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1

Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) provides information on the crystallographic structure of a sample, while scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) provides information on its electrical properties. The advantage of these techniques is their high spatial resolution, which cannot be attained with any other techniques. However, because these techniques analyze the top layers of the sample, surface or cross section features directly influence the results of the measurements, and sample preparation is a main step in the analysis. In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe films. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

3

Coal Combustion Fly Ash Characterization: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface and bulk properties of five samples of fly ash have been examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy...

Rothenberg, S J; Denee, P; Holloway, P

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Tools for Surface Analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

surface analysis methods. Guides to surface analysis methods (see below) - (XPS, AES, SIMS, etc.) Data useful for surface analysis (see below) - (binding energies, sputter rates...

5

Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

In-situ UHV Electron Microscopy of Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently great progress has been made in surface science due to the development of ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) techniques and related surface-analytical methods like ... (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), UHV

Katsumichi Yagi; Kunio Takayanagi; Goro Honjo

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryo-electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in the collapse of hydrated gel-like EPS into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

EMSL: Capabilities: Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microscopy Microscopy Additional Information Meet the Microscopy Experts Related EMSL User Projects Microscopy Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Watch the Microscopy capability video on EMSL's YouTube channel and read the transcript. Microscopy brochure Quiet Wing brochure EMSL hosts a variety of sophisticated microscopy instruments, including electron microscopes, optical microscopes, scanning probe microscopes, and computer-controlled microscopes for automated particle analysis. These tools are used to image a range of sample types with nanoscale-and even atomic-resolution with applications to surface, environmental, biogeochemical, atmospheric, and biological science. Each state-of-the-art instrument and customized capability is equipped with features for specific

9

Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

imaging modes: contact, intermittent contact, phase imaging, magnetic force microscopy, electric force microscopy, surface potential microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy,...

10

Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone.

Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Proksch, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Proksch@oxinst.com [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)] [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

11

Characterization of gold nanoparticle films: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d{sub g}—from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticles—was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d{sub g} were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.

Lansåker, Pia C., E-mail: pia.lansaker@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, Anders [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Elektrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Electronic structure of wurtzite II-VI compound semiconductor cleavage surfaces studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of cleavage surfaces of wurtzite II-VI compound semiconductors. CdSe(112¯0), CdSe(101¯0), and CdS(101¯0) were investigated. The STM images confirm a 1×1 reconstruction for all surfaces. At negative and positive sample voltages the occupied and empty dangling-bond states above anions and cations, respectively, dominate the contrast of the STM images. No states in the band gap were found. The electronic structure of the surface permits the observation of dopant atoms in subsurface layers and thus also cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy studies of point defects and heterostructures.

B. Siemens, C. Domke, Ph. Ebert, and K. Urban

1997-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Raman Microscopy and Mapping as a Probe for Photodegradation in Surface Relief Gratings Recorded on Layer-by-Layer Films of Congo Red/Polyelectrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman microscopy, mapping, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been applied to investigate the degradation of Congo Red (CR) in a surface relief grating (SRG)...

Constantino, C J L; Aroca, R F; He, J -A; Zucolotto, V; Li, L; Oliveira, O N; Kumar, J; Tripathy, S K

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

15

Application of focused ion beam techniques and transmission electron microscopy to thin-film transistor failure analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......microscopy, failure analysis, nanometer-scale, pinpoint analysis...device performance, reliability and manufacturing...part of failure analysis. In view of the...vapour deposition reactor. The source/drain......

Satoshi Tsuji; Katsuhiro Tsujimoto; Kotaro Kuroda; Hiroyasu Saka

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Surface Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

analysis, surface electronic properties NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Dynamic SIMS Cameca IMS- 5F & IMS-3F Trace-element contaminant and dopant analysis Ions (Cs, O, Ar)...

17

Electronic properties of the Ga vacancy in GaP(110) surfaces determined by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electronic properties of uncharged Ga monovacancies in GaP(110) surfaces are determined from voltage-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy images. The signatures of localized defect states in the band gap are analyzed and their spatial location is determined. Empty and occupied defect states exist. Depressed dangling bonds in the occupied-state images indicate an inward relaxation of the neighboring P atoms. The results agree with recent theoretical work.

Ph. Ebert and K. Urban

1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Scanning tunneling microscopy on unpinned GaN(11¯00) surfaces: Invisibility of valence-band states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated the origins of the tunnel current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy experiments on GaN(11¯00) surfaces. By calculating the tunnel currents in the presence of a tip-induced band bending for unpinned n-type GaN(11¯00) surfaces, we demonstrate that only conduction-band states are observed at positive and negative voltage polarities independent of the doping concentration. Valence-band states remain undetectable because tunneling out of the electron-accumulation zone in conduction-band states dominates by four orders of magnitude. As a result band-gap sizes cannot be determined by STM on unpinned GaN(11¯00) surfaces. Appropriate band-edge positions and gap sizes can be determined on pinned surfaces.

Ph. Ebert, L. Ivanova, and H. Eisele

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

19

NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) Analysis DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.001 Graphics Graphics data Data Contributors Hansen, J.E.,1 R. Ruedy,2 M. Sato,3 and K. Lo2 1National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2SGT, Inc., 3Columbia University, Center for Climate Systems Research, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 USA Period of Record 1880-2012 (Anomalies are relative to the 1951-80 base period means.) Methods The NASA GISS Surface Temperature (GISTEMP) analysis provides a measure of the changing global surface temperature with monthly resolution for the period since 1880, when a reasonably global distribution of meteorological stations was established. The input data Hansen et al. use for the analysis, collected by many national meteorological services around the

20

Direct determination of exact charge states of surface point defects using scanning tunneling microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110... Kuo-Jen Chao, Arthur R. Smith, and Chih-Kang Shih* Department of the charge state of surface As vacancies on p-type GaAs 110 using scanning tunneling microscopy. This method utilizes the compensation between the local band bending result- ing from the As vacancy and the p

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

In situ transmission electron microscopy analysis of conductive filament during solid electrolyte resistance switching  

SciTech Connect

An in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of a solid electrolyte, Cu-GeS, during resistance switching is reported. Real-time observations of the filament formation and disappearance process were performed in the TEM instrument and the conductive-filament-formation model was confirmed experimentally. Narrow conductive filaments were formed corresponding to resistance switching from high- to low-resistance states. When the resistance changed to high-resistance state, the filament disappeared. It was also confirmed by use of selected area diffractometry and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy that the conductive filament was made of nanocrystals composed mainly of Cu.

Fujii, Takashi; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Fujiwara, Ichiro [Semiconductor Technology Academic Research Center, 3-17-2 Shinyokohama, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 222-0033 (Japan)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

22

Surface species formed by the adsorption and dissociation of water molecules on Ru(0001) surface containing a small coverage of carbon atoms studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption and dissociation of water on a Ru(0001) surface containing a small amount ({le} 3 %) of carbon impurities was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Various surface species are formed depending on the temperature. These include molecular H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O-C complexes, H, O, OH and CH. Clusters of either pure H{sub 2}O or mixed H{sub 2}O-OH species are also formed. Each of these species produces a characteristic contrast in the STM images and can be identified by experiment and by ab initio total energy calculations coupled with STM image simulations. Manipulation of individual species via excitation of vibrational modes with the tunneling electrons has been used as supporting evidence.

Dept of Materials Science and Engineering UCB; Dept of Applied Science and Technology, UCB; Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University; Salmeron, Miquel; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge I.; Heyde, Markus; Qi, Yabing; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

Deformation induced changes in surface properties of polymers investigated by scanning force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study the possibility of combining commercial Scanning Force Microscopes (SFM) with stretching devices for the investigation of microscopic surface changes during stepwise elongation is investigated. Different types of stretching devices have been developed either for Scanning Platform-SFM or for Stand Alone-SFM. Their suitability for the investigation of deformation induced surface changes is demonstrated. A uniaxially oriented polypropylene film is stretched vertically to its extrusion direction. The reorientation of its microfibrillar structure is investigated and correlated to macroscopic structural changes determined by taking a force-elongation curve. Microtome cuts of natural rubber filled with 15 PHR carbon black are stretched. Changes in topography, local stiffness and adhesive force are simultaneously reported by using a new imaging method called Pulsed Force Mode (PFM).

Sabine Hild; Armin Rosa; Othmar Marti

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Repository surface design site layout analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

Montalvo, H.R.

1998-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

25

Simulations of friction force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface based on ab initio calculated tip-sample forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on ab initio-based simulations of friction-force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface at zero and nonzero temperature. To simulate sliding friction, we employ an extended three-dimensional (3D) Prandtl-Tomlinson model. The microscopic part of the tip is modeled by K+- or Br--terminated tips. We use a tip-surface interaction potential, which is calculated within local-density approximation of density-functional theory and supplemented by a long-range van der Waals interaction resulting from the macroscopic part of the tip. Thermal fluctuations are included via random white noise. The loading force acting on the tip enters the Langevin equation of motion separately from all other forces so that it can be changed at will. We analyze friction as a function of loading force, temperature, and mass of the tip and identify regions of these parameters where distinct stick-slip behavior or ultra-low friction occurs. A comparison of our 3D ab initioresults with those obtained using sinusoidal tip-surface forces (1D model) is very revealing. By and large, both approaches yield results in good agreement at T = 0 K. At higher temperatures, however, distinct differences occur. For example, at T = 295 K, the 1D model calculations overestimate the friction hysteresis and energy dissipation, and for positive loading forces they even can yield a different periodicity in the friction-force profile.

Christine Wieferink; Peter Krüger; Johannes Pollmann

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity.

Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

28

Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the surfaces of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H films  

SciTech Connect

The report contains a detailed description of the experimental complexities encountered in developing scanning tunneling microscope (STM) probing of atomic structure on the surface of freshly-grown hydrogenated-amorphous semiconductors. It also contains a speculative microscopic film-growth model that explains differences between the disorder in CVD grown a-Ge:H versus a-Si:H films. This model is derived from prior results obtained in the chemical analysis of GeH{sub 4} plasmas, combined with surface reaction and thermodynamic considerations. The neutral radical fragments of silane, disilane and germane dissociation in discharges, which dominate the vapor and film-growth reactions, have been deduced from detailed analysis of prior data and are reported. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Gallagher, A.; Ostrom, R.; Tannenbaum, D. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and Reactive Landing of Mass Selected Ions. In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and...

30

Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

UHV high-resolution electron microscopy and chemical analysis of room-temperature Au deposition on Si(001)-2×1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations of Au on Si(001) have suggested that room-temperature deposition of Au on a clean Si surface results in an interfacial reaction and the formation of a gold-silicide. However, these investigations typically lack direct information about the surface morphology or the exact structure at the interface. Utilizing the capabilities of a surface chemical analysis system attached to a Hitachi UHV H-9000 microscope, a layer plus island growth mode has been observed by high-resolution electron microscopy showing multiply twinned small particles on the surface. The presence of small particles for various coverages has been correlated with the shifts seen in the Si 2p and Au 4f binding energies as well as the peak splitting in the Si LVV Auger transition. Our chemical data are consistent with observed shifts in the binding energies of small metal clusters deposited on various substrates, and with the published data for this surface. In addition, the results are consistent with our previous studies of Ag on Si(001), and indicate the growth morphology plays a crucial role in understanding spectroscopic information as well as its correlation to the structure and chemical state of the interface and surface morphology.

E. Landree, D. Grozea, C. Collazo-Davila, and L. D. Marks

1997-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Posters Residual Analysis of Surface Spectral Radiances Between...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Posters Residual Analysis of Surface Spectral Radiances Between Instrument Observations and Line-by-Line Calculations S. A. Clough and P. D. Brown Atmospheric and Environmental...

33

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

34

Electronic and structural properties of the InP(1 0 0)(2 × 4) surface studied by core-level photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The (2 × 4)-reconstructed InP(1 0 0) surfaces have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and synchrotron-radiation core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. STM observations show that the ?2 model describes the atomic structure of the InP(1 0 0)(2 × 4) surface in a limited range of the surface-preparation conditions, as predicted theoretically but not previously observed. STM results also support the accuracy of the previously found mixed-dimer structure for the InP(1 0 0)(2 × 4) surface under less P-rich conditions. A study of P 2p core-level photoelectron spectra, measured with different surface-sensitivity conditions, demonstrates that P 2p photoemission from the mixed-dimer InP(1 0 0)(2 × 4) surface consists of at least two surface-core-level-shift (SCLS) components which have kinetic energies approximately 0.4 eV higher and 0.3 eV lower than the bulk emission. On the basis of the surface-sensitivity difference between these SCLSs, they are related to the third-layer and top-layer P sites in the mixed-dimer structure, respectively.

P. Laukkanen; J. Pakarinen; M. Ahola-Tuomi; M. Kuzmin; R.E. Perälä; I.J. Väyrynen; A. Tukiainen; V. Rimpiläinen; M. Pessa; M. Adell; J. Sadowski

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Application of electron microscopy and x-ray structural analysis for the determination of sizes of structural elements in nanocrystalline materials (Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibilities of determining the sizes of structural elements in various nanocrystalline materials by electron microscopy and X-ray structural analysis are analyzed. It is shown that these sizes depend on ...

Yu. D. Yagodkin; S. V. Dobatkin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Three- to two-dimensional transition in electrostatic screening of point charges at semiconductor surfaces studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrostatic screening of localized electric charges on semiconductor surfaces is investigated quantitatively by statistically analyzing the spatial distribution of thermally formed positively charged anion surface vacancies on GaAs and InP(110) surfaces. Two screening regimes are found: at low vacancy concentrations the vacancy charges are found to be three-dimensionally screened by bulk charge carriers. The corresponding screening length, which increases strongly with decreasing carrier concentration, is best described by the classical bulk screening length evaluated with a surface dielectric constant. With increasing vacancy concentration at given bulk carrier concentration, a three- to two-dimensional screening transition occurs. At high vacancy concentrations, the screening is found to be governed by charge carriers located in a two-dimensional surface vacancy defect band, which is partially filled due to the vacancy-induced surface band bending.

A. Laubsch, K. Urban, and Ph. Ebert

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

37

Combined short scale roughness and surface dielectric function gradient effects on the determination of tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of tip roughness to the van der Waals force between an atomic force microscopy probe tip and the sample is calculated using the multilayer effective medium model, which allows us to consider the relevant case of roughness characterized by correlation length and amplitude in the nanometer scale. The effect of the surface dielectric function gradient is incorporated in the tip-sample force model. It is concluded that for rms roughness in the few nanometers range the effect of short scale tip roughness is quite significant.

Gusso, André, E-mail: gusso@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)] [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

NANOMETER-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY INTO THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE SURFACE STRUCTURE OF HAIR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-section through both images (Fig. 4(d)) reveals the correlation, and that the modulation in surface potential associated with the deposits is of the order 70 mV. To test this further, an area of a freshly cleaned (by soaking in ethanol overnight and by rinsing... to determine the adhesion force (the force necessary to pull the cantilever off the surface) and adhesion energy between the tip and the surface area of interest. Force volume spectroscopy on a the bare hair surface and on a deposit as shown in Fig. 4(g) and (h...

Durkan, C.; Wang, N.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Absence of spin-flip transition at the Cr(001) surface: A combined spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and neutron scattering study  

SciTech Connect

The spin-density wave (SDW) on Cr(001) has been investigated at temperatures between 20-300 K by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM). Although neutron-scattering data measured on the same crystal clearly show a spin-flip transition from a transversal (T)-SDW to a longitudinal (L)-SDW at the expected spin-flip (SF) temperature T{sub SF}=123 K, no change was found on the Cr(001) surface with SP-STM. Throughout the entire temperature range the Cr(001) surface maintains a topological antiferromagnetic order with an in-plane magnetization that inverts between adjacent atomically flat terraces separated by monatomic step edges. The experimental results are interpreted by an absence of a spin-flip transition in the near-surface region probably driven by the surface anisotropy. The continuous connection of the surface T-SDW to the bulk L-SDW is accomplished by the formation of a 90 deg. domain wall just below the surface.

Haenke, T.; Krause, S.; Berbil-Bautista, L.; Bode, M.; Wiesendanger, R.; Wagner, V.; Lott, D.; Schreyer, A. [Institute of Applied Physics and Microstructure Research Center, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Institut fuer Werkstoffforschung, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Functional Surfaces for Microfluidics in Proteomic Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microchips for use in biomolecular analysis show a lot of promise for medical diagnostics and biomedical basic research. Among the potential advantages are more sensitive… (more)

Jokinen, Ville

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Surface [4 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Thymine on Si(111)7×7 Observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

WATLab and Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ... Simple hydrocarbons(1) with aliphatic chain backbones, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic molecules without and with heteroatoms(3) have been investigated by a number of experimental methods, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as computational methods based on density functional theory (DFT), Moller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and semiempirical techniques. ...

A. Chatterjee; L. Zhang; K. T. Leung

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Correlation between Charge State of Insulating NaCl Surfaces and Ionic Mobility Induced by Water Adsorption: A Combined Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy Study  

SciTech Connect

In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) and scanning force microscopy were used to characterize the surface discharge induced by water layers grown on (001) surfaces of sodium chloride single crystals. The APPES studies show that both kinetic energy (KE) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Na 2s and Cl 2p core level peaks, monitored as a function of relative humidity (RH), mimic surface conductivity curves measured using scanning force microscopy. The KE position and FWHM of the core level peaks therefore are directly related to the solvation and diffusion of ions at the NaCl(100) surface upon adsorption of water.

Verdaguer, Albert; Jose Segura, Juan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

43

A scanning electron microscopy study of diseased root surfaces conditioned with EDTA gel plus Cetavlon after scaling and root planing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......analysis The results from the semi-quantitative analysis were evaluated using a nonparametric analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis test) followed by a Dunn's post test to compare all pairs of data. Results In control groups 1 and 3, which......

Walter Martins Júnior; Andiara De Rossi; Ricardo Samih Georges Abi Rached; Marcos Antonio Rossi

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Reflection Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy for Surface Analysis Georgia Institute of Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.4 Fourier transformation 1.5 Scattering factor and charge density function 1.6 Single scattering theory 1 Historical background Scope of the book Chapter 1. Kinematical electron diffraction 1.1 Electron wavelength 1.7 Reciprocal space and reciprocal lattice vector 1.8 Bragg's law and Ewald sphere 1.9 Abbe's imaging theory 1

Wang, Zhong L.

45

Surface Analysis and Computer Technology Optics and Power Supplies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Analysis and Computer Technology Optics and Power Supplies ErLEED User Manual 1.2 #12;All for this manual: 78000144. SPECS GmbH Voltastr. 5 13355 Berlin Germany phone +49 30 467824-0, fax +49 30 4642083 determination of thin films and of clean and adsorbate covered crystal surfaces. In addition, LEED is used

Gellman, Andrew J.

46

Formation of the 5×5 reconstruction on cleaved Si(111) surfaces studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transformation of cleaved Si(111)2×1 surfaces into apparent 1×1, 5×5, and 7×7 structures has been studied with the scanning tunneling microscope. Two reaction paths are identified, one proceeding through a disordered adatom arrangement into the 7×7 structure, and the other proceeding directly from 2×1 into the 5×5 structure. Near a nucleation site (step or domain boundary), the first path is favored due to the abundance of adatoms on the surface, and far from a nucleation site the second path dominates.

R. M. Feenstra and M. A. Lutz

1990-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning tunneling microscopy study  

SciTech Connect

TiO2(110) surface was successfully prepared in-situ by UHV cleaving of a commercial TiO2 crystal.. STM imaging revealed atomically flat more than 1 ?m wide terraces with (110) orientation separated by steps running in [001] direction, with very low kink density. Atomically resolved STM images show periodicity in the [001] and [ ] directions with the unit cell parameters measured to ~3 Å and 6.5 Å respectively which are closed to the expected values of bulk terminated (1x1) surface.

Bondarchuk, Olexsandr; Lyubinetsky, Igor

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

The structures and dynamics of atomic and molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Studies of surface structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces are presented. My research has focused on understanding the nature of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions through surface studies of coverage dependency and coadsorption using both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The effect of adsorbate coverage on the surface structures of sulfur on Pt(111) and Rh(111) was examined. On Pt(111), sulfur forms p(2x2) at 0.25 ML of sulfur, which transforms into a more compressed ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{degrees} at 0.33 ML. On both structures, it was found that sulfur adsorbs only in fcc sites. When the coverage of sulfur exceeds 0.33 ML, it formed more complex c({radical}3x7)rect structure with 3 sulfur atoms per unit cell. In this structure, two different adsorption sites for sulfur atoms were observed - two on fcc sites and one on hcp site within the unit cell.

Yoon, Hyungsuk Alexander

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Surface Geometric Structure of Chemically Modified Silica Studied by Direct Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Imaging and Adsorption Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation to estimate the surface area (m2·g-1) according to the latter method is where NA is Avogadro's constant (mol-1), ? is the adsorbed amount (mL STP·g-1), and P‘ represents the relative pressure at which the monolayer is formed on the unmodified sample. ...

Masayoshi Fuji; Kotoe Machida; Takashi Takei; Tohru Watanabe; Masatoshi Chikazawa

2000-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Integrated scenario analysis for metal surface treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a result of new environmental legislation (EU-Solvent Directive, Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control IPPC), numerous companies from the metal surface treatment sector must reduce their emissions of organic solvents. Small enterprises will mainly employ alternative coating products with a lower content of organic solvents in process integrated measures. In large installations, improved end of pipe technologies such as waste gas treatment and application of alternative paints are utilised to meet the new emission limit values. These efforts together with tough competition on the market will lead to far-reaching changes within the sector. Predictions on future changes in the organisation and functioning of the value chain can be assisted via the methods of scenario analyses which are based on the examination of possible trends. The vertical integration of the value chain, which leads to an increasing number of large service providers that produce and apply coating materials, seems very probable. Also, a decreased number of small and medium

J. Geldermann; H. Schollenberger; O. Rentz

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy: from atomic imaging and analysis to solving energy problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in solving the pressing energy problems facing us today...Discussion Meeting Issue New possibilities with aberration-corrected...Wang), pp.152-191. New York, NY: Springer. Pennycook...and analysis to solving energy problems. | The new possibilities of aberration-corrected...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis Dataset Summary Description The Great Lakes Surface Environmental Analysis (GLSEA2) is a digital map of the Great Lakes surface water temperature and ice cover which is produced daily at the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) in Ann Arbor, Michigan through the NOAA CoastWatch program. The GLSEA is stored as a 1024x1024 pixel map in PNG or ASCII format, suitable for viewing on PCs and workstations with readily available software. The lake surface temperatures are derived from NOAA polar-orbiting satellite imagery obtained through the Great Lakes CoastWatch program. The addition of ice cover information was implemented in early 1999, using data provided by the National Ice Center (NIC). Lake surface temperatures are updated daily with information from the cloud-free portions of the previous day's satellite imagery. If no imagery is available, a smoothing algorithm is applied to the previous day's map. Ice information will then be added, using the most recent Great Lakes Ice Analysis produced by NIC, currently daily during the ice season. GLERL is currently receiving a product suite of an average of 108 enhanced digital images including satellite-derived surface temperature (Fig. 1.1), visible and near-infrared reflectance, brightness temperatures, cloud masks, and satellite/solar zenith angle data from the NOAA/AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer).

53

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and atomic force microscopy of brass electrodes in sulfuric acid solution containing benzotriazole and chloride ion  

SciTech Connect

Three different methods were used to roughen brass (Cu/Zn = 67/33) electrodes in 0.5 M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] containing 1.0 mM benzotriazole (BTAH): (1) polarization at +0.05 V vs. saturated calomel for 5 min; (2) immersion in the above solution for six hours; and (3) oxidation-reduction cycling in the presence of chloride ion. The surfaces prepared by the first two methods exhibited surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the polymeric complex [Cu(I)BTA][sub s]. The SERS spectrum obtained from electrodes prepared by the third method is very similar to that of [Cu(I)CIBTAH][sub 4]. Examination of the electrodes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that a large number of grain boundary sites are formed by the roughening processes. This effect is attributed to the loss of zinc, which occurs during corrosion of the mirror-like, polished brass electrode surface in the sulfuric acid solution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

Rubim, J.C.; Kim, J.; Henderson, E.; Cotton, T.M. (Instituto de Quimica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil) Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A surface science investigation of silicon carbide: Oxidation, crystal growth and surface structural analysis  

SciTech Connect

For the semiconductor SiC to fulfill its potential as an electronic material, methods must be developed to produce insulating surface oxide layers in a reproducible fashion. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the oxidation of single crystal {alpha}-SiC over a wide temperature and O{sub 2} pressure range. The {alpha}-SiC surface becomes graphitic at high temperatures and low O{sub 2} pressures due to Si and SiO sublimation from the surface. Amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layers from on {alpha}-SiC at elevated O{sub 2} pressures and temperatures. Both the graphitization and oxidation of {alpha}-SiC appears to be enhanced by surface roughness. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is currently the preferred method of producing single crystal SiC, although the method is slow and prone to contamination. We have attempted to produce SiC films at lower temperatures and higher deposition rates using plasma enhanced CVD with CH{sub 3}SiH{sub 3}. Scanning AES, XPS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the composition and morphology of the deposited Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films as a function of substrate temperature, plasma power and ion flux bombardment of the film during deposition. High energy ion bombardment during deposition was found to increase film density and substrate adhesion while simultaneously reducing hydrogen and oxygen incorporation in the film. Under all deposition conditions the Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films were found to be amorphous, with the ion bombarded films showing promise as hard protective coatings. Studies with LEED and AES have shown that {beta}-SiC (100) exhibits multiple surface reconstructions, depending on the surface composition. These surface reconstructions possess substantially different surface reactivities at elevated temperatures, which can complicate the fabrication of metal on SiC junctions.

Powers, J.M.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Scanning tuneeling microscopy studies of fivefold surfaces of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals and of thin silver films on those surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The present work in this dissertation mainly focuses on the clean fivefold surfaces of i-Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals as well as the nucleation and growth of Ag films on these surfaces. In addition, Ag film growth on NiAl(110) has been explored in the frame of this dissertation. First, we have investigated the equilibration of a fivefold surface of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal at 900-915 K and 925-950 K, using Omicron variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Annealing at low temperatures resulted in many voids on some terraces while the others were almost void-free. After annealing at 925-950K, void-rich terraces became much rarer. Our STM images suggest that through growth and coalescence of the voids, a different termination becomes exposed on host terraces. All of these observations in our study indicate that even after the quasicrystalline terrace-step structure appears, it evolves with time and temperature. More specifically, based on the STM observations, we conclude that during the annealing a wide range of energetically similar layers nucleate as surface terminations, however, with increasing temperature (and time) this distribution gets narrower via elimination of the metastable void-rich terraces. Next, we have examined the bulk structural models of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal in terms of the densities, compositions and interplanar spacings for the fivefold planes that might represent physical surface terminations. In our analyses, we mainly have focused on four deterministic models which have no partial or mixed occupancy but we have made some comparisons with an undeterministic model. We have compared the models with each other and also with the available experimental data including STM, LEED-IV, XPD and LEIS. In all deterministic models, there are two different families of layers (a pair of planes), and the nondeterministic model contains similar group of planes. These two families differ in terms of the chemical decoration of their top planes. Hence, we name them as Pd+(with Pd) and Pd-(without Pd). Based on their planer structure and the step height, it can be said that these two families can be viable surface terminations. However, besides the Pd content, these two sets differ in terms of relative densities of their top planes as well as the gap separating the layer from the nearest atomic plane. The experimental data and other arguments lead to the conclusion that the Pd- family is favored over the Pd+. This has an important implication on the interpretation of local motifs seen in the high resolution STM images. In other words, the dark stars are not formed by cut-Bergmans rather they are formed by cut-Mackays.

Unal, Baris

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vibration Analysis of Wiresaw Manufacturing Processes and Wafer Surface Measurements I. Kao (PI), S the yield per crystal and to reduce the cost. In this paper, the vibration model of wiresaw system of vibration indicate the interference of excitation and natural frequencies in the vibration patterns

Kao, Imin

59

The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface topography of commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) and pillared interlayered clay (PILC) catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope operating in contact or Tapping ModeTM has been used to study the surface morphology, nanostructure, clay plates packing and conformation while providing nanometer-scale features of \\{FCCs\\} surfaces not readily accessible by other microscopic techniques. Contact mode micrometer-scale (15?m x 15?m) AFM images have revealed that the topography and molecular organization of the surface of several commercial \\{FCCs\\} are fairly heterogenous in nature, frequently containing discontinuities represented by deep trenches, valleys and crater-like openings with micrometer dimensions. Surfaces are in general, composed of short stacks of plates with voids or pores between these stacks resulting from materials occlusion between plates, from missing plates, missing stacks of plates and from misaligned stacks of plates. Gross structural differences between fresh and equilibrium FCCs, were not observed. However surfaces of equilibrium \\{FCCs\\} may contain debris possibly representing NiO and V2O5 deposits, in agreement with chemical analysis. Not all equilibrium microspheres contain surface debris. Thus AFM images allow the distinction of old and young FCC fractions in equilibrium FCC samples. Coke deposits during gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, are imaged as raised surface features representing molecules or cluster of molecules. Contact-mode AFM images of pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) cracking catalysts having alumina clusters as the structure supporting pillars, represent the catalyst surface as a collection of white spots in an hexagonal arrangements having nearest neighbor and lateral distances in agreement with the repeat distances of the clay siloxane layer; evidenced of surface alumina debris was not observed an all the extraframework alumina introduced by the pillaring reaction is located in the clay interlamellar space. After exposure for 5h to 100% steam at 760° C and 1 atm, the structural parameters of the surface disappear when the PILC was prepared using montmorillonite and were retained when the PILC was prepared from rectorite. Thus \\{PILCs\\} collapse is the result of the clay (single) silicate layer hydrothermal instability and it occurs irrespective of the hydrothermal stability of the pillars used. In contrast to FCCs, coke deposition from gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, form on the surface of pillared rectorites a layer geometrically similar to graphite that can be easily removed by heating in air at 600°C without affecting the PILC's structure or cracking activity.

Mario L. Occelli; Scot A.C. Gould

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Structural defects in epitaxial graphene layers synthesized on C-terminated 4H-SiC (0001{sup ¯}) surface—Transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory studies  

SciTech Connect

The principal structural defects in graphene multilayers synthesized on the carbon-terminated face of a 4H-SiC (0001{sup ¯}) substrate were investigated using the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The analyzed systems include a wide variety of defected structures such as edge dislocations, rotational multilayers, and grain boundaries. It was shown that graphene layers are composed of grains of the size of several nanometres or larger; they differ in a relative rotation by large angles, close to 30°. The structure of graphene multilayers results from the synthesis on a SiC (0001{sup ¯}) surface, which proceeds via intensive nucleation of new graphene layers that coalesce under various angles creating an immense orientational disorder. Structural defects are associated with a built-in strain resulting from a lattice mismatch between the SiC substrate and the graphene layers. The density functional theory data show that the high-angular disorder of AB stacked bi-layers is not restoring the hexagonal symmetry of the lattice.

Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); So?tys, J.; Piechota, J. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawi?skiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Krukowski, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawi?skiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Soko?owska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); St?pniewski, R. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, strained super-lattice GaAs photocathode samples, removed from the CEBAF...

62

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including...

63

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy Carolyn A. SuttonCarolyn A. Sutton PH 464PH 464 #12;OverviewOverview The OpticalThe Optical MicroscopeMicroscopy 4 Pi Microscopy4 Pi Microscopy Optical Microscope for Metallography #12;Optical Microscope: OriginsOptical

La Rosa, Andres H.

64

Magnetic domain structures of focused ion beam-patterned cobalt films using scanning ion microscopy with polarization analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic domain structures of focused ion beam-patterned cobalt films using scanning ion microscopy Studies of magnetic domain distributions in patterned magnetic materials are of pivotal importance in the areas of ultrahigh density magnetic recording, MRAM design, and miniaturized magnetic sensor arrays

Rau, Carl

65

Cryoelectron Microscopy as a Functional Instrument for Systems Biology, Structural Analysis & Experimental Manipulations with Living Cells. A comprehensive review of the current works  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to give an introductory review of the cryoelectron microscopy as a complex data source for the most of the system biology branches, including the most perspective non-local approaches known as "localomics" and "dynamomics". A brief summary of various cryoelectron mi-croscopy methods and corresponding system biological ap-proaches is given in the text. The above classification can be considered as a useful framework for the primary comprehen-sions about cryoelectron microscopy aims and instrumental tools. We do not discuss any of these concepts in details, but merely point out that their methodological complexity follows only from the structure-functional complexity of biological systems which are investigated in this manner. We also postu-late that one can employ some of the cryoelectron microscopic techniques not only for observation, but also for modification and structural refunctionalization of some biological and similar soft matter objects and microscopic samples. In other worlds, we start with the cryoelectron microscopy as a tool for the sys-tem biology and progress to its applying as an instrument for system biology and functional biomimetics; i.e. "system cryobi-ology" goes over into "synthetic cryobiology" or "cryogenic biomimetics". All these conclusions can be deduced from the most recent works of the latest years, including just submitted foreign papers. This article provides an up-to-date description of the conceptual basis for the novel view on the computational cryoelectron microscopy (in silico) approaches and the data mining principles which lie at the very foundation of modern structural analysis and reconstruction.

Oleg V. Gradov; Margaret A. Gradova

2015-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

66

True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Indian Ocean surface circulations and their connection to Indian Ocean dipole, identified from Ocean Surface Currents Analysis Real Time (OSCAR) data .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ocean surface circulation is an essential component of the world climate system. In this study, the Ocean Surface Currents Analysis - Real Time (OSCAR) data,… (more)

Rana, Haris Sarwar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF SILICON ISLANDS AND LINE STRUC-TURES FORMED ON SCREEN-PRINTED AL-DOPED P+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silicon wafers are mainly used as back surface field (BSF) in p-type crystalline silicon solar cells [1,2] and as rear side emitter in screen-printed back junction n-type crystalline silicon solar cells [3]. From dop in an infrared conveyor belt furnace at 900°C for 13 seconds. In order to investigate the p + surface

69

Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references  

SciTech Connect

The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

Smith, R.D.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A STEEPEST-DESCENT PDE MODEL FOR SURFACE RELAXATION BELOW THE ROUGHENING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A STEEPEST-DESCENT PDE MODEL FOR SURFACE RELAXATION BELOW THE ROUGHENING addresses a widely-used PDE model for the relaxation of a crystalline surface below the roughening

71

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis and experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis; published 26 December 2012) We report an experimental assessment of surface kinetic roughening properties systems whose kinetic roughening is strongly anisotropic, as consistently described by this scaling

Cuerno, Rodolfo

72

Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study  

SciTech Connect

The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces: High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts is studied in Chapter 8.and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts, in order toseek the influence of catalyst surface structure on

Zhu, Zhongwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Physical properties and surface/interface analysis of nanocrystalline...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and surfaceinterface analysis of nanocrystalline WO3 films grown under variable oxygen gas flow rates. Physical properties and surfaceinterface analysis of nanocrystalline...

75

Study of hard disk and slider surfaces using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to study the properties of amorphous hard carbon overcoats on disks and sliders, and the properties of the lubricant. The modification of lubricants after performing thermal desorption studies was measured by NEXAFS, and the results are compared to the thermal desorption data. The study of lubricant degradation in wear tracks is described. Sliders were investigated before and after wear test, and the modification of the slider coating as well as the transfer of lubricant to the slider was studied. The studies show that the lubricant is altered chemically during the wear. Fluorine is removed and carboxyl groups are formed.

Anders, S.; Stammler, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.; Bhatia, C.S. [SSD/IBM, San Jose, CA (United States); Stoehr, J. [IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (United States). Almaden Research Center; Fong, W.; Chen, C.Y.; Bogy, D.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence ...

Ashley E. Augspurger; Anthony S. Stender; Kyle Marchuk; Thomas J. Greenbowe; Ning Fang

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Exploration, Registration, and Analysis of High-Throughput 3D Microscopy Data from the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connectivity analysis; (2) the size of the uncompressed KESM data exceeds a few terabytes and to compare and combine with other data sets from different imaging modalities, the KESM data must be registered to a standard coordinate space; and (3) quantitative...

Sung, Chul

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

Global analysis of Fo rster resonance energy transfer in live cells measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy exploiting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global analysis of Fo¨ rster resonance energy transfer in live cells measured by fluorescence of Fo¨ rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in live cells using the rise time of acceptor fluorescence those molecules that are involved in the energy-transfer process are monitored. This contrasts

van Stokkum, Ivo

79

Design of a robust superhydrophobic surface: thermodynamic and kinetic analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of a robust superhydrophobic surface is a widely pursued topic.While many investigations are limited to applications with high impact velocities (for raindrops of the order of a few m/s), the essence of robustness is yet to be analyzed for applications involving quasi-static liquid transfer.To achieve robustness with high impact velocities, the surface parameters (geometrical details, chemistry) have to be selected from a narrow range of permissible values, which often entail additional manufacturing costs.From the dual perspectives of thermodynamics and mechanics, we analyze the significance of robustness for quasi-static drop impact, and present the range of permissible surface characteristics.For surfaces with a Youngs contact angle greater than 90{\\deg} and square micropillar geometry, we show that robustness can be enforced when an intermediate wetting state (sagged state) impedes transition to a wetted state (Wenzel state).From the standpoint of mechanics, we use available scientific data to prove that a surface with any topology must withstand a pressure of 117 Pa to be robust.Finally, permissible values of surface characteristics are determined, which ensure robustness with thermodynamics (formation of sagged state) and mechanics (withstanding 117 Pa).

Anjishnu Sarkar; Anne-Marie Kietzig

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

80

Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Book: Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Details Activities (5) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hidden geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Molecular Studies of Surfaces under Reaction Conditions; Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Instruments developed in our laboratory permit the atomic and molecular level study of NPs under reaction conditions (SFG, ambient pressure XPS and high pressure STM). These studies indicate continuous restructuring of the metal substrate and the adsorbate molecules, changes of oxidation states with NP size and surface composition variations of bimetallic NPs with changes of reactant molecules.

Somorjai, G.A.

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Structure, defects, and impurities at the rutile TiO2(011)-(2 1) surface: A scanning tunneling microscopy study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Available online 21 July 2006 Abstract The titanium dioxide rutile (011) (equivalent to (101)) surface boundaries 1. Introduction Titanium dioxide is a versatile material that finds appli- cations in a wide range) structure are active adsorption sites. Segregation of calcium impurities from the bulk results in an ordered

Diebold, Ulrike

83

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied temperature are reported. The slow dynamic behavior of vacancies and As adatoms can be resolved within a time scale of about one minute, The vacancies and As adatoms are observed to move preferably along the [110

84

Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

McIntyre, B.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Microbiological Analysis of Food Contact Surfaces in Child Care Centers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Emphasis on training and the development...sanitation operating procedures...and surface selections. A microbiological...including personnel hygiene...e.g., personnel, cleaning...standard sanitary operating procedures...Emphasis on training and the development...sanitation operating procedures...

Catherine M. Cosby; C. A. Costello; W. C. Morris; B. Haughton; M. J. Devereaux; F. Harte; P. M. Davidson

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

86

Surface Analysis Over the Oceans—Searching for Sea Truth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the Atlantic storms in ERICA IOP 1–5, NMC operational surface analyses, both manual and automated, were compared with two sets of research analyses prepared later. The positions of cyclone centers agreed within 100 km on average only between ...

Frederick Sanders

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

PASSIVATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES FOR IMPROVED RADIATION DETECTORS: X-RAY PHOTOEMISSION ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Surface passivation of device-grade radiation detector materials was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with transport property measurements before and after various chemical treatments. Specifically Br-MeOH (2% Br), KOH with NH{sub 4}F/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were used to etch, reduce and oxidize the surface of Cd{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}Te semiconductor crystals. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the resultant microscopic surface morphology. Angle-resolved high-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and core lines were used to evaluate the surface chemistry of the chemically treated surfaces. Metal overlayers were then deposited on these chemically treated surfaces and the I-V characteristics measured. The measurements were correlated to understand the effect of interface chemistry on the electronic structure at these interfaces with the goal of optimizing the Schottky barrier height for improved radiation detector devices.

Nelson, A; Conway, A; Reinhardt, C; Ferreira, J; Nikolic, R; Payne, S

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advanced spectroscopic analysis of coal surfaces during beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary FTIR spectra are reported on coals undergoing flotation where enhanced recovery was achieved by ultrasonic or chemical treatments. The spectra of sonicated coals indicate that ultrasonic treatment (10 kHz Swen Sonic) reduces the surface oxidation of heavily oxidized coal. Spectra of chemically treated coal indicate that a higher mineral concentration is present on or near the surface of float coal suggesting that a slime might be present. Spectra are reported for coal-, mineral-, and crystal-derived pyrite which show a strong absorbance band at 420 cm{sup {minus}1}. Spectra of eight Argonne Premium Coal Library specimens have been examined in the 420 cm{sup {minus}1} spectral region and are found to have numerous overlapping bands. 4 figs.

McClelland, J.F.; Oh, J.S.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

An integrated traverse planner and analysis tool for future lunar surface exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis discusses the Surface Exploration Traverse Analysis and Navigation Tool (SEXTANT), a system designed to help maximize productivity, scientific return, and safety on future lunar and planetary explorations,. The ...

Johnson, Aaron William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

91

Length Scale Analysis of Surface Energy Fluxes Derived from Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wavelet multiresolution analysis was used to examine the variation in dominant length scales determined from remotely sensed airborne- and satellite-derived surface energy flux data. The wavelet cospectra are computed between ...

Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Gillies, Robert R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A Mesoscale Analysis Method for Surface Potential Temperature in Mountainous and Coastal Terrain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique is developed to anisotropically spread surface observations in steep valleys. The goal is to create an improved objective analysis for the lowest, terrain-following numerical weather prediction (NWP) model level in mountainous ...

Xingxiu Deng; Roland Stull

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Analysis of field emission characteristics of hydrogen-adsorbed silicon surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of field emission characteristics of hydrogen-adsorbed silicon surface Sung Ho Jo, Byung of the Fowler­ Nordheim plot for a hydrogen-adsorbed silicon field emitter are smaller than those for a clean account of the change of surface potential barrier due to the polarization of adsorbed hydrogen atom

Lee, Jong Duk

94

Principal component analysis based on wavelet characteristics applied to automated surface defect inspection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automated visual inspection, a crucial manufacturing step, has been replacing the more time-consuming and less accurate human inspection. This research explores automated visual inspection of surface defects in a light-emitting diode (LED) chip. Commonly ... Keywords: hotelling statistic, machine vision system, principal component analysis, surface defect inspection, wavelet characteristics

Hong-Dar Lin; Chung-Yu Chung; Wan-Ting Lin

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient Representation of Cortical Convolutions for the Analysis of Brain Surface Topology Peter of the brain in MR and CT clearly con- veying the whole surface topology. For the comparison of the provided with direct volume rendering. Considering brain information exclusively, and ensuring a standardized

Blanz, Volker

96

High resolution UHV-AFM surface analysis on polymeric materials: Baltic Amber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present, for the first time, the results from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) surface studies from freshly fractured Baltic Amber samples, carried out under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions from micrometer to nanometer resolution. The micrometric AFM images provide a structural clue to the birefringent behavior occasionally observed with amber samples. Two-dimensional pair-distance distributions of the nanometric AFM images prove the completely amorphous structure of the material. This, together with the detection of individual motifs such as aromatic rings, supports the notion of amber being an amorphous polymeric organic network, consistent with the accompanying X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. No nanocrystalline inclusions could be found. The results also show that it is possible to obtain atomically resolved AFM images from amorphous dielectric surfaces.

E. Barletta; K. Wandelt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS Surf. Interface Anal. 2002; 33: 478486  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectrometry; ion implantation; dosimetry; standards; silicon energy loss INTRODUCTION Ion implantation recoil spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission--but of these only RBS for this standards work. In this work we are aiming to establish the instrumen- tation for dosimetry on our ion

Webb, Roger P.

98

Surface Characterization and Functionalization of Carbon Nanofibers  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanofibers are high-aspect ratio graphitic materials that have been investigated for numerous applications due to their unique physical properties such as high strength, low density, metallic conductivity, tunable morphology, chemical and environmental stability, as well as compatibility with organochemical modification. Surface studies are extremely important for nanomaterials because not only is the surface structurally and chemically quite different from the bulk, but its properties tend to dominate at the nanoscale due to the drastically increased surface-to-volume ratio. This review surveys recent developments in surface analysis techniques used to characterize the surface structure and chemistry of carbon nanofibers and related carbon materials. These techniques include scanning probe microscopy, infrared and electron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, ion spectrometry, temperature programmed desorption and atom probe analysis. In addition, this article evaluates the methods used to modify the surface of carbon nanofibers in order to enhance their functionality to perform across an exceedingly diverse application space.

Klein, Kate L [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Rack, Philip D [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

R.E. Flye

2000-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

Field-ion microscopy observation of single-walled carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field-ion microscopy (FIM), a tool for surface analysis with atomic resolution, has been employed to observe the end structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). FIM images revealed the existence of open SWCNT ends. Amorphous carbon atoms were also observed to occur around SWCNTs and traditional field evaporation failed to remove them. Heat treatment was found to be efficacious in altering the end structures of SWCNT bundles. Carbon and oxygen atoms released from heated tungsten filament are believed to be responsible for the decoration imposed on the SWCNT ends.

Zhang Zhao-Xiang; Zhang Geng-Min; Du Min; Jin Xin-Xi; Hou Shi-Min; Sun Jian-Ping; Gu Zhen-Nan; Zhao Xing-Yu; Liu Wei-Min; Wu Jin-Lei; Xue Zeng-Quan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Analysis of selected surface characteristics and latent heat storage for passive solar space heating  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of an analysis of the value of various technical improvements in the solar collector and thermal storage subsystems of passive solar residential, agricultural, and industrial systems for two regions of the country. The evaluated improvements are: decreased emissivity and increased absorptivity of absorbing surfaces, decreased reflectivity, and decreased emissivity of glazing surface, and the substitution of sensible heat storage media with phase change materials. The value of each improvement is estimated by the additional energy savings resulting from the improvement.

Fthenakis, V.; Leigh, R.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Cryoelectron Microscopy as a Functional Instrument for Systems Biology, Structural Analysis & Experimental Manipulations with Living Cells. A comprehensive review of the current works  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to give an introductory review of the cryoelectron microscopy as a complex data source for the most of the system biology branches, including the most perspective non-local approaches known as "localomics" and "dynamomics". A brief summary of various cryoelectron mi-croscopy methods and corresponding system biological ap-proaches is given in the text. The above classification can be considered as a useful framework for the primary comprehen-sions about cryoelectron microscopy aims and instrumental tools. We do not discuss any of these concepts in details, but merely point out that their methodological complexity follows only from the structure-functional complexity of biological systems which are investigated in this manner. We also postu-late that one can employ some of the cryoelectron microscopic techniques not only for observation, but also for modification and structural refunctionalization of some biological and similar soft matter objects and microscopic samples. In other world...

Gradov, Oleg V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations.

Poppa, Helmut [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A free energy model and availability analysis for onset of condensation on rigid and liquid surfaces in moist air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A thermodynamic model based on changes in Gibbs free energy and availability is developed for onset of heterogeneous condensation on subcooled rigid and liquid surfaces in moist air. Effects of wettability of the wall, subcooled wall temperature, relative humidity and dew point temperature of the surrounding air on critical radii for heterogeneous condensation on a rigid surface are investigated based on the change of Gibbs free energy. From the analysis of changes in availability, it is found that onset of droplet condensation is easier to occur on a hydrophilic surface than on a hydrophobic surface, in moist air than in a dry air environment, on a colder surface than a warmer surface, on a liquid surface than a rigid surface. It is also found that condensation droplet occurs earlier on oil surfaces with small surface tensions than on oil surfaces with large surface tensions.

Luhang Yang; Xiaojun Quan; Ping Cheng; Zhiming Cheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

LASER SCANNING AND NOISE REDUCTION APPLIED TO 3D ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LASER SCANNING AND NOISE REDUCTION APPLIED TO 3D ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS Thorsten Schulz and Hilmar, EAWAG Email: michele.steiner@eawag.ch Abstract: Terrestrial laser scanning was applied to acquire 3D the catchment area of a road with respect to a pilot plant. As laser scanning requires only a few minutes

Giger, Christine

106

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines A project pursuant is to investigate the characteristics of mine blast seismic waves in southern Indiana. Coal mines are prevalent implications for understanding different seismic sources, earthquake structures in Indiana, and wave

Polly, David

107

Surface Analysis of Silica Gel Particles after Mechanical Dry Coating with Magnesium Stearate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Surface Analysis of Silica Gel Particles after Mechanical Dry Coating with Magnesium Stearate particles (d50 = 55 µm) by coating with different mass ratios of magnesium stearate - MgSt2 (d50 = 4.6 µm Group). Keywords: AFM phase imaging, adhesion force, dry coating, silica, magnesium stearate. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Nonlinear vibrational microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

Holtom, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Richland, WA); Zumbusch, Andreas (Munchen, DE)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Abstract: Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is a versatile...

110

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acknowledgment Acknowledgment EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Acknowledgment Please acknowledge your use of the EMC in your publications and presentations with the following acknowledgment statement: The electron microscopy was accomplished at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Laboratory operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 by UChicago Argonne, LLC.

111

Electron Microscopy Center  

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SAMM SAMM EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Sub-Ã…ngstrom Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility In order to meet the scientific challenges of the future, the EMC has built a new state-of-the-art laboratory space for advanced electron microscopy. The new building has been designed to provide next- generation science with an operating environment that cannot be attained by renovating existing facilities. The EMC staff learned as much as possible from similar efforts around the world, including the SuperSTEM building at Daresbury, the Triebenberg Special Laboratory, the AML at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the new NIST building, and various facilities for nanoscience.

112

Electron Microscopy Center  

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Laboratory Laboratory Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers An Office of Science User Facility The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff carry out research with collaborators and users from Argonne, universities, and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

113

Microscopy. I: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...indicates the spindle to be an orienting force through which a co-ordinated con tractile...asoT,E. M. and M@&soN,C. W. Handbook of Chemi cal Microscopy. Vol. 1. 1st...498 "586,1950. 164. NAORA, H. Fundamental Studies on the Determination of Desoxypentose-Nucleic...

Robert C. Mellors

1953-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Surface analysis of rubbers and plastics using secondary neutral mass spectrometry.  

SciTech Connect

Rubber and plastics are complex mixtures of long-chain polymers, smaller organic additives used as plasticizers, mildicides, fungicides, colorants, etc., and inorganic additives such as carbon and silica. Surface analysis of such materials is at once difficult and important. The difficulty lies in the need to identify specific carbon molecules on a very similar organic surface. The importance arises from the dramatic effect that the distribution and concentration of additives have on the physical properties of polymeric materials. Recently we have had some success in applying laser desorption post-ionization mass spectrometry in measuring the surface concentration and distribution of both additives and the polymer molecules themselves. The key has been to use the photoionization properties of the analyte of interest to augment mass spectrometric information.

Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Total analysis of surface structure and properties by UHV transfer system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) complex sample preparation and analysis system, which realizes a reliable surface science analyzing various characters on an identical surface. The system contains three sample-preparation-and-characterization chambers and five analysis chambers. They are (1) an electronic-properties-characterization chamber, (2) a magnetic-properties-characterization chamber, (3) an organic-molecule chamber, (4) UHV SEM, (5) a high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer, (6) a high-energy-resolution display-type spherical mirror analyzer, (7) a room-temperature (RT) STM, and (8) an optical-properties characterization chamber. A special sample holder is used with six electrodes on it, which enables accurate temperature measurement of a sample by connecting a thermocouple directly to the sample even if it is transferred. Four other electrodes can be used for construction of various circuits including evaporators. Some examples are shown.

Hiroshi Yamatani; Ken Hattori; Takahisa Matsuta; Takuji Ito; Tomohito Nohno; Madoka Hori; Yutaka Miyatake; Shigenori Konno; Tsukasa Tanaka; Yoji Hamada; Hiroshi Katagiri; Mikiharu Hibi; Toshiki Miyai; Mie Hashimoto; Keita Kataoka; Takeshi Tatsuta; Azusa N. Hattori; Naoto Higashi; Mitsunori Honda; Norifumi Masunaga; Hiroaki Mino; Shintaro Yasui; Janathul Nayeem; Tatsuya Shimizu; Nobuaki Takahashi; Yukako Kato; Chikako Sakai; Masashi Yoshimura; Sakura N. Takeda; Fumihiko Matsui; Hiroshi Daimon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Surface Plasmon mediated near-field imaging and optical addressing in nanoscience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an overview of recent progress in plasmonics. We focus our study on the observation and excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with optical near-field microscopy. We discuss in particular recent applications of photon scanning tunnelling microscope (PSTM) for imaging of SPP propagating in metal and dielectric wave guides. We show how near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) can be used to optically and actively address remotely nano-objects such as quantum dots. Additionally we compare results obtained with near-field microscopy to those obtained with other optical far-field methods of analysis such as leakage radiation microscopy (LRM).

Drezet, A; Krenn, J R; Brun, M; Huant, S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Accuracy Analysis of a Robotic Radionuclide Inspection and Mapping System for Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The mapping of localized regions of radionuclide contamination in a building can be a time consuming and costly task. Humans moving hand-held radiation detectors over the target areas are subject to fatigue. A contamination map based on manual surveys can contain significant operator-induced inaccuracies. A Fanuc M16i light industrial robot has been configured for installation on a mobile aerial work platform, such as a tall forklift. When positioned in front of a wall or floor surface, the robot can map the radiation levels over a surface area of up to 3 m by 3 m. The robot's end effector is a commercial alpha-beta radiation sensor, augmented with range and collision avoidance sensors to ensure operational safety as well as to maintain a constant gap between surface and radiation sensors. The accuracy and repeatability of the robotically conducted contamination surveys is directly influenced by the sensors and other hardware employed. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of various non-contact sensors for gap measurement, and the means to compensate for predicted systematic errors that arise during the area survey scans. The range sensor should maintain a constant gap between the radiation counter and the surface being inspected. The inspection robot scans the wall surface horizontally, moving down at predefined vertical intervals after each scan in a meandering pattern. A number of non-contact range sensors can be employed for the measurement of the gap between the robot end effector and the wall. The nominal gap width was specified as 10 mm, with variations during a single scan not to exceed {+-} 2 mm. Unfinished masonry or concrete walls typically exhibit irregularities, such as holes, gaps, or indentations in mortar joints. These irregularities can be sufficiently large to indicate a change of the wall contour. The responses of different sensor types to the wall irregularities vary, depending on their underlying principles of operation. We explored capacitive, ultrasound, and optical Laser range sensors. The unshielded capacitive range sensors were found to be influenced by objects in their vicinity, and to have comparatively low sensitivity. Therefore they were not used for gap measurement. We did, however, use them successfully to detect obstacles in the field of motion of the sensor head. The four sensors pointing diagonally from four corners of the sensor head are capacitive range sensors, which stop the robot motion any time a pre-set threshold signal level is exceeded. Ultrasound range sensors were found to have good resolution. The ultrasound beam was frequently deflected sideways by the wall's roughness, resulting in a spurious signal peaks. On the other hand, ultrasound signals are inherently insensitive to variations of the optical surface properties. Laser range sensing proved to be generally less noisy than ultrasound measurements. The aforementioned sensitivity to the target surface's optical properties was not evident on grey, non-reflective surfaces. On such surfaces, laser range sensing was found to be superior to ultrasound measurements. Occasionally, however, surface reflectivity and specularity caused erroneous measurements. The computational burden of measuring and filtering the sensor data in real time made it impractical to control the robot directly based on sensor feedback. The robot performs a first horizontal surface range scan merely to gage the surface profile. During the subsequent passes, the robot records the radiation measurements, while recording the range data for the next pass, with the range sensor positioned below the radiation sensor. The decoupling of measurements from robot control prevents the robot controller from responding to spurious sensor signals, ensuring steadier and safer radiation surveying. The controller is configured to accept either optical or ultrasound range signals, so as to respond better to user-specific requirements. A detailed analysis of non-contact range sensors and control for the automated mapping of surface contamination has been presented. The C

Mauer, Georg F.; Kawa, Chris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4027 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Office of Science User Facility An Office of Science User Facility The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff carry out research with collaborators and users from Argonne, universities, and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

119

Electron Microscopy Lab  

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Facilities » Facilities » Electron Microscopy Lab Electron Microscopy Lab Focusing on the study of microstructures with electron and ion beam instruments, including crystallographic and chemical techniques. April 12, 2012 Transmission electron microscope Rob Dickerson examines a multiphase oxide scale using the FEI Titan 80-300 transmission electron microscope. Contact Rob Dickerson (505) 667-6337 Email Rod McCabe (505) 606-1649 Email Pat Dickerson (505) 665-3036 Email Tom Wynn (505) 665-6861 Email Dedicated to the characterization of materials through imaging, chemical, and crystallographic analyses of material microstructures in support of Basic Energy Science, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, DoD, DOE, Work for Others, nuclear energy, and weapons programs. Go to full website »

120

Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optimal reconstruction of the folding landscape using differential energy surface analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In experiments and in simulations, the free energy of a state of a system can be determined from the probability that the state is occupied. However, it is often necessary to impose a biasing potential on the system so that high energy states are sampled with sufficient frequency. The unbiased energy is typically obtained from the data using the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM). Here we present differential energy surface analysis (DESA), in which the gradient of the energy surface, dE/dx, is extracted from data taken with a series of harmonic biasing potentials. It is shown that DESA produces a maximum likelihood estimate of the folding landscape gradient. DESA is demonstrated by analyzing data from a simulated system as well as data from a single-molecule unfolding experiment in which the end-to-end distance of a DNA hairpin is measured. It is shown that the energy surface obtained from DESA is indistinguishable from the energy surface obtained when WHAM is applied to the same data. Two criteria are defined which indicate whether the DESA results are self-consistent. It is found that these criteria can detect a situation where the energy is not a single-valued function of the measured reaction coordinate. The criteria were found to be satisfied for the experimental data analyzed, confirming that end-to-end distance is a good reaction coordinate for the experimental system. The combination of DESA and the optical trap assay in which a structure is disrupted under harmonic constraint facilitates an extremely accurate measurement of the folding energy surface.

Arthur La Porta; Natalia A. Denesyuk; Michel de Messieres

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

122

Electron Microscopy Center  

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Training Training EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers User Training Prior Training in Electron Microscopy: People who wish to operate TEMs must have at least one college-level course in TEM with a lab component or previous TEM experience. The college course can't be one in which TEM was just one of many topics. For researchers who lack academic training and/or practical experience in electron microscopy, we suggest the short courses in TEM at the Hooke College of Applied Sciences, and the hands-on TEM courses at Northwestern University or the University of Chicago or Northern Illinois University.

123

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview Overview The mission of the Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) is to: Conduct materials research using advanced microstructural characterization methods; Maintain unique resources and facilities for scientific research for the both the Argonne National Laboratory and national scientific community. Develop and expand the frontiers of microanalysis by fostering the evolution of synergistic state-of-the-art resources in instrumentation, techniques and scientific expertise; The staff members of the EMC carry out their own research as well as participate in collaborative programs with other scientists at Argonne National Laboratory as well as researchers, educators and students worldwide. The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials problems. The EMC staff perform collaborative research with members of other Divisions at Argonne National Laboratory and with collaborators from universities and other laboratories. The expertise and facilities of the EMC additionally serve a group of national and international researchers. The EMC emphasizes three major areas: materials research, technique and instrumentation development, and operation as a national research facility. Research by EMC personnel includes microscopy based studies in high Tc superconducting materials, irradiation effects in metals and semiconductors, phase transformations, and processing related structure and chemistry of interfaces in thin films.

124

HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U.(DOE-Molecular Biology Institute)

125

Feature Article NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and conven- tional electron, X-ray and neutron scattering. We provide an overview of these synchrotron based and derivative struc- tures, ranging from spectroscopy to mechanical analysis and neutron scattering [9,10]. SomeFeature Article NEXAFS microscopy and resonant scattering: Composition and orientation probed

Hitchcock, Adam P.

126

XPS analysis of 440C steel surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyethers under sliding conditions in high vacuum  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of the X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of AISI 440C ball surfaces lubricated with perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oils after friction experiments under sliding conditions at high load in air and vacuum environments. The PFPE lubricants tested were Demnum S100, Fomblin Z-25, and Krytox 143AB. It was found that all the PFPE lubricants were degraded by sliding contact causing the formation of inorganic fluorides on the metallic surfaces and a layer of organic decomposition products. KRYTOX 143AB was the least reactive of the three lubricants tested. It was also found that metal fluoride formed at off-scar areas. This suggests the formation of reactive species, such as COF2 or R[sub f]COF, during sliding experiments, which can diffuse through the lubricant film and react with the metallic surfaces away from the contact region. Comparison of reference specimens before sliding with those that had undergone the sliding tests showed that the amount of non-degraded PFPE remaining on the surface of the balls after the sliding experiments was greater than that of the balls without sliding.

Herrera-Fierro, P.; Masuko, M.; Jones, W.R. Jr.; Pepper, S.V.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Mesurements  

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Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Analysis of Cloud Variability and Sampling Errors in Surface and Satellite Measurements Z. Li, M. C. Cribb, and F.-L. Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Radiation measurements have been widely employed for evaluating cloud parameterization schemes and model simulation results. As the most comprehensive program aiming to improve cloud parameteri- zation schemes, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has an essential goal to make observations on the scale of a general circulation model gridbox, so as to define the physics underlying some of the important parameterizations in the general circulation models used in climate change

129

3-D description of fracture surfaces and stress-sensitivity analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Three kinds of reservoir cores (limestone, sandstone, and shale with natural fractures) were used to study the effect of morphology of fracture surfaces on stress sensitivity. The cores, obtained from the reservoirs with depths of 2170 to 2300 m, have fractures which are mated on a large scale, but unmated on a fine scale. A specially designed photoelectric scanner with a computer was used to describe the topography of the fracture surfaces. Then, theoretical analysis of the fracture closure was carried out based on the fracture topography generated. The scanning results show that the asperity has almost normal distributions for all three types of samples. For the tested samples, the fracture closure predicted by the elastic-contact theory is different from the laboratory measurements because plastic deformation of the aspirates plays an important role under the testing range of normal stresses. In this work, the traditionally used elastic-contact theory has been modified to better predict the stress sensitivity of reservoir fractures. Analysis shows that the standard deviation of the probability density function of asperity distribution has a great effect on the fracture closure rate.

Zhang, S.Q.; Jioa, D.; Meng, Y.F.; Fan, Y.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Electron Microscopy Center  

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Submit an EMC Proposal Submit an EMC Proposal EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Submit an EMC Proposal EMC Proposal Submission Deadline Dates for FY2014: November 1, 2013 March 7, 2014 July 11, 2014 Is your proposal a multi-facility proposal? In other words, do you intend to submit proposals to EMC and APS or CNM for your research project? If your answer is "yes," go now to the Proposal Gateway.

131

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EMC Users Committee EMC Users Committee EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers EMC Users Committee An EMC Users Committee has been organized to enhance communication between the user community and the EMC. While the EMC relies on and encourages strong interaction among its users and between its staff and users, the Users Committee provides an additional formal mechanism for user input into EMC planning and operations to ensure that users' needs and concerns are addressed.

132

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

End-of-Proposal Report End-of-Proposal Report EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers End-of-Proposal Report In accordance with the User Agreement, please provide the EMC with the following information when your proposal expires (one year after its acceptance date or when the experiments end, whichever is sooner). A research summary/progress report using these two templates:

133

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Becoming a User Becoming a User EMC Home Overview Personnel Resources Highlights Publications Visit EMC Contact Info Information for Users Becoming a User Submit a Proposal End-of-Proposal Report Acknowledgment User Training User Safety User Status Instrument Access User Committee User Meetings Data Storage Policy Visiting the EMC Instrument Calendars Info for EMC Staff SÃ…MM Facility TEAM Project Microscopy Links Argonne Facilities DOE/BES Facilities DOE/BES BES Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers Procedure to Become a User at the EMC 1. Summary All users have to fulfill certain requirements before access to the EMC can be granted. The following list provides short descriptions of the requirements. Details can be found on this page and via the relevant links at the left. Register for access to Argonne's scientific user facilities (or update your user registration information).

134

Artificial Neural Networks and quadratic Response Surfaces for the functional failure analysis of a thermal-hydraulic passive system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] have been widely used in reliability analysis and risk assessment [16]. Recently, advanced samplingArtificial Neural Networks and quadratic Response Surfaces for the functional failure analysis decay heat removal system of a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Keywords: epistemic uncertainties, passive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Surface Imaging Using UHV-CTEM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......review-article Review Surface Imaging Using UHV-CTEM Katsumichi Yagi Physics Department...conventional transmission electron microscopies (UHV-CTEM) is reviewed. Techniques for routine...surface dynamic processes. surface imaging|UHV-CTEM|surface structure| Review / Electron......

Katsumichi Yagi

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

137

Chapter 11 - Light sheet microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter introduces the concept of light sheet microscopy along with practical advice on how to design and build such an instrument. Selective plane illumination microscopy is presented as an alternative to confocal microscopy due to several superior features such as high-speed full-frame acquisition, minimal phototoxicity, and multiview sample rotation. Based on our experience over the last 10 years, we summarize the key concepts in light sheet microscopy, typical implementations, and successful applications. In particular, sample mounting for long time-lapse imaging and the resulting challenges in data processing are discussed in detail.

Michael Weber; Michaela Mickoleit; Jan Huisken

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Image analysis of jet structure on electrospinning from free liquid surface  

SciTech Connect

The work analyses intra-jet distances during electrospinning from a free surface of water based poly(vinyl alcohol) solution confined by two thin metallic plates employed as a spinning electrode. A unique computer vision system and digital image processing were designed in order to track position of every polymer jet. Here, we show that jet position data are in good compliance with theoretically predicted intra-jet distances by linear stability analysis. Jet density is a critical parameter of electrospinning technology, since it determines the process efficiency and homogeneity of produced nanofibrous layer. Achievements made in this research could be used as essential approach to study jetting from two-dimensional spinning electrodes, or as fundamentals for further development of control system related to Nanospider{sup ™} technology.

Kula, Jiri, E-mail: jiri.kula@tul.cz; Linka, Ales, E-mail: ales.linka@tul.cz; Tunak, Maros, E-mail: maros.tunak@tul.cz [Department of Textile Evaluation, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic); Lukas, David, E-mail: david.lukas@tul.cz [Department of Nonwoven and Nanofibrous Materials, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic); Centre for Nanomaterials Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec (Czech Republic)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Information for EMC Users General Information for EMC Users The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory. It is one of three scientific user facilities for electron beam microcharacterization and one of several National User Facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory. As a scientific user facility, the EMC supports user-accessible instruments (Resources) for high spatial resolution microanalysis, field imaging, nanoscale structural characterization, nanoscale fabrication and manipulation, and unique in situ studies of materials under the influence of ion-beam irradiation. These capabilities are used in a diverse variety of research areas to address grand challenge scientific questions encompassing, for example, energy-related studies, biology, astrophysics, archaeology, superconductivity, nanotechnology, environmental engineering, tribology, and ferroelectricity. The research is performed both by users and by EMC staff. While many users work independently, the most challenging research activities require extensive contributions from EMC staff.

140

Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

An Analysis of Surface and Subsurface Lineaments and Fractures for Oil and Gas Exploration in the Mid-Continent Region  

SciTech Connect

An extensive literature search was conducted and geological and mathematical analyses were performed to investigate the significance of using surface lineaments and fractures for delineating oil and gas reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region. Tremendous amount of data were acquired including surface lineaments, surface major fracture zones, surface fracture traces, gravity and magnetic lineaments, and Precambrian basement fault systems. An orientation analysis of these surface and subsurface linear features was performed to detect the basic structural grains of the region. The correlation between surface linear features and subsurface oil and gas traps was assessed, and the implication of using surface lineament and fracture analysis for delineating hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region discussed. It was observed that the surface linear features were extremely consistent in orientation with the gravity and magnetic lineaments and the basement faults in the Mid-Continent region. They all consist of two major sets bending northeast and northwest, representing, therefore, the basic structural grains of the region. This consistency in orientation between the surface and subsurface linear features suggests that the systematic fault systems at the basement in the Mid-Continent region have probably been reactivated many times and have propagated upward all the way to the surface. They may have acted as the loci for the development of other geological structures, including oil and gas traps. Also observed was a strong association both in orientation and position between the surface linear features and the subsurface reservoirs in various parts of the region. As a result, surface lineament and fracture analysis can be used for delineating additional oil and gas reserves in the Mid-Continent region. The results presented in this paper prove the validity and indicate the significance of using surface linear features for inferring subsurface oil and gas reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region. Any new potential oil and gas reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region, if they exist, will be likely associated with the northeast- and northwest-trending surface lineaments and fracture traces in the region.

Guo, Genliang; and George, S.A.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

142

Dependence of LTX plasma performance on surface conditions as determined by in situ analysis of plasma facing components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic has been implemented on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at PPPL, providing the first in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface characterization of tokamak plasma facing components (PFCs). MAPP samples were exposed to argon glow discharge conditioning (GDC), lithium evaporations, and hydrogen tokamak discharges inside LTX. Samples were analyzed with XPS, and alterations to surface conditions were correlated against observed LTX plasma performance changes. Argon GDC caused the accumulation of nm-scale metal oxide layers on the PFC surface, which appeared to bury surface carbon and oxygen contamination and thus improve plasma performance. Lithium evaporation led to the rapid formation of a lithium oxide (Li2O) surface; plasma performance was strongly improved for sufficiently thick evaporative coatings. Results indicate that a 5 h argon GDC or a 50 nm evaporative lithium coating will both significantly improve LTX plasma performance.

M. Lucia; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; F. Bedoya; J.P. Allain; T. Abrams; R.E. Bell; D.P. Boyle; M.A. Jaworski; J.C. Schmitt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Atomic-force-microscopy observations of tracks induced by swift Kr ions in mica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the first time, latent tracks induced by swift Kr ions have been directly observed in mica. These tracks are imaged by atomic-force microscopy as hollows which are associated with softer areas in the mica surface. The track core is formed by disordered mica. The mean diameter of the observed hollows increases with the electronic stopping power of the ions. The track shape along the ion path is deduced from the analysis of both the number of the tracks per unit area and their diameter distribution. These observations are the first images of nanometric changes of elastic properties.

F. Thibaudau; J. Cousty; E. Balanzat; S. Bouffard

1991-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a , S.N. Renfrow a,b , G. Vizkelethy a,1 Abstract Alternatives to traditional nuclear microprobe analysis (NMA) emerged two years ago with the invention of ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). With nuclear emission microscopy (NEM) the ion beam

145

A new approach to nuclear microscopy: The ion-electron emission microscope  

SciTech Connect

A new multidimensional high lateral resolution ion beam analysis technique, Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy or IEEM is described. Using MeV energy ions, IEEM is shown to be capable of Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) measurements in semiconductors. IEEM should also be capable of microscopically and multidimensionally mapping the surface and bulk composition of solids. As such, IIEM has nearly identical capabilities as traditional nuclear microprobe analysis, with the advantage that the ion beam does not have to be focused. The technique is based on determining the position where an individual ion enters the surface of the sample by projection secondary electron emission microscopy. The x-y origination point of a secondary electron, and hence the impact coordinates of the corresponding incident ion, is recorded with a position sensitive detector connected to a standard photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). These signals are then used to establish coincidence with IBICC, atomic, or nuclear reaction induced ion beam analysis signals simultaneously caused by the incident ion.

Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Senftinger, B. [Staib Instrumente GmbH, Langenbach (Germany); Mellon, M. [Quantar Technologies Inc., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Instrument Series: Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quanta 3D FEG Quanta 3D FEG This instrument is now available in EMSL's Radiochemistry Annex. The Quanta 3D FEG is the most versatile high-resolution, low vacuum SEM/FIB for 2D and 3D material characterization and analysis. Featuring three imaging modes - high vacuum, low vacuum and ESEM - it accommodates the widest range of samples of any SEM system. The Quanta 3D FEG's novel, field-emission electron source delivers clear and sharp electron imaging and increased electron beam current enhances EDS and EBSP analysis. This system also offers the capability for in situ study of the dynamic behavior of materials at different humidity levels (up to 100% RH) and temperatures (up to 1500 °C). Quanta 3D FEG's unprecedented high- current FIB enables fast material removal.

147

Tool path generation and 3D tolerance analysis for free-form surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

called forward- step between two cutter contact (CC) points with given tolerance. This function is independent of the surface type and is applicable to all continuous parametric surfaces that are twice differentiable. The second component is the side...

Choi, Young Keun

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Numerical Analysis of Cell Deformation of Twophase Flow with Discontinuous Viscosity and Nonlinear Surface Tension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­linear Surface Tension Zhilin Li and Sharon Lubkin Center For Research in Scientific Computation & Department equations, cell deformation, non­linear surface tension, jump conditions, interface, discontinuous and non boundary separating two fluids that have equal or different viscosity and non­linear surface tension

149

Surface analysis of Zircaloy-2 implanted with carbon before and after oxidation in air at 500 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zircaloy-2 specimens were implanted with carbon ions in the fluence range from 1 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, using a MEVVA source at an extraction voltage of 40 kV at a maximum temperature of 380 °C. The valences and depth profiles of elements in the implanted surface of Zircaloy-2 were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micro-morphology of samples. The color of the oxidized samples was checked with an optical scanner. Glancing-angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3° incident angles was employed to examine the phase transformations of implanted samples before and after oxidation in the air at 500 °C for 2 h. Before oxidation, at fluences less than 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, hexagonal zirconia (H-ZrO0.35) was present. At a fluence of 1 × 1017 ions/cm2, rhombohedral zirconia (R-Zr3O) appeared. When the fluence reached 1 × 1018 ions/cm2, cubic zirconium carbide was produced. There are many pits, both deep and shallow, in the sample surfaces, both prior to oxidation and after oxidation. Oxidation in the air at 500 °C gave rise to black surfaces on all samples. The X-ray diffraction results showed that monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia were present in the surface of as-received sample. For implanted samples, monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia are still present, while cubic zirconium carbide is produced at all fluences. The presence of ZrC is attributed to the high-temperature, long-time (2 h) exposure.

D.Q. Peng; X.D. Bai; F. Pan; H. Sun; B.S. Chen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni) used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0), unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3), linoleic acid (C-18:2), and oleic acid (C-18:1), which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0), which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions.

Tse-Yu Chung; Ping-Chung Kuo; Zih-Hui Liao; Yu-En Shih; Mei-Ling Cheng; Chia-Chang Wu; Jason T.C. Tzen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Quantify shape, angularity and surface texture of aggregates using image analysis and study their effect on performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and are analyzed with the help of the aggregate imaging system "AIMS". The aim is to measure surface properties of both coarse and fine aggregates and relate these properties to performance. In addition, AIMS shape analysis results are compared to other physical...

Sukhwani, Rajni

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

Heat source/sink effects on non-Newtonian MHD fluid flow and heat transfer over a permeable stretching surface: Lie group analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analysis is performed for flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid known as Casson fluid over a permeable stretching surface through a...

M. N. Tufail; A. S. Butt; A. Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Crystal Structure of a Coxsackievirus B3-RD Variant and a Refined 9-Angstrom Cryo-Electron Microscopy Reconstruction of the Virus Complexed with Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF) Provide a New Footprint of DAF on the Virus Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...features with the fitted crystal structure of the virus...from the newly solved crystal structure of the RD variant...the virus surface as a bent cylinder crossing in...graph describing the spherical average distribution...map calculated from the crystal structure (white) was...

Joshua D. Yoder; Javier O. Cifuente; Jieyan Pan; Jeffrey M. Bergelson; Susan Hafenstein

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

Surface Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period at the ARM SGP Site in august 2002: Results, Analysis, and Future Plans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period Spectral Albedo Intensive Operational Period at the ARM SGP Site in August 2002: Results, Analysis, and Future Plans A. P. Trishchenko and Y. Luo Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada M. C. Cribb and Z. Li University of Maryland College Park, Maryland K. Hamm University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Introduction A surface spectral albedo Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site was conducted during August 14-19, 2002, to meet the ARM Program need in a detailed knowledge of surface boundary conditions for atmospheric radiation studies. We measured surface spectral albedos/reflectances for several representative surface types and made a survey of landcover types over an area of approximately 10 km x 10 km centered

155

Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electron Microscopy Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resources Resources The EMC currently operates and administers seven full-time user instruments together with support facilities that include specimen preparation, image analysis and computational resources. The instruments are grouped below according to their function and capabilities. Detailed information about the capabilities of each user-accessible resource is available via the underlined links below. The major-capability instruments are generally available by allocated access while the core instruments are generally available by continuous access. Instrument Access Type User Status Separate Proposal? ACAT Allocated Assisted yes IVEM Allocated Assisted yes FEI Tecnai F20ST TEM/STEM Continuous or Allocated User or Assisted Any or all of these instruments may be requested in one proposal.

157

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy...

158

The physical and chemical state of Westinghouse Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell assemblies after long term operation: Surface and near-surface analysis  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to correlate performance losses with materials compatibility and compositional changes in Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) electrode assemblies as a function of operation time. Westinghouse PAFC stacks were run under a constant operating regime and portions of some of the single cells were analysed after stack operation for 5000 hrs and for 16,000 hrs along with appropriate reference samples. The PAFC assemblies were disassembled, sectioned where appropriate and analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The profiles of the Pt catalyst in both the anode and the cathode layer did not show any preferential loss or peaking. The most pronounced change in cell composition detected following stack operation for 5000 and for 16,000 hours was the increase in Pt/C ratio, that was related to loss of carbon from the cathode electrocatalyst. In contrast, the anode catalyst layer maintains the same ratio of Pt/C following 16,000 hours of operation. The loss of carbon is thought to occur by an electrochemical mechanism and is enhanced at the higher potentials experienced by the air cathode in the fuel cell. In addition, TEM results clearly demonstrate the well recognized phenomenon of Pt particle agglomeration in the cathode catalyst layer, which is seen to be quite substantial after 5000 hours of stack operation. The mechanical integrity of the assemblies was found to be quite satisfactory after 5000 hours, but much less so after 16,000 hours. Questions regarding carbon and Pt corrosion, Pt migration, and the mechanical and physical integrity of the PAFC structures are addressed and are all postulated to be contributing to the observed cell performance losses. 10 refs., 17 figs.

Paffett, M.T.; Hutchinson, W.; Farr, J.D.; Papin, P.; Beery, J.G.; Gottesfeld, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Feret, J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

On Smoothing Surfaces in Voxel Based Finite Element Analysis of Trabecular Bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-)finite element analysis based on three-dimen- sional computed tomography (CT) data of human bone takes place finite element (FE) analysis. The approach based on the FE analysis leads to linear systems of equations analysis the computational domain is composed of a multitude of tiny cubes, so-called voxels

Frey, Pascal

160

Analysis of the eect of the coastal discontinuity on near-surface ow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, IN 47405, USA Fax: +1 812 855 1661; e-mail: spryor@indiana.edu 2 Department of Wind Energy and Atmospheric, stability, and surface roughness changes on wind speeds in the coastal zone. Using data from an oshore wind the surface, dierences in wind speed distribu- tions from onshore and oshore masts are statistically signi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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161

Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval...

Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Molecular surface electrostatic potentials in the analysis of non-hydrogen-bonding noncovalent interactions  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic potentials computed on molecular surfaces are used to analyze some noncovalent interactions that are not in the category of hydrogen bonding, e.g. halogen bonding. The systems examined include halogenated methanes, substituted benzenes, s-tetrazine and 1,3-bisphenylurea. The data were obtained by ab initio SCF calculations. Electrostatic potentials, Non-hydrogen-bonding noncovalent interactions, Molecular surfaces.

Murray, J.S.; Paulsen, K.; Politzer, P.

1993-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

163

Analysis of sub-surface towing of tendons and comparison of results using WINPOST and ORCAFLEX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During tendon towing the pipe is floating in a horizontal plane parallel to the sea-surface unlike the usual vertical slender members like risers, mooring lines, etc where the pipe/cable is perpendicular to the sea-surface. This change in projection...

Mendon, Perdoor Mukthi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

Formation of Ti-B surface alloys by excimer laser mixing  

SciTech Connect

We have formed a surface Ti-B alloy by excimer laser mixing of a single B layer on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates a uniform B:Ti ratio of approximately 0.7 in the surface layer. A Boron layer 60 nm thick resulted in an alloy layer approximately 200 nm thick. There is little indication, by either Auger electron spectroscopy or nuclear reaction analysis, of substantial oxygen incorporation in the surface alloy despite the fact that the processing was done in air. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface alloy shows a completely amorphous surface layer underlain by a martensitic structure.

Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Zocco, T.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Los Alamos: MST-MTM: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 Electron Microscopy Laboratory, MST-6 MST-6 Home Home In the MSL FEI Tecnai F30 Analytical TEM/STEM JEOL 6300FXV High Resolution SEM JEOL 3000F High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Philips XL30 F Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System Phillips CM30 Transmission Electron Microscope In the Sigma Building JEOL 840 EPMA with Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy FEI Strata DB235 FIB/SEM FEI XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope & Orientation Imaging System CONTACTS Bob Field 665.3938 Pat Dickerson 665.3036 Rob Dickerson 667.6337 Rod McCabe 606.1649 The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory's Capabilities The Electron Microscopy Laboratory (EML) is part of MST-6, the Materials Technology - Metallurgy Group within the Materials Science and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is a facility dedicated to the characterization of materials primarily through imaging, chemical, and crystallographic analyses of material microstructures with several electron and ion beam instruments. Accessory characterization techniques and equipment include energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS), wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis (WDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

166

Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function  

SciTech Connect

We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

Formation and Structural Analysis of a Surface Alloy: Al(111)-(2 × 2)-Na  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Al(111)-(2 × 2)-Na phase formed by adsorption of one-half monolayer Na at 300 K is shown to be a surface alloy. Quantitative agreement is achieved between the results of structure determinations by low energy electron diffraction, surface extended x-ray adsorption fine structure, and total energy calculations. The first four layers of the structure are shown to consist of a Na-Al-Na sandwich on a reconstructed Al substrate layer. It is suggested that the formation of the structure involves surface steps as sources of Al atoms.

J. Burchhardt; M. M. Nielsen; D. L. Adams; E. Lundgren; J. N. Andersen; C. Stampfl; M. Scheffler; A. Schmalz; S. Aminpirooz; J. Haase

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Analysis of Spurious Surface Temperature at the Atmosphere–Land Interface and a New Method to Solve the Surface Energy Balance Equation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solving the surface energy balance equation is the most important task when combining an atmospheric model and a land surface model. However, while the surface energy balance equation determines the interface temperature between the models, this ...

Hirofumi Tomita

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ...

Pedro A. Jiménez; J. Fidel González-Rouco; Elena García-Bustamante; Jorge Navarro; Juan P. Montávez; Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano; Jimy Dudhia; Antonio Muñoz-Roldan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The enrichment ratio of atomic contacts in crystals, an indicator derived from the Hirshfeld surface analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An enrichment ratio is derived from the decomposition of the crystal contact surface between pairs of interacting chemical species. The propensity of different contact types to form is investigated.

Jelsch, C.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermal expansion recovery microscopy: Practical design considerations  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of relevant parameters for the design and operation of a photothermal microscope technique recently introduced is presented. The technique, named thermal expansion recovery microscopy (ThERM) relies in the measurement of the defocusing introduced by a surface that expands and recovers upon the heating from a modulated source. A new two lens design is presented that can be easily adapted to commercial infinite conjugate microscopes and the sensitivity to misalignment is analyzed. The way to determine the beam size by means of a focus scan and the use of that same scan to verify if a thermoreflectance signal is overlapping with the desired ThERM mechanism are discussed. Finally, a method to cancel the thermoreflectance signal by an adequate choice of a nanometric coating is presented.

Mingolo, N., E-mail: nmingol@fi.uba.ar; Martínez, O. E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Characterisation of ‘Hadley’ grains by confocal microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work forms part of an exploratory study to investigate the use of fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) for imaging pores and voids in hardened mortar and concrete. The study has revealed the suitability of the technique for the characterisation of hollow shell (Hadley) hydration grains (these are grains that contain a void within the original boundary of the cement grain). It was found that Hadley grains could be imaged using fluorescent light techniques, subsequent to their impregnation by epoxy resin doped with a fluorescent dye. Prior to this work, it was not clear whether hollow grains were impregnated due to connections with capillary pores, or if they had been impregnated due to connections with damage caused during surface preparation (i.e. micro-cracks or deep surface scratches). However using the 3D LSCM imaging technique it was observed that connections between Hadley grains and hardened cement paste (HCP) capillary pores did exist, in different forms, at depths well below the surface providing ‘conduits’ along which resin was able to flow and impregnate the hollow grains. Other aspects of imaging Hadley grains are also described, such as the sectioning of ‘tips’ of larger grains often taken as separate smaller pores or grains in 2D images.

M.K. Head; H.S. Wong; N.R. Buenfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Higher–order Boussinesq–type equations for surface gravity waves: derivation and analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1998 research-article Higher-order Boussinesq-type equations for surface gravity...Agern Alle 5, 2970 Horsholm, Denmark Boussinesq-type equations of higher order in...of u under the assumption that mu 1. Boussinesq equations are then derived from the...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fractional Snow-Cover Mapping Through Artificial Neural Network Analysis of MODIS Surface Reflectance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are especially applicable to mapping snow-cover extent in forested areas where spatial mixing of surface components is nonlinear. This study developed an ANN approach to snow-fraction mapping. A feed-forward ANN was trained with backpropagation to estimate FSC...

Dobreva, Iliyana D.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Developing a low cost 3D imaging solution for inscribed stone surface analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The article uses a 3D imaging based solution where surface shading is determined by surface geometry. It is applied to inscribed stone surfaces in order to examine lettering and other carvings dated to the 5th - 9th centuries AD. Mid-range terrestrial laser scanning and structure from motion (SfM) based photogrammetry were cross-examined in order to create a low cost, but nevertheless highly accurate solution to 3D imaging that requires a computer, a camera, open source software like CloudCompare and a SfM based service called Photo located at ReCap360.autodesk.com. Ambient occlusion (AO) shading was used to show improvements made to the SfM data, which was achieved by adding known parameters to all photographs used. It simulates the direct light components of a light source so that exposed areas appear lightened and enclosed areas (like crevices and incisions) appear darkened. In the case study, AO was used to differentiate lettering in the inscription from damage and weathering on the granite surface of the Tristan Stone, as well as picking up a previously unnoticed wheel-head cross. This particular inscribed stone is located near Fowey in Cornwall, UK, and was known as the Long Stone before its name was changed on British Ordnance Survey (OS) Maps in 1951. The Tristan Stone was the first artefact to be scanned by the FARO Focus3D laser scanner after its release in 2010.

Adam P. Spring; Caradoc Peters

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Monte Carlo analysis of a monolithic interconnected module with a back surface reflector  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the photon Monte Carlo code, RACER-X, was modified to include wave-length dependent absorption coefficients and indices of refraction. This work was done in an effort to increase the code`s capabilities to be more applicable to a wider range of problems. These new features make RACER-X useful for analyzing devices like monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) which have etched surface features and incorporates a back surface reflector (BSR) for spectral control. A series of calculations were performed on various MIM structures to determine the impact that surface features and component reflectivities have on spectral utilization. The traditional concern of cavity photonics is replaced with intra-cell photonics in the MIM design. Like the cavity photonic problems previously discussed, small changes in optical properties and/or geometry can lead to large changes in spectral utilization. The calculations show that seemingly innocuous surface features (e.g., trenches and grid lines) can significantly reduce the spectral utilization due to the non-normal incident photon flux. Photons that enter the device through a trench edge are refracted onto a trajectory where they will not escape. This leads to a reduction in the number of reflected below bandgap photons that return to the radiator and reduce the spectral utilization. In addition, trenches expose a lateral conduction layer in this particular series of calculations which increase the absorption of above bandgap photons in inactive material.

Ballinger, C.T.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Murray, C.S. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Presentday interseismic surface deformation along the Longitudinal Valley, eastern Taiwan, from a PSInSAR analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is exposed subaerially in the Longitudinal Valley (LV) (Figure 1b). This 150 km long NNE trending valleyPresentday interseismic surface deformation along the Longitudinal Valley, eastern Taiwan, from Valley (LV). The Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF) is the main seismically active fault zone in this region

Demouchy, Sylvie

179

COMBINED ANALYSIS OF THORIUM AND FAST NEUTRON DATA AT THE LUNAR SURFACE  

SciTech Connect

The global distribution of the radioactive elements (U, K, Th) at the lunar surface is an important parameter for an understanding of lunar evolution, because they have provided continuous heat over the lifetime of the Moon. Today, only the thorium distribution is available for the whole lunar surface [1]. Another key parameter that characterize the surface of the Moon is the presence of mare basalts. These basalts are concentrated on the nearside and are represented by materials with high-Fe content, sometimes associated with high-Ti. We demonstrated elsewhere that the fast neutron measurement made by Lunar Prospector is representative of the average soil atomic mass [2]. is primarily dominated by Fe and Ti in basaltic terranes, and therefore the map of the fast neutrons provides a good delineation of mare basalts. We focus here on the correlated variations of thorium abundances and fast neutron fluxes averaged over areas of 360 km in diameter, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of the thorium emplacement on the surface of the Moon.

O. GASNAULT; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evaluation of Polar WRF forecasts on the Arctic System Reanalysis domain: Surface and upper air analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analyses of regional mod- eling with Polar WRF have been performed with results compared to selected localEvaluation of Polar WRF forecasts on the Arctic System Reanalysis domain: Surface and upper air.1.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), a highresolution regional scale model, is used to simulate

Howat, Ian M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Tribological analysis of fracture conditions in thin surface coatings by 3D FEM modelling and stress simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tribological analysis of deformations and stresses generated and their influence on crack generation and surface fracture in a coated surface loaded by a sliding sphere in dry conditions is presented. A three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) model has been developed for calculating the first principal stress distribution in the scratch tester contact of a diamond spherical tip with 200 ?m radius sliding with increasing load on a 2 ?m thick titanium nitride coated steel surface. The model is comprehensive in that sense that it considers elastic, plastic and fracture behaviour of the surfaces. The hard coating will be stretched and accumulates high tensile stresses. At the same time, it is carrying part of the load and thus reducing the compressional stresses in the substrate under the sliding tip. The first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. The fracture toughness of the coating is calculated by identifying from a scratch test experiment the location of the first cracks and the crack density and using this as input data.

Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution  

SciTech Connect

A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhou.yun.x@gmail.com; Pollak, Eli, E-mail: eli.pollak@weizmann.ac.il [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)] [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

Detection of protein conformation defects from fluorescence microscopy images  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A diagnostic method for protein conformational diseases (PCD) from microscopy images is proposed when such conformational conflicts involve muscular intranuclear inclusions (INIs) indicative of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), one variety of ... Keywords: Computer-aided diagnosis, Histogram, Microscopic images, Pattern classification, Protein conformational diseases, Texture analysis

Peifang Guo; Prabir Bhattacharya

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Surface structural analysis of LiF(100) thin films grown on Pt(111)  

SciTech Connect

The surface structure of a multilayer LiF(100) thin film grown on Pt(111) from the vapor has been determined by the automated tensor low energy electron diffraction (LEED) method. The final structure, which refined to a Pendry R-factor (RP) of 0.24, had a surface corrugation (D1) of 0.24+-0.04 Angstrom due to the Li+ being displaced towards the bulk, leaving the initially coplanar F - unshifted. A similar intralayer corrugation due to the movement of the Li+ was also observed in the layer immediately under the surface layer, although to a lesser degree: D2=0.07+-0.04 Angstrom. This asymmetric relaxation resulted in the reduction of the first interlayer spacing, d(F2-Li1), to 1.77+-0.0 6 Angstrom from the ideal value of 2.01 Angstrom. The second interlayer spacing, d(Li3-F2), was within error bars of the bulk value, 2.01 Angstrom.

Roberts, J.G.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

187

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

188

A picosecond electron gun for surface analysis M. Aeschlimann,a) E. Hull, J. Cao,b) C. A. Schmuttenmaer, L. G. Jahn,@ Y. Gao,b)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A picosecond electron gun for surface analysis M. Aeschlimann,a) E. Hull, J. Cao,b) C. A investigations for a new design of an ultrashort pulsed laser activated electron gun for time resolved surface gun, in spite of an unusually long focal length and a small convergence angle of the pulsed electron

Cao, Jianming

189

Surface Localization Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi Lipoproteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these virulence factors reach the spirochetal surface. We observed in previous studies that monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) lipopeptides could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy...

Kumru, Ozan

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds  

SciTech Connect

Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups.

Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Theoretical Analysis of the Adsorption of Late Transition Metal Atoms on the (001) Surface of Early Transition Metal Carbides  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of atoms of Groups 9, 10, and 11 with the (001) surface of TiC, ZrC, VC, and {delta}-MoC has been studied by means of periodic density functional calculations using slab models. The calculated values of the adsorption energy are rather large, especially for Groups 9 and 10 elements (E{sub ads} = 3-6 eV), but without clear trends along the series. Nevertheless, the analysis of the interaction at different sites indicates that the adsorbed atoms will be relatively mobile. Many of the admetals are electronically perturbed upon interaction with the carbide surfaces. Co, Ni, Cu, and Rh adatoms get positively or negatively charged, depending on the nature of the carbide substrate. Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au adatoms are always negatively charged. An analysis of the Bader charges for the most stable sites provides strong evidence that the most negative charge on the adatoms corresponds to the interaction with ZrC, followed by TiC. In the case of VC and {delta}-MoC, the charge on the adsorbed atoms may be slightly positive and of the same order for both carbides. The effect of the underlying carbide is large, with ZrC and TiC being predicted as the supports with the largest effect on the electronic structure of the adsorbed atoms with direct implications for the use of these systems in catalysis.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Gómez, T.; Florez, E.; Illas, F.

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

Full-wave analysis of superconducting microstrip lines on anisotropic substrates using equivalent surface impedance approach  

SciTech Connect

A computationally efficient full-wave technique is developed to analyze single and coupled superconducting microstrip lines on anisotropic substrates. The optic axis of the dielectric is in the plane of the substrate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the propagation direction. A dyadic Green's function for layered, anisotropic media is used to formulate an integral equation for the current in the strips. To increase the efficiency of the method, the superconducting strips are replaced by equivalent surface impedances which account for the loss and kinetic inductance of the superconductors. The validity of this equivalent surface impedance (ESI) approach is verified by comparing the calculated complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance for superconducting microstrip lines on an isotropic substrate to measured results, and to numerical results by the more rigorous volume-integral equation method. The results calculated using the ESI approach for perfectly conducting coupled lines on an anisotropic substrate agree with the results by the finite-difference time-domain method. This efficient ESI technique is then used to study the effects of the optic axis orientation and the strip width on the characteristics of single and coupled superconducting microstrip lines on M-plane sapphire. The effects of the line separation and operating temperature on the coupled lines are also investigated.

Lee, L.H.; Lyons, W.G.; Orlando, T.P.; Ali, S.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science); Lyons, W.G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.); Withers, R.S. (Conductus, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information.

Elvado Environmental LLC

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Numerical analysis of binary solid-liquid phase change with buoyancy and surface tension driven convection  

SciTech Connect

The effects of thermo/diffusocapillary convection on the solidification of aqueous NH{sub 4}Cl in a rectangular cavity have been simulated numerically using a newly developed continuum model. Diffusocapillary convection is negligible relative to thermocapillary convection, and for a 20 {times} 20 mm cavity in a one-gravity environment, thermocapillary effects are most pronounced during the early stages of solidification, when flow conditions are characterized by three major cells. One cell, driven by solutal buoyancy forces, extends from the mush region to the melt and separates top and bottom melt region cells driven primarily by surface tension and buoyancy forces, respectively. With increasing time, however, the top cell strengthens and eventually envelops the entire melt. In terms of the strength of the flow, the liquidus front morphology, and the amount of solid formed, final conditions differ only slightly from those predicted for pure thermal/solutal convection.

Incropera, F.P.; Engel, A.H.H. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Heat Transfer Lab.); Bennon, W.D. (Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

3D-FRET Microscopy 0 This un-edited manuscript has been accepted for publication in Biophysical Journal and is freely  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3D-FRET Microscopy 0 This un-edited manuscript has been accepted for publication in Biophysical of the paper may be found at http://www.biophysj.org. 3D-FRET Reconstruction Microscopy for Analysis of Dynamic.1529/biophysj.107.125385 Copyright 2008 by The Biophysical Society. #12;3D-FRET Microscopy 1 Abstract Analysis

Kirschner, Denise

197

Quantitative determination of local potential values in inhomogeneously doped semiconductors by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Local potential changes arising from nanoscale three-dimensional spatial fluctuations in the dopant distribution in Zn-doped GaAs were investigated quantitatively by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy at (110) cleavage surfaces. Tunneling spectra measured in areas with different local doping concentration show apparent shifts of the valence band edge and apparent changes of the band gap. A quantitative analysis, combined with band bending and tunnel current simulations, demonstrates that these effects arise from tip-induced band bending that modulates the real potential changes. It is illustrated how exact potential changes between locally high and low doped areas can be determined. It is found that the local potential fluctuations in three-dimensionally doped semiconductors are approximately one order of magnitude smaller that those observed in two-dimensionally doped semiconductors.

P. H. Weidlich, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, and Ph. Ebert

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate. This paper will present the analysis and numerical simulation results for two nonlinear control design examples that include: (1) the One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) system with a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and (2) the swing equation for a wind turbine connected to an infinite bus through a UPFC to determine the required performance of the UPFC to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine subject to stochastic inputs while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The energy storage requirements will also be identified from the UPFC and/or FACTS devices while working in combination with the wind turbine.

Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Analysis Of Post-Wet-Chemistry Heat Treatment Effects On Nb SRF Surface Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Most of the current research in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is focused on ways to reduce the construction and operating cost of SRF-based accelerators as well as on the development of new or improved cavity processing techniques. The increase in quality factors is the result of the reduction of the surface resistance of the materials. A recent test on a 1.5 GHz single cell cavity made from ingot niobium of medium purity and heat treated at 1400 deg C in a ultra-high vacuum induction furnace resulted in a residual resistance of ~ 1n{Omega} and a quality factor at 2.0 K increasing with field up to ~ 5×10{sup 10} at a peak magnetic field of 90 mT. In this contribution, we present some results on the investigation of the origin of the extended Q{sub 0}-increase, obtained by multiple HF rinses, oxypolishing and heat treatment of ?all Nb? cavities.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Studies on dual fuel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis by response surface methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this present study a five factor three level Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study the effect of five independent variables such as diesel (40%–100%) ethanol (0%-30%) pongamia oil methyl ester (POME) (0%–30%) compressed natural gas (CNG) (0%–20%) and load of the engine (0%–100%) on the performance (brake thermal efficiency brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature) and emission characteristics (carbon mono-oxide (CO) carbon dioxides (CO2) unburnt hydrocarbon oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and smoke) of a single cylinder four stroke water cooled diesel engine converted to dual fuel system. It was operated with either diesel fuel or blend with CNG using an electronically controlled solenoid actuated valve mechanism. The experimental results showed that all the process variables have significant effect on the engine performance. The emission characteristics (CO CO2 NOX and Smoke) were significantly lower than the diesel fuel emissions. From the experimental results second order polynomial models were developed to predict the response variables. The optimal conditions were determined and it was found to be: Diesel 70% Ethanol 15% POME 15% CNG 10% and load 50% respectively with a desirability value of 0.894.

R. Senthilraja; V. Sivakumar; J. Prakash Maran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Theoretical study of hydrogen-covered diamond (100) surfaces: A chemical-potential analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bare and hydrogen-covered diamond (100) surfaces were investigated through pseudopotential density-functional calculations within the local-density approximation. Different hydrogen coverages, ranging from one to two, were considered. These corresponded to different structures (1×1, 2×1, and 3×1) and different hydrogen-carbon arrangements (monohydride, dihydride, and configurations in between). Assuming the system was in equilibrium with a hydrogen reservoir, the formation energy of each phase was expressed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. As the chemical potential increased, the stable phase successively changed from bare 2×1 to (2×1):H, to (3×1):1.33H, and finally to the canted (1×1):2H. Setting the chemical potential at the energy per hydrogen in H2 and in a free atom gave the (3×1):1.33H and the canted (1×1):2H phase as the most stable one, respectively. However, after comparing with the formation energy of CH4, only the (2×1):H and (3×1):1.33H phases were stable against spontaneous formation of CH4. The former existed over a chemical potential range ten times wider than the latter, which may explain why the latter, despite having a low energy, has not been observed so far. Finally, the vibrational energies of the C-H stretch mode were calculated for the (2×1):H phase.

Suklyun Hong and M. Y. Chou

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Systematic analysis of Persson's contact mechanics theory of randomly rough elastic surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We systematically check explicit and implicit assumptions of Persson's contact mechanics theory. It casts the evolution of the pressure distribution ${\\rm Pr}(p)$ with increasing resolution of surface roughness as a diffusive process, in which resolution plays the role of time. The tested key assumptions of the theory are: (a) the diffusion coefficient is independent of pressure $p$, (b) the diffusion process is drift-free at any value of $p$, (c) the point $p=0$ acts as an absorbing barrier, i.e., once a point falls out of contact, it never reenters again, (d) the Fourier component of the elastic energy is only populated if the appropriate wave vector is resolved, and (e) it no longer changes when even smaller wavelengths are resolved. Using high-resolution numerical simulations, we quantify deviations from these approximations and find quite significant discrepancies in some cases. For example, the drift becomes substantial for small values of $p$, which typically represent points in real space close to a contact line. On the other hand, there is a significant flux of points reentering contact. These and other identified deviations cancel each other to a large degree, resulting in an overall excellent description for contact area, contact geometry, and gap distribution functions. Similar fortuitous error cancellations cannot be guaranteed under different circumstances, for instance when investigating rubber friction. The results of the simulations may provide guidelines for a systematic improvement of the theory.

Wolf B. Dapp; Nikolay Prodanov; Martin H. Müser

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Response Surface Analysis of Elemental Composition and Energy Properties of Corn Stover During Torrefaction  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the effects of torrefaction temperature (250-250 C) and time (30-120 minutes) on elemental composition and energy properties changes in corn stover. Torrefied material was analyzed for moisture content, moisture-free carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%), sulfur (%), and higher heating value (MJ/kg). Results at 350 C and 120 minutes indicated a steep decrease in moisture content to a final value of about 1.48% - a reduction of about 69%. With respect to carbon content, the increase was about 23%, while hydrogen and sulfur content decreased by about 46.82% and 66.6%, respectively. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreased as torrefaction temperature and time increased, with the lowest value of 0.6 observed at 350 C and 120 minutes. Higher heating value measured at 350 C and 60 minutes increased by about 22% and the maximum degree of carbonization observed was about 1.21. Further, the regression models developed for chemical composition in terms of torrefaction temperature and time adequately described the process with coefficient of determination values (R2) in the range of 0.92-0.99 for the elemental composition and energy properties studied. Response surface plots indicated that increasing both torrefaction temperature and time resulted in decreased moisture content, hydrogen content, and the hydrogen to-carbon ratio, and increased carbon content and higher heating value. This effect was more significant at torrefaction temperatures and times >280 C and >30 minutes.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard D. Boardman; Christopher T. Wright

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Using EOF Analysis to Identify Important Surface Wind Patterns in Mountain Valleys  

SciTech Connect

Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) have been determined for three wind data sets from stations in valleys south of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Two of the data sets were for summer months, with individual days selected from the MesoWest archive to represent conditions conducive to well-developed thermally driven flows. The remaining data set was for the month of October 2000 and was derived from a combination of MesoWest data and data collected during intensive observation periods of the Vertical Transport and Mixing eXperiment (VTMX) conducted in the Salt Lake area in October 2000. This experiment investigated stable atmospheric conditions in the complex urban terrain around Salt Lake City, Utah. In all three data sets, the primary EOFs represented flows that were directed predominantly along valley axes and were caused by channeled or thermally driven flow. Diurnal variations in EOF intensity showed that thermal effects were the most common causal mechanism. These along-valley EOFs accounted for 43 to 58 percent of the variance in the wind component data sets (8 or 10 stations each). The second EOFs accounted for 13 to 18 percent of the variance. In the summer data sets, the second EOF appeared to represent day-night transition periods; there was evidence of side canyon flows and day-night transitional effects in the October data set. The EOF approach has promise for classifying wind patterns and selecting cases for simulation or for further detailed analysis.

Ludwig, F. L.; Horel, John D.; Whiteman, Charles D.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electron Microscopy | Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Facility Electron Microscopy Facility Electron Microscopy This facility consists of four top-of-the line transmission electron microscopes, two of which are highly specialized instruments capable of extreme levels of resolution, achieved through spherical aberration correction. The facility is also equipped with extensive sample-preparation capabilities. The scientific interests of the staff focus on understanding the microscopic origin of the physical and chemical behavior of materials, with specific emphasis on in-situ studies of materials in native, functional environments. Capabilities Atomic-resolution imaging of internal materials structure with scanning transmission and transmission electron microscopy Spectroscopic characterization with energy dispersive x-ray

206

Microscopy charges ahead | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microscopy charges ahead By Jared Sagoff * May 28, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Ferroelectric materials - substances in which there is a slight and reversible shift of...

207

Surface microstructure and in vitro analysis of nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Magnesium (Mg) alloys, owing to their biodegradability and good mechanical properties, have potential applications as biodegradable orthopedic implants. However, several poor properties including low corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility have prevented their clinical application, as these properties may result in the sudden failure of the implants during the bone healing. In this research, nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) powder was coated on the AZ91 Mg alloy through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) assisted micro arc oxidation (MAO) method to modify the properties of the alloy. The surface microstructure of coating, corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the samples were characterized with different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, compression test and cell culture test. The results showed that the nanostructured akermanite coating can improve the corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the biodegradable Mg alloy making it a promising material to be used as biodegradable bone implants for orthopedic applications.

Mehdi Razavi; Mohammadhossein Fathi; Omid Savabi; Batoul Hashemi Beni; Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2010) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

Elvado Environmental LLC

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2011) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

Elvado Environmental LLC

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect

This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2012 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding a data summary table presented in Section 4) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2012) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

Elvado Environmental, LLC

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Synthesis and structure of Al clusters supported on TiO2,,110...: A scanning tunneling microscopy study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and structure of Al clusters supported on TiO2,,110...: A scanning tunneling microscopy, Texas 77843-3255 Received 14 October 1997; accepted 6 April 1998 Al clusters supported on TiO2(110) have been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy. Al interacts strongly with the TiO2(110) surface

Goodman, Wayne

212

High-resolution analysis with novel cell-surface markers identifies routes to iPS cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 10?days after cell sorting. All flow cytometry data were analysed using FlowJo (Tree Star). Immunofluorescence was carried out using confocal microscopy (Leica TSC SP2). RNA from ... fluorophore are summarized in Supplementary Table 9. Data were analysed using FlowJo software (Tree Star). Intact cells were identified based on forward and side light scatter, and subsequently ...

James O’Malley; Stavroula Skylaki; Kumiko A. Iwabuchi; Eleni Chantzoura; Tyson Ruetz; Anna Johnsson; Simon R. Tomlinson; Sten Linnarsson; Keisuke Kaji

2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/20/2010 Published on Web: 11/16/2010 FIGURE 1. Illustration of the nonlinear dark-field imaging method. Two incidentNonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan, Stefano Palomba, Jan Renger, Romain Quidant Dark-field microscopy is a background-free imaging method that provides high sensitivity and a large

Novotny, Lukas

214

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes Teri Wang Odom1 , Jason H. Hafner1 relationship between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) atomic structure and electronic properties, (2, properties and application of carbon nanotube probe microscopy tips to ultrahigh resolution and chemically

Odom, Teri W.

215

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in electron microscopy of materials within its Institute of Materials. We seek exceptional individuals who community. Top-level applications are invited from candidates at the cutting edge of electron microscopic

Candea, George

216

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast agents Siavash Yazdanfar,a, * Chulmin Joo,a Chun limited to the visible spectrum. We introduce a paradigm for MPM of near-infrared NIR fluorescent Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3420209 Keywords: two-photon microscopy; ultrafast fiber lasers; near-infrared

Larson-Prior, Linda

217

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specimen Preparation Specimen Preparation Preparation of samples with large transparent areas and flat surfaces is a key element of electron microscopy. In particular, the interpretation of lattice or holographic images is often limited by the sample's geometry and surface roughness. These parameters are largely determined by a particular sample preparation procedure. The increasing demand for microscopes with a spatial resolution of better than 1Ã… increases the need for improved sample preparation techniques. A substantial effort at NCEM is devoted to the development of reliable and specialized thinning techniques. Current programs explore the application of chemicals to shape the surfaces of thin films, the use of nanospheres for observation of small particles, and the

218

Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

219

The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of electrostatic interactions between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential (SP) of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (AM-KPFM). We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

Joseph L. Garrett; David Somers; Jeremy N. Munday

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

220

Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass L. Tetard a,b , A. Passian a,b,n , R.H. Farahi a , U.C. Kalluri c , B.H. Davison c , T. Thundat a,b a Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Atomic force microscopy Spectroscopy Plant cells Biomass Nanomechanics a b s t r a c t Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fast scanning two-photon microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast scanning two-photon microscopy coupled with the use light activated ion channels provides the basis for fast imaging and stimulation in the characterization of in vivo neural networks. A two-photon microscope capable ...

Chang, Jeremy T

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

Srinivasarao, Mohan

223

Subwavelength optical microscopy in the far field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a procedure for subwavelength optical microscopy. The identical atoms are distributed on a plane and shined with a standing wave. We rotate the plane to different angles and record the resonant fluorescence spectra in the far field, from...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report  

SciTech Connect

A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conducted so as to characterize atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic (pollution) and natural (sea saltAtomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles ZAHAVA BARKAY,1 * AMIT 69978, Israel KEY WORDS atmospheric aerosols; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron microscopy

Shapira, Yoram

226

Investigation of white etching layers on rails by optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray and synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Patches of white etching layers on rail surfaces were investigated using sophisticated techniques like cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and synchroton X-ray diffraction. Optical microscopy failed to resolve the microstructure, but in the TEM submicron grains with high dislocation densities and occasional twins, which are characteristic features of high carbon martensite, were observed. The martensitic structure was confirmed by evaluation of synchroton X-ray diffraction line profiles. The latter technique also allowed to determine dislocation densities of the order of 1012 cm?2 and residual compressive stresses of about 200 MPa.

W. Österle; H. Rooch; A. Pyzalla; L. Wang

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the Eu-induced Ge(111)-(3×2)?(3×4) reconstruction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Eu-induced (3×2) reconstruction of the Ge(111) surface has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The empty-state STM images show the chainlike atomic structure that is similar to those of the metal-induced Si(111)-(3×2) surfaces with an adsorbate coverage of 1?6 monolayer (ML). The filled-state STM images combined with the empty-state images at the low bias voltage reveal that the Ge arrangement of Eu?Ge(111)-(3×2) can be well interpreted in terms of the honeycomb chain-channel (HCC) model with the characteristic Ge?Ge double bond and slightly modified Ge honeycomb chains which are similar to those of the 1?6-ML HCC structure of Si(111)-(3×2). In addition, the Eu?Ge(111)-(3×2) surface is found to have a local ×4 periodicity along Eu chains, which can be explained, based on the analysis of STM line profiles, with two nonequivalent adsorption sites occupied by the Eu atoms in the empty channels of the HCC structure. The structural modifications of the Ge honeycomb chains as well as the origin of the ×2 and ×4 chains of Eu atoms in the HCC structure on the Eu?Ge(111) surface are discussed.

M. Kuzmin; P. Laukkanen; R. E. Perälä; I. J. Väyrynen

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

228

In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

229

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

230

Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

231

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

232

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Title Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Xun, Shidi, Xiangyun Song, Michael E. Grass, Daniel K. Roseguo, Z. Liu, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Gao Li Journal Electrochemical Solid-State Letters Volume 14 Start Page A61 Issue 5 Pagination A61-A63 Date Published 02/2001 Keywords Electrochemistry, elemental semiconductors, etching, lithium, nanoparticles, secondary cells, silicon, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra Abstract This study characterizes the native oxide layer of Si nanoparticles and evaluates its effect on their performance for Li-ion batteries. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to identify the chemical state and morphology of the native oxide layer. Elemental and thermogravimetric analysis were used to estimate the oxide content for the Si samples. Hydrofluoric acid was used to reduce the oxide layer. A correlation between etching time and oxide content was established. The initial electrochemical performances indicate that the reversible capacity of etched Si nanoparticles was enhanced significantly compared with that of the as-received Si sample.

233

Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and transport measurements on adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron systems  

SciTech Connect

We have performed not only magnetotransport measurements on two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) formed at the cleaved surfaces of p-InAs but also observations of the surface morphology of the adsorbate atoms, which induced the 2DES at the surfaces of narrow band-gap semiconductors, with use of a scanning tunneling microscopy. The electron density of the 2DESs is compared to the atomic density of the isolated Ag adatoms on InAs surfaces.

Masutomi, Ryuichi; Triyama, Naotaka; Okamoto, Tohru [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

234

Environmental cell assembly for use in for use in spectroscopy and microscopy applications  

SciTech Connect

An environmental cell assembly for use in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, including: an environmentally sealed body assembly configured to selectively hold and contain a sample; a plurality of ports manufactured into one or more surfaces of the body assembly for one or more of evacuating the body assembly and injecting a gas into or removing a gas from the body assembly; a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving a translating stage configured to move the sample within the body assembly; and a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving one or more lenses utilized in a microscopy or spectroscopy application; wherein the one or more lenses are disposed adjacent the sample without intervening structures disposed there between. The cell assembly also includes a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for retaining a window and providing visualization of the sample.

Stowe, Ashley Clinton; Smyrl, Norman; Hallman, Jr., Russell L.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ion-induced electron emission microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vizkelethy, Gyorgy (Albuquerque, NM); Weller, Robert A. (Brentwood, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy*/an impedance based imaging technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy*/an impedance based imaging technique Steffi Krause a technique, scanning photo-induced impedance micro- scopy (SPIM), suitable for the imaging of the complex Photoelectrochemistry has been used widely to study photo-thermally induced current changes at metal surfaces

Moritz, Werner

237

Development of novel two-photon microscopy for living brain and neuron  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......novel two-photon microscopy for living brain and neuron Tomomi Nemoto 1 2 3 To whom...vital information on neural activity for brain function, even in light of its limitation...a several hundred micrometers from the brain surface. To break the limit of this penetration......

Tomomi Nemoto

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Examination of the cu/si(111) 5×5 structure by scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The incommensurate 5×5 Cu/Si(111) structure has been examined by scanning tunneling microscopy. Images show that the surface structure is not well described as a hexagonal copper layer modulated at the Si(111) periodicity. Rather, the surface breaks up into 5×5 subunits which pack at spacings varying from 5 to 7 lattice constants, implying that substrate-adsorbate interactions dominate lateral interactions within the Cu adlayer.

R. J. Wilson; S. Chiang; F. Salvan

1988-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Investigations into Protein-Surface Interactions via Atomic Force Microscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.7.1. Fibrinogen 126 2.7.2. ATPase 127 2.7.2.1. Recombinant ATPase Preparation 127 2.7.2.2. Modifications to F1-ATPase 128 2.7.2.3. Protocol for Buffers and Dilutions 129 2.8. Summary 133 2.9. References 134 CHAPTER THREE: Fibrinogen Adsorption... Adsorption to a) Mica and b) Graphite with 1.0 nm height scale. 164 Figure 3.5: AFM height images (a & c 2.00 ?m x 2.00 ?m or b & d 1.00 ?m x 1.00 ?m) of 0.1 ?g/mL Fibrinogen Adsorption to Graphite with 5.0 nm height scales at pH 7 buffer (a-b) and p...

Settle, Jenifer Kaye

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM by Kris Anne Battleson on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................17 Atomic Force Microscopy on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................21 Numerical Methods...........................................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method and apparatus for the remote detection, recognition, and quantitative analysis of oil spills on a sea surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many years of research in oil films and background formations on a sea surface, using IR apparatus for remote probing, have made it possible to establish a method for round-the-clock...

Mel’nikov, G S; Samkov, V M; Tovbin, B S; Derin, O A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The wavelet analysis of satellite sea surface temperature in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using wavelet transform, the sea surface temperature (SST) during the period of 1982–1999 of the South China Sea and the equatorial Pacific, from datasets of NOAA/AVHRR, was analyzed. It is shown that there ar...

Jiwei Tian; Jinshan Xu; Enbo Wei

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

Browning, R. [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)] [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developed in the Brain Networks Laboratory at Texas A&M University, has been used for the purpose of this study. However, the modes of characterizing chatter and its measurement are equally applicable to all current variants of 3D biological microscopy using...

Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developed in the Brain Networks Laboratory at Texas A&M University, has been used for the purpose of this study. However, the modes of characterizing chatter and its measurement are equally applicable to all current variants of 3D biological microscopy using...

Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Vibrational Analysis of Brucite Surfaces and the Development of an Improved Force Field for Molecular Simulation of Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce a nonbonded three-body harmonic potential energy term for Mg–O–H interactions for improved edge surface stability in molecular simulations. The new potential term is compatible with the Clayff force field and is applied here to brucite, a ...

Todd R. Zeitler; Jeffery A. Greathouse; Julian D. Gale; Randall T. Cygan

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

248

Two-dimensional analysis of the effect of subsurface anomalies on the free surface response to incident SH-waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the ground surface response. This earlier study...ships between the response and the structure...than the time for energy to propagate across...computer time and storage, one major advantage...the power spectral response when an anomaly...is dimensionless frequency: (depth of anomaly......

Joel M. Crichlow; David Beckles; William P. Aspinall

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Quantitative analysis of the influence of dust sea surface forcing on the primary production of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] Dust aerosols that are not deposited over oceans are able to significantly reduce the solar energy in the atmospheric layer could also contribute to reduce the solar energy reach- ing the sea surface thus leading tendency (0.22% per year) is found near Africa in summer. Thus, dust aerosol events might induce a major

Antoine, David

250

Laser Ablation Sampling of Materials Directly into the Formed Liquid Microjunction of a Continuous Flow Surface Sampling Probe/Electrospray Ionization Emitter for Mass Spectral Analysis and Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Transmission geometry laser ablation directly into a formed liquid microjunction of a continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe/electrospray ionization emitter was utilized for molecular and elemental detection and mass spectrometry imaging. The ability to efficiently capture and ionize ablated material was demonstrated by the detection of various small soluble n-mers of polyaniline and silver ion solvent clusters formed from laser ablation of electropolymerized polyaniline and silver thin films, respectively. In addition, analysis of surfaces that contain soluble components was accomplished by coating or laminating the sample with an insoluble film to enable liquid junction formation without directly extracting material from the surface. The ability to perform mass spectrometry imaging at a spatial resolution of about 50 m was illustrated by using laminated inked patterns on a microscope slide. In general, these data demonstrate at least an order of magnitude signal enhancement compared to the non-contact, laser ablation droplet capture-based surface sampling/ionization approaches that have been previously presented.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL] [ORNL; Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL] [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL] [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Chapter 4 The use of satellite surface wind data to improve weather analysis and forecasting at the NASA Data Assimilation Office  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One important application of satellite surface wind observations is to improve the accuracy of weather analyses and forecasts. The first satellite to measure surface wind over the ocean was SeaSat in 1978. The initial impact of satellite surface wind data on weather analysis and forecasting was very small, but extensive research has been conducted since SeaSat to improve data accuracy and utilization of these data in atmospheric models. Satellite surface wind data are now used to detect intense storms over the ocean as well as to improve the overall representation of the wind field in numerical weather prediction models. Satellite wind data contribute to improved warnings for ships at sea and to more accurate global weather forecasts. Experiments with the Goddard Earth Observing System atmospheric general circulation model and data assimilation system indicate that the impact of satellite wind data measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scatterometer was approximately twice as large as the impact of Special Sensor Microwave Imager or European Remote-sensing Satellite wind data. Locations of cyclones over the ocean were up to 500 km more accurate, and the useful forecast skill in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics was extended by 24 hours.

R. Atlas; R.N. Hoffman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CM 200 FEG CM 200 FEG AEME The Philips CM200/FEG is a versatile instrument that is designed for analysis of the physical, chemical and magnetic microstructure at high spatial resolution. In addition to high resolution imaging capability, the machine is optimized for analytical electron microscopy and Lorentz imaging, under normal as well as dynamic conditions of variable temperature (77K - 1250K) and applied magnetic fields. Spatially resolved compositional analysis by X-ray emission spectroscopy (Z > 5), local electronic structure measurements by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (Z > 2), convergent beam electron diffraction for three-dimensional structure information, and energy-filtered imaging at the nanometer scale are some of the techniques available on this instrument. In addition, a TEM differential phase

253

Effect of the surface preparation techniques on the EBSD analysis of a friction stir welded AA1100-B{sub 4}C metal matrix composite  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum based metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been used in various automobile, aerospace and military industries. Yet characterization of the microstructure in these materials remains a challenge. In the present work, the grain structure in the matrix of B{sub 4}C particulate reinforced MMCs and their friction stir welds is characterized by using optical metallography and the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Optical metallography can partially reveal the grain structure in the matrix of AA1100-16 vol.% B{sub 4}C composite. The EBSD technique has been successfully applied to characterize the grain structure in the AA1100-16 vol.% B{sub 4}C friction stir welds, which provides a powerful tool to follow the microstructural evolution of MMC materials during friction stir welding (FSW). Both mechanical polishing and ion beam polishing are used for the EBSD sample preparation. The effect of the sample preparation on the EBSD data acquisition quality is studied. Some typical examples, such as the identification of grains and subgrains, grain size distribution, deformation fields and the texture components are given. - Highlights: {yields} EBSD has been used to characterize the grain structure of Al-B{sub 4}C MMCs. {yields} Mechanical and ion beam polishing are compared for EBSD sample preparation of MMCs. {yields} EBSD shows great advantages over optical microscopy for microtexture analysis of MMCs.

Guo, J., E-mail: junfeng.guo@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi (QC), G7H 2B1 (Canada); Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Chicoutimi (QC), G7H 8C3 (Canada); Amira, S.; Gougeon, P. [Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Chicoutimi (QC), G7H 8C3 (Canada); Chen, X.-G. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi (QC), G7H 2B1 (Canada)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPLEEM SPLEEM Publications Imaging Spin Reorientation Transitions in Consecutive Atomic Co layers, Farid El Gabaly, Silvia Gallego, M. Carmen Munoz, Laszlo Szunyogh, Peter Weinberger, Kevin F. McCarty, Christof Klein, Andreas K. Schmid, Juan de la Figuera, submitted Direct imaging of spin-reorientation transitions in ultra-thin Ni films by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy, C. Klein, A. K. Schmid, R. Ramchal, and M. Farle, submitted Controlling the kinetic order of spin-reorientation transitions in Ni/Cu(100) films by tuning the substrate step-structure, C. Klein, R. Ramchal, A.K. Schmid, M. Farle, submitted Self-organization and magnetic domain microstructure of Fe nanowire arrays, N. Rougemaille and A.K. Schmid, submitted Self-Assembled Nanofold Network Formation on Layered Crystal Surfaces

255

Advanced Photon Source | Combining Scanning Probe Microscopy and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS APS SXSPM News Researchers from NSLS-II visit SXSPM team at Argonne (November 27, 2013) Cummings presents invited talk at magnetism meeting (November 11, 2013) Invited talk at ACSIN-12 & ICSPM21 in Japan (November 11, 2013) Nanoscience Seminar presented at Tokyo University (November 01, 2013) Scientists study old photos for new solutions to corrosion (October 21, 2013) More News Featured Image Recent Publications Kangkang Wang, Daniel Rosenmann, Martin Holt, Robert Winarski, Saw-Wai Hla, and Volker Rose, "An easy-to-implement filter for separating photo-excited signals from topography in scanning tunneling microscopy", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 063704 (2013). More SXSPM Publications Upcoming Presentations V. Rose, 41st Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces (PCSI-41) (Invited Speaker)

256

Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

Youvan, Douglas C. (San Jose, CA); Silva, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Bylina, Edward J. (San Jose, CA); Coleman, William J. (Moutain View, CA); Dilworth, Michael R. (Santa Cruz, CA); Yang, Mary M. (San Jose, CA)

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloys surface enhanced Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

piston alloys at elevated temperature Summary: C. Optical microscopy of sectioned fracture surfaces for alloy A indicated that at low values of DK... and illustrates how the...

259

Dynamical analysis of a weakly coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide: Surface-plasmon model as another type of Josephson junction  

SciTech Connect

We propose that a weakly coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide surface-plasmon system can be formulated as another type of Josephson junction. Such a system can be realized along a metal-dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g., fiber) for soliton propagation. We demonstrate that the system is in close analogy to the bosonic Josephson junction of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet exhibits different dynamical features. In particular, the inherently dynamic coupling parameter between soliton and surface plasmon generates self-trapped oscillatory states at nonzero fractional populations with zero and {pi} time-averaged phase difference. The salient features of the dynamics are presented in the phase space.

Eksioglu, Yasa; Muestecaplioglu, Oezguer E.; Gueven, Kaan [Department of Physics, Koc University, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dynamical analysis of a weakly coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon model as a new type of Josephson Junction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose that a weakly-coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide -- surface-plasmon system can be formulated as a new type of Josephson junction. Such a system can be realized along a metal - dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g. fiber) for soliton propagation. We demonstrate that the system is in close analogy to the bosonic Josephson-Junction (BJJ) of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet exhibits different dynamical features. In particular, the inherently dynamic coupling parameter between soliton and surface-plasmon generates self-trapped oscillatory states at nonzero fractional populations with zero and $\\pi$ time averaged phase difference. The salient features of the dynamics are presented in the phase space.

Ek?io?lu, Yasa; Güven, Kaan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface: Part I: Modelling stresses and strains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 ?m thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.

Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin; Simo Varjus; Jari Koskinen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Quantitative LEED analysis of the surface structure of a MgCl2thin film grown on Pd(111)  

SciTech Connect

An epitaxial, ultrathin single-crystal film (12 Angstrom) of MgCl[2] was deposited molecularly onto a Pd single crystal of (111) orientation at a crystal temperature of {approx}650 K. A detailed surface structure determination of this insulating film was performed by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). A low incident LEED beam current (0.36 mu A) was employed to minimize the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of Cl. The best-fit model for the observed hexagonal MgCl[2](1 x 1) pattern corresponds to the unreconstructed (0001) Cl-terminated plane of alpha-MgCl[2], whose stacking sequence is Cl-Mg-Cl-Cl-Mg-Cl..., with a Pendry R-factor of 0.317. Small relaxations of the surface were found as 0.03 +- 0.03, 0,003 +-0.04 and 0.04 +- 0.08 Angstrom expansions of the first three Mg-Cl interlayer spacings, respectively, and a 0.10 +- 0.06 A contraction of the first Cl-Cl interlayer spacing. These small deviations were probably driven by the loss of the van der Waals interaction at the termination plane, since surface structure data for transition-metal dichalcogenides, which have different intralayer bonding, but the same intertrilayer bonding, report a similar magnitude of interlayer spacing deviations as seen in MgCl[2].

Roberts, J.G.; Gierer, M.; Fairbrother, D.H.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Surface characterization and electronic structure of HgTe nanocrystalline thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury telluride (HgTe) nanocrystalline thin films were synthesized using an electrochemical deposition technique. The surface morphology of the thin films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a function of the film thickness which shows that an increase in film thickness increases the surface roughness. The scaling exponents such as roughness exponent, ? and growth exponent, ? associated with the film growth, determined from surface and power spectral analysis using AFM are found to be 0.88±0.05 and 0.21±0.04 respectively. The shifting of the valence and core levels to higher binding energy as evidenced from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggest the change in electronic structure of the nano-HgTe films possibly due to the surface roughness.

S. Rath, D. Paramanik, S. N. Sarangi, S. Varma, and S. N. Sahu

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

265

Imaging individual dopant atoms on cleavage surfaces of wurtzite-structure compound semiconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the identification of bulk-dopant atoms in (112¯0) and (101¯0) cleavage surfaces of wurtzite CdSe in atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images. The In dopant atoms give rise to elevations (hillocks) of up to 5 nm in diameter in the empty- and occupied-state images. This contrast is simulated and it shows that the dopant atoms are positively charged. Hillocks with different symmetries with respect to the underlying lattice are correlated with different subsurface locations of the In-dopant atoms. Dopant atoms can be observed up to a depth below the surface of 3 to 5 layers. A quantitative analysis of the concentration of dopant atoms in the bulk yield the same values for both surfaces and agrees well with the In content of the crystal. Similar features in CdS(101¯0) surfaces are also attributed to In-dopant atoms.

B. Siemens, C. Domke, M. Heinrich, Ph. Ebert, and K. Urban

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the atmosphere. TD-GC-MS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY A thermal desorption (TD) injection device (M. Ezrin, 1991. Valve Spindle 10. Carrier Gas Inlet 11. Inlet Assembly 12. Injection Port Insert PAH standard Solution, 1ppm, 1µL injection Alkanes Standard Solution, 0.1ppm, 1µL injection FUTURE EXPERIMENTS Verify PM

Holmén, Britt A.

267

Whole Slide Image Analysis Quantification using Aperio Digital Imaging in a Mouse Lung Metastasis Ronne L. Surface2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole Slide Image Analysis Quantification using Aperio Digital Imaging in a Mouse Lung Metastasis, Indiana University School of Medicine Digital whole slide imaging is the technique of digitizing a microscope slide at the highest resolution to produce a "digital virtual microscope slide". This digital

Zhou, Yaoqi

268

Theoretical Analysis of the Adsorption of Late Transition-Metal Atoms on the (001) Surface of Early Transition-Metal Carbides  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of atoms of Groups 9, 10, and 11 with the (001) surface of TiC, ZrC, VC, and {delta}-MoC has been studied by means of periodic density functional calculations using slab models. The calculated values of the adsorption energy are rather large, especially for Groups 9 and 10 elements (E{sub ads} = 3-6 eV), but without clear trends along the series. Nevertheless, the analysis of the interaction at different sites indicates that the adsorbed atoms will be relatively mobile. Many of the admetals are electronically perturbed upon interaction with the carbide surfaces. Co, Ni, Cu, and Rh adatoms get positively or negatively charged, depending on the nature of the carbide substrate. Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au adatoms are always negatively charged. An analysis of the Bader charges for the most stable sites provides strong evidence that the most negative charge on the adatoms corresponds to the interaction with ZrC, followed by TiC. In the case of VC and {delta}-MoC, the charge on the adsorbed atoms may be slightly positive and of the same order for both carbides. The effect of the underlying carbide is large, with ZrC and TiC being predicted as the supports with the largest effect on the electronic structure of the adsorbed atoms with direct implications for the use of these systems in catalysis.

Gomez, T.; Florez, E; Rodriguez, J; Illas, F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Crystal structure analysis reveals Pseudomonas PilY1 as an essential calcium-dependent regulator of bacterial surface motility  

SciTech Connect

Several bacterial pathogens require the 'twitching' motility produced by filamentous type IV pili (T4P) to establish and maintain human infections. Two cytoplasmic ATPases function as an oscillatory motor that powers twitching motility via cycles of pilus extension and retraction. The regulation of this motor, however, has remained a mystery. We present the 2.1 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus-biogenesis factor PilY1, and identify a single site on this protein required for bacterial translocation. The structure reveals a modified {beta}-propeller fold and a distinct EF-hand-like calcium-binding site conserved in pathogens with retractile T4P. We show that preventing calcium binding by PilY1 using either an exogenous calcium chelator or mutation of a single residue disrupts Pseudomonas twitching motility by eliminating surface pili. In contrast, placing a lysine in this site to mimic the charge of a bound calcium interferes with motility in the opposite manner - by producing an abundance of nonfunctional surface pili. Our data indicate that calcium binding and release by the unique loop identified in the PilY1 crystal structure controls the opposing forces of pilus extension and retraction. Thus, PilY1 is an essential, calcium-dependent regulator of bacterial twitching motility.

Orans, Jillian; Johnson, Michael D.L.; Coggan, Kimberly A.; Sperlazza, Justin R.; Heiniger, Ryan W.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.; Redinbo, Matthew R. (UNC)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Performance of a malaria microscopy image analysis slide reading device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate machine reading of malaria blood films would revolutionize malaria diagnosis and this study is an excellent examination of the state of this art.

William R Prescott; Robert G Jordan; Martin P Grobusch; Vernon M Chinchilli; Immo Kleinschmidt; Joseph Borovsky; Mark Plaskow; Miguel Torrez; Maximo Mico; Christopher Schwabe

2012-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Performance of a malaria microscopy image analysis slide reading device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Viewing Plasmodium in Romanovsky-stained blood has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis and a cornerstone in management of the disease. This method however, requires a subjective evaluation by ...

William R Prescott; Robert G Jordan; Martin P Grobusch…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology** By Zhong Lin Wang* 1. Electron Microscopy and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, as an international initiative for science manufacturing are the foundation of nanotechnology. Tracking the historical background of why nanotechnology

Wang, Zhong L.

273

Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

Zeskind, Benjamin J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

275

Hazard analysis of long term viewing of visible laser light off of fluorescent diffuse reflective surfaces (post-it).  

SciTech Connect

A laser hazard analysis is performed to evaluate if the use of fluorescent diffuse reflectors to view incident laser beams (Coherent Verdi 10W) present a hazard based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers. The use of fluorescent diffuse reflectors in the alignment process does not pose an increased hazard because of the fluorescence at a different wavelength than that of the incident laser.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

377 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS H. STRUNK Max'importance croissante du durcissement de la solution solide. Abstract. 2014 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM Abstracts 7j66 - 7 I' 1. Introduction. - It is only some years ago that transmission electron microscopy

Boyer, Edmond

277

Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy  

SciTech Connect

A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

In-situ spectro-microscopy on organic films: Mn-Phthalocyanine on Ag(100)  

SciTech Connect

Metal phthalocyanines are attracting significant attention, owing to their potential for applications in chemical sensors, solar cells and organic magnets. As the electronic properties of molecular films are determined by their crystallinity and molecular packing, the optimization of film quality is important for improving the performance of organic devices. Here, we present the results of in situ low-energy electron microscopy / photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) studies of incorporation-limited growth [1] of manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) on Ag(100) surfaces. MnPc thin films were grown on both, bulk Ag(100) surface and thin Ag(100)/Fe(100) films, where substrate spin-polarized electronic states can be modified through tuning the thickness of the Ag film [2]. We also discuss the electronic structure and magnetic ordering in MnPc thin films, investigated by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

Al-Mahboob A.; Vescovo, E.; Sadowski, J.T.

2013-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

280

Analytical electron microscopy examination of solid reaction products in long-term test of SRL 200 waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

Alteration phases, found on the leached surfaces and present as colloids in the leachates of 200-based frit (fully active and simulated) nuclear waste glass, reacted under static test conditions, at a surface area to leachate volume ratio of 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} for 15 days to 728 days, have been examined by analytical electron microscopy. The compositions of the secondary phases were determined using x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and structural analysis was accomplished by electron diffraction. Long-term samples of simulated glass, which had undergone an acceleration of reaction after 182 days, possessed a number of silicate secondary phases, including; smectite (iron silicate and potassium iron alumina-silicate, weeksite (uranium silicate), zeolite (calcium potassium alumino-silicate), tobermorite (calcium silicate), and a pure silica phase. However, uranium silicates and smectite have also been observed in tests, which have not undergone the acceleration of reaction, in both the leachate and leached layer, suggesting that these phases are not responsible for the acceleration of reaction.

Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Dietz, N.L.; Bradley, C.R.; Tani, B.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

282

Source Contribution Analysis of Surface Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Northeastern Asia by Source-receptor Relationships  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed the sourceereceptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40°N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.

Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-Ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Automated fit of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces using cluster analysis and interpolation over descriptors of chemical environment  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for fitting high-dimensional potential energy surfaces that is almost fully automated, can be applied to systems with various chemical compositions, and involves no particular choice of function form. We tested it on four systems: Ag{sub 20}, Sn{sub 6}Pb{sub 6}, Si{sub 10}, and Li{sub 8}. The cost for energy evaluation is smaller than the cost of a density functional theory (DFT) energy evaluation by a factor of 1500 for Li{sub 8}, and 60 000 for Ag{sub 20}. We achieved intermediate accuracy (errors of 0.4 to 0.8 eV on atomization energies, or, 1% to 3% on cohesive energies) with rather small datasets (between 240 and 1400 configurations). We demonstrate that this accuracy is sufficient to correctly screen the configurations with lowest DFT energy, making this function potentially very useful in a hybrid global optimization strategy. We show that, as expected, the accuracy of the function improves with an increase in the size of the fitting dataset.

Fournier, René, E-mail: renef@yorku.ca; Orel, Slava [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications  

SciTech Connect

Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

Ryon, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Warburton, W.K. [X-Ray Instrumentation Associates, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Integrated Surface Topography Characterization of Variously Polished Niobium for Superconducting Particle Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro-and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents flow. Interior surface chemical polishing (BCP/EP) to remove mechanical damage leaves surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely-used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is being used to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of EP is reported, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography.

Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, G. Ribeill

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Studies of heterogeneity properties of selected high-temperature superconductor surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen adsorption measured at 77 K was used to characterize the surface heterogeneity of high-temperature superconductor surfaces. Properties relating to adsorption and porosity ... microscopy (AFM) for a serie...

P. Staszczuk; D. Sternik; G. W. Ch?dzy?ski…

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

An evaluation of surface analytical techniques for the characterization of Si and SiO{sub 2} surfaces exposed to various cleaning methodologies  

SciTech Connect

A whole array of analytical techniques is required for the development of dry wafer cleaning technologies for semiconductor manufacturing. These techniques are needed to prove that the clean removes the contaminants of interest, that the processed surface is not roughened, and that the clean does not generate other residues that may remain on the semiconductor surface. The authors have evaluated a variety of surface analytical techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) [both contact and tapping mode]. A variety of surfaces have been examined. These include the standard RCA cleaned silicon surface, photoresist ashed surfaces, surfaces intentionally contaminated with iron, copper, nickel, and chromium to levels as high as one monolayer (>{congruent} 1x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2}), and surfaces exposed to a variety of vapor phase cleans. For the techniques used for trace metal analysis both upper and lower detection limits were important to this study. HIBS stands out from all of the other techniques examined due to its ability to provide quantitative data without the use of standards. The authors will discuss the type of information that can be obtained from each of these metals analysis techniques and how they complement each other. A comparison of three different TXRF instruments was made and will be discussed. AFM was used to address the requirement that cleans must not roughen the surface. The authors will discuss the use of root mean square, mean roughness, and power spectral density analysis of AFM data giving examples from the samples we examined.

Beck, S.E.; Young, K.M.; George, M.A. [AirProducts and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Combustion analysis of an equimolar mixture of methane and syngas in a surface-stabilized combustion burner for household appliances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The primary objective of this work is to study the combustion of an equimolar mixture of methane and syngas (CH4–SG) in a ceramic surface-stabilized combustion burner. We examine the effects of the fuel composition, the air-to-fuel ratio and the thermal input on the flame stability, the radiation efficiency and the pollutant emissions (CO and NOx). In this study, we evaluate a syngas with a high hydrogen content that is similar to those obtained by coal gasification (50–60% H2) using Sasol/Lurgi gasification technology and biomass gasification, for example. To determine the effect of the air-to-fuel ratio (?), the burner performance is analyzed at ? = 1.4 and ? = 1.1. Some studies have reported optimal operating conditions for ? = 1.4, whereas for hydrocarbons, the proximity to stoichiometric conditions at the ? = 1.1 air-to-fuel ratio produces the highest possible laminar burning velocity and flame temperature. The thermal inputs evaluated in this study correspond to three values (1.0, 1.8, and 2.5 kW) found in household appliances and for cooking appliances in particular. The results for this experimental burner design indicate that the macroscopic flame shape for an equimolar CH4–SG mixture is approximately the same as that for CH4. Moreover, the pollutant concentrations in the flue gas are generally below 85 ppm for CO and 15 ppm for NOx. However, the thermal input and the air-to-fuel ratio significantly affect the flame structure, the radiation efficiency and the pollutant emissions.

Carlos E. Arrieta; Andrés A. Amell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

3D Hydrodynamical Simulations of Surface Convection in Red Giant Stars. Impact on spectral line formation and abundance analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the impact of 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres of red giant stars at different metallicities on the formation of spectral lines of a number of ions and molecules. We carry out realistic 3D simulations of surface convection in red giant stars with varying stellar parameters. We use the simulations as time-dependent hydrodynamical model stellar atmospheres to compute atomic (Li, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe) and molecular (CH, NH, OH) spectral lines under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We compare the line strengths computed in 3D with the results of analogous line formation calculations for 1D, hydrostatic, plane-parallel MARCS model atmospheres in order to estimate the impact of 3D models on the derivation of elemental abundances. The temperature and density inhomogeneities and correlated velocities in 3D models, as well as the differences between the 1D and mean 3D structures significantly affect the predicted line strengths. Under the assumption of LTE, the low atmospheric temperatures of very metal-poor 3D model atmospheres cause the lines from neutral species and molecules to appear stronger than in 1D. Therefore, elemental abundances derived from these lines using 3D models are significantly lower than according to 1D analyses. Differences between 3D and 1D abundances of C, N, and O derived from CH, NH, and OH weak low-excitation lines are found to be in the range -0.5 dex to -1.0 dex for the the red giant stars at [Fe/H]=-3 considered here. At this metallicity, large negative corrections (about -0.8 dex) are also found for weak low-excitation Fe I lines. We caution, however, that departures from LTE might be significant for these and other elements and comparable to the effects due to stellar granulation.

Remo Collet; Martin Asplund; Regner Trampedach

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Atom chip microscopy: A novel probe for strongly correlated materials  

SciTech Connect

Improved measurements of strongly correlated systems will enable the predicative design of the next generation of supermaterials. In this program, we are harnessing recent advances in the quantum manipulation of ultracold atomic gases to expand our ability to probe these technologically important materials in heretofore unexplored regions of temperature, resolution, and sensitivity parameter space. We are working to demonstrate the use of atom chips to enable single-shot, large area detection of magnetic flux at the 10^-7 flux quantum level and below. By harnessing the extreme sensitivity of atomic clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to external perturbations, the cryogenic atom chip technology developed here will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques---such as scanning SQUIDs---by a factor of 10--1000. We are testing the utility of this technique by using rubidium BECs to image the magnetic fields emanating from charge transport and magnetic domain percolation in strongly correlated materials as they undergo temperature-tuned metal--to--insulator phase transitions. Cryogenic atom chip microscopy introduces three very important features to the toolbox of high-resolution, strongly correlated material microscopy: simultaneous detection of magnetic and electric fields (down to the sub-single electron charge level); no invasive large magnetic fields or gradients; simultaneous micro- and macroscopic spatial resolution; freedom from 1/f flicker noise at low frequencies; and, perhaps most importantly, the complete decoupling of probe and sample temperatures. The first of these features will play an important role in studying the interplay between magnetic and electric domain structure. The last two are crucial for low frequency magnetic noise detection in, e.g., the cuprate pseudogap region and for precision measurements of transport in the high temperature, technologically relevant regime inaccessible to other techniques based on superconducting scanning probes. In periods 1--3 of this grant, which we now close at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and restart at Stanford University where our new lab is being built, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly create Rb BECs and trap them within microns of a surface ina cryostat. Period 4 of this grant, to be performed at Stanford, will demonstrate the feasibility of using atom chips with a BEC to image transport features on a cryogenically cooled surface. Successful demonstration, in future funding cycles, will lead directly to the use of system for studies of transport in exotic and technologically relevant materials such as cuprate superconductors and topological insulators.

Lev, Benjamin L

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Magnetic spectroscopy and microscopy of functional materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

apparatus employed to expose UHV-clean surfaces for poly- orMn 0.6 Si ?lms fabricated by UHV sputtering [51]. However,In an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber with good base

Jenkins, C.A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sorption of cadmium on humic acid: Mechanistic and kinetic studies with atomic force microscopy and X-ray  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption of cadmium on humic acid: Mechanistic and kinetic studies with atomic force microscopy, Upton, New York 593-5000 USA. Liu, C., Frenkel, A. I., Vairavamurthy, A. and Huang, P. M. 2001. Sorption of Cd sorption by HAs, especially those pertaining to the surface features and structure of the Cd

Frenkel, Anatoly

294

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Staff  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Staff Staff Scientific Technical / Admin. Postdoctoral and Visitors Uli Dahmen, Head Jane Cavlina / Administrator Abhay Gautam Christian Kisielowski John Turner Helmut Poppa Andrew Minor ChengYu Song Frances Allen Andreas Schmid Marissa Libbee Tamara Radetic Peter Ercius Karen Bustillo Haimei Zheng Jim Ciston Alpha N'Diaye Colin Ophus Gong Chen Burak Ozdol Velimir Radmilovic Sara Kiani Hua Guo Christian Liebscher Josh Kacher Chris Nelson Xiuguang Jin Qian Yu Mary Scott Search the LBNL directory services page for other LBNL staff. Scientific Staff Uli Dahmen udahmen@lbl.gov (510) 486-4627 Ulrich Dahmen is Director of the National Center for Electron Microscopy. His current research interests include embedded nanostructures and interfaces in materials. Embedded nanostructures. Size- and shape-dependence of structural phase

295

Surface complexation and precipitate geometry for aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite I: X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

“Two-line” ferrihydrite samples precipitated and then exposed to a range of aqueous Zn solutions (10?5 to 10?3 M), and also coprecipitated in similar Zn solutions (pH 6.5), have been examined by Zn and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Typical Zn complexes on the surface have Zn-O distances of 1.97(.02) Å and coordination numbers of about 4.0(0.5), consistent with tetrahedral oxygen coordination. This contrasts with Zn-O distances of 2.11(.02) Å and coordination numbers of 6 to 7 in the aqueous Zn solutions used in sample preparation. X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) fits to the second shell of cation neighbors indicate as many as 4 Zn-Fe neighbors at 3.44(.04) Å in coprecipitated samples, and about two Zn-Fe neighbors at the same distance in adsorption samples. In both sets of samples, the fitted coordination number of second shell cations decreases as sorption density increases, indicating changes in the number and type of available complexing sites or the onset of competitive precipitation processes. Comparison of our results with the possible geometries for surface complexes and precipitates suggests that the Zn sorption complexes are inner sphere and at lowest adsorption densities are bidentate, sharing apical oxygens with adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra. Coprecipitation samples have complexes with similar geometry, but these are polydentate, sharing apices with more than two adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 polyhedra. The results are inconsistent with Zn entering the ferrihydrite structure (i.e., solid solution formation) or formation of other Zn-Fe precipitates. The fitted Zn-Fe coordination numbers drop with increasing Zn density with a minimum of about 0.8(.2) at Zn/(Zn + Fe) of 0.08 or more. This change appears to be attributable to the onset of precipitation of zinc hydroxide polymers with mainly tetrahedral Zn coordination. At the highest loadings studied, the nature of the complexes changes further, and a second type of precipitate forms. This has a structure based on a brucite layer topology, with mainly octahedral Zn coordination. Amorphous zinc hydroxide samples prepared for comparison had a closely similar local structure. Analysis of the Fe K-edge EXAFS is consistent with surface complexation reactions and surface precipitation at high Zn loadings with little or no Fe-Zn solid solution formation. The formation of Zn-containing precipitates at solution conditions two or more orders of magnitude below their solubility limit is compared with other sorption and spectroscopic studies that describe similar behavior.

G.A Waychunas; C.C Fuller; J.A Davis

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Investigation of wettability by NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation  

SciTech Connect

The wettability of reservoir rock has an important impact on the efficiency of oil recovery processes and the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir. One of the potentially useful tools for wettability measurements is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spin-lattice relaxation. More recently using NMR microscopy NIPER has developed the capability of imaging one- and two-phase fluid systems in reservoir rock at resolutions to 25 microns. Effects seen in the images of fluids within the pore space of rocks near the rock grain surfaces hinted at the possibility of using NMR microscopy to map the wettability variations at grain sites within the pore space. Investigations were begun using NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation time measurements on rock/fluid systems and on well-defined fractional wet model systems to study these effects. Relaxation data has been modelled using the stretched exponential relationship recently introduced. Comparisons of the NMR microscopy results of the model system with the rock results indicate that the observed effects probably do not reflect actual wettability variations within the pore space. The results of the relaxation time measurements reveal that even in the simple model studied, the behavior of two phases is somewhat ambiguous and much more complex and requires more study.

Doughty, D.A.; Tomutsa, Liviu

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Resolving the internal structure of individual atmospheric aerosol particle by the combination of Atomic Force Microscopy, ESEM–EDX, Raman and ToF–SIMS imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, internal structures of individual aerosol particles were resolved by using micro-analytical techniques in combination. We demonstrated the practical applicability of the combined use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM–EDX), Raman Microspectrometry (RMS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) to provide morphological, elemental, molecular and outer surface imaging of the same individual airborne particles for the first time. The characterization of single particles collected in the industrial atmosphere influenced by marine air masses demonstrated the physicochemical evolution of the particles in a short time period. The marine-derived particles were mainly encountered as genuine sea salts internally mixed with reacted sea salts such as NaNO3 and liquid NO3? which are covered by an organic thin layer. The particles collected downwind the industrial area were solid particles composed of an internal mixture of iron oxides and of marine-derived particles coated with an organic layer. The formation of these particles is a result of coalescence, agglomeration and drying processes occurring in the atmosphere during the transport of particles in a short time period (~ 15 min). It is demonstrated that the combined use of the different types of spectral and imaging data from the same individual particles in atmospheric aerosol sample provides richer information on their physicochemical characteristics than when those techniques were used alone or when two techniques in combination.

S. Sobanska; G. Falgayrac; J. Rimetz-Planchon; E. Perdrix; C. Brémard; J. Barbillat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fixation Protocols and Analytical Microscopy in Biology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomedical Applications of Microprobe Analysis Peter Ingram and Ann LeFurgey* Departments of Pathology and *Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center and *VA Medical Center...

299

Quantitative Imaging of a Radiotherapeutic Drug, Na2B12H11SH, at Subcellular Resolution in Tissue Cultures Using Ion Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cultured cells with ion microscopy. Anal. Chem., 61: 2690-2695, 1989. 9. Takagaki, M., and Mishima, Y. Boron-10 quantitative analysis of neutron capture therapy on malignant melanoma by spectrophotometric alpha-track reading...

Xiaohui Zha; Walter A. Ausserer; George H. Morrison

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

302

Surface premelting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important results obtained in the theory of surface premelting of crystals are briefly discussed on the basis of the vibration-positional model, the quasiliquid layer model, the surface roughness model, and in the case of ice, the model of the oriented dipoles at the surface. A review of the existing experimental results on surface premelting is presented, these results being obtained by investigating the crystal morphology, the polar diagram of the specific surface energy, the surface self-diffusion, the thermal emissivity, as well as upon application of LEED, NMR, Rutherford backscattering at proton channeling and ellipsometry. The agreement between theoretical and experimental data is discussed.

D. Nenow

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Surface nanobubbles: Seeing is believing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of surface nanobubbles has been previously suggested using various experimental techniques, including attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflectometry, and x-ray reflectivity, but all of these techniques provide a sole number to quantify the existence of gas over (usually) hundreds of square microns. Thus `nanobubbles' are indistinguishable from a `uniform gassy layer' between surface and liquid. Atomic force microscopy, on the other hand, does show the existence of surface nanobubbles, but the highly intrusive nature of the technique means that a uniform gassy layer could break down into nanobubbles \\textit{due to} the motion of the microscope's probe. Here we demonstrate \\textit{optical} visualisation of surface nanobubbles, thus validating their individual existence non-intrusively.

Karpitschka, Stefan; Seddon, James R T; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef; Riegler, Hans

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Surface nanobubbles: Seeing is believing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of surface nanobubbles has been previously suggested using various experimental techniques, including attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflectometry, and x-ray reflectivity, but all of these techniques provide a sole number to quantify the existence of gas over (usually) hundreds of square microns. Thus `nanobubbles' are indistinguishable from a `uniform gassy layer' between surface and liquid. Atomic force microscopy, on the other hand, does show the existence of surface nanobubbles, but the highly intrusive nature of the technique means that a uniform gassy layer could break down into nanobubbles \\textit{due to} the motion of the microscope's probe. Here we demonstrate \\textit{optical} visualisation of surface nanobubbles, thus validating their individual existence non-intrusively.

Stefan Karpitschka; Erik Dietrich; James R. T. Seddon; Harold J. W. Zandvliet; Detlef Lohse; Hans Riegler

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

305

The nanostructure and microstructure of steels: Electrochemical Tafel behaviour and atomic force microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of chemical composition and heat treatment on a low-carbon steel, chromium steel and high speed steel has been examined by polarisation curves and electrochemical parameters deduced from the Tafel plots. The electrochemical corrosion resistance, which is small between the as-received steels become greater after heat treatment, following the order: carbon steel < chromium steel ? high speed steel. To explain these differences, the nano- and microstructure of the steels has been characterized by the ex situ techniques of atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy, before and after surface etching with Nital (a solution of 5% HNO3 in ethanol). This causes preferential attack of the ferrite phases showing the carbide phases more clearly. From these nanostructural studies it was possible to better understand why the passive films formed on chromium steel and high speed steel have superior protective properties to those formed on carbon steel.

Valéria A. Alves; Ana M. Chiorcea Paquim; Albano Cavaleiro; Christopher M.A. Brett

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Building Cellular Models with Light Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Light What we now know about image analysis for adult fly brain imaging: * Can trace individual neurons. PNAS (2008) Released Sept. 2012 #12;Several Lines In "Atlas" Vaa3D: hanchuan.peng.googlepages.com16 #12

Mayberry, Marty

307

STUDIES OF DENGUE FEVER VIRUS BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MICROSCOPY Reginald L. Reagan A. L. Brueckner Live Stock Sanitary Service Laboratory...MICROSCOPY REGINALD L. REAGAN AND A. L. BRUECKNER Live Stock Sanitary Service Laboratory...material 233 REGINALD L. REAGAN AND A. L. BRUECKNER Figure 1. Dengue fever virus (mouse...

Reginald L. Reagan; A. L. Brueckner

1952-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Direct Analysis of Reversed-Phase HPTLC Separated Tryptic Protein Digests using a Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe/ESI-MS System  

SciTech Connect

The sampling, ionization and detection of tryptic peptides separated in one-dimension on reversed phase HPTLC plates was performed using liquid microjunction surface sampling probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Tryptic digests of five proteins (cytochrome c., myoglobin, beta-casein, lysozyme, and bovine serum albumin) were spotted on reversed phase HPTLC RP-8 F254s and HPTLC RP-18 F254s plates. The plates were then developed using 70/30 methanol/water with 0.1 M ammonium acetate. A dual purpose extraction/electrospray solution containing 70/30/0.1 water/methanol/formic acid was infused through the sampling probe during analysis of the developed lanes. Both full scan mass spectra and data dependent tandem mass spectra were acquired for each development lane to detect and verify the peptide distributions. Data dependent tandem mass spectra provided both protein identification and sequence coverage information. Highest sequence coverages were achieved for cytochrome c. and myoglobin (62.5% and 58.3%, respectively) on reversed phase RP-8 plates. While the tryptic peptides were separated enough for identification, the peptide bands did show some overlap with most peptides located in the lower half of the development lane. Proteins whose peptides were more separated gave higher sequence coverage. Larger proteins such as beta-casein and BSA which were spotted in lower relative amounts gave much lower sequence coverage than the smaller proteins.

Emory, Joshua F [ORNL; Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Schulz, Michael [Merck Research Laboratories; Minarik, susanne [Merck Research Laboratories

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface, Part III: Fracture toughness calculation and influence of residual stresses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface fracture mechanisms, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on micro-level by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. The effect of initial residual stress fields on coating cracking was approached by carrying out stress simulations with a pre-stressed coating. The stress fields near the indenter were found to relax by plastic deformation to such extent that the remaining stresses had only a marginal effect to macroscopic behavior. Fracture mechanical evaluation of crack driving force and fracture toughness were performed by determining stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions using boundary element analysis. SIF solutions were evaluated for crack fields of different density, location, crack angle, type of loading and mode of loading. The results were utilized to evaluate fracture characteristics and compute fracture toughness for the TiN to high speed steel coating substrate system.

Anssi Laukkanen; Kenneth Holmberg; Jari Koskinen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin; Simo Varjus

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning tunneling microscopy study. Preparation of TiO2(110)-(1x1) Surface via UHV Cleavage: An scanning tunneling...

311

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of organic materials etched by charged water droplet impact  

SciTech Connect

Electrospray droplet impact (EDI) has been developed for matrix-free secondary ion mass spectrometry for surface analysis. When a target is etched by EDI, the physical etching on the target is suppressed to minimal, i.e., the occurrence of shallow surface etching. A novel approach to shallow surface etching of polystyrene (PS) by EDI was investigated. The charged water droplets were irradiated to a bulk and a spin coated PS. After irradiation, these samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy. It was found that XPS spectra for PS were independent on the irradiation time by EDI. This indicates that EDI is a unique technique for the surface etching of the organic materials without leaving any damage on the etched surface.

Sakai, Yuji; Iijima, Yoshitoki; Takaishi, Riou; Asakawa, Daiki; Hiraoka, Kenzo [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511, Japan and Japan Science and Technology Agency Innovation Satellite, Shizuoka, 3-5-1 Johoku, Nakaku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Electron Optics Sales Division, JEOL Ltd., 2-8-3 Akebono, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-0012 (Japan); Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

An Atomistic View on Fundamental Transport Processes on Metal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

In this lecture I present an introduction to the time-resolved observation of atomic transport processes on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy video sequences. The experimental data is analyzed using scaling law concepts known from statistical thermodynamics. I will present studies from metal surfaces in vacuum as well as in electrolyte.

Giesen, Margret [Forschungzentrum Juelich, Institute for Bio- and Nanosystems IBN 4, D 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

314

Microstructure development in particulate coatings examined with high-resolution cryogenic scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The authors used cryogenic scanning electron microscopy to examine the early stages of latex film formation. They visualized the influence of ionic strength and extent of carboxylation in latex-calcium carbonate formulations and in latex-only formulations. Results demonstrated that latex particles deposited on calcium carbonate surfaces creating a suspension of carboxylic acid-stabilized calcium carbonate particles. Images of consolidation fronts showed that variation of ionic strength and extent of carboxylation dramatically changes the way latex particles consolidate and form films.

Sheehan, J.G.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Takamura, Koichi [BASF Corp., Charlotte, NC (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Note: Spring constant calibration of nanosurface-engineered atomic force microscopy cantilevers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The determination of the dynamic spring constant (k d ) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers is of crucial importance for converting cantilever deflection to accurate force data. Indeed the non-destructive fast and accurate measurement method of the cantilever dynamic spring constant by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum.83 103705 (2012)] is confirmed here for plane geometry but surface modified cantilevers. It is found that the measured spring constants (k eff the dynamic one k d ) and the calculated (k d 1) are in good agreement within less than 10% error.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Three-dimensional plastic response in polycrystalline copper via near-field high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The evolution of the crystallographic orientation field in a polycrystalline sample of copper is mapped in three dimensions as tensile strain is applied. Using forward-modeling analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy data, the ability to track intragranular orientation variations is demonstrated.

Li, S.F.

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

317

Momentum-resolved Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Master Thesis, Electron Microscopy Group of Materials Science, Prof. Ute Kaiser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Materials Science, Prof. Ute Kaiser Background Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a well like plasmons at a few 10eV, to core-shell excitations at high energy losses. In addition to the energy Microscopy group of Material Sciences in Ulm has gained experience in the acquisition and analysis of energy

Pfeifer, Holger

318

Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/?-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/?-TCP scaffolds.

Yu-Ri Choi; Jae-Sung Kwon; Doo-Hoon Song; Eun Ha Choi; Yong-Keun Lee; Kyoung-Nam Kim; Kwang-Mahn Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Stuck with the bill, but why? : an analysis of the Portuguese public finance system with respect to surface transportation policy and investments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite decentralization progress in other sectors, the Portuguese central government maintains significant administrative and fiscal power over national and sub-national surface transportation operations and infrastructure. ...

Nelson, Joshua S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Switchable Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Tethered films of poly n-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) films have been developed as materials that can be used to switch the chemistry of a surface in response to thermal activation. In water, PNIPAM exhibits a thermally-activated phase transition that is accompanied by significant changes in polymer volume, water contact angle, and protein adsorption characteristics. New synthesis routes have been developed to prepare PNIPAM films via in-situ polymerization on self-assembled monolayers. Swelling transitions in tethered films have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including surface plasmon resonance, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, interfacial force microscopy, neutron reflectivity, and theoretical modeling. PNIPAM films have been deployed in integrated microfluidic systems. Switchable PNIPAM films have been investigated for a range of fluidic applications including fluid pumping via surface energy switching and switchable protein traps for pre-concentrating and separating proteins on microfluidic chips.

BUNKER, BRUCE C.; HUBER, DALE L.; KENT, MICHAEL S.; YIM, HYUN; CURRO, JOHN G.; LOPEZ, GABRIEL P.; KUSHMERICK, JAMES G.; MANGINELL, RONALD P.; MENDEZ, SERGIO

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

322

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

AutoMicromanager: A microscopy scripting toolkit for LABVIEW and other programming environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a scripting toolkit for the acquisition and analysis of a wide variety of imaging data by integrating the ease of use of various programming environments such as LABVIEW IGOR PRO MATLAB SCILAB and others. This toolkit is designed to allow the user to quickly program a variety of standard microscopy components for custom microscopy applications allowing much more flexibility than other packages. Included are both programming tools as well as graphical user interface classes allowing a standard consistent and easy to maintain scripting environment. This programming toolkit allows easy access to most commonly used cameras stages and shutters through the Micromanager project so the scripter can focus on their custom application instead of boilerplate code generation.

Brian Alan Ashcroft; Tjerk Oosterkamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Becoming an NCEM User  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Research New Research Gallery Microscopy Links Becoming an NCEM User Step 1: Submit a proposal Step 2: Before you begin your research Step 3: Instrument qualification Step 4: Accessing NCEM facilities and performing research Step 1: Submit a proposal Deadlines for new proposals are March 15, June 15, September 15, December 15. Access to NCEM facilities is granted to researchers whose proposals are accepted by the NCEM proposal review committee. NCEM users are expected to have a strong background in transmission electron microscopy, and submitted proposals should include evidence of prior electron microscopy experience by the intended operator. Researchers who do not have sufficient experience in electron microscopy may be able to use NCEM facilities through a collaborative project.

325

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and three scanning electron micro- scopes (SEM) are operated by the De- partment. Attachments for TEM include energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning transmission attachment, serial electron energy loss

326

Sub-Kelvin scanning tunneling microscopy on magnetic molecules.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Magnetic molecules have attracted lots interest. In this work, an ultra-stable and low noise scanning tunneling microscopy operating at 400 mK using He-3 (930 mK… (more)

Zhang, Lei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Measuring Shear Stress in Microfluidics using Traction Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traction force microscopy is a previously-developed method to measure shear forces exerted by biological cells on substrates to which they are adhered (Dembo, 1999). The technique determines the shear stress a...

Bryant Mueller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

329

Doppler optical coherence microscopy for studies of cochlear mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described ...

Hong, Stanley S.

330

Fast live simultaneous multiwavelength four-dimensional optical microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...between excitation power and sensitivity...throughput of both systems. Most modern microscopy systems have excellent...connected to a power source (Bioptechs...Pawley JB ( 2006 ) Handbook of Biological Confocal...image sequence restoration . IEEE T Pattern...

Peter M. Carlton; Jérôme Boulanger; Charles Kervrann; Jean-Baptiste Sibarita; Jean Salamero; Susannah Gordon-Messer; Debra Bressan; James E. Haber; Sebastian Haase; Lin Shao; Lukman Winoto; Atsushi Matsuda; Peter Kner; Satoru Uzawa; Mats Gustafsson; Zvi Kam; David A. Agard; John W. Sedat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...intracavity frequency doubler. This system partly converted the Ti:Sapphire...the focused time-averaged power. The axial...processing. Computational image restoration can in addition improve...light. 1 Pawley J ( 1995 ) Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy...

Thomas A. Klar; Stefan Jakobs; Marcus Dyba; Alexander Egner; Stefan W. Hell

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

333

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

Heller, Eric

334

Instrument Series: Microscopy Atom Probe The LEAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Atom Probe The LEAP ® 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first- ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical imaging studies of low electrical conductivity materials, such as ceramics, semiconductors and oxides. The LEAP capability is assisting EMSL's efforts to further scientific advancements in interface analysis and microstructural characterization, providing a new tool for understanding the relationship between the nanoscale structure of materials and their macroscopic properties. Research Applications Geochemistry - Studying chemical processes that compose rocks and soils has long been used to determine matter cycles and transport in the environment, which supports critical EMSL research in areas including bioremediation.

335

Surface structure of cleaved (001) USb2 single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect

We have achieved what we believe to be the first atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images for a uranium compound USb2 taken at room temperature. The a, b, and c lattice parameters in the images confirm that the tetragonal USb2 crystals cleave on the (001) basal plane as expected. Our calculations indicate a symmetric cut between Sb planes to be the most favorable cleavage plane and U atoms to be responsible for most of the density of states measured by STM. Since the spacing between Sb atoms and between U atoms is the same, STM topography alone cannot unambiguously identify the surface atom species.

Chen, Shao-ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Adsorption of Glucose Oxidase onto Plasma-Polymerized Film Characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, and Electrochemical Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) onto plasma-polymerized thin films (PPF) with nanoscale thickness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and electrochemical measurements. ... The electrophoretic mobility (u) of polystyrene particles at the PPF surfaces was measured, and the mobility obtained was converted into a zeta potential using the Smoluchowski equation, ? = 4??u/?, where ? is the viscosity of the solution and ? is the dielectric constant of the solvent. ...

Hitoshi Muguruma; Yoshihiro Kase; Naoya Murata; Kazunari Matsumura

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloying xrd analysis Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

also be observed. This microstructure analysis can be supported by XRD pattern... transition is the transformation from fcc() to hcp(). Analysis of the optical microscopy and...

339

Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Analysis of Short-Bunch Production with the APS Booster and a Bunch Compressor Michael Borland, AOD/OAG ∗ August 8, 2003 1 Abstract There is significant interest among x-ray scientists in short-pulse x-rays. The x-rays from the APS ring, although very bright, are produced by an electron bunch with an rms length of more than 30 ps. Typically, it is only a linear accelerator that can produce a very short bunch. An idea was brought to my attention by Glenn Decker that might allow us to produce a short bunch using the APS booster. This idea involves extracting the beam from the booster at 3 to 4 GeV, while it is still relatively short, then compressing it with a magnetic bunch compressor. In this note, we present a preliminary analysis of this idea, along with the related idea of using a nonequilibrium beam from the APS photoinjector. 2 Background We will begin with an examination of the ideal result

340

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene ... The fundamental difference between polymer grains and grain peripheral areas demonstrated by KFM was also supported by in situ contact-mode AFM data taken with the as-grown polymer film. ... (1)?Pekker, S.; Janossy, A. In Handbook of Conducting Polymers; Skotheim, T. A., Ed.; Marcel Dekker:? New York, 1986; Vol. ...

Oleg A. Semenikhin; Lei Jiang; Tomokazu Iyoda; Kazuhito Hashimoto; Akira Fujishima

1996-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Confocal microscopy studies of colloidal assembly on microfabricated physically templated surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2.1 Materials................................................................................. 52 4.2.2 Substrate preparation procedure ............................................. 53 4.2.3 PMMA machining... substrates.................................................... 74 5.3.2 Imaging of PMMA substrates................................................ 79 5.4 Conclusions...

Sharma, Sumit

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

342

Viscous Nature of the Bond between Adhering Bacteria and Substratum Surfaces Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Biomedical Engineering Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands ... *Address: Henny C. van der Mei Department of Biomedical Engineering, FB40 University Medical Center Groningen Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. ... This study was entirely funded by the University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. ...

Yun Chen; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Willem Norde

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

343

Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the TiO2 anatase ,,101... surface Wilhelm Hebenstreit,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tunneling sites in STM. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a versatile material that finds uses as a promoter. Fourfold-coordinated Ti atoms at step edges are preferred adsorption sites and allow the identification

Diebold, Ulrike

344

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Generalized Focal Surfaces : A New Method for Surface Interrogation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and heat distribution on an airplane, tem- perature, rainfall, ozone over the earth's surface, etc. However. Apart from the pure con- struction of these curves and surfaces, the analysis of their quality- faces is of central importance for sophisticated CAD/ CAM systems. Apart from the pure construction

Hahmann, Stefanie

347

Generalized Focal Surfaces : A New Method for Surface Interrogation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and heat distribution on an airplane, tem- perature, rainfall, ozone over the earth's surface, etc. However. Apart from the pure con- struciion of these curves and surfaces, the analysis of their quality- faces is of central importance for sophisticated CAD/ CAM systems. Apart from the pure construction

Hahmann, Stefanie

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced microscopy techniques Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

microscopy techniques and their practice in relationship to materials structure characterization... of Microscopy", Edited by P.W. Hawkes and J.C.H. Spence, Springer, 2006 (An...

349

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular...

350

Laser Desorption Analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Desorption Analysis Laser Desorption Analysis EMSL offers a suite of instrumentation dedicated to understanding photoreactivity in the condensed phase, on surfaces, and at...

351

Continuous Flow Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Connected On-line with HPLC/MS for Spatially Resolved Analysis of Small Molecules and Proteins  

SciTech Connect

RATIONALE: A continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by MS. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with HPLC/MS enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. Methods: A continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a 6-port, 2-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V ion source operated in positive ESI mode was used for all experiments. System operation was tested with extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Results: Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s extractions). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin and chains. Conclusions: Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection.

Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Scanning-tunneling-microscopy studies of disilane adsorption and pyrolytic growth on Si(100)-(2x1)  

SciTech Connect

Scanning tunneling microscopy has been employed to study the adsorption of disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and pyrolytic growth on Si(100)-(2{times}1) at various temperatures. Room-temperature exposures result in a random distribution of dissociation fragments on the surface. Formation of anisotropic monohydride islands and denuded zones as well as island coarsening is observed at higher temperatures. The results are strikingly similar to those reported for growth by molecular-beam epitaxy using pure Si, even though different surface reactions are involved in these two growth processes.

Lin, D.; Hirschorn, E.S.; Chiang, T. (Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)); Tsu, R.; Lubben, D.; Greene, J.E. (Department of Materials Science, Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1992-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Determination and Characterization of Ice Propagation Mechanisms on Surfaces Undergoing Dropwise Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mechanisms responsible for ice propagation on surfaces undergoing dropwise condensation have been determined and characterized. Based on experimental data acquired non-invasively with high speed quantitative microscopy, the freezing process...

Dooley, Jeffrey B.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

354

Dynamics of Flagellum- and Pilus-Mediated Association of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Contact Lens Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lenses surfaces before and after wear using atomic force microscopy...initial event in sorption of marine bacteria to surfaces. J. Gen...associated with contact lens wear. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis...Influence of day and night wear on surface properties of silicone...

Victoria B. Tran; Suzanne M. J. Fleiszig; David J. Evans; Clayton J. Radke

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Origin of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of 4,4' -Biphenyldicarboxylate on Silver Substrates  

SciTech Connect

We combine scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and tools of computational chemistry to investigate the origin of Raman scattering of 4,4’-biphenyldicarboxylic acid adsorbed as 4,4’-biphenyldicarboxylate on two different silver substrates. The first consists of a 100 nm deep cylindrical aperture embedded in an array of cylindrical nano-holes featuring an average diameter of 350 nm and a periodicity of 700 nm. The second is a nano-junction formed by a 100 nm silver nano-particle coated with the adsorbate and a flat silver surface. We find that the underlying background signal in the SERS spectra collected from the former strongly resemble the SERS spectra of the nano-sphere-featuring substrate, engineered to operate in the charge transfer plasmon limit. Our analysis of a series of SERS spectra consecutively collected from one nano-cylinder suggests that the optical response of a single molecule can be extracted, its brightest Raman active mode enhanced by a factor of 7.4 x 106.

El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Hu, Dehong; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

356

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of Chemistry, University of South Carolina High-Angle-Annular-Dark-Field/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF/STEM) is a technique uniquely suited for detailed studies of the structure and composition of complex oxides. The HAADF detector collects electrons which have interact inelastically with the potentials of the atoms in the specimen and therefore resembles the better known Z2 (Z is atomic number) Rutherford scattering. One class of important catalysts consists of bronzes based on pentagonal {Mo6O21} building units; these include Mo5O14 and Mo17O47. In the last 20 years, new materials doped with

359

Reducing Photobleaching in STED Microscopy with Higher Scanning Speed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photobleaching is a major limitation of super-resolution STED microscopy. We show that the photobleaching rate in STED microscopy is slowed down by scanning with a higher linear speed, enabled by the large field of view in our custom-built resonant-scanning STED microscope. The effect of scanning speed on photobleaching is more remarkable at higher levels of depletion laser irradiance. With a depletion irradiance of 0.4 GW/cm$^2$ (time average), we were able to slow down the photobleaching of the Atto 647N dye by 80% with 8-fold faster scanning. Photobleaching is primarily caused by the depletion light acting upon the excited fluorophores. Experimental data qualitatively agree with a theoretical model. Our results encourage further increasing linear scanning speed for photobleaching reduction in STED microscopy.

Wu, Yong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Generative Models for Super-Resolution Single Molecule Microscopy Images of Biological Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an information bridge between super-resolution microscopy and structural biology by using generative models

Matsuda, Noboru

362

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Analysis of energies of stationary bubbles at liquid pool surfaces and the subsequent droplet release due to bubble burst based on RESUS code calculations  

SciTech Connect

In case of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident involving a failure of the primary system, a liquid coolant pool may frequently be formed, which may be contaminated by suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products. For many accident sequences, in which gas is injected into the liquid domain or bubbles are generated by means of heating, pressure transients or chemical reactions, the release of low volatile species from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere due to bubble burst is identified as a decisive release mechanism. Generally, resuspension of radioactive species is caused by droplets ejected from the pool surface into the atmosphere, either dominated by direct momentum exchange mechanisms between gas flow and liquid for high gas fluxes or by bursting of single bubbles in case of low gas fluxes. In the latter case, the release of droplets containing radionuclides is governed by two mechanisms, namely micro-droplet generation due to bubble film cap collapse and formation and subsequent disintegration of liquid jets producing so-called jet droplets. Jet and jet droplet formation is modeled in the code system RESUS.MOD2 which contains models for the growth of the bubble in the pool, its shape while resting at the liquid surface, and jet and jet-droplet generation after bubble cap rupture. Using the module BUBSHAPE (BUBbleSHAPE) of the RESUS code, the characteristic profile of a bubble resting at the liquid surface as well as the mechanical energies available for droplet formation and consequently droplet- and particle release can be determined. The governing resuspension energies are identified to be the surface energy, the energy stored in the gas within the bubble due to its excess pressure, and the potential energy due to the displacement of liquid.

Starflinger, J.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H. [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Dept. for Nuclear and New Energy Systems; Schuetz, W. [Inst. for Reactor Safety, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Stationary free surface viscous flows without surface tension in three dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary free surface viscous flows without surface tension in three dimensions Frederic Abergel dimensional channel. In the absence of surface tension, we prove the existence of a unique stationary solution is not elliptic when surface tension is neglected. Hence, analysis such as that made in [4] or [17] fails

Boyer, Edmond

366

Stationary free surface viscous ows without surface tension in three dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary free surface viscous ows without surface tension in three dimensions Frederic Abergel owing down a three dimensional channel. In the absence of surface tension, we prove the existence is not elliptic when surface tension is neglected. Hence, analysis such as that made in [4] or [17] fails

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Ecological and agricultural applications of synchrotron IR microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecological and agricultural applications of synchrotron IR microscopy T.K. Raab a,*, J.P. Vogel b factors to the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, a causative agent of powdery mildew disease. Three genes to pro- liferate when environmental conditions and re- sources are optimum. Cellulose, an abundant

368

Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the material undergoes a phase transition. Herein, we show that thermotropic phase transitions in 4-Cyano-41 Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals A. Nicholas G-objects in various environments. It uses a photo-induced change in the refractive index of the environment. Taking

Boyer, Edmond

369

Sample heating in near-field scanning optical microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating near the aperture of aluminumcoated,fiber opticnear-field scanning optical microscopy probes was studied as a function of input and output powers. Using the shear-force feedback method, near-field probes were positioned nanometers above a...

Erickson, Elizabeth S.; Dunn, Robert C.

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nanometric depth resolution from multi-focal images in microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that have been stored in a computer, but it is noted that using...interdisciplinary Bridging the Gaps grant from the UK Engineering and...Physics, SUPA/IIS, School of Engineering and Physical...instrumentation Image Processing, Computer-Assisted methods Microscopy...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ABSTRACTS IN REPORTS CONCERNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY PUBLISHED IN JAPAN:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Thoracic Lymphatics of Living Rabbits and Sites of Escape of Car- bon Particles from the Vessels: Fumihiko KATO (First Dept...deafness. Using light and elect- ron microscopy he studied the defective organ of Corti in Shaker-1 mouse, one strain of congeni......

ABSTRACTS

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Image processing pipeline for synchrotron-radiation-based tomographic microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A software environment has been developed for processing and reconstructing online the large amount of data generated at TOMCAT, a synchrotron-radiation-based tomographic microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. It has been designed to minimize user interaction and maximize the reconstruction speed and therefore optimize beam time usage.

Hintermüller, C.

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Denk, J. H. Stricker and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990). 3. S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel and W. W. Webb, "Measuring-214 (1996). 6. R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen, "Nonlinear optical microscopic examination of structure

Silberberg, Yaron

374

Scaling Behaviors of Global Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporal scaling properties of the monthly sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in global ocean basins are examined by the power spectrum and detrended fluctuation analysis methods in this paper. Analysis results show that scaling behaviors of ...

Ming Luo; Yee Leung; Yu Zhou; Wei Zhang

375

Slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy of electron beam evaporated cobalt and nickel silicides  

SciTech Connect

Metal silicide thin films on single-crystal silicon substrates are the subject of much research, due to their applications as electrical contacts and interconnects, diffusion barriers, low resistance gates, and field-assisted positron moderators, among others. Defects within the silicide layer and/or at the silicide/silicon interface are detrimental to device performance, since they can act as traps for charge carriers, as well as positrons. Pinholes penetrating the film are another detriment particularly for cobalt silicide films, since they allow electrons to permeate the film, rather than travel ballistically, in addition to greatly increasing surface area for recombination events. A series of epitaxial cobalt and nickel silicide thin films, deposited via electron-beam evaporation and annealed at various temperatures, have been grown on single-crystal silicon (111) substrates, in an effort to establish a relationship between deposition and processing parameters and film quality. The films have been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, sputter depth profile Auger, and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy. The latter has been shown to both correlate and complement the traditional electron microscopy results.

Frost, R.L.; DeWald, A.B. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA)); Zaluzec, M.; Rigsbee, J.M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)); Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Imaging and microanalysis of thin ionomer layers by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Improved conditions for imaging and