, P.

    MICRaVAVE ENHANCED SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-oIL EMULSIONS C.S. FANG DEPAR'lMENT OF rnEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHWESTERN LOUISIANA LAFAYE'ITE, IDUISIANA ABSTRACT The experimental data showed that viscous and stable water-in-oil.....rrental data also indicated that water-in-oil emulsion can be heated uniformly by microwaves, if the pathlength is not too long. Temperature profiles and microwave heating can be predicted reasonably well fran di electric properties and the theory...

  5. Quantum networking of microwave photons using optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. D. Clader

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an adiabatic state transfer mechanism that allows for high-fidelity transfer of a microwave quantum state from one cavity to another through an optical fiber. The conversion from microwave frequency to optical frequency is enabled by an optomechanical transducer. The transfer process utilizes a combined dark state of the mechanical oscillator and fiber modes, making it robust against both mechanical and fiber loss. We anticipate this scheme being an enabling component of a hybrid quantum computing architecture consisting of superconducting qubits with optical interconnects.

  6. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  7. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Charles Lindsey

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY J(ROLL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A)M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1973 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering REMOTE MONITORING OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AIRBORNE MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS A Thesis by CHARLES LINDSEY KROLL Approved as to style and content by: man o Co mrtt Hca o D artmc c Ill l c r Mem e Member...

  8. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  9. Personal Background andPersonal Background and AreasAreas ofof InterestInterest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehning, Dankmar

    General Topics CurrentCurrent AreasAreas ofof InterestInterest ResearchResearch AreasAreas inin Preperation InterestInterest ResearchResearch AreasAreas inin PreperationPreperation #12;Personal BackgroundHistory BesidesBesides cooperatingcooperating inin severalseveral projectsprojects in SEin SE AsiaAsia oneone

  10. Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

    2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

  11. K-mouflage Cosmology: the Background Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Brax; Patrick Valageas

    2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the cosmology of K-mouflage theories at the background level. We show that the effects of the scalar field are suppressed at high matter density in the early Universe and only play a role in the late time Universe where the deviations of the Hubble rate from its $\\Lambda$-CDM counterpart can be of the order five percent for redshifts $1 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 5$. Similarly, we find that the equation of state can cross the phantom divide in the recent past and even diverge when the effective scalar energy density goes negative and subdominant compared to matter, preserving the positivity of the squared Hubble rate. These features are present in models for which Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is not affected. We analyze the fate of K-mouflage when the nonlinear kinetic terms give rise to ghosts, particle excitations with negative energy. In this case, we find that the K-mouflage theories can only be considered as an effective description of the Universe at low energy below $1$ keV. In the safe ghost-free models, we find that the equation of state always diverges in the past and changes significantly by a few percent since $z\\lesssim 1$.

  12. ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Dole

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

  13. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  14. Compensated isocurvature perturbations in the curvaton model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chen; Hu, Wayne

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primordial fluctuations in the relative number densities of particles, or isocurvature perturbations, are generally well constrained by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. A less probed mode is the compensated isocurvature perturbation (CIP), a fluctuation in the relative number densities of cold dark matter and baryons. In the curvaton model, a sub-dominant field during inflation later sets the primordial curvature fluctuation $\\zeta$. In some curvaton-decay scenarios, the baryon and cold dark matter isocurvature fluctuations nearly cancel, leaving a large CIP correlated with $\\zeta$. This correlation can be used to probe these CIPs more sensitively than the uncorrelated CIPs considered in past work, essentially by measuring the squeezed bispectrum of the CMB for triangles whose shortest side is limited by the sound horizon. Here, the sensitivity of existing and future CMB experiments to correlated CIPs is assessed, with an eye towards testing specific curvaton-decay scenarios. The planned CMB Stage-4 ex...

  15. Multiple concentric annuli for characterizing spatially nonuniform backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Theiler; Jeff Bloch

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for estimating the background at a given location on a sky map by interpolating the estimated background from a set of concentric annuli which surround this location. If the background is nonuniform but smoothly varying, this method provides a more accurate (though less precise) estimate than can be obtained with a single annulus. Several applications of multi-annulus background estimation are discussed, including direct testing for point sources in the presence of a nonuniform background, the generation of "surrogate maps" for characterizing false alarm rates, and precise testing of the null hypothesis that the background is uniform.

  16. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  17. MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION USING THE VICARIOUS CALIBRATION METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION USING THE VICARIOUS CALIBRATION METHOD Darren McKague Chris Ruf John J. Puckett University of Michigan ABSTRACT The vicarious cold and warm calibration methods of Ruf, and Brown and Ruf, have been used to assess the calibration of the WindSat radiometer as well

  18. Microwave properties of nanodiamond particles Daniel Slocombe,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at microwave frequencies using a cavity perturbation technique, and results were compared with UV Raman detonation nanodiamond powders were sourced from PlasmaChem GmbH (G01 grade). This mate- rial is purified measured, designated U in what follows. Samples were then oxidised by burning the powders in air

  19. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  20. Broadband microwave imaging spectroscopy with a solardedicated array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the thermal structure of the solar atmosphere, and to study energy release and particle energization the range 1-- 26.5 GHz. Keywords: Radio interferometry, spectroscopy, optical fiber, correlator 1Broad­band microwave imaging spectroscopy with a solar­dedicated array T.S. Bastian a , D.E. Gary b

  1. ECRH microwave beam broadening in the edge turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sysoeva, E. V.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia and RL PAT SPbSPU, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Silva, F. da [Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Heuraux, S. [IJL UMR-7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of turbulent plasma density fluctuations on angular and spatial beam width is treated analytically in the framework of WKB based eikonal method. Reasonable agreement of analytical and numerical treatment results is demonstrated within the domain of quasi-optical approximation validity. Significant broadening of microwave beams is predicted for future ECRH experiments at ITER.

  2. A NOVEL MICROWAVE CAMERA FOR NDE OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    A NOVEL MICROWAVE CAMERA FOR NDE OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES By Maria Q. Feng1 , Yoo Jin Kim2 , Franco De Flaviis3 , and Luis Jofre 4 ABSTRACT: Nondestructive assessment of concrete structures heavily and cracks inside concrete caused by aging, deterioration, and seismic loading. The authors have developed

  3. Engineering of Ferrite-Graphite Composite Media for Microwave Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Engineering of Ferrite-Graphite Composite Media for Microwave Shields Marina Koledintseva, PoornaAA@mpei.ru Abstract-- An electromagnetic shielding of objects using ferrite-graphite composites is considered- shielding; dielectric base material; ferrite- graphite composite, Maxwell Garnett formulation I

  4. Azimuth Variation in Microwave Backscatter over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Azimuth Variation in Microwave Backscatter over the Greenland Ice Sheet Ivan S. Ashcraft and David backscatter measurements are becoming an important tool for monitoring the dynamic behavior of the Greenland ice sheet. However, most Greenland studies assume constant backscatter for varying azimuth angles

  5. Photonic microwave oscillator based on monolithic DFB lasers with frequency-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic microwave oscillator based on monolithic DFB lasers with frequency- shifted feedback L, was built by using a monolithic dual-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser submitted to a frequency: measured data; dashed line: Lorentzian fit a Free running, RBW: 30 kHz, span: 50 MHz b With feedback, RBW

  6. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography: Reconstruction by synthetic aperture Dazi Feng, Yuan thermoacoustic signals, to which the delay-and-sum algorithm was applied for image reconstruc- tion. We greatly-induced thermoacoustic tomography based on focused transducers. Two mi- crowave sources, which had frequencies of 9 and 3

  7. A SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    and wireless diplexers. An exact analysis of the voltage/power distribution inside a filter involves the 3D is derived. This transformation is then used to relate the actual voltage distribution inside a transmissionA SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES Apu Sivadas, Ming Yu

  8. Flexible Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Microwave Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    Flexible Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for Microwave Electronics Inanc Meric , Nicholas Petrone-frequency characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) has received significant interest due the very high carrier velocities in graphene. In addition to excellent electronic performance, graphene possesses

  9. Thermite powder ignition by localized microwaves Yehuda Meir, Eli Jerby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerby, Eli

    - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) for sintering of ceramic composites [14]. The magnetic (H, the microwave energy is supplied locally to the powder. It creates a confined hotspot, and initiates a self-propagating the powder prior to its ignition is simulated theoretically, taking into account the powder's temperature

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  11. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a ``smart tube'' HPM source. By smart

  12. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart

  13. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Present day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot], [2]. There are however commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples repetition* * rate is attractive for practical implementation of an HPM system. The physics

  14. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Present day high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based implementation of an HPM system. The physics of the interaction between a relativistic electron beam and various

  15. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of* * which include a system the control algorithms on a * *physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart tube we

  16. Microwave-driven breakdown: from dielectric surface multipactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    .85 GHz)Experimental Setup (2.85 GHz) HPM Load Directional Coupler Directional Coupler Rear Viewing Port HPM from Test Section Front Viewing Port HPM from Source Test Section Features ·WR284-WR650 StandardsRF Window Flashover > MW transmitted power (High Power Microwaves, HPM) Field amplitudes in excess

  17. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  18. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  19. MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : · The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) provides information concerning background radioactivity in Background as a Residual Radioactivity Criterion for Decommissioning NUREG-1501 (NRC 1994). · The United Nations Scientific

  20. Study of alpha background in a dark matter detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yegoryan, Hayk

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha background, specifically from radon and its progeny in the uranium and thorium chains, has been a major issue in dark matter detectors. This work focuses on alpha background presence in the DMTPC experiment by examining ...

  1. Uniform Gauge for D1-brane in General Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluson, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct uniform gauge D1-brane action in general background. We also discuss how this action transforms under double Wick rotation and determine transformation properties of background fields.

  2. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  3. Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater Prepared for: Naval This guidance document provides instructions for characterizing groundwater background conditions and comparing datasets representing groundwater impacted by an actual or potential chemical release to appropriate

  4. 422 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 Instantaneous Microwave Frequency Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    . I. INTRODUCTION MICROWAVE receiver for radar and other electronic warfare applications require of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China (e-mail: chihao@zju.edu.cn). J. Yao is with the Department of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University

  5. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for...

  6. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreotti, E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region ofis searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a

  7. Plasma Physics Challenges of MMPlasma Physics Challenges of MM--toto--THz and High Power MicrowaveTHz and High Power Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid StateSolid State Microwave Power ElectronicsMicrowave Power Electronics · Both convert kinetic Devices (Avg) Vacuum HPM (Peak) Solid State Lasers (Peak) Solid State Devices (Avg) Power(W) (Single ...BUT ... For f > 100 GHz VEDs frontier 1/f2P High power limit for Solid State 1/f 2 and HPM Frontier

  8. 314 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 39-GHz GaN-Based Microwave Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    314 IEEE MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 3­9-GHz GaN-Based Microwave. P. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--We present an initial demonstration of GaN-band network. Using 0.7-m gate-length GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) with current

  9. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  10. Microwave generated electrodeless lamp for producing bright output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Ch. H.; Ury, M. G.

    1985-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated electrodeless light source for producing a bright output comprising a lamp structure including a microwave chamber and a plasma medium-containing lamp envelope having a maximum dimension which is substantially less than a wavelength disposed therein. To provide the desired radiation output the interior of the chamber is coated with a UV-reflective material and the chamber has an opening for allowing UV radiation to exit, which is covered with a metallic mesh. The chamber is arranged to be near-resonant at a single wavelength, and the lamp envelope has a fill including mercury at an operating pressure of 1-2 atmospheres, while a power density of at least 250-300 (watts/cm/sup 3/) is coupled to the envelope to result in a relatively high deep UV output at a relatively high brightness.

  11. Microwave measurement of the mass of frozen hydrogen pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talanker, Vera (Golden, CO); Greenwald, Martin (Belmont, MA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nondestructive apparatus and method for measuring the mass of a moving object, based on the perturbation of the dielectric character of a resonant microwave cavity caused by the object passing through the cavity. An oscillator circuit is formed with a resonant cavity in a positive feedback loop of a microwave power amplifier. The moving object perturbs the resonant characteristics of the cavity causing a shift in the operating frequency of the oscillator proportional to the ratio of the pellet volume to the volume of the cavity. Signals from the cavity oscillation are mixed with a local oscillator. Then the IF frequency from the mixer is measured thereby providing a direct measurement of pellet mass based upon known physical properties and relationships. This apparatus and method is particularly adapted for the measurement of frozen hydrogen pellets.

  12. Anatomy of a disruption in MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E.B.; Casper, T.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Meyer, W.H.; Moller, J.M.; Oasa, K.; Rice, B.W.; Wood, R.D.

    1990-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disruptions are observed in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment, MTX (nee Alcator C), over a wide range of plasma parameters. Indeed, disruptions often occur far from the boundaries of the operating space as defined by Hugill and l{sub i}-q plots. Despite this, the general behavior during the disruptive process is generally similar whatever the operating parameters. This report will describe one disruption in detail in order to provide a detailed anatomy of the event.

  13. Rydberg Atoms Ionisation by Microwave Field and Electromagnetic Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kaulakys; G. Vilutis

    1995-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionisation by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionisation of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionisation theory.

  14. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marcinek, Marek (Warszawa, PL); Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Proposed Microwave Transmission Facility, Malta, Phillips County, Montana: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western proposes to construct a microwave communications facility at the Malta site consisting of a 175 foot to 200 foot tall, guyed, lattice-type steel tower, a building approximately 10' x 16' x 8' in size to house electrical and electronic equipment, an approximately 400 square feet graveled parking area for motor vehicles, and a graveled access road about 300 feet in length and about 20 feet ot 30 feet wide. 1 fig.

  16. Experimental test of a microwave ion beam source in oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asmussen, J.; Dahimene, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma disk ion source operating with inert gases both with and without an applied static magnetic field. Earlier results were reported using a preliminary, multicusp static magnetic field configuration produced by alternating pole, small, --2.5 kG rare earth magnets surrounding the microwave discharge zone. This electrodeless ion source has been rebuilt incorporating several improvements and has been experimentally tested with different discharge diffusion lengths. The improvements include removing the rare earth magnets from the inside of the microwave cavity and embedding them in the cavity walls. The placement and strength of the magnets allows electron cyclotron resonant surfaces (--875 G) to lie entirely within the discharge zone. Discharges with different diffusion lengths were created by varying the thickness of the disk-shaped discharge zone. The experimental performance with and without a static magnetic field is discussed at the low flow rates of 2--10 sccm and using a 2.5 cm diam double grid set. Experimental test results are compared to similar ion beam sources in oxygen that employ a dc discharge. The expected lifetime, startup, and shutdown problems and maintenance are also reviewed.

  17. Plasma relaxation mechanics of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, S.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave transmission and reflection characteristics of pulsed radio frequency field generated plasmas are elucidated for air, N{sub 2}, and He environments under pressure conditions ranging from 10 to 600 torr. The pulsed, low temperature plasma is generated along the atmospheric side of the dielectric boundary between the source (under vacuum) and the radiating environment with a thickness on the order of 5 mm and a cross sectional area just smaller than that of the waveguide. Utilizing custom multi-standard waveguide couplers and a continuous low power probing source, the scattering parameters were measured before, during, and after the high power microwave pulse with emphasis on the latter. From these scattering parameters, temporal electron density estimations (specifically the longitudinal integral of the density) were calculated using a 1D plane wave-excited model for analysis of the relaxation processes associated. These relaxation characteristics ultimately determine the maximum repetition rate for many pulsed electric field applications and thus are applicable to a much larger scope in the plasma community than just those related to high power microwaves. This manuscript discusses the diagnostic setup for acquiring the power measurements along with a detailed description of the kinematic and chemical behavior of the plasma as it decays down to its undisturbed state under various gas type and pressure conditions.

  18. Microwave magnetic dynamics in highly conducting magnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostylev, M.; Ivanov, E.; Samarin, S. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed low-noise broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements of the resonant modes of an array of metallic ferromagnetic nanostripes. In addition to a strong signal of the fundamental mode, we observed up to five weak-amplitude peaks in the field-resolved FMR traces, depending on the frequency. These higher-order absorption peaks have been theoretically identified as due to resonant excitation of odd and even standing spin waves across the direction of confinement in array plane (i.e., across the stripe width). The theory we developed suggests that the odd modes become excited in the spatially uniform microwave field of the FMR setup due to the large conductivity of metals. This promotes excitation of large-amplitude eddy currents in the sample by the incident microwave magnetic field and ultimately results in excitation of these modes. Following this theory, we found that the eddy current contribution is present only for patterned materials and when the microwave magnetic field is incident on one surface of sample surface, as it is in the case of a microstrip FMR.

  19. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  20. A Possible Explanation of Anomalous Earth Flybys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Petry

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Doppler shift observations of several spacecrafts during near Earth flybys show an unexplained frequency shift. This shift is interpreted as an unexpected velocity change called Earth flyby anomaly. A theory of non-privileged reference frames is used to study the Doppler shift in such frames which are experimentally justified by the measured dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in the solar system. The system in which the CMB is isotropic defines the privileged reference frame. The calculated frequency shift in non-privileged reference frames may give an explanation of the anomalous Earth flybys.