Sample records for microscopy surface science

  1. Surface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    ; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Low index single crystal surfaces The structureSurface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase (1 0 0) surface NancyO2 anatase (1 0 0) surface. Natural single crystals of anatase were employed; and after several

  2. Scanning probe microscopy studies of semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, W.H. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work involving atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed which involves strain-induced, self-assembling nanostructures in compound semiconductor materials. Specific examples include one-dimensional quantum wires of InAs grown by MBE on GaAs(001) and zero-dimensional quantum dots of InP grown by MOCVD on InGaP which is lattice matched to GaAs(001).

  3. Investigations into Protein-Surface Interactions via Atomic Force Microscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settle, Jenifer Kaye

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    microscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Chapter one provides background information on protein surfaces interactions. Chapter 2 summarizes the techniques and surfaces utilized in the investigations in the following chapters. Chapter 3 provides background...

  4. surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200 An ab initio Hartree-Fock study Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK Received 3June 1996;acceptedfor publication 27 March 1997 arrangement is found consisting of localisedspinson the surface titanium atoms. © 1997Elsevier

  5. SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    SURFACE SCIENCE INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION PROCESSES Danielle Haynes Professor Steve Bernasek August 3rd, 2009 #12;Outline Introduction Corrosion Processes AnalyticalTechnique (XPS) Motivation Methodology Preliminary Results Summary / FutureWork #12;Corrosion Process What is Corrosion? Degradation

  6. Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy studies of the surface reconstructions for both the Ga-face and the N-face of wurtzite GaN films grown a surface phenomenon. Although numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress

  7. Surface Science Letters Self-assembled growth of ordered Ge nanoclusters on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Surface Science Letters Self-assembled growth of ordered Ge nanoclusters on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 Â 7-assembled growth of submonolayer Ge on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 Â 7) surface grown by solid phase epitaxy has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. Ordered Ge nanoclusters on the surface are formed by the deposition

  8. Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Lauren J.

    Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling propargylglycine unnatural functional groups 20 Å apart and an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold-terminated surfaces were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) using a low tunneling current of 10 p

  9. Surface Science 415 (1998) 2936 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Keywords: Atomic force microscopy; Gallium arsenide; Low-energy electron diffraction; Roughness; SulfurSurface Science 415 (1998) 29­36 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100) surfaces Abstract We present the results of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED

  10. Surface Science Letters Synthesis of well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface Science Letters Synthesis of well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide films on Mo(112) M microscopy (STM); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); Titanium oxide; Surface structure, morphology oxide systems, titanium dioxide has served as the prototypical reducible 0039-6028/$ - see front matter

  11. Understanding Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science Approach: Model NOx Storage Materials. Understanding Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science Approach: Model NOx...

  12. Surface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy of gold clusters on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    ; Catalysis There are many fundamental and applied reasons for studying the stability of deposited junctions and active elements. In catalysis, deactivation of the active metal component is di- rectly

  13. GaN(0001) Surface Structures Studied Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and First-Principles Total Energy Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occurring on the (0001) surface of wurtzite GaN are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy, electron and electronic properties of wurtzite GaN surfaces. Several prior studies have reported that these surfaces do reconstructions were identified, corresponding to the two inequivalent polar fac- es of wurtzite GaN, the (0001

  14. Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy-face of wurtzite GaN films grown using molecular beam epitaxy. N-face reconstructions are primarily adatom numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress in determining the true surface

  15. Oxidized GaN(0001) Surfaces studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy and by First-Principles Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Oxidized GaN(0001) Surfaces studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Abstract Oxidized Ga-polar GaN surfaces have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. For in tunneling spectroscopy revealed a surface band gap with size close to that of GaN, indicating that any

  16. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopf, Juliane [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  17. Switching surface polarization of atomic force microscopy probe utilizing photoisomerization of photochromic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aburaya, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Hikaru; Kageshima, Masami; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with optically switchable polarization is described. Modification with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules was attempted onto a Si substrate that is a prototype for a probe surface. Polarization switching caused by alternate irradiation of UV and visible lights were detected using the electrostatic force?>spectroscopy (EFS) technique. Si substrates modified with spiropyran and azobenzene exhibited reversible polarization switching that caused changes in CPD of about 100 and 50 mV, respectively. Modification with spiropyran was also attempted onto a Si probe and resulted in a CPD change of about 100 mV. It was confirmed that modification of an AFM probe or substrate with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules can generate surface polarization switching of a mechanically detectable level.

  18. HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Meng; Charles, River; Tong, Huimin; Zhang, Lei; Patel, Mili; Wang, Francis; Rames, Matthew J.; Ren, Amy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Qiu, Xiayang; et al

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters (CE) from atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL). CETP inhibition has been regarded as a promising strategy for increasing HDL levels and subsequently reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the crystal structure of CETP is known, little is known regarding how CETP binds to HDL. Here, we investigated how various HDL-like particles interact with CETP by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that CETP binds to HDL via hydrophobic interactions rather than protein-protein interactions. The HDL surface lipid curvature generates a hydrophobicmore »environment, leading to CETP hydrophobic distal end interaction. This interaction is independent of other HDL components, such as apolipoproteins, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Thus, disrupting these hydrophobic interactions could be a new therapeutic strategy for attenuating the interaction of CETP with HDL.« less

  19. Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

  20. The surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    relaxation and reconstruction; Surface structure; Morphology; Roughness; Topography Contents 1. IntroductionThe surface science of titanium dioxide Ulrike Diebold* Department of Physics, Tulane University is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature

  1. Surface Science Letters Deposition of metal clusters on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Factors that govern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface Science Letters Deposition of metal clusters on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Factors Keywords: Graphene Ru(0001) STM Metal nanoclusters Au film Fabrication of nanoclusters on a substrate of metal on graphene have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) based on different behaviors

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Cr-doped GaN Surface Grown by RF Plasma Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on sapphire substrate [2]. Park et al. performed the growth of Cr doped GaN single crystal by sodium fluxScanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Cr-doped GaN Surface Grown by RF Plasma Molecular Beam Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA Abstract: Cr doped GaN was grown by rf N-plasma molecular beam epitaxy

  3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Cr-doped GaN Surface Grown by RF Plasma Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    doped MOCVD grown GaN on sapphire substrate [2]. Park et al. performed the growth of Cr doped GaN singleScanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Cr-doped GaN Surface Grown by RF Plasma Molecular Beam Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA Abstract: Cr doped GaN was grown by rf N-plasma molecular beam epitaxy

  4. Surface Science Letters Surface vibrations of a highly ordered low-density alkanethiol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    ; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Vibrations of adsorbed molecules; Gold; LowSurface Science Letters Surface vibrations of a highly ordered low-density alkanethiol monolayer-energy surface vibrational structure of the 11:5 Â p 3 striped phase of 1-decanethiol (C10H21SH) chemi- sorbed

  5. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research mission. This workshop built on previous workshops and included three breakout sessions identifying scientific challenges in biology, biogeochemistry, catalysis, and materials science frontier areas of fundamental science that underpin energy and environmental science that would significantly benefit from ultrafast transmission electron microscopy (UTEM). In addition, the current status of time-resolved electron microscopy was examined, and the technologies that will enable future advances in spatio-temporal resolution were identified in a fourth breakout session.

  6. Electrical transport and mechanical properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces probed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Young; Qi, Yabing; Ashby, Paul D.; Hendriksen, Bas L.M.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation between molecular conductivity and mechanical properties (molecular deformation and frictional responses) of hexadecylsilane self-assembled monolayers was studied with conductive probe atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Current and friction were measured as a function of applied pressure, simultaneously, while imaging the topography of self-assembled monolayer molecule islands and silicon surfaces covered with a thin oxide layer. Friction images reveal lower friction over the molecules forming islands than over the bare silicon surface, indicating the lubricating functionality of alkylsilane molecules. By measuring the tunneling current change due to changing of the height of the molecular islands by tilting the molecules under pressure from the tip, we obtained an effective conductance decay constant ({beta}) of 0.52/{angstrom}.

  7. Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

  8. Surface Science Letters Spontaneous deposition of Pd on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brankovic, Stanko R.

    deposition of Pd on a Pt(1 1 1) electrode, monolayer [3], or submonolayer [4,7] coverages were reportedSurface Science Letters Spontaneous deposition of Pd on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface S.R. Brankovic, J. Mc March 2001 Abstract Spontaneous deposition of Pd on a Ru(0 0 0 1) single crystal surface has been

  9. Photoemission electron microscopy of localized surface plasmons in silver nanostructures at telecommunication wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mårsell, Erik; Arnold, Cord L; Xu, Hongxing; Mauritsson, Johan; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We image the field enhancement at Ag nanostructures using femtosecond laser pulses with a center wavelength of 1.55 micrometer. Imaging is based on non-linear photoemission observed in a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). The images are directly compared to ultra violet PEEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the same structures. Further, we have carried out atomic scale scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the same type of Ag nanostructures and on the Au substrate. Measuring the photoelectron spectrum from individual Ag particles shows a larger contribution from higher order photoemission process above the work function threshold than would be predicted by a fully perturbative model, consistent with recent results using shorter wavelengths. Investigating a wide selection of both Ag nanoparticles and nanowires, field enhancement is observed from 30% of the Ag nanoparticles and from none of the nanowires. No laser-induced damage is observed of the nanostructures neither during the PEEM ...

  10. Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell Model Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Science Highlight ­ December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising power sources since they can generate distribution network. Large-scale deployment of fuel cells, however, has been hampered by cost and performance

  11. Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies Many of the Earth's important atmospheric recovery, and emulsion stabilization. We are studying the behavior of species at the carbon tetrachloride.2 3100300029002800 pH~ 2 pH~ 4.5 pH ~ 5.5 Wavenumbers / cm-1 SFGAmp/arb.units COOH COOH COOH Emulsion Studies

  12. A surface science investigation of the formation of passivating layers on copper surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution of I ppm phosphate that the copper corrosion rate nears the detection limit for electrochemical techniques [4], thus necessitating a surface science study which is capable of determining the corrosion rate down to a few monolayers. The focus... of this study is to investigate the corrosion passivation aspects of phosphate on copper in aqueous solutions. The film formation as well as the corrosion rates will be investigated using techniques common to surface scientists. Many studies have been done...

  13. Surface Science Laboratory for Studying the Surfaces of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Wu

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Surface Science Laboratory (SSL) has been established at JLab to study surfaces relevant to superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Current operational facilities include a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray analysis, a secondary ion mass spectrometry, a metallographic optical microscope, a transmission electron microscope, a high precision and large scan area 3-D profilometer, a scanning field emission microscope, and a fully equipped sample preparation room. A scanning Auger microscope is being commissioned, and will be available for routine usage soon. Results from typical examples of the R&D projects on SRF cavities that were supported in the past through the use of the facilities in the SSL will be briefly reported.

  14. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  15. NANOMETER-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY INTO THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE SURFACE STRUCTURE OF HAIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durkan, C.; Wang, N.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    that the CPD between the hair and the cantilever was 0.4-0.6 V. In Figs. 4(a) and (b), we show the topography and KPFM images of a small area, and in Fig. 4(c), the surface potential (in colour) is overlaid on the 3-d topography. It is known that the surface... in the topography and the potential map, it is also a possibility that it is the deposits themselves that possess a lower surface potential than the hair surface they are on, and that this is where the overall negative charge on hair originates. A cross...

  16. Surface Science Letters P) reactions with small alkenes adsorbed on Rh, Au, and ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Surface Science Letters O(3 P) reactions with small alkenes adsorbed on Rh, Au, and ice K.D. Gibson the reaction of O(3 P) with 1- and 2-butene on the surface of Rh(111) and ice, and propene on the surface of Au(111) and amorphous ice and propene adsorbed on Au(111). These experiments were done at cryogenic

  17. DOE BES/DMS Materials Science and Engineering/Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory A Tutorial on Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Jian-Min "Jim"

    DOE BES/DMS Materials Science and Engineering/Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory #12;DOE BES/DMS Materials Science and Engineering/Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and spectroscopy #12;DOE BES/DMS Materials Science and Engineering/Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory I

  18. EMSL - Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy Capability Details * Electron microscopes with tomography, cryo, scanning, photoemission and high-resolution (sub-nanometer) imaging capabilities* Focused ion beam...

  19. Z .Applied Surface Science 109r110 1997 110 Lasersolid interaction in the femtosecond time regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    D. von der Linde ) , K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski Institut fur Laser und Plasmaphysik, Uni-3 #12;( )D. Õon der Linde et al.rApplied Surface Science 109r110 1997 1­102 Fig. 1. Primary electronic

  20. RESEARCH ENGINEER IN ADVANCED ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    RESEARCH ENGINEER IN ADVANCED ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Department of Materials Science. #12;Job Description (for website) Job Title: Research Engineer in Advanced Analytical Electron or an engineering discipline and four years of demonstrated experience in electron microscopy. Requirements

  1. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Surface Simulation of Zinc-Blende GaN(001) Intrinsic 4 Reconstruction: Linear Gallium Tetramers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reconstruction: Linear Gallium Tetramers? Hamad A. AL-Brithen, Rong Yang, Muhammad B. Haider, Costel Constantin and occupied states, in agreement with surface simulations based on the 4 1 linear tetramer model the existence of linear Ga tetramers. DOI: PACS numbers: 68.35.Bs, 68.37.Ef, 73.20.At Based on both fundamental

  3. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  4. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  5. Surface Science of Biosensors and Biointerfaces | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    discuss plasma functionalization of cellulose and plastic biosensor chips, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based detection of molecular interaction and X ray absorption studies...

  6. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000319 Surface Science Studies on Cobalt FischerTropsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000319 Surface Science Studies on Cobalt Fischer­Tropsch Catalysts Zhou-jun Wang,[a, b] Zhen Yan,[a] Chang-jun Liu,[b] and D. W. Goodman*[a] Introduction Fischer­Tropsch (FT. Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis on Single Crystal Surfaces Research on FT synthesis on Co single crystals has

  7. Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained Electron Beam Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Zhu, Zihua; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Hannon, Fay; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hess, Wayne P.

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Several photocathode degradation processes are suspected, including defect formation by ion back bombardment, photochemistry of surface adsorbed species and irradiation-induced surface defect formation. To better understand the mechanisms of photocathode degradation, we have conducted surface and bulk analysis studies of two GaAs photocathodes removed from the FEL photoinjector after delivering electron beam for a few years. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, strained super-lattice GaAs photocathode samples, removed from the CEBAF photoinjector were analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. This analysis of photocathode degradation during nominal photoinjector operating conditions represents first steps towards developing robust new photocathode designs necessary for generating sub-micron emittance electron beams required for both fourth generation light sources and intense polarized CW electron beams for nuclear and high energy physics facilities.

  8. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  9. Surface Science 284 (1993) 103-108 Noah-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    been studied using temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray photoelectron and infrared reflection experimental difficulties related to sample charging and heating. An ap- proach that has been used- high vacuum chambers. Infrared reflection-ab- 0039-6028/93/$06.00 0 1993 - Elsevier Science Publishers

  10. Scanning tuneeling microscopy studies of fivefold surfaces of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals and of thin silver films on those surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Baris

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work in this dissertation mainly focuses on the clean fivefold surfaces of i-Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals as well as the nucleation and growth of Ag films on these surfaces. In addition, Ag film growth on NiAl(110) has been explored in the frame of this dissertation. First, we have investigated the equilibration of a fivefold surface of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal at 900-915 K and 925-950 K, using Omicron variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Annealing at low temperatures resulted in many voids on some terraces while the others were almost void-free. After annealing at 925-950K, void-rich terraces became much rarer. Our STM images suggest that through growth and coalescence of the voids, a different termination becomes exposed on host terraces. All of these observations in our study indicate that even after the quasicrystalline terrace-step structure appears, it evolves with time and temperature. More specifically, based on the STM observations, we conclude that during the annealing a wide range of energetically similar layers nucleate as surface terminations, however, with increasing temperature (and time) this distribution gets narrower via elimination of the metastable void-rich terraces. Next, we have examined the bulk structural models of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal in terms of the densities, compositions and interplanar spacings for the fivefold planes that might represent physical surface terminations. In our analyses, we mainly have focused on four deterministic models which have no partial or mixed occupancy but we have made some comparisons with an undeterministic model. We have compared the models with each other and also with the available experimental data including STM, LEED-IV, XPD and LEIS. In all deterministic models, there are two different families of layers (a pair of planes), and the nondeterministic model contains similar group of planes. These two families differ in terms of the chemical decoration of their top planes. Hence, we name them as Pd+(with Pd) and Pd-(without Pd). Based on their planer structure and the step height, it can be said that these two families can be viable surface terminations. However, besides the Pd content, these two sets differ in terms of relative densities of their top planes as well as the gap separating the layer from the nearest atomic plane. The experimental data and other arguments lead to the conclusion that the Pd- family is favored over the Pd+. This has an important implication on the interpretation of local motifs seen in the high resolution STM images. In other words, the dark stars are not formed by cut-Bergmans rather they are formed by cut-Mackays.

  11. Applied Surface Science 287 (2013) 499501 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    identification in duplex stainless steel using SPM techniques a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Duplex stainless identify the phases in electro-polished duplex stainless steel using optical microscopy or other in electropolished duplex stainless steel. The results are also confirmed with the current sensing atomic force

  12. Molecular Science Computing | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Capabilities Molecular Science Computing Overview Cell Isolation and Systems Analysis Deposition and Microfabrication Mass Spectrometry Microscopy Molecular Science...

  13. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  14. Surface Science 262 (1992) 351-358 North-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). For a low CO exposure (2 2 L) at a sample temperature into two peaks at 2031 and 2014 cm-' upon heating to 160 K due to the formation of ordered CO islands studied the adsorption of CO on clean and on C-, 0- and H-precovered Mo(ll0) surfaces using infrared

  15. Evolving research directions in Surface OceanLower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean­Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science Cliff S. Law­Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) coordinates multi-disciplinary ocean­ atmosphere research projects that quantify and characterise this exchange. This article details five new SOLAS research strategies ­ upwellings and associated

  16. Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy Carolyn A. SuttonCarolyn A. Sutton PH 464PH 464 #12;OverviewOverview The OpticalThe Optical MicroscopeMicroscopy 4 Pi Microscopy4 Pi Microscopy Optical Microscope for Metallography #12;Optical Microscope: OriginsOptical

  17. Electron Microscopy Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Electron Microscopy Center Web Site has moved This page has moved to http:www.anl.govcnmgroupelectron-microscopy-cente...

  18. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular...

  19. Video-rate Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Microendoscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Alexander J.

    Confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool in biology and the biomedical sciences, enabling rapid, high-sensitivity, and high-resolution optical sectioning of complex systems. Confocal microscopy is routinely used, ...

  20. New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology** By Zhong Lin Wang* 1. Electron Microscopy and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, as an international initiative for science manufacturing are the foundation of nanotechnology. Tracking the historical background of why nanotechnology

  1. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  2. Enhancing the science return of Mars missions via sample preparation, robotic surface exploration and in orbit fuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamamy, Julien-Alexandre, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of Mars exploration is challenging from multiple points of view. To enhance their science return, future surface probes will most likely be equipped with complex Sample Preparation And Transfer (SPAT) facilities. ...

  3. Mapping out the structural changes of natural and pretreated plant cell wall surfaces by atomic force microscopy single molecular recognition imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Chen, Guojun; Kumar, Rajeev; Xu, Bingqian

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochem J 2. Solomon BD: Biofuels and sustainability. Ecolplants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 2007,of lignocellulose. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 2012, 11. Yang

  4. On the design of capillary and effusive gas dosers for surface science D. E. Kuhl and R. G. Tobina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    On the design of capillary and effusive gas dosers for surface science D. E. Kuhl and R. G. Tobina the sample. Additional effects due to trapping by cold surfaces in the chamber and multiple collisions on the chamber walls, very high flux levels---it is necessary to use a doser that provides a high flux

  5. 2048 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 Plasma Molding Over Surface Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    model was developed to study plasma "molding" over surface topography. The radio frequency (RF) sheath2048 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 Plasma Molding Over Surface Topography: Simulation of Ion Flow, and Energy and Angular Distributions Over Steps in RF High

  6. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  7. Exploring the nature of surface barriers on MOF Zn(tbip) by applying IR microscopy in high temporal and spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    ,8­10], surface permeabilities are by far more complicated to be assessed. This complication is related by deviations from the ideal crystal structure which are more likely to occur close to the surface than in the crystal bulk phase. They may give rise to pore narrowing or to total pore blocking at the surface and

  8. Molecular Science Computing | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Science Computing Overview Cell Isolation and Systems Analysis Deposition and Microfabrication Mass Spectrometry Microscopy Molecular Science Computing NMR and EPR...

  9. Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  10. Infrared thermometry and interferential microscopy for analysis of crater formation at the surface of fused silica under CO{sub 2} laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin, Lucile; Cormont, Philippe; Hebert, David; Mainfray, Christelle; Rullier, Jean-Luc [CEA Cesta, Le Barp, F-33114 France (France); Combis, Patrick [CEA DAM Ile-de-France, Arpajon Cedex, 91297 France (France); Gallais, Laurent [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Marseille, 13013 France (France)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ spatial and temporal temperature measurements of a fused silica surface heated by a 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser were performed using an infrared camera. These measurements were derived from heat flux emission of the fused silica. High temperature measurements--in the range 400-2500 K--were performed at the surface of a semi-transparent media with a high spatial resolution. Particular attention was given to the experimental conception and to the calibration of the infrared device. Moreover, both conventional and interferential microscopes were used to characterize the silica surfaces after CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. By associating these results with thermal camera measurements we identified the major surface temperature levels of silica transformation when heated during 250 ms. Surface deformation of silica is observed for temperatures <2000 K. This is consistent with other recent work using CO{sub 2} laser heating. At higher temperatures, matter ejection, as deduced from microscope observations, occurs at temperatures that are still much lower than the standard boiling point. Such evaporation is described by a thermodynamical approach, and calculations show very good agreement with experiment.

  11. Surface Science Letters The 2-D growth of gold on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Enhancement of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface Science Letters The 2-D growth of gold on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Enhancement of CO online 7 May 2011 Keywords: Graphene Ru(0001) STM 2-D Au CO adsorption IRAS The growth and morphology of two-dimensional (2-D) gold islands on a single-layer graphene supported on Ru(0001) have been studied

  12. Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, B.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

  13. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  14. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(1), 8599 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes 85 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(1), 85­99 (2002) © EGS The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) for estimation, The Netherlands Email: B.su@Alterra.wag-ur.nl Abstract A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) is proposed

  15. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  16. 11. D. E. Smith et al., Science 284, 1495 (1999). 12. M. H. Carr, The Surface of Mars (Yale Univ. Press, New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    11. D. E. Smith et al., Science 284, 1495 (1999). 12. M. H. Carr, The Surface of Mars (Yale Univ. Solomon, J. W. Head, C. H. Thurber, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3049 (1985); M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, F. G, Rock Mag- netism (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1997)]. 28. D. E. Smith et al., Science 279, 1686

  17. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  18. Computational microscopy for sample analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikoma, Hayato

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational microscopy is an emerging technology which extends the capabilities of optical microscopy with the help of computation. One of the notable example is super resolution fluorescence microscopy which achieves ...

  19. Surface Science Letters Si(1 1 3) hydrogen desorption kinetics: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spila, Timothy P.

    activation energies of 2.58 eV. Following mono- deuteride desorption, the clean Si(1 1 3) surface again

  20. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 24, 1771-1785 (2008) A New Seed-Set Finding Approach for Iso-Surface Extraction*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsin-Min

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approach for Iso-Surface Extraction* CHUAN-KAI YANG AND CHIANG-HAN HUNG Department of Information Management National Taiwan University of Science and Technology Taipei, 106 Taiwan Iso-surface extraction is one of the most important approaches for volume rendering, and iso-contouring is one of the most

  1. ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 1, 39-43 Effects of Clouds and Aerosols on Surface Radiation Budget Inferred from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    , the effects of clouds and aerosols on the surface radiation budget during the period Octo- ber­December 2008 clouds have the smallest cooling effect and LW warming on the surface radiation budget. Comparing the twoATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 1, 39-43 Effects of Clouds and Aerosols

  2. Diphosphine Dioxide Cages and Hydrogen Peroxide Adducts of Phosphine Oxides: Syntheses and Applications in Surface Science 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilliard, Casie Renee

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    -treatment with THF ....... 108 3.13 Surface coverages of 3–6 on wet silica after pre-treatment with acetone .. 109 3.14 Amounts for dry grinding experiments for 5 and 6 on silica. .................... 111 3.15 Specific Surface Loadings of 6 and 8... ................................................................... 15 Conclusion ...................................................................................... 40 Experimental .................................................................................. 41 CHAPTER III ADSORPTION OF PHOSPHINE...

  3. Nonlinear vibrational microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtom, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Richland, WA); Zumbusch, Andreas (Munchen, DE)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

  4. Diphosphine Dioxide Cages and Hydrogen Peroxide Adducts of Phosphine Oxides: Syntheses and Applications in Surface Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilliard, Casie Renee

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and in HRMAS NMR spectra the reduction of the originally large CSA, the residual halfwidth, as well as the downfield shift of the signals when adsorbing phosphine oxides on silica surfaces are most indicative. This research provides new insights regarding...

  5. Integrating Experiment and Theory in Electrochemical Surface Science: Studies on the Molecular Adsorption on Noble-Metal Electrode Surfaces by Density Functional Theory, Electron Spectroscopy, and Electrochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javier, Alnald Caintic

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational techniques based on density functional theory (DFT) and experimental methods based on electrochemistry (EC), electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM), and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) were...

  6. Applied Surface Science 63 (1993) 163-166 North-Holland applied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conductive coating on a transparent substrate which is separated from the sample surface by a thin layer which utilizes a condenser-like system consisting of a wire mesh or thin, transparent, conductive monitoring. This method utilizes a condenser-like system, one electrode consisting of a transparent

  7. ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE-EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis Science #12;ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis) ______________________________ ______________________________ Ergun Akleman Valerie Taylor (Member) (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Computer Science

  8. Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office of Science Office of Science β

  9. Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office of Science Office of Science

  10. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  11. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  12. Spectral multiplexing using quantum dot tagged microspheres with diffusing colloidal probe microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukumar, Shankarapandian

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    (TIRM) and Video Microscopy to simultaneously measure multiple particle-surface interactions with nanometer resolution in particle-surface separation. By acquiring the scattered intensity emitted by the particles, the separation distance can...

  13. New Microscopy Patent Awarded | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNephelineNeuralNewIdeasofNew Microscopy Patent

  14. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  15. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  16. Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter Principalfuel cells" Find + AdvancedSignScience

  17. Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclearHomeland Science Stockpile Stewardship National Security

  18. Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure by Paul Stutzman Building Reprinted from Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 8, 957-966 pp., November 2004. NOTE: This paper;Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SCIENCE@OIRECT@ Cement & Concrete CompositesELSEVIER Cement

  19. An Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Pattern Formation and Molecule Ordering under a Variety of Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yeming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chen, Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Oxfordvoltages to search the scanning area on the surface. Threecontrol system for scanning tun- neling microscope (STM)

  20. Acquisition and reconstruction of brain tissue using knife-edge scanning microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayerich, David Matthew

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis by DAVID MATTHEW MAYERICH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Computer Science ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis by DAVID MATTHEW MAYERICH Submitted to Texas...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: scanning probe microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on stainless steels. Dr. An is an internationally recognized expert on scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning ... Last Updated:...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: scanning tunneling microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on stainless steels. Dr. An is an internationally recognized expert on scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning ... Last Updated:...

  3. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    865.574.7308 ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and...

  4. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800742 Scanning Photoemission Microscopy of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800742 Scanning Photoemission Microscopy of Graphene Sheets on SiO2** By Ki in extracting individual sheets of carbon atoms (graphene) from graphite crystals, graphene has been attracted metals or molecules.[4­6] In addition, the modification of graphene surfaces using a direct chemical

  5. Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low- Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM range of surface analytical techniques at low temperature ­ enables ultra-violet/X-ray photoelectron

  6. Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal Materials - Slide - Cover Slip - Paraffin Wax Candle - Pasteur Pipette (suggested size 5 3/4 inch) - Matches Preparation of the Slide - You may want to protect the work surface from melted wax. We use a sheet of aluminum foil taped

  7. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  8. Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Senli [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for surface potential imaging based on half-harmonic band excitation (BE) in Kelvin probe force microscopy is demonstrated. Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus allows quantitative separation of surface potential and topographic contributions to the signal, obviating the primary sources of topographic cross-talk. HBE KPFM imaging and voltage spectroscopy methods are illustrated for several model systems.

  9. Electrostrictive and electrostatic responses in contact mode voltage modulated Scanning Probe Microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL; Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL] [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromechanical response of solids underpins image formation mechanism of several scanning probe microscopy techniques including the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). While the theory of linear piezoelectric and ionic responses are well developed, the contributions of quadratic effects including electrostriction and capacitive tip-surface forces to measured signal remain poorly understood. Here we analyze the electrostrictive and capacitive contributions to the PFM and ESM signals and discuss the implications of the dielectric tip-surface gap on these interactions.

  10. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  11. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 385 (2011) 95103 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aerogel particles), where no analytical method is applicable due to the complexity of the coatings May 2011 Available online 2 June 2011 Keywords: Superhydrophobic coating Granular surface Critical distributed spherical parti- cles (e.g., superhydrophobic coatings developed by depositing of hydrophobic

  12. ribology is the science and technology of contact-ing solid surfaces in relative motion, including the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yi

    » friction and lubrication under extreme conditions, such as high-temperature or nonequilibrium, includ- ing, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films. Friction between contacting

  13. Helicon plasma generator-assisted surface conversion ion source for the production of H{sup -} ion beams at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarvainen, O.; Rouleau, G.; Keller, R.; Geros, E.; Stelzer, J.; Ferris, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The converter-type negative ion source currently employed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H{sup -} ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. In this kind of an ion source the extracted H{sup -} beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which deposits on the H{sup -} converter surface and degrades its performance. Therefore, we have started an ion source development project focused on replacing these thermionic cathodes (filaments) of the converter source by a helicon plasma generator capable of producing high-density hydrogen plasmas with low electron energy. In our studies which have so far shown that the plasma density of the surface conversion source can be increased significantly by exciting a helicon wave in the plasma, and we expect to improve the performance of the surface converter H{sup -} ion source in terms of beam brightness and time between services. The design of this new source and preliminary results are presented, along with a discussion of physical processes relevant for H{sup -} ion beam production with this novel design. Ultimately, we perceive this approach as an interim step towards our long-term goal, combining a helicon plasma generator with an SNS-type main discharge chamber, which will allow us to individually optimize the plasma properties of the plasma cathode (helicon) and H{sup -} production (main discharge) in order to further improve the brightness of extracted H{sup -} ion beams.

  14. Electron Microscopy | Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Atomic-resolution imaging of internal materials structure with scanning transmission and transmission electron microscopy Spectroscopic characterization with...

  15. Scanning probe microscopy: Sulfate minerals in scales and cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are illustrated with examples from oilfield mineralogy, particularly emphasizing sulfate minerals involved in scale formation and cement hydration chemistry. The topography of the (010) cleavage surface of gypsum observed by atomic force microscopy shows atomically flat terraces separated by shallow steps often only one unit cell high. SPM allows direct observation of processes on mineral surfaces while they are in contact with solutions. The dissolution etching and crystal growth of gypsum and barite are discussed and rates of step migration estimated. The orientation of steps is related to the crystallographic axes. The action of phosphonate crystal growth inhibitor on gypsum and of a chelating scale solvent on barite are also shown. The multiphase microstructure of an oilwell cement clinker is described in relation to its hydration chemistry in contact with water and its reaction with sulfate ions.

  16. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belianinov, Alex [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  17. Isolation methods and electron microscopy of the Internal Cork Virus of sweet potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickens, Edgar Eugene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis By Edgar Eugene Pickens Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Biochemistry ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis Edgar Eugene Pickens Approved as to style and content by: (Cnairman of Committee) (Head wf...

  18. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  19. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  20. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

  1. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shan-Wen; Peres, Nuno M. R.; Santos, J. E.; Ribeiro, R. M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disorderedcharacteristic curves of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)for the calculation of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

  2. Characterization of Dynamic Surface Processes by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Jingru

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen terminated as synthesized but may slowly become oxidized to oxygen termi- nated under long time storage

  3. Plasmon Spectroscopy and Imaging of Individual Gold Nanodecahedra: A Combined Optical Microscopy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasmon Spectroscopy and Imaging of Individual Gold Nanodecahedra: A Combined Optical Microscopy, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France ABSTRACT: Imaging localized plasmon modes in noble- metal nanoparticles-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study localized surface plasmons on individual gold nanodecahedra. By exciting surface

  4. YOUR WORLD, YOUR FUTURE www.ucd.ie/science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    School of Biology and Environmental Science UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science UCD School Sciences UCD School of Mathematical Sciences UCD School of Physics Biotechnology, Biomedical & Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (MSc) Biotechnology and Business (MSc) Imaging and Microscopy (MSc) NanoBio Science

  5. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  6. Analyzing the status of oxide surface photochemical reactivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photochemical reactivity Released: July 28, 2013 Invited review shows power of scanning tunneling microscopy to understand and control the surface photochemistry of oxide...

  7. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  8. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  9. Science & technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the August, 1995 issue of the Science and Technology review, a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory publication. It contains two major articles, one on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - as applied to materials engineering studies, and one on risk assessment, in this case looking primarily at a health care problem. Separate articles will be indexed from this journal to the energy database.

  10. "Electron microscopy in Life Sciences" Carmen Lpez-Iglesias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    .) * Molecular, Supramolecular and Cellular levels * Molecular localization in subcellular scale * Topography: association of a wave nature to each material particle, also to the electrons. ·1926 Busch proved

  11. X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: Science and Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this research is done in collaboration with general users. If you have an experiment in mind that you would like to carry out with us, or on our beamlines, please contact us. last...

  12. In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

  13. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, first half FY 1992. Weapons-Supporting Research and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains sections on: Fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals; interfaces, adhesion, and bonding; energetic materials; plutonium research; synchrotron radiation-based materials science; atomistic approach to the interaction of surfaces with the environment: actinide studies; properties of carbon fibers; buried layer formation using ion implantation; active coherent control of chemical reaction dynamics; inorganic and organic aerogels; synthesis and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels; structural transformation and precursor phenomena in advanced materials; magnetic ultrathin films, surfaces, and overlayers; ductile-phase toughening of refractory-metal intermetallics; particle-solid interactions; electronic structure evolution of metal clusters; and nanoscale lithography induced chemically or physically by modified scanned probe microscopy.

  14. Natural Sciences Tripos EARTH SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . The majority of Cambridge graduates remain within geology. Exploration and production of oil and gas still Find out more by visiting www.esc.cam.ac.uk/undergraduate-admissions What is Geology? Geology and Geological Sciences. A Dynamic Planet The tectonic plates that form the Earth's surface are continually

  15. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron microscopy techniques in strongly correlated electron systems and nanostructured materials. As a first step, with the support of Materials Science Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, US Department of Energy, and the New York State Office of Science, Technology, and Academic Research, recently we acquired three aberration-corrected electron microscopes from the three major microscope manufacturers, i.e., JEOL, Hitachi, and FEI. The Hitachi HD2700C is equipped with a probe corrector, the FEI Titan 80-300 has an imaging corrector, while the JEOL2200MCO has both. All the correctors are of the dual-hexapole type, designed and manufactured by CEOS GmbH based on the design due to Rose and Haider [3, 18]. All these three are one-of-a-kind in the US, designed for specialized capabilities in characterizing nanoscale structure. In this chapter, we review the performance of these state-of-the art instruments and the new challenges associated with the improved spatial resolution, including the environment requirements of the laboratory that hosts these instruments. Although each instrument we describe here has its own strengths and drawbacks, it is not our intention to rank them in terms of their performance, especially their spatial resolution in imaging.

  16. Fast scanning two-photon microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Jeremy T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast scanning two-photon microscopy coupled with the use light activated ion channels provides the basis for fast imaging and stimulation in the characterization of in vivo neural networks. A two-photon microscope capable ...

  17. Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Wenhai Han Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode Application Note Introduction Mapping through" and meanwhile achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution. With the invention of scanning been developed to probe materials properties. These include scanning near-field to scanning microwave

  18. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    152 6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure Characterization S. J. Pennycook. Introduction The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an invaluable tool atom. The STEM works on the same principle as the normal scanning electron microscope (SEM), by forming

  19. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of...

  20. Specific adhesion of peptides on semiconductor surfaces in experiment and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    with distilled water and drying in air, sample surfaces have been investigated by atomic-force microscopy (AFM phases of peptides on inorganic semiconductor surfaces. The peptide-covered surface fraction can differ

  1. In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

  2. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

  3. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  4. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  5. ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (865) 574-7308 ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers used atomic force microscopy to draw nanoscale patterns in a...

  6. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials Investigations of electrode interface and architecture...

  7. Environmental cell assembly for use in for use in spectroscopy and microscopy applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowe, Ashley Clinton; Smyrl, Norman; Hallman, Jr., Russell L.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmental cell assembly for use in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, including: an environmentally sealed body assembly configured to selectively hold and contain a sample; a plurality of ports manufactured into one or more surfaces of the body assembly for one or more of evacuating the body assembly and injecting a gas into or removing a gas from the body assembly; a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving a translating stage configured to move the sample within the body assembly; and a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving one or more lenses utilized in a microscopy or spectroscopy application; wherein the one or more lenses are disposed adjacent the sample without intervening structures disposed there between. The cell assembly also includes a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for retaining a window and providing visualization of the sample.

  8. Defect production in tungsten: A comparison between field-ion microscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    Defect production in tungsten: A comparison between field-ion microscopy and molecular defect production efficiencies obtained by FIM are a consequence of a surface effect, which greatly enhances defect production compared to that in the crystal interior. Comparison of clustering of vacancies

  9. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  10. Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

  11. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China; 2 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China; 3 School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute

  12. Functionalization of Silicon Nanowire Surfaces with MetalOrganic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park of both materials and lead to new applications. We report the first example of a MOF synthesized-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive

  13. Image Scanning Microscopy Claus B. Muller and Jorg Enderlein*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Image Scanning Microscopy Claus B. Mu¨ller and Jo¨rg Enderlein* III. Institute of Physics, Georg microscopy technique is introduced, image scanning microscopy (ISM), which combines conventional confocal-laser scanning microscopy with fast wide-field CCD detection. The technique allows for doubling the lateral

  14. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  15. Surface Topography Quantification by Integral and Feature-related Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smid, Michiel

    Surface Topography Quantification by Integral and Feature-related Parameters Quantifizieren von microscopy, the topography of brittle fracture surfaces and wire- eroded surfaces was quantified. The globalÈche, Topometrie 1 Introduction Surface topographies contain information about their gen- eration processes

  16. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  17. Near-infrared surface plasmon polariton dispersion control with hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimateof terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metalof designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 (

  18. The Use Of Scanning Probe Microscopy To Investigate Crystal-Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2007-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past decade there has been a natural drive to extend the investigation of dynamic surfaces in fluid environments to higher resolution characterization tools. Various aspects of solution crystal growth have been directly visualized for the first time. These include island nucleation and growth using transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy; elemental step motion using scanning probe microscopy; and the time evolution of interfacial atomic structure using various diffraction techniques. In this lecture we will discuss the use of one such in situ method, scanning probe microscopy, as a means of measuring surface dynamics during crystal growth and dissolution. We will cover both practical aspects of imaging such as environmental control, fluid flow, and electrochemical manipulation, as well as the types of physical measurements that can be made. Measurements such as step motion, critical lengths, nucleation density, and step fluctuations, will be put in context of the information they provide about mechanistic processes at surfaces using examples from metal and mineral crystal growth.

  19. Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, R. [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)] [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

  20. Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

  1. Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Baldwin, Charles; Cheng, Guangfeng; Flood, Roger; Jordan, Kevin; Kneisel, Peter; Morrone, Michael; Nemes, George; Turlington, Larry; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine

    2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus was developed to obtain, for the first time, 2D maps of the surface resistance of the inner surface of an operating superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity by a low-temperature laser scanning microscopy technique. This allows identifying non-uniformities of the surface resistance with a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than with earlier methods. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB was obtained with 240 mW laser power and 1 Hz modulation frequency. The various components of the apparatus, the experimental procedure and results are discussed in details in this contribution.

  2. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, Chad [Ames Laboratory

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  3. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youvan, Douglas C. (San Jose, CA); Silva, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Bylina, Edward J. (San Jose, CA); Coleman, William J. (Moutain View, CA); Dilworth, Michael R. (Santa Cruz, CA); Yang, Mary M. (San Jose, CA)

    2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  4. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youvan, Dougalas C.; Silva, Christopher M.; Bylina, Edward J.; Coleman, William J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  5. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324328 Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324­328 Light-free magnetic resonance force for Physical Sciences, College Park, MD, USA Available online 4 November 2004 Abstract Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its

  6. Chinese Science Bulletin 2009 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Xinhe

    Chinese Science Bulletin © 2009 SCIENCE IN CHINA PRESS Springer Fabrication of metal nanoclusters, China; 2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China Monolayer graphene fabricated on the surface. graphene, STM, Ru(0001), Pt nanoclusters Carbon presents various allotropes

  7. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  8. Single particle microscopy with nanometer resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georg Jacob; Karin Groot-Berning; Sebastian Wolf; Stefan Ulm; Luc Couturier; Ulrich G. Poschinger; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate nanoscopic transmission microscopy relying on a deterministic single particle source. This increases the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to conventional microscopy methods, which employ Poissonian particle sources. We use laser-cooled ions extracted from a Paul trap, and demonstrate remote imaging of transmissive objects with a resolution of 8.6 $\\pm$ 2.0nm and a minimum two-sample deviation of the beam position of 1.5nm. Detector dark counts can be suppressed by 6 orders of magnitudes through gating by the extraction event. The deterministic nature of our source enables an information-gain driven approach to imaging. We demonstrate this by performing efficient beam characterization based on a Bayes experiment design method.

  9. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Haimei; Zhu, Yimei; Meng, Shirley Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by inmore »this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.« less

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Bodhaditya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  11. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with...

  12. Flash Scanning Electron Microscopy Raphael Sznitman, Aurelien Lucchi, Marco Cantoni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Flash Scanning Electron Microscopy Raphael Sznitman, Aurelien Lucchi, Marco Cantoni, Graham Knott. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is an invaluable tool for biologists and neuroscientists to study brain earlier methods, we explicitly balance the conflicting requirements of spending enough time scanning

  13. Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeskind, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

  14. Surface and Coatings Technology 169170 (2003) 408410 0257-8972/03/$ -see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6Al4V (TAV) alloy was carried out to improve the surface tribological properties of test samples of the wear resistance of such nitrogen implanted Ti alloy is expected, increasing considerably the useful lifetime of components made of TAV which is finding widespread use in biomedical and aerospace applications

  15. 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 10-13 Jan 2005, Reno, Nevada Improved De-icing of an Inclined Windshield Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    transfer coefficient, W/m2 K k Thermal conductivity, W/m-K Nu Nusselt number P Static pressure, Pa SL-icing of an Inclined Windshield Surface Haribalan Kumar* and Subrata Roy Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory. Nomenclature Cp Specific heat at constant pressure, kJ/kg-K E Specific enthalpy, kJ/kg H Convection heat

  16. Surface and Coatings Technology 161 (2002) 7985 0257-8972/02/$ -see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    to reduction, and the reaction continues as long as the surface remains in contact with the electroless nickel Technology 161 (2002) 79­85 Table 1 Compositions of the electroless Ni-P plating solution Nickel chloride etching of SiC particles for electroless Ni-P plating Min Kang , Ji Man Kim , Jin Won Kim , Young Kil Kim

  17. Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy Conor L. Evans1§ , Xiaoyin Xu anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to image brain structure and pathology ex vivo. Although. Definitive diagnosis still requires brain biopsy in a significant number of cases. CARS microscopy

  18. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  19. Direct measurements of ensemble particle and surface interactions on homogeneous and patterned substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hung-Jen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in colloidal ensembles levitated above macroscopic surfaces. TIRM and VM are well established optical microscopy techniques for measuring normal and lateral colloidal excursions near macroscopic planar surfaces. The interactions between particle-particle...

  20. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg HU HongChang, TIAN FuQiang* & HU HePing Department of Hydraulic Engineering, State Key Laboratory as a key soil physical parameter and has been widely used to predict soil hydraulic and other related

  1. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Density-functional-theory formulation of classical and quantum Hooke's law. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57- sider an equilibrium lattice without strain (=0), but elec- #12;Hu H, et al. Sci China Tech Sci April

  2. Enhanced electrostatic discrimination of proteins on nanoparticle-coated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Enhanced electrostatic discrimination of proteins on nanoparticle-coated surfaces Yisheng Xu gold nanoparticle (GNP) modified surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-membrane ultraltration,6 and polyelectrolyte-induced phase separation.7 In recent years, nanoparticles (NP) modied

  3. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

  4. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  5. Microscopy image segmentation tool: Robust image data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valmianski, Ilya, E-mail: ivalmian@ucsd.edu; Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  6. An In Situ Study of the Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally-induced martensitic phase transformations in polycrystalline CuZnAl and thin-film NiTiCu shape memory alloys were probed using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a reversible change in the apparent work function during transformation, presumably due to the contrasting surface electronic structures of the martensite and austenite phases. In situ PEEM images provide information on the spatial distribution of these phases and the evolution of the surface microstructure during transformation. PEEM offers considerable potential for improving our understanding of martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys in real time.

  7. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbeck, Lars [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); TOTAL Marketing Services, New Energies, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schofield, Steven R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Curson, Neil J., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  8. Explore Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Explore Science Explore Explore these Topics Activities Videos Cool Links Favorite Q&A invisible utility element Science is thinking in an organized way about things...

  9. Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

  10. 131Cognitive Science COGNITIVE SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, David

    131Cognitive Science COGNITIVE SCIENCE PROFESSOR ELMES* MAJOR A major in cognitive science leading courses: Cognitive Science 110, 395, 403, 473; Computer Science 111, 211; Philosophy 106, 313; Psychology Science: Com- puter Science 295 (LISP, PROLOG or C), 313, 315; Psychology 207 b. Philosophical Foundations

  11. Quantitative high dynamic range beam profiling for fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T. J., E-mail: t.j.mitchell@dur.ac.uk; Saunter, C. D.; O’Nions, W.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D. [Centre for Advanced Instrumentation and Biophysical Sciences Institute, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern developmental biology relies on optically sectioning fluorescence microscope techniques to produce non-destructive in vivo images of developing specimens at high resolution in three dimensions. As optimal performance of these techniques is reliant on the three-dimensional (3D) intensity profile of the illumination employed, the ability to directly record and analyze these profiles is of great use to the fluorescence microscopist or instrument builder. Though excitation beam profiles can be measured indirectly using a sample of fluorescent beads and recording the emission along the microscope detection path, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a miniature camera sensor is used directly within the illumination beam. Measurements taken using our approach are solely concerned with the illumination optics as the detection optics are not involved. We present a miniature beam profiling device and high dynamic range flux reconstruction algorithm that together are capable of accurately reproducing quantitative 3D flux maps over a large focal volume. Performance of this beam profiling system is verified within an optical test bench and demonstrated for fluorescence microscopy by profiling the low NA illumination beam of a single plane illumination microscope. The generality and success of this approach showcases a widely flexible beam amplitude diagnostic tool for use within the life sciences.

  12. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore »computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  13. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  14. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Howells, M. R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kao, C. -C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Mentes, T. O. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); TASC-INFM National Lab, Trieste (Italy); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sanchez-Hanke, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  15. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL of biomass feedstocks. BSCL imaging capabilities include: · Confocal microscopy and Raman microscopy

  16. Subwavelength optical microscopy in the far field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiclass. Opt. 6, S575 (2004). [9] W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990). [10] S. Bretschneider, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 218103 (2007). [11] D. D. Yavuz and N. A. Proite, Phys. Rev. A 76, 041802(R..., Science 298, 385 (2002). [5] A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 (2000). [6] M. D?Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 (2001). [7] M. O. Scully...

  17. The Rapidly Changing Face of Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, John Meurig; Leary, Rowan K.; Eggeman, Alexander S.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    indeed, as Eliot warns, through the ood of data lose the ‘wisdom’ for which we strive. in proof is article was in press, we came across an innovatively by Chen, Alivisatos et al. (ACS Central Science, 2015, 1, hich a generalized strategy is used... to trace the trajec- irs and groups of nanocrystals moving in solution using id phase TEM – see also Yuk, Alivisatos et al., Science, 1–64. gements knowledges a Junior Research Fellowship at Clare .A.M. acknowledges funding from the European uncil under...

  18. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  19. Investigation of wettability by NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D.A.; Tomutsa, Liviu

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wettability of reservoir rock has an important impact on the efficiency of oil recovery processes and the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir. One of the potentially useful tools for wettability measurements is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spin-lattice relaxation. More recently using NMR microscopy NIPER has developed the capability of imaging one- and two-phase fluid systems in reservoir rock at resolutions to 25 microns. Effects seen in the images of fluids within the pore space of rocks near the rock grain surfaces hinted at the possibility of using NMR microscopy to map the wettability variations at grain sites within the pore space. Investigations were begun using NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation time measurements on rock/fluid systems and on well-defined fractional wet model systems to study these effects. Relaxation data has been modelled using the stretched exponential relationship recently introduced. Comparisons of the NMR microscopy results of the model system with the rock results indicate that the observed effects probably do not reflect actual wettability variations within the pore space. The results of the relaxation time measurements reveal that even in the simple model studied, the behavior of two phases is somewhat ambiguous and much more complex and requires more study.

  20. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We surmise that this is due to the highly-selective excitation of surface localized plasmon of silver. To illustrate the utility of PEEM, we also describe an in-situ...

  1. Instrument Series: Microscopy Aberration-Corrected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and material defects Chemistry ­ understanding particle surface interactions, atomic-level structure-tilt Crystallographic and Tomographic Analysis Ì Silicon-Lithium [Si(Li)] X-ray EDS Ì Cryogenic Imaging Capability Ì

  2. Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Kesong; Li Zhou [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang Weihua [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Jiang Lei [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

  3. Distance dependence of the phase signal in eddy current microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roll, Tino; Fischer, Ulrich; Schleberger, Marika

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy using a magnetic tip is a promising tool for investigating conductivity on the nano-scale. By the oscillating magnetic tip eddy currents are induced in the conducting parts of the sample which can be detected in the phase signal of the cantilever. However, the origin of the phase signal is still controversial because theoretical calculations using a monopole appoximation for taking the electromagnetic forces acting on the tip into account yield an effect which is too small by more than two orders of magnitude. In order to determine the origin of the signal we used especially prepared gold nano patterns embedded in a non-conducting polycarbonate matrix and measured the distance dependence of the phase signal. Our data clearly shows that the interacting forces are long ranged and therefore, are likely due to the electromagnetic interaction between the magnetic tip and the conducting parts of the surface. Due to the long range character of the interaction a change in conductivity of $\\Del...

  4. Wine Science Wine Sciencee Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wine Science Wine Sciencee Science Thomas Henick-Kling Professor of Enology Director of Viticulture & Enology Program #12;Wine Science Wine Science Growth of Washington Wine Industry #12;Wine Science Wine Science Wine Grapes utilized 2007 2008 2009 2010 WA 127,000 145,000 156,000 160,000 NY 24,000 26,000 30

  5. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial...

  6. NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SENSOR RESEARCH (NCSR) Research Engineer Fluorescence Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    manuals, prepare standard operating procedures and ensure documentation is maintained. · Manage online projects. · Undertake the commissioning and maintenance of microscopy equipment. · Collate operations

  7. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes...

  8. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  9. 3, 18091850, 2006 groundwater-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al System Sciences Measuring methods for groundwater, surface water and their interactions: a review E;HESSD 3, 1809­1850, 2006 Measuring groundwater-surface water interactions: a review E. Kalbus et al

  10. Christian Lessig Computing+Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    modelling, ...). ·Remote sensing (agriculture, ecology, ...). ·Heat transfer (architecture, combustion eng, ...). ·Atmospheric science (climate modelling, ...). ·Remote sensing (agriculture, ecology, ...). #12;18 Applications, ...). ·Medical imaging (microscopy, biopsy, ...). ·Atmospheric science (climate modelling, ...). ·Remote sensing

  11. Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning tunneling microscopy study. Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning tunneling...

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    briefly in running water for 30 minutes and were dehydrated through graded ethanol series (1 hour each in 50, 70, 80, 95 and 100 %). Dehydrated specimens were dried in a carbon dioxide critical point drier to avoid exposure of the specimens to any surface tension forces when drying. The dried specimens were

  13. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which explains this behavior.

  14. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpentier, Simon; Costa, Luca; Vitorino, Miguel V; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which expla...

  15. Is sustainability science really a science?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Is sustainability science really a science? Is sustainability science really a science? The team's work shows that although sustainability science has been growing explosively...

  16. Comparison of Segmentation Algorithms For Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Javier

    - mentation techniques are less accurate than k-means clustering with multiple clusters. Segmentation accuracy fluorescence microscopy; k-means cluster; image segmentation; cell edge; bivariate simi- larity index NUMEROUSComparison of Segmentation Algorithms For Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Cells Alden A. Dima,1

  17. High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1 J. Karthik,2 D. G. Cahill,1,2 L. W September 2011; published online 24 October 2011) We report high temperature piezoresponse force microscopy resistive heater allows local temperature control up to 1000 C with minimal electrostatic interactions

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz Sarah J. Van microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz,a Sarah J. VanVickle-Chavez,b Junjie Yao for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical res

  19. Level set methods to compute minimal surfaces in a medium with ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, ... Computer graphics and image analysis use minimal surfaces.

  20. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. 1 Political Science POLITICAL SCIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Political Science POLITICAL SCIENCE With Capitol Hill nearby and the White House just blocks away, GW is the ideal place to study political science. Students in the program benefit from rigorous study and behavioral sciences discipline in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the program examines politics

  2. Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R. [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study investigated various fly ashes that had comparable loss on ignition values, but significant differences with respect to air entrainment performance. Thermal analysis data suggested that a poorly performing fly ash, with respect to air entrainment, contained a higher proportion of carbon that gasifies (oxidizes) at comparatively low temperatures. A relatively high abundance of isotropic carbon was identified in the poor-performing ash using optical microscopy. The present investigation examined a larger collection of fly ash samples to determine if thermal analysis could be used as a prognostic tool for fly ash performance. An attempt was made to correlate mortar air and foam index values for each sample with differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Optical microscopy and BET surface area analysis were used as supportive techniques. No clear relationship could be established with the thermal or optical methods, although fly ash performance did correlate well with BET surface area. A low temperature component of the DTA exotherms was considered to be a function of inorganic catalytic species that reside on the carbon surface and lower the ignition temperature.

  3. 1996, Journal of Microscopy 181, 225-237 (and vol 182, p 240.) Multimodal microscopy by digital image processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    , Blakistone and Kyryk 1990 compared applications of polarised light, bright eld, DIC and scanning electron microscopy SEM in the paper industry. Fluorescence microscopy adds further possible imaging modes to light. 1 #12;1 Introduction Di erent imaging modes with the light microscope convey complementary infor

  4. Michigan Institute Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    . Kaita's present research interests focus on plasma-surface interactions and the use of liquid metalsMichigan Institute for Plasma Science and Engineering Seminar Up Against the Wall: Liquid Lithium for the Chamber Technology Challenge in Fusion Energy Dr. Robert Kaita Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 3:00 pm

  5. HYDROGEN CHEMISORPTION ON Pt SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    t for the Adsorption of Hydrogen on Pt Single CrystalSubmitted to Surface Science HYDROGEN CHEMISORPTION ON Ptheats of adsorption of hydrogen on (111) and (100) sur-

  6. apollo lunar surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APOLLO XVII LUNAR SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT Physics Websites Summary: Raytheon Company, Assistant Program Manager M.I.T., Earth and Planetary Sciences Raytheon...

  7. automatic lunar surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APOLLO XVII LUNAR SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT Physics Websites Summary: Raytheon Company, Assistant Program Manager M.I.T., Earth and Planetary Sciences Raytheon...

  8. Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI decreases the spreading of a non-wetting liquid on low energy solids (1­4). Similar work with high energy ratio (r a/A (da/dA) 1), a is the apparent contact angle, a is the actual area of surface

  9. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Metal Clusters Supported on Graphene and Silica Thin Film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Zihao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    with other traditional surface science techniques. In the study of the graphene/Ru(0001) system, the key factors that govern the growth and distribution of metals on the graphene have been studied based on different behaviors of five transition metals...

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Metal Clusters Supported on Graphene and Silica Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Zihao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    with other traditional surface science techniques. In the study of the graphene/Ru(0001) system, the key factors that govern the growth and distribution of metals on the graphene have been studied based on different behaviors of five transition metals...

  11. Quilting Together a Career in Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Quilting Together a Career in Science About the speaker: Professor Geri Richmond holds the Richard is recognized for her fundamental studies in contemporary surface science using state-of-the-art laser 160 publications to her credit. Richmond is also known widely for her innovative science teaching

  12. Surface Science Letters Surface to bulk charge transfer at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Basovizza SS14 Km 163.5, I-34012 Trieste, Italy d Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 2, I-34100 Trieste, Italy e CLRC, Daresbury Laboratory

  13. Faculty of Science Environmental Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality control and monitoring · Environmental management and conservation · Education with additionalFaculty of Science Environmental Science If you have a natural curiosity and concern about the environment, Environmental Science offers you exciting career opportunities. It applies scientific tools from

  14. One-Step Multipurpose Surface Functionalization by Adhesive Catecholamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Sung Min

    Surface modification is one of the most important techniques in modern science and engineering. The facile introduction of a wide variety of desired properties onto virtually any material surface is an ultimate goal in ...

  15. Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

  16. Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy & Global Security Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Institute for Molecular...

  17. Physical mechanisms of megahertz vibrations and nonlinear detection in ultrasonic force and related microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, J. L.; Huey, B. D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Tovee, P. D.; Kolosov, O. V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of high frequency (HF) vibrations at MHz frequencies in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) advanced nanoscale property mapping to video rates, allowed use of cantilever dynamics for mapping nanomechanical properties of stiff materials, sensing ?s time scale phenomena in nanostructures, and enabled detection of subsurface features with nanoscale resolution. All of these methods critically depend on the generally poor characterized HF behaviour of AFM cantilevers in contact with a studied sample, spatial and frequency response of piezotransducers, and transfer of ultrasonic vibrations between the probe and a specimen. Focusing particularly on Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM), this work is also applicable to waveguide UFM, heterodyne force microscopy, and near-field holographic microscopy, all methods that exploit nonlinear tip-surface force interactions at high frequencies. Leveraging automated multidimensional measurements, spectroscopic UFM (sUFM) is introduced to investigate a range of common experimental parameters, including piezotransducer excitation frequency, probed position, ultrasonic amplitude, cantilever geometry, spring constant, and normal force. Consistent with studies of influence of each of these factors, the data-rich sUFM signatures allow efficient optimization of ultrasonic-AFM based measurements, leading to best practices recommendations of using longer cantilevers with lower fundamental resonance, while at the same time increasing the central frequency of HF piezo-actuators, and only comparing results within areas on the order of few ?m{sup 2} unless calibrated directly or compared with in-the-imaged area standards. Diverse materials such as Si, Cr, and photoresist are specifically investigated. This work thereby provides essential insight into the reliable use of MHz vibrations with AFM and provides direct evidence substantiating phenomena such as sensitivity to adhesion, diminished friction for certain ultrasonic conditions, and the particular benefit of UFM and related methods for nanoscale mapping of stiff materials.

  18. Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

  19. advanced microscopy techniques: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Syllabus MSE 581: Advanced Electron Microscopy Course description: Present the theory of...

  20. advanced electron microscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Syllabus MSE 581: Advanced Electron Microscopy Course description: Present the theory of...

  1. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications for Catalysis. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications...

  2. Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Adam Michael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around a laser generating...

  3. Target-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hepler Blackwell, Megan Leticia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) can be used to delineate prominent architectonic features in the human brain, but increased contrast is required to visualize more subtle distinctions. The goal ...

  4. Doppler optical coherence microscopy for studies of cochlear mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Stanley S.

    The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described ...

  5. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). Web: http:prl.aps.orgpdfPRLv107i3e033904...

  6. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  7. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, fossil, nuclear fission, geothermal and solarconservation, fossil, nuclear fission, geothermal and solarinteractions, scaling H 0 Nuclear FUBion Fission 10"* to 1 1

  8. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and solar energy technologies and environmental control.and solar energy technologies and environmental control.and solar energy technologies and environmental control.

  9. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Center Geothermal energy conversion and surfacenuclear fusion, geothermal and solar energy technologies andnuclear fission, geothermal and solar energy technologies

  10. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency (5-8%) rivaling the values obtained for wholly solid-state devices (photovoltaics).efficiency, while minimizing recombination losses and reverse saturation current. into two categories: Photovoltaics

  11. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen containment vessel analysis. Fracture analysis. Sputter deposition for mirrors, photovoltaic

  12. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical bonding and the principles of intermolecular competition, better estimates could be made of the engineering parameters required for design

  13. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are concerned with the direct conversion of solar energy torepresents the direct conversion interface between chemical

  14. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrochemistry, metallurgy- ceramics, inorganic chemistry,electrochemistry, metallurgy, Table 4. Instrumentation ofenergies electrochemistry, metallurgy, impact on technology

  15. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel cells* A. coal gasification -»H - molten carbonatemechanical Fossil Coal Conventional Gasification Oil shale

  16. Surface science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ...Success StoriesSupplementNetwork

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Surface science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.7 348,016.0stellarators Figure-eight shaped tubes

  18. Determination of the positions and orientations of concentrated rod-like colloids from 3D microscopy data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. H. Besseling; M. Hermes; A. Kuijk; B. de Nijs; T. -S. Deng; M. Dijkstra; A. Imhof; A. van Blaaderen

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Confocal microscopy in combination with real-space particle tracking has proven to be a powerful tool in scientific fields such as soft matter physics, materials science and cell biology. However, 3D tracking of anisotropic particles in concentrated phases remains not as optimized compared to algorithms for spherical particles. To address this problem, we developed a new particle-fitting algorithm that can extract the positions and orientations of fluorescent rod-like particles from three dimensional confocal microscopy data stacks, even when the fluorescent signals of the particles overlap considerably. We demonstrate that our algorithm correctly identifies all five coordinates of uniaxial particles in both a concentrated disordered phase and a liquid-crystalline smectic-B phase. Apart from confocal microscopy images, we also demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to identify nanorods in 3D electron tomography reconstructions. Lastly, we determined the accuracy of the algorithm using both simulated and experimental confocal microscopy data-stacks of diffusing silica rods in a dilute suspension. This novel particle-fitting algorithm allows for the study of structure and dynamics in both dilute and dense liquid-crystalline phases (such as nematic, smectic and crystalline phases) as well as the study of the glass transition of rod-like particles in three dimensions on the single particle level.

  19. Combined confocal Raman and quantitative phase microscopy system for biomedical diagnosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jeon Woong

    We have developed a novel multimodal microscopy system that incorporates confocal Raman, confocal reflectance, and quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) into a single imaging entity. Confocal Raman microscopy provides detailed ...

  20. Curvature Dependency of Surface Tension in Multicomponent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Curvature Dependency of Surface Tension in Multicomponent Systems Erik Santiso Dept. of Chemical InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). The effect of curvature on the surface tension of droplets for multicomponent systems, the relation between the surface tension at the surface of tension and the distance

  1. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  2. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

  3. Faculty of Science Environmental Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Science Environmental Science If you have a natural curiosity and concern about the environment, Environmental Science offers you exciting career opportunities. It applies scientific tools from.uwindsor.ca/earth #12;Environmental Science We look forward to meeting you! You will receive a solid grounding

  4. Faculty of Science Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Science Computer Science Computer software engineering, network and system analysis.uwindsor.ca/computerscience The University of Windsor offers a variety of computer science programs to prepare students for a career in the technology industry or in research and academia. A computer science degree provides an in-depth understanding

  5. Faculty of Science Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Science Computer Science Software engineering, network and system analysis continue a variety of computer science programs to prepare students for a career in the technology industry or in research and academia. A computer science degree provides an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals

  6. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  7. Technetium Chemistry Science Challenges in Environmental Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technetium Chemistry Science Challenges in Environmental Science and Waste Processing Workshop Sponsored by Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory Richland, Washington July...

  8. Imaging doped silicon test structures using low energy electron microscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakura, Craig Yoshimi; Anderson, Meredith Lynn; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final SAND Report for the LDRD Project 105877 - 'Novel Diagnostic for Advanced Measurements of Semiconductor Devices Exposed to Adverse Environments' - funded through the Nanoscience to Microsystems investment area. Along with the continuous decrease in the feature size of semiconductor device structures comes a growing need for inspection tools with high spatial resolution and high sample throughput. Ideally, such tools should be able to characterize both the surface morphology and local conductivity associated with the structures. The imaging capabilities and wide availability of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) make them an obvious choice for imaging device structures. Dopant contrast from pn junctions using secondary electrons in the SEM was first reported in 1967 and more recently starting in the mid-1990s. However, the serial acquisition process associated with scanning techniques places limits on the sample throughput. Significantly improved throughput is possible with the use of a parallel imaging scheme such as that found in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The application of PEEM and LEEM to device structures relies on contrast mechanisms that distinguish differences in dopant type and concentration. Interestingly, one of the first applications of PEEM was a study of the doping of semiconductors, which showed that the PEEM contrast was very sensitive to the doping level and that dopant concentrations as low as 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} could be detected. More recent PEEM investigations of Schottky contacts were reported in the late 1990s by Giesen et al., followed by a series of papers in the early 2000s addressing doping contrast in PEEM by Ballarotto and co-workers and Frank and co-workers. In contrast to PEEM, comparatively little has been done to identify contrast mechanisms and assess the capabilities of LEEM for imaging semiconductor device strictures. The one exception is the work of Mankos et al., who evaluated the impact of high-throughput requirements on the LEEM designs and demonstrated new applications of imaging modes with a tilted electron beam. To assess its potential as a semiconductor device imaging tool and to identify contrast mechanisms, we used LEEM to investigate doped Si test structures. In section 2, Imaging Oxide-Covered Doped Si Structures Using LEEM, we show that the LEEM technique is able to provide reasonably high contrast images across lateral pn junctions. The observed contrast is attributed to a work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-type regions. However, because the doped regions were buried under a thermal oxide ({approx}3.5 nm thick), e-beam charging during imaging prevented quantitative measurements of {Delta}{phi}. As part of this project, we also investigated a series of similar test structures in which the thermal oxide was removed by a chemical etch. With the oxide removed, we obtained intensity-versus-voltage (I-V) curves through the transition from mirror to LEEM mode and determined the relative positions of the vacuum cutoffs for the differently doped regions. Although the details are not discussed in this report, the relative position in voltage of the vacuum cutoffs are a direct measure of the work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-doped regions.

  9. NERSC Science Gateways

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QCD, Materials Science, Science Gateways About Science Gateways A science gateway is a web based interface to access HPC computers and storage systems. Gateways allow science...

  10. Determination and Characterization of Ice Propagation Mechanisms on Surfaces Undergoing Dropwise Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey B.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms responsible for ice propagation on surfaces undergoing dropwise condensation have been determined and characterized. Based on experimental data acquired non-invasively with high speed quantitative microscopy, the freezing process...

  11. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hikari

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy – a local andthe sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM)discussed. I. INTRODUCTION Scanning tunneling microscopy (

  12. Swept source optical coherence microscopy for pathological assessment of cancerous tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsen, Osman Oguz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with confocal microscopy and enables depth resolved visualization of biological specimens with cellular resolution. OCM offers a suitable ...

  13. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, FY 1994. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research include surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, etc. The laboratory directed R and D include director`s initiatives, individual projects, and transactinium science studies.

  14. On the use of peak-force tapping atomic force microscopy for quantification of the local elastic modulus in hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trtik, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.trtik@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Josef [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Volz, Udo [Bruker Nano GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface of epoxy-impregnated hardened cement paste was investigated using a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging mode that allows for the quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus. The analyzed surface was previously prepared using focussed ion beam milling. The same surface was also characterized by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrate the capability of this quantitative nanomechanical mapping to provide information on the local distribution of the elastic modulus (from about 1 to about 100 GPa) with a spatial resolution in the range of decananometers, that corresponds to that of low-keV back-scattered electron imaging. Despite some surface roughness which affects the measured nanomechanical properties it is shown that topography, adhesion and Young's modulus can be clearly distinguished. The quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus is able to discriminate between phases in the cement paste microstructure that cannot be distinguished from the corresponding back-scattered electron images.

  15. Study of the Effects of Surface Morphology and Droplet Growth Dynamics on Condensation Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Chun-Wei

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    system 2 on Sample 3 (50??m micropillar spacing hybrid surface) ............................................................................................... 66 Figure 24. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) time- sequence images... tension gradients to promote and induce a droplet removal mechanism. They concluded that their gradient surface exhibited a higher heat transfer coefficient than a hydrophobic silane based surface. More recently, environmental scanning electron...

  16. COMPUTER SCIENCE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunstan, Neil

    COMPUTER SCIENCE and INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY POSTGRADUATE STUDIES 2006 School of Mathematics of Information Systems with Honours Master of Science (Computer Science) Professional Doctorate in Science (Computer Science) PhD (Computer Science) The postgraduate programs in Computer Science and Information

  17. Atomic and electronic structure of monolayer graphene on 6H-SiC(0001)(3 3) : a scanning tunneling microscopy study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Atomic and electronic structure of monolayer graphene on 6H-SiC(0001)(3 × 3) : a scanning tunneling of the atomic and electronic structure of graphene monolayer islands on the 6H-SiC(0001)(3×3) (SiC(3×3)) surface reconstruction using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The orientation of the graphene

  18. APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS 1 MARCH 1974 NOTE: Discussions of closed problems. . . . . . . . . . · . . . APOLLO 14 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT INTERMITTENT SCIENCE DATA · . APOLLO 15 ALSEP COLD . . . . 0 . . . . . APOLLO 15 LUNAR SURFACE MAGNETOMETER LOSS OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING DATA. APOLLO 14

  19. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  20. Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauboeuf, Daniel P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

  1. Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

  2. Surface characterization of cross-linked elastomers by shear modulation force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colby, Ralph H.

    (isobutylene-co-4-methylstyrene) (BIMS) is a synthetic terpolymer which can be stoichiometrically cross-linked by N agreement with rubber elasticity theory was obtained in both cases. The SMFM was then used to monitor), a synthetic terpolymer of isobutylene (IB), paramethylstyrene (PMS), and parabromomethylstyrene (Br

  3. Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, William Neil

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial and temporal tracking of passively diffusing functionalized colloids continues to be an improving and auspicious approach to measuring weak specific and non-specific biomolecular interactions. Evidence of this is given by the recent increase...

  4. Confocal microscopy studies of colloidal assembly on microfabricated physically templated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sumit

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    deposition, and glass micro machining. Various stages of the process were optimized while selecting reactive ion etch (RIE) and nickel etch mask with a suitable etch recipe for microfabrication of patterns on thin multi-component glass coverslips. Pattern...

  5. Confocal microscopy studies of colloidal assembly on microfabricated physically templated surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sumit

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    deposition, and glass micro machining. Various stages of the process were optimized while selecting reactive ion etch (RIE) and nickel etch mask with a suitable etch recipe for microfabrication of patterns on thin multi-component glass coverslips. Pattern...

  6. Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, William Neil

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial and temporal tracking of passively diffusing functionalized colloids continues to be an improving and auspicious approach to measuring weak specific and non-specific biomolecular interactions. Evidence of this is given by the recent increase...

  7. Big Science

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. Thomas Zacharia

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Big science seeks big solutions for the most urgent problems of our times. Video courtesy Cray, Inc.

  8. Big Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Thomas Zacharia

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Big science seeks big solutions for the most urgent problems of our times. Video courtesy Cray, Inc.

  9. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; et al

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  10. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  11. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  12. Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Chezganov, D. S.; Smirnov, M. M.; Alikin, D. O.; Neradovskiy, M. M.; Kuznetsov, D. K. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The appearance of the static domains with depth above 200??m in the bulk of MgO-doped lithium niobate single crystals as a result of focused electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface was demonstrated. The created domain patterns were visualized by high-resolution methods including piezoresponse force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy. The main stages of the domain structure formation were revealed and explained in terms of the original model.

  13. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  14. Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryo-electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in the collapse of hydrated gel-like EPS into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  15. Information Science, Computing, Applied Math

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science, Computing, Applied Math science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Information Science, Computing, Applied Math National security depends on science and...

  16. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  17. 1 Organizational Sciences and Communication ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Organizational Sciences and Communication ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCES AND COMMUNICATION The communication and organizational sciences majors are offered by the Department of Organizational Sciences. The Department of Organizational Sciences and Communication offers interdisciplinary programs leading

  18. The Science of Science Dr. Katy Brner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menczer, Filippo

    1 The Science of Science Dr. Katy Börner Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center, Director Information Visualization Laboratory, Director School of Library and Information Science Indiana University February 20th, 2008 Computational Scientometrics: Studying Science by Scientific Means Börner, Katy, Chen

  19. 3D rotational diffusion microrheology using 2D video microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rémy Colin; Minhao Yan; Loudjy Chevry; Jean-François Berret; Bérengère Abou

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple way to perform three-dimensional (3D) rotational microrheology using two-dimensional (2D) video microscopy. The 3D rotational brownian motion of micrometric wires in a viscous fluid is deduced from their projection on the focal plane of an optical microscope objective. The rotational diffusion coefficient of the wires of length between 1-100 \\mu m is extracted, as well as their diameter distribution in good agreement with electron microscopy measurements. This is a promising way to characterize soft visco-elastic materials, and probe the dimensions of anisotropic objects.

  20. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface Soil Surface Soil

  1. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  2. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  3. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoemission electron microscopy, in conjunction with photoemission spectroscopy, reflectivity, and surface roughness measurements, is used to study the thermally-induced martensitic transformation in a CuZnAI shape memory alloy. Real-time phase transformation is observed as a nearly instantaneous change of photoelectron intensity, accompanied by microstructural deformation and displacement due to the shape memory effect. The difference in the photoelectron intensity before and after the phase transformation is attributed to the concomitant change of work function as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoemission electron microscopy is shown to be a valuable new technique facilitating the study of phase transformations in shape memory alloys, and provides real-time information on microstructural changes and phase-dependent electronic properties.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT www.esr.pdx.edu Undergraduate Program: Environmental Science an emphasis on natural sciences and mathematics (Environmental Science) or emphasis on policy, geography and social sciences (Environmental Studies). Undergraduate Degrees Offered: Environmental Science Bachelor

  5. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibil, Helen R., E-mail: h.saibil@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk [Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Grünewald, Kay [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  6. Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the material undergoes a phase transition. Herein, we show that thermotropic phase transitions in 4-Cyano-41 Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals A. Nicholas G-objects in various environments. It uses a photo-induced change in the refractive index of the environment. Taking

  7. Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1 , T. Ndukum3 , K. C. Schwab3 measurementsinmesoscopicelectronicsandmechanics. Broadband noise measurements across the tunnel junction using this radio-frequency STM available from nanoscale optical and electrical displacement detection tech- niques, and the radio

  8. POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Achim

    1 POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1 , V. SEMET1 and N. GARCIA2 1 exploited in a compact low-energy electron microscope: the Fresnel Projection Microscope. Images size of the sources. The result is a high-resolution, low-energy electron microscope, the "Fresnel

  9. Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy Gary, Israel 4 rosen@ee.bgu.ac.il *gbrooker@jhu.edu Abstract: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH. Rosen and G. Brooker, "Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography," Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912­914 (2007

  10. absorption spectroscopic microscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption spectroscopic microscopy First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Confocal light...

  11. 60th Anniversary Issue: Physical Picoscale science and nanoscale engineering by electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    th Anniversary Issue: Physical Picoscale science and nanoscale engineering by electron microscopy Zhong Lin Wang* School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.wang@mse.gatech.edu Abstract A future scanning/transmission electron microscope is proposed to be a comprehensive machine

  12. Science Potential from a Europa Lander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappalardo, R.T.

    The prospect of a future soft landing on the surface of Europa is enticing, as it would create science opportunities that could not be achieved through flyby or orbital remote sensing, with direct relevance to Europa's ...

  13. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  14. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Terminating combinator parsers in Agda and Computing Sciences Utrecht University June 12, 2008 #12;[Faculty of Science Information and Computing Information and Computing Sciences] 3 Totality #12;[Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] 4

  15. Information science is neither

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furner, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Julian. “Semiotics, information science, documents andof library and information sciences, 3rd ed. , edited bykind of science can information science be? ” Journal of the

  16. Science Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office ofScienceScienceScience

  17. Processing Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Science Related to the Electron Beam Melting Additive Manufacturing Process October 14 th , 2014 Ryan Dehoff Metal Additive Manufacturing Thrust Lead Manufacturing...

  18. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dr. Lawrence F. Allard Materials Science & Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN DOE 2010 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  19. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization Dr. Lawrence F. Allard Materials Science & Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN DOE 2010 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review...

  20. Bradbury Science Museum - Science on Wheels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bradbury Science Museum - Science on Wheels Our Mission: To stimulate interest in and enthusiasm for science, technology, engineering and mathematics and promote public...

  1. Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy3 PierreElectron

  2. Near-Field Imaging of Infinite Rough Surfaces in Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, G. and Li, P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May 15, 2014 ... of modern science and technology, including surface chemistry, biology, materials science, and ... Research Plan of NSFC (91130004), and a special research grant from Zhejiang University. ‡ .... for energy absorption.

  3. Cognitive Science 1 Cognitive Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Linguistics), Laurie Santos (Psychology), Brian Scassellati (Computer Science) Assistant Professors Daylian and cognition based on patterns of breakdown in pathology, computational and robotic research that strives

  4. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  5. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  6. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  7. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Thibault, P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Elser, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Neiman, A. M. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  8. Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

  9. Biological Imaging by Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro,D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; et al.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  10. Bachelor of Science & Bachelor of Science (Technology)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waikato, University of

    Bachelor of Science & Bachelor of Science (Technology) SpecialiSationS Environmental Microbiology environment. This specialisation can be attached to the Environmental Sciences major. Environmental Modelling Sciences major. Land and Freshwater Environments This specialisation is for students interested

  11. Science Learning+: Phase 1 projects Science Learning+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Science Learning+: Phase 1 projects Science Learning+ Phase 1 projects 2 December 2014 #12..............................................................................................................4 Youth access and equity in informal science learning: developing a research and practice agenda..................................................................................................5 Enhancing informal learning through citizen science..............................................6

  12. Scanning acoustic microscopy for mapping the microstructure of soft materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustics provides a powerful modality with which to 'see' the mechanical properties of a wide range of elastic materials. It is particularly adept at probing soft materials where excellent contrast and propagation distance can be achieved. We have constructed a scanning acoustic microscope capable of mapping the microstructure of such materials. We review the general principles of scanning acoustic microscopy and present new examples of its application in imaging biological matter, industrial materials and particulate systems.

  13. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage

  14. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy

  15. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain)] [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  16. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India)] [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India)] [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  17. Failure Surface Analysis of Polyimide/Titanium Notched Coating Adhesion Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GIUNTA,RACHEL K.; KANDER,RONALD G.

    2000-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Adhesively bonded joints of LaRC{trademark} PETI-5, a phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide, with chromic acid anodized titanium were fabricated and debonded interfacially. The adhesive-substrate failure surfaces were investigated using several surface analysis techniques. From Auger spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies, polymer appears to be penetrating the pores of the anodized substrate to a depth of approximately 100 nm. From x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the polymer penetrating the pores appears to be in electrical contact with the titanium substrate, leading to differential charging. These analyses confirm that the polymer is becoming mechanically interlocked within the substrate surface.

  18. des Sciences le magazine des activits de diffusion des sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerf, Nicolas

    Solvay ........................................................................ 17 Classes Sciences au

  19. Web of Science Welcome to the Web of Science................................................................................................ 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Web of Science #12; Welcome to the Web of Science................................................................................................ 2 Web of Science.............................................................................................. 4 Web of Science

  20. Faculty of Science Computer Science Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jing

    Faculty of Science Computer Science Handbook 2013 #12;Welcome to Computer Science Welcome from the Head of Department 2 What is Computer Science? 2 Careers in Computer Science 3 What can you do with a Computer Science degree? 4 Meet our students 5 Academic information Important dates 7 Admission

  1. Computer Science UNDERGRADUATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    447 Computer Science UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS The Department of Computer Science provides undergraduate instruction leading to the bachelor's degree in computer science. This program in computer science is accredited by the Computer Science Accreditation Board (CSAB), a specialized accrediting body recognized

  2. Department of Materials Science &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Developing Leaders of Innovation Department of Materials Science & Engineering #12;At the University of Virginia, students in materials science, engineering physics and engineering science choose to tackle compelling issues in materials science and engineering or engineering science

  3. COMPUTER SCIENCE EECS Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPUTER SCIENCE EECS Department The Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) Department at WSU offers undergraduate degrees in electrical engineering, computer engineering and computer science. The EECS Department offers master of science degrees in computer science, electrical engineering

  4. Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boudoux, Caroline

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a technique that facilitates the incorporation of confocal microscopy into small, portable clinical instruments. This would allow in vivo evaluation of cellular and sub-cellular ...

  5. High throughput 3D optical microscopy : from image cytometry to endomicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Heejin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy is an imaging technique that allows morphological mapping of intracellular structures with submicron resolution. More importantly, optical microscopy is a technique that can readily provide images with ...

  6. Cellular resolution ex vivo imaging of gastrointestinal tissues with coherence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, James G.

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve imaging depth and contrast, enabling cellular imaging in human tissues. We aim to investigate OCM for ex ...

  7. Science Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter Principalfuel cells" Find ScienceDemos ScienceScience

  8. Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a , S.N. Renfrow a,b , G. Vizkelethy a,1 Abstract Alternatives to traditional nuclear microprobe analysis (NMA) emerged two years ago with the invention of ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). With nuclear emission microscopy (NEM) the ion beam

  9. Scanning Force Microscopy Studies on Molecular Packing and Friction Anisotropy in Thin Films of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Scanning Force Microscopy Studies on Molecular Packing and Friction Anisotropy in Thin Films in bulk, was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, magic angle solid were investigated at the molecular level by a combination of multimode scanning force microscopy (SFM

  10. Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate Ethan Schonbrun,* Winnie N. Ye demonstrate a form of scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate and a low-NA relay. In this scheme, parallel scanning microscopy using a Fresnel zone-plate array would require only a single spatial

  11. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintaining nuclear stability in times of transition focus of talk at Bradbury Science Museum January 9, 2014 First in series of evening lectures open to public LOS ALAMOS, N.M.,...

  12. Chemical Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krssig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H....

  13. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum July 22, 2013 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 22, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory's Bradbury...

  14. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D{sub 0}?=?0.53(×2.1±1) cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1} that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  15. Science Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office ofScienceScience

  16. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On

  17. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9,

  18. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience

  19. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7, 2008

  20. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7, 200830,

  1. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7,

  2. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    L. F. Allard Materials Science & Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 2009 DOE Merit Review Crystal City, MD May 22, 2009 Agreement PM-9105 Project ID:...

  3. Micro- and nano- scale experimental approach to surface engineer metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asthana, Pranay

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis includes two parts. The first part reviews the history and fundamentals of surface science and tribology. The second part presents the major research outcomes and contributions. This research explores the aspects of friction, wear...

  4. Micro- and nano- scale experimental approach to surface engineer metals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asthana, Pranay

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis includes two parts. The first part reviews the history and fundamentals of surface science and tribology. The second part presents the major research outcomes and contributions. This research explores the aspects of friction, wear...

  5. Photoemission Electron Microscopy of a Plasmonic Silver Nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    near-fields resulting from femtosecond (fs) laser excitation of localized surface plasmon oscillations in the triangular core-shell structure. We demonstrate that the...

  6. Sem. Chemistry Materials Science Electrical Engineering Miscellaneous CP Introduction to General Chemistry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Sem. Chemistry Materials Science Electrical Engineering Miscellaneous CP Introduction to General & Inorganic Materials Chemistry (4 CP) Energy Science and Technology I (5 CP) Surfaces/Interfaces/ Heterogen. Catalysis/ Electrocatalysis (5 CP) Materials Science II (5 CP) Energy Science and Technology II ( 5 CP

  7. Confocal Microscopy for Modeling Electron Microbeam Irradiation of Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John H.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For radiation exposures employing targeted sources such as particle microbeams, the deposition of energy and dose will depend on the spatial heterogeneity of the spample. Although cell structural variations are relatively minor for two-dimensional cell cultures, they can vary significantly for fully differential tissues. Employing high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have determined the spatial distribution, size, and shape of epidermal kerantinocyte nuclei for the full-thickness EpiDerm skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). Application of these data to claculate the microdosimetry and microdistribution of energy deposition by an electron microbeam is discussed.

  8. Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Changlin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.

  9. DeepView: A collaborative framework for distributed microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parvin, B.; Taylor, J.; Cong, G.

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the motivation, requirements, and architecture of a collaborative framework for distributed virtual microscopy. In this context, the requirements are specified in terms of (1) functionality, (2) scalability, (3) interactivity, and (4) safety and security. Functionality refers to what and how an instrument does something. Scalability refers to the number of instruments, vendor-specific desktop workstations, analysis programs, and collaborators that can be accessed. Interactivity refers to how well the system can be steered either for static or dynamic experiments. Safety and security refers to safe operation of an instrument coupled with user authentication, privacy, and integrity of data communication. To meet these requirements, we introduce three types of services in the architecture: Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), and Computational Services (CS). These services may reside on any host in the distributed system. The IS provide an abstraction for manipulating different types of microscopes; the ES provide common services that are required between different resources; and the CS provide analytical capabilities for data analysis and simulation. These services are brought together through CORBA and its enabling services, e.g., Event Services, Time Services, Naming Services, and Security Services. Two unique applications have been introduced into the CS for analyzing scientific images either for instrument control or recovery of a model for objects of interest. These include: in-situ electron microscopy and recovery of 3D shape from holographic microscopy. The first application provides a near real-time processing of the video-stream for on-line quantitative analysis and the use of that information for closed-loop servo control. The second application reconstructs a 3D representation of an inclusion (a crystal structure in a matrix) from multiple views through holographic electron microscopy. These application require steering external stimuli or computational parameters for a particular result. In a sense, ''computational instruments'' (symmetric multiprocessors) interact closely with data generated from ''experimental instruments'' (unique microscopes) to conduct new experiments and bring new functionalities to these instruments. Both of these features exploit high-performance computing and low-latency networks to bring novel functionalities to unique scientific imaging instruments.

  10. Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: okamoto@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Nagatani, Yukinori [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device, inserted in a transmission electron microscope. The scheme significantly improves the prospect of realizing a quantum-enhanced electron microscope for radiation-sensitive specimens.

  11. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved Justification Memoranda byRecord-Setting Microscopy

  12. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 ABSTRACT Surface momentum the ARM measurements based on the EC (Eddy- Correlation) and EBBR (Energy Balance Bowen Ratio) methods Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC

  13. Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

  14. APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS 3 JUNE 1974 NOTE: Discussions of closed problems COMPOSITION EXPERIMENT ZERO OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 APOLLO 14 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT INTERMITTENT SCIENCE DATA. 3.7 APOLLO 15 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT NOISY DATA

  15. APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS 18 SEPTEMBER 1973 NOTE: Discussions of closed-14 4-18 4-19 ZERO OFFSET. . . · . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . 4-20 4. 6 APOLLO 14 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT INTERMITTENT SCIENCE DATA 4. ? APOLLO 15 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT

  16. APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    APOLLO PROGRAM LUNAR SURFACE EQUIPMENT STATUS 1 DECEMBER 1973 NOTE: Discussions of closed problems. · · · . · · . · · . · . . · . . CLOSED 4.6 APOLLO 14 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT INTERMITTENT SCIENCE DATA · . · CLOSED 4.7 APOLLO 15 ALSEP COLD CATHODE ION GAUGE EXPERIMENT NOISY DATA AND INTERMITTENT AUTOMATIC ZERO

  17. Science DMZ Implemented at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Case Studies OSCARS Case Studies Science DMZ Case Studies Science DMZ @ UF Science DMZ @...

  18. Novel Stabilization Mechanism on Polar Surfaces: ZnO(0001)-Zn Olga Dulub,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    ¨r Materialphysik and Centre for Computational Materials Science, Universita¨t Wien, A-1090 Wien, Austria (Received identification of the stabilization mechanisms of polar ZnO surfaces and the resulting surface properties would will cancel the polarity. If the Zn-terminated surface is less positive and the O-terminated surface layer

  19. Science Advisory Committee | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Advisory Committee About EMSL Leadership Scientific Impact EMSL's Evolution Science Advisory Committee User Executive Committee Strategy and Operations Science Advisory...

  20. Top Science of 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-scanning technology boosts airport security science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Top Science of 2013 Our strong interdisciplinary teaming and unique research...

  1. Citizen science in archaeology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, ML

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Melinda A. Zeder Smith] CITIZEN SCIENCE IN ARCHAEOLOGY 2014and Application of Citizen Science. Biological ConservationHilchey 2011 A Review of Citizen Science and Community-Based

  2. BER Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientificthe Directors of the Office of Science, Office of Advanced5 Simulation Data Key Remote Science Drivers Instruments and

  3. Science Gateway Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Databases Science Database Services NERSC supports the provisioning of databases to hold large scientific datasets, as part of the science gateways effort. Data-centric...

  4. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] 1 Types in Functional Programming Languages Andres L¨oh Department of Information and Computing Sciences Utrecht University UU General Math Colloquium ­ May 8, 2008 #12;[Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] 2 Overview What

  5. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    , College of Health Sciences. · "Innovative Ways to Address Idaho's Healthcare Needs: Long-Term CareCollege of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection February 2011 Volume IX (3) Since the last COHS newsletter, the faculty

  6. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    "--today we hear that word bantered about more than ever. Whether the context is national (health care reformCollege of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection March 2010 Volume VIII (7) Greetings health sciences' colleagues, community

  7. History of Science 157 Sociology of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapin, Steven

    1 History of Science 157 Sociology of Science Fall 2009 Steven Shapin Science Center 469 Tuesdays to thinking about science, its historical development, its relations to society and other forms of culture: Science Center 451 Office hours: Mondays 8:30 -> 10.15, or by arrangement #12;2 E-mail: shapin

  8. Computer Science 1 Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Louis

    Computer Science 1 Department of Computer Science School of Arts and Science www.cs.rutgers.edu Presented by Prof. Louis Steinberg www.cs.rutgers.edu/~lou #12;Computer Science 2 It's NOT just programming, maintenance ·devising computing solutions for cutting edge problems What is Computer Science? #12;Computer

  9. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  10. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, Shirley Ying [Univ. of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by in this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.

  11. Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Chris; Burnley, Tom [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Patwardhan, Ardan [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Scheres, Sjors [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Topf, Maya [University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Roseman, Alan [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Winn, Martyn, E-mail: martyn.winn@stfc.ac.uk [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Science and Technology Facilities Council, Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) is a new initiative for the structural biology community, following the success of CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography. Progress in supporting the users and developers of cryoEM software is reported. The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has recently been established. The aims of the project are threefold: to build a coherent cryoEM community which will provide support for individual scientists and will act as a focal point for liaising with other communities, to support practising scientists in their use of cryoEM software and finally to support software developers in producing and disseminating robust and user-friendly programs. The project is closely modelled on CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography, and areas of common interest such as model fitting, underlying software libraries and tools for building program packages are being exploited. Nevertheless, cryoEM includes a number of techniques covering a large range of resolutions and a distinct project is required. In this article, progress so far is reported and future plans are discussed.

  12. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  13. Physical Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid NanosheetsStudyingFebruary PhotonsPhysical Sciences

  14. Science Briefs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  15. Science Briefs

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  16. Science Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Science Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  18. Science Programs

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  19. ARM - Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Become a UsergovAboutRecovery ActgovScience Science

  20. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9, 2009 »

  1. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9, 2009

  2. Science Summary

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9,H1N1 Flu

  3. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9,H1N1

  4. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9,H1N1Hg

  5. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience On9,H1N1Hg09

  6. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7, 2008 »

  7. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7, 2008 »10

  8. Science Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarlyScience7,tRNA »

  9. Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava, Guowei He, and R. M. Feenstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava of graphene formed on the ( 1000 ) surface (the C-face) and the (0001) surface (the Si-face) of Si) and low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The graphene forms due to preferential sublimation of Si from

  10. 2014 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AT SURFACES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (APRIL 28-MAY 3, 2013 - LES DIABLERETS CONFERENCE CENTER, LES DIABLERETS, SWITZERLAND)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C.

    2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    presentations on chemistry at solid and liquid surfaces of relevance to catalysis, synthesis, photochemistry, environmental science, and tribology. Topics include: Fundamental Surface Chemistry; Catalysis; Solid Liquid and Aerosol Interfaces; Surface Photochemistry; Synthesis of Surfaces; Environmental Interfaces; Hot Topics in Surface Chemical Reactions; Tribology; Gas-Surface Scattering and Reactions; Novel Materials and Environments.

  11. Indiana University Cognitive Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Indiana University Cognitive Science Exploring the Science of Learning Representations Simulations in science. How can simulations best be designed to enhance science learning and transfer? Computer Modeling Transfer Complex Systems Perception Which representations might help your students learn about

  12. Applied Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sulfide chimneys using synchrotron x-ray computed tomography P. O'Day, J. Muccino, S. Thompson, M.Jew, and J. Holloway Microscopic imaging of reduced zones on surfaces J.E....

  13. Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution (laser scatter- ing) q Powder surface area by gas adsorption (BET) Commercially Available of a failed austenitic stainless steel tube. The failure type is identified as a fatigue failure, due

  14. Specular Surface Recovery via Coded Target Stereopsis Arlene Ripsman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkin, Michael R. M.

    Jasiobedzki Technical Report CS-2003-03 March 26, 2003 Department of Computer Science 4700 Keele Street North is obtained by projecting light patterns onto the object's surface and inferring surface structure-board instruments from solar radiation. Figure 1 is a NASA photograph of the Hubble Space Telescope on orbit

  15. 2011 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Stair

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is dedicated to promoting and advancing the fundamental science of interfacial chemistry and physics by providing surface scientists with the foremost venue for presentation and discussion of research occurring at the frontiers of their fields.

  16. Earth Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11Computational Earth Science SHARE Earth Sciences

  17. Formation of Ti-B surface alloys by excimer laser mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Zocco, T.G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have formed a surface Ti-B alloy by excimer laser mixing of a single B layer on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates a uniform B:Ti ratio of approximately 0.7 in the surface layer. A Boron layer 60 nm thick resulted in an alloy layer approximately 200 nm thick. There is little indication, by either Auger electron spectroscopy or nuclear reaction analysis, of substantial oxygen incorporation in the surface alloy despite the fact that the processing was done in air. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface alloy shows a completely amorphous surface layer underlain by a martensitic structure.

  18. Tuning the Electron Gas at an Oxide Heterointerface via Free Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide heterointerfaces are emerging as one of the most exciting materials systems in condensed matter science. One remarkable example is the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) interface, a model system in which a highly mobile electron gas forms between two band insulators, exhibiting two dimensional superconductivity and unusual magnetotransport properties. An ideal tool to tune such an electron gas is the electrostatic field effect. In principle, the electrostatic field can be generated by bound charges due to polarization (as in the normal and ferroelectric field effects) or by adding excess free charge. In previous studies, a large modulation of the carrier density and mobility of the LAO/STO interface has been achieved using the normal field effect. However, little attention has been paid to the field effect generated by free charges. This issue is scarcely addressed, even in conventional semiconductor devices, since the free charges are typically not stable. Here, we demonstrate an unambiguous tuning of the LAO/STO interface conductivity via free surface charges written using conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modulation of the carrier density was found to be reversible, nonvolatile and surprisingly large, {approx}3 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, comparable to the maximum modulation by the normal field effect. Our finding reveal the efficiency of free charges in controlling the conductivity of this oxide interface, and suggest that this technique may be extended more generally to other oxide systems.

  19. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ?SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (?SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  20. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  1. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  3. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  4. Photoionization microscopy in terms of local frame transformation theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Giannakeas; F. Robicheaux; Chris H. Greene

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-photon ionization of an alkali-metal atom in the presence of a uniform electric field is investigated using a standardized form of local frame transformation and generalized quantum defect theory. The relevant long-range quantum defect parameters in the combined Coulombic plus Stark potential is calculated with eigenchannel R-matrix theory applied in the downstream parabolic coordinate $\\eta$. The present formulation permits us to express the corresponding microscopy observables in terms of the local frame transformation, and it gives a critical test of the accuracy of the Harmin-Fano theory permitting a scholastic investigation of the claims presented in Zhao {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. A 86, 053413 (2012)].

  5. Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

  6. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  7. Two-Color Ultrafast Photoexcited Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camillone, N.; Dolocan, A.; Acharya, D.P.; Zahl, P.; Sutter, P.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on two-color two-photon photoexcitation of a metal surface driven by ultrafast laser pulses and detected with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a proximate anode. Results are presented for two cases: (i) where the tip is retracted from the surface far enough to prohibit tunneling, and (ii) where the tip is within tunneling range of the surface. A delay-modulation technique is implemented to isolate the two-color photoemission from concurrent one-color two-photon photoemission and provide subpicosecond time-resolved detection. When applied with the tip in tunneling range, this approach effectively isolates the two-photon photoexcited current signal from the conventional tunneling current and enables subpicosecond time-resolved detection of the photoexcited surface electrons. The advantage of the two-color approach is highlighted by comparison with the one-color case where optical interference causes thermal modulation of the STM tip length, resulting in tunneling current modulations that are orders of magnitude larger than the current due to photoexcitation of surface electrons. By completely eliminating this interference, and thereby avoiding thermal modulation of the STM tip length, the two-color approach represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of simultaneous subnanometer and subpicosecond measurements of surface electron dynamics by ultrafast-laser-excited STM.

  8. DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanibbi, Richard

    DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ... Applied Mathematics Biomedical Sciences Computer Science Undergraduate Research Internships and Cooperative Education (Co-op) (optional) Study Abroad WHY IMAGING SCIENCE Science: BS, MS, PhD Color Science: MS, PhD BS + MS/PhD Combos HUMAN VISION BIO- MEDICAL ASTRO- PHYSICS

  9. FES Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    FES Science Network Requirements Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008 #12;FES Science Network Requirements Workshop Fusion Energy Sciences Program Office, DOE Office of Science Energy Sciences Network Gaithersburg, MD ­ March 13 and 14, 2008 ESnet

  10. Computer Science Degree options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

  11. Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title) Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Singlea conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscopeabstract} (Body) Remarkable scanning tunneling microscopy (

  12. Surface tension and contact with soft elastic solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Callen Hyland; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Johnson-Kendall-Robert (JKR) theory is the basis of modern contact mechanics. It describes how two deformable objects adhere together, driven by adhesion energy and opposed by elasticity. However, it does not include solid surface tension, which also opposes adhesion by acting to flatten the surface of soft solids. We tested JKR theory to see if solid surface tension affects indentation behaviour. Using confocal microscopy, we characterised the indentation of glass particles into soft, silicone substrates. While JKR theory held for particles larger than a critical, elastocapillary lengthscale, it failed for smaller particles. Instead, adhesion of small particles mimicked the adsorption of particles at a fluid interface, with a size-independent contact angle between the undeformed surface and the particle given by a generalised version of Young's law. A simple theory quantitatively captures this behaviour, and explains how solid surface tension dominates elasticity for small-scale indentation of soft materials.

  13. Corrosion protection of ENIG surface finishing using electrochemical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bui, Q.V.; Nam, N.D.; Choi, D.H.; Lee, J.B.; Lee, C.Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kar, A. [National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR), Jamshedpur 831007 (India)] [National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR), Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Kim, J.G. [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S.B., E-mail: sbjung@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of thin film coating were carried out on copper for electronic materials by the electroless plating method at a pH range from 3 to 9. The coating performance was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also used to analyze the coating surfaces. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was improved using the electroless nickel plating solution of pH 5. The electroless nickel/immersion gold on the copper substrate exhibited high protective efficiency, charge transfer resistance and very low porosity, indicating an increase in corrosion resistance. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the surface uniformity and the formation of the crystalline-refined NiP {l_brace}1 2 2{r_brace} phase at pH 5.

  14. Surface texture and specific adsorption sites of sol-gel synthesized anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaki, Mohamed I., E-mail: mizaki@link.net [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Mekhemer, Gamal A.H.; Fouad, Nasr E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Jagadale, Tushar C. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)] [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Ogale, Satishchandra B., E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface properties of sol-gel synthesized anatase titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are probed by sorptiometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal strong correlations of the surface area, porosity, pyridine adsorption capacity and strength, and catalytic methylbutynol decomposition activity.

  15. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

  16. An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Howells, M.R.; Beetz, T.; Chapman, H.N.; Cui, C.; Holton, J.M.; Jacobsen, C.J.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Marchesini, S.; Miao, H.; et al

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is a new form of x-ray imaging that is being practiced at several third-generation synchrotron-radiation x-ray facilities. Nine years have elapsed since the technique was first introduced and it has made rapid progress in demonstrating high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and promises few-nm resolution with much larger samples than can be imaged in the transmission electron microscope. Both life- and materials-science applications of XDM are intended, and it is expected that the principal limitation to resolution will be radiation damage for life science and the coherent power of available x-ray sources for material science. In this paper wemore »address the question of the role of radiation damage. We use a statistical analysis based on the so-called "dose fractionation theorem" of Hegerl and Hoppe to calculate the dose needed to make an image of a single life-science sample by XDM with a given resolution. We find that for simply-shaped objects the needed dose scales with the inverse fourth power of the resolution and present experimental evidence to support this finding. To determine the maximum tolerable dose we have assembled a number of data taken from the literature plus some measurements of our own which cover ranges of resolution that are not well covered otherwise. The conclusion of this study is that, based on the natural contrast between protein and water and "Rose-criterion" image quality, one should be able to image a frozen-hydrated biological sample using XDM at a resolution of about 10 nm.« less

  17. An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Howells, M.R.; Beetz, T.; Chapman, H.N.; Cui, C.; Holton, J.M.; Jacobsen, C.J.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Marchesini, S.; Miao, H.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.A.; Spence, J.C.H.; Starodub, D.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is a new form of x-ray imaging that is being practiced at several third-generation synchrotron-radiation x-ray facilities. Nine years have elapsed since the technique was first introduced and it has made rapid progress in demonstrating high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and promises few-nm resolution with much larger samples than can be imaged in the transmission electron microscope. Both life- and materials-science applications of XDM are intended, and it is expected that the principal limitation to resolution will be radiation damage for life science and the coherent power of available x-ray sources for material science. In this paper we address the question of the role of radiation damage. We use a statistical analysis based on the so-called "dose fractionation theorem" of Hegerl and Hoppe to calculate the dose needed to make an image of a single life-science sample by XDM with a given resolution. We find that for simply-shaped objects the needed dose scales with the inverse fourth power of the resolution and present experimental evidence to support this finding. To determine the maximum tolerable dose we have assembled a number of data taken from the literature plus some measurements of our own which cover ranges of resolution that are not well covered otherwise. The conclusion of this study is that, based on the natural contrast between protein and water and "Rose-criterion" image quality, one should be able to image a frozen-hydrated biological sample using XDM at a resolution of about 10 nm.

  18. Improved LWR Cladding Performance by EPD Surface Modification Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will utilize the electro-phoretic deposition technique (EPD) in conjunction with nanofluids to deposit oxide coatings on prototypic zirconium alloy cladding surfaces. After demonstrating that this surface modification is reproducible and robust, the team will subject the modified surface to boiling and corrosion tests to characterize the improved nucleate boiling behavior and superior corrosion performance. The scope of work consists of the following three tasks: The first task will employ the EPD surface modification technique to coat the surface of a prototypic set of zirconium alloy cladding tube materials (e.g. Zircaloy and advanced alloys such as M5) with a micron-thick layer of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The team will characterize the modified surface for uniformity using optical microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy, and for robustness using standard hardness measurements. After zirconium alloy cladding samples have been prepared and characterized using the EPD technique, the team will begin a set of boiling experiments to measure the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) limit for each prepared sample and its control sample. This work will provide a relative comparison of the heat transfer performance for each alloy and the surface modification technique employed. As the boiling heat transfer experiments begin, the team will also begin corrosion tests for these zirconium alloy samples using a water corrosion test loop that can mimic light water reactor (LWR) operational environments. They will perform extended corrosion tests on the surface-modified zirconium alloy samples and control samples to examine the robustness of the modified surface, as well as the effect on surface oxidation

  19. Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Individual Cells andCellular Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, J; Fore, S; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Huser, T

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman spectroscopy provides the unique opportunity to non-destructively analyze chemical concentrations on the submicron length scale in individual cells without the need for optical labels. This enables the rapid assessment of cellular biochemistry inside living cells, and it allows for their continuous analysis to determine cellular response to external events. Here, we review recent developments in the analysis of single cells, subcellular compartments, and chemical imaging based on Raman spectroscopic techniques. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy provides for the full spectral assessment of cellular biochemistry, while coherent Raman techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is primarily used as an imaging tool comparable to confocal fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are complemented by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, which provides higher sensitivity and local specificity, and also extends the techniques to chemical indicators, i.e. pH sensing. We review the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, demonstrate some of their applications and discuss their potential for future research in cell biology and biomedicine.

  20. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  2. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)] [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy of whiskers and hillocks formed on Al films deposited onto a glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saka, H.; Fujino, S.; Kuroda, K. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Tsujimoto, K.; Tsuji, S. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Shimotsuruma, Yamato, Kanagawa 242 (Japan); Takatsuji, H. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Ichimiyake, Yasu-gun, Shiga 520-23 (Japan)

    1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Whiskers and hillocks formed on an Al film deposited onto a glass substrate have been observed by means of a variety of transmission electron microscopy technique.

  4. Scanning X-ray Microscopy Investigations into the Electron Beam Exposure Mechanism of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Resists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre L.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Salmassi, Farhad; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning X-ray Microscopy Investigations into the Electronchemistry is investigated by Scanning Transmission X-raythe area exposed. 15 Recently, scanning transmission x-ray

  5. Science beyond the classroom Informal Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Science beyond the classroom Informal Science Learning Review: Reflections from the Wellcome Trust November 2012 #12;Informal Science Learning Review: Reflections from the Wellcome Trust November 2012 for this investment. Therefore, in summer 2011 we commissioned two reports on the learning of science in informal

  6. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Generic diff Andres Löh joint work with Eelco Lempsink and Sean Leather Dept. of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University IFIP WG 2.1 meeting #64, Weltenburg, April 2, 2009 #12;[Faculty of Science Information and Computing

  7. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Generic programming with the multirec. of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands Web pages: http://www.cs.uu.nl/wiki/Center May 15, 2009 #12;[Faculty of Science Information and Computing

  8. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Generic programming with fixed points Dept. of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands Web pages: http://www.cs.uu.nl/wiki/Center September 2, 2009 #12;[Faculty of Science Information

  9. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Types, Universes and Everything Andres L¨oh Dept. of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands Web pages: http://www.cs.uu.nl/wiki/Center May 26, 2010 #12;[Faculty of Science Information

  10. [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Löh, Andres

    [Faculty of Science Information and Computing Sciences] Indexed fixed points Andres Löh Dept. of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands Web pages: http://www.cs.uu.nl/wiki/Center GP meeting, 21 November 2008 #12;[Faculty of Science Information

  11. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection December 2009 January 2010 Volume VIII (5) Moving from the Superficial the superficial level so that the result is the formation of deep relationships, caring, compassion, justice, love

  12. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    today. In politics, in education, in health care, in society in general we are so turned inwardCollege of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection April/May 2010 Volume VIII (8) WOW! Spring semester of 2010 is almost

  13. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection April 2011 Volume IX (4) The end of the spring semester is quickly approaching accreditation review. Similarly, the Environmental and Occupational Health program also had a very positive

  14. POLITICAL SCIENCE Political science is the study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLITICAL SCIENCE Political science is the study of governments, public policies, and political behavior. Political science uses both humanistic perspectives and scientific skills to examine the United States and all countries and regions of the world. Students enrolled in Political Science courses explore

  15. Computer Science Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Computer Science Department of Computer Science Stuart Building 10 W. 31st St. Chicago, IL 60616: Bogdan Korel The study of computer science is the inquiry into the nature of computation and its use in solving problems in an information-based society. Computer science is an evolving discipline, but it has

  16. Science Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScience HighlightsDepartment of

  17. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScience HighlightsDepartment

  18. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScience

  19. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarly social history of

  20. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, OfficeScienceEarly social history

  1. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  2. Combined electron microscopy and spectroscopy characterization of as-received, acid purified, and oxidized HiPCO single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contes, Enid J. [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A. [NASA John H. Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Sanchez-Pomales, Germarie [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Cabrera, Carlos R., E-mail: carlos.cabrera2@upr.edu [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials, PO Box 23346, San Juan, 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are very important materials due to their combination of unique structure, dimension, strength, chemical stability, and electronic properties. Nevertheless, SWCNTs from commercial sources usually contain several impurities, which are usually removed by a purification process that includes reflux in acids and strong oxidation. This strong chemical procedure may alter the nanotube properties and it is thus important to control the extent of functionalization and oxidation during the purification procedure. In this report, we provide a comprehensive study of the structure and physical composition of SWCNTs during each step of the purification process. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy were used to track the SWCNTs structure, in terms of length and diameter distribution, and surface chemical modifications during each purification stage.

  3. Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

  4. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  5. Web of Science Web of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Web of Science 2014 #12;Web of Science #12; #12; 1 2 3 #12;1 #12; #12;Cited Author HSU SM; #12;/ #12; #12;Web of Science #12; #12; #12; #12; 24 #12; 1 #12;EndNote #12;EndNote #12; 1. Web of Science "Web of Science " 2. Web of Knowledge 3. 4. Refine result()Open Access() 5. "" 6. Full Text() 7

  6. BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: Science & Technology Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Technology Sustainable Transportation Fuels BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: Science & Technology Sustainable Transportation Fuels BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair:...

  7. Chemistry and materials science progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is reported in the areas of surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, transactinide materials and properties and other indirectly related areas of weapons research.

  8. Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, P C

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Collagen is a key structural protein in the body; several pathological conditions lead to changes in collagen. Among imaging modalities that can be used in vivo, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has a key advantage: it provides {approx}1 {micro}m resolution information about collagen structure as a function of depth. A new technique--polarization-modulated SHG--is presented: it permits simultaneous measurement of collagen orientation, of a lower bound on the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, and of the ratio of the two independent elements in this tensor. It is applied to characterizing SHG in collagen and to determining effects of biologically relevant changes in collagen structure. The magnitude of the second harmonic signal in two dimensional images varies with position even in structurally homogeneous tissue; this phenomenon is due to interference between second harmonic light generated by neighboring fibrils, which are randomly oriented parallel or anti-parallel to each other. Studies in which focal spot size was varied indicated that regions where fibrils are co-oriented are less than {approx}1.5 {micro}m in diameter. A quartz reference was used to determine the spot size as well as a lower limit (d{sub xxx} > 0.3 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The ratio of the two independent tensor elements ranged between d{sub XYY}/d{sub XXX} = 0.60 and 0.75. SHG magnitude alone was not useful for identifying structural anomalies in collagenous tissue. Instead, changes in the polarization dependence of SHG were used to analyze biologically relevant perturbations in collagen structure. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in dehydrated samples, but not in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable SHG signal. Collagen orientation was measured in thin samples of several different tissues in transmission mode as well as at different depths (up to 200 {micro}m) in thick samples in reflection mode; birefringence had no effect on the measurement. These studies showed that SHG microscopy was capable of detecting pathophysiological changes in collagen structure, suggesting that this technique has potential clinical applications.

  9. Bacteria-Mineral Interactions on the Surfaces of Metal-Resistant Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkin, A J

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The extraordinary ability of indigenous microorganisms, like metal-resistant bacteria, for biotransformation of toxic compounds is of considerable interest for the emerging area of environmental bioremediation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which metal-resistant bacteria transform toxic compounds are currently unknown and await elucidation. The project's objective was to study stress-induced responses of metal-resistant bacteria to environmental changes and chemical stimulants. This project involved a multi-institutional collaboration of our LLNL group with the group of Dr. H.-Y. Holman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). In this project, we have utilized metal-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model bacterial system. We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize for the first time at the nanometer scale formation of stress-induced structures on bacterial surfaces in response to Cr (VI) exposure. We have demonstrated that structure, assembly, and composition of these stress-induced structures are dependent on Cr (VI) concentrations. Our AFM observations of the appearance and development of stress-induced layers on the surfaces of Arthrobacter oxydans bacteria exposed to Cr (VI) were confirmed by Dr. Holman's biochemical, electron microscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy studies. In general, in vitro imaging of live microbial and cellular systems represents one of the most challenging issues in application of AFM. Various approaches for immobilization of bacteria on the substrate for in vitro imaging were tested in this project. Imaging of live bacteria was achieved, however further optimization of experimental methods are needed for high-resolution visualization of the cellular environmental structural dynamics by AFM. This project enhanced the current insight into molecular architecture, structural and environmental variability of bacterial systems. The project partially funded research for two book chapters (1,2), and we anticipate one more publication (3). The publications describe development of methods and results of studies of structural dynamics of metal-resistant bacteria that contribute to more comprehensive understanding of the architecture, function, and environmental dynamics of bacterial and cellular systems. The results of this LDRD were presented in invited talks and contributed presentations at five national and international conferences and five seminar presentations at the external institutions. These included invited talks at the conferences of Gordon Research, Materials Research and American Chemical Societies. Our scientific results and methodologies developed in this project enabled us to receive new funding for the multiyear project 'Chromium transformation pathways in metal-reducing bacteria' funded by the University of California Lab Fees Program ($500,000, 5/1/09 - 4/30/2012), with our proposal being ranked 1st from a total of 138 in the Earth, Energy, Environmental & Space Sciences panel.

  10. Behavioral Sciences | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Computational Engineering Computer Science Data Earth Sciences Energy Science Future Technology Knowledge Discovery Materials Mathematics National Security Systems...

  11. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  12. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  13. Nuclear Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 Federal Register /76Safeguards andSciences SHARE

  14. Nuclear Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 Federal Register /76Safeguards andSciences SHARENuclear

  15. Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

  16. Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

  17. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  18. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  19. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF HELIUM BEARING FUSION WELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

  20. Microrheological Studies of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Solution by Video Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghu A; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out studies on the rheological properties of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) solution using video microscopy. The degummed silk from the Bombyx mori silkworm was used to prepare RSF solution by dissolving it in calcium nitrate tetrahydrate-methanol solvent. Measurements were carried out by tracking the position of an embedded micron-sized polystyrene bead within the RSF solution through video imaging. The time dependent mean squared displacement (MSD) of the bead in solution and hence, the complex shear modulus of this solution was calculated from the bead's position information. An optical tweezer was used to transport and locate the bead at any desired site within the micro-volume of the sample, to facilitate the subsequent free-bead video analysis. We present here the results of rheological measurements of the silk polymer network in solution over a frequency range, whose upper limit is the frame capture rate of our camera, at full resolution. By examining the distribution of MSD of beads at different locations within the sample volume, we demonstrate that this probe technique enables us to detect local inhomogeneties at micrometer length scales, not detectable either by a rheometer or from diffusing wave spectroscopy.

  1. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ({mu}-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  2. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry); Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ([mu]-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  3. X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and microhardness studies of gas nitrided titanium alloys and titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sha, W. [Metals Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.sha@qub.ac.uk; Haji Mat Don, M.A.; Mohamed, A.; Wu, X.; Siliang, B. [Metals Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, The Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Zhecheva, A. [Sifco Applied Surface Concepts (UK) Ltd., Division of Sifco Industries, Inc., European Headquarters, 38 Walkers Road, Moons Moat North, Redditch, Worcestershire B98 9HD (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemical surface gas nitriding of {beta}21s, Timetal 205 and a Ti-Al alloy was conducted using differential scanning calorimeter equipment, in nominally pure nitrogen at 850 deg. C and 950 deg. C ({beta}21s), 730 deg. C and 830 deg. C (Timetal 205), and 950 deg. C and 1050 deg. C (Ti-Al) for 1 h, 3 h and 5 h. X-ray diffraction analyses showed new phases formed in the nitrided layer, depending on the alloy and the time and the temperature of nitriding. Microstructures were analyzed using optical microscopy. Cross-sectional microhardness profiles of cross-sectional samples after nitriding were obtained using a Knoop indenter.

  4. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Zelenovskiy, P. S. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  5. MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING BACHELOR OF SCIENCE MASTER OF SCIENCE Get your own impression. Materials Science and Engineering in Ilmenau stands for: + a broad and practical university education Catòlica del Peru (PUCP) in Lima/Peru and to receive a double degree in Materials Science and Engineering

  6. Innovation in Computer Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    power- up Innovation in Computer Sciences Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas at Austin #12;#12;Computer science is the enabling science of our age. It is the engine. In the Department of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas at Austin, one of the top ten departments

  7. N.P. Basse1 Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    ) The energy spectrum E(k) is related to P(k) through E(k) = Ad × P(k), where Ad is the surface area 33rd IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, Traverse City, Michigan, USA (2006) A study of multiscale density fluctuations Work supported by US DoE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences #12;Introduction

  8. Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology Ji 11747-3157 USA ABSTRACT Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with fast., 1990). Duncan et al. constructed the first CARS microscope by use of two dye laser beams

  9. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of isolated multiwall carbon A. Felten,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of isolated multiwall carbon nanotubes A. Felten,a H. Hody September 2006 Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy STXM has been used to study isolated carbon nanotubes- cations including biological and chemical sensors, nanoelec- tronic devices, tips for scanning probe

  10. Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon Marcus Freitag,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon nanotubes Marcus Freitag to understand their role in ac- tive devices. Here we use scanning photovoltage microscopy to probe the built. Scanning the laser laterally produces a moving potential step that is capable of inducing a photovoltage

  11. Scanning near-field optical microscopy based on the heterodyne phase-controlled oscillator method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy based on the heterodyne phase-controlled oscillator method G and quality factor of the tip oscillations was used to control the scanning near-field optical microscope SNOM0021-8979 00 04017-2 I. INTRODUCTION Scanning near-field optical microscopy SNOM is in- creasingly

  12. NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    WEIF-49 NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC>;ics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2OY@-4lll, USA Abstract We describe the near-field scanning methods of scanning probe microscopy have been developed. Generally spea- king one can divide

  13. Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Temperature-and Thickness-Dependent Morphology and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buratto, Steve

    Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Temperature- and Thickness-Dependent Morphology 21, 2000 We use near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to probe the local optical spectroscopy with bulk techniques such as differ- ential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractom- etry

  14. High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a total optical power proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth power. An object that hasHigh spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a) S. A. Thorne, M. G increasing lens technique to subsurface thermal emission microscopy of Si integrated circuits. We achieve

  15. Asbestos, polarized light microscopy, PLM, The Clean Air Act mandates a specific analytical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    75 KEY WORDS Asbestos, polarized light microscopy, PLM, NESHAP ABSTRACT The Clean Air Act of the polarized light microscopy (PLM) test method that re moved the compositing of layers and effectively sought within the sample. In 1994 and again in 1995, the EPA recommended that the 1993 PLM method be used

  16. A Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Volume of Mouse using Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    A Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Volume of Mouse using Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy P Joseph Fourier,Grenoble, France ABSTRACT Knowledge of the volume of blood per unit volume of brain tissue-photon laser scanning microscopy to obtain the local blood volume in the cortex of the anesthetized mouse. We

  17. Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy Fook representation of holographic video microscopy. The sample scatters light from a collimated laser beam. Both to a video camera, which records their interference as a hologram. A typical example of one fat droplet

  18. Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

  19. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenter (LMI-EFRC) -PublicationsMaterials Science

  20. Nuclear Science

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Energy NorthBDepartment of83-2007Science and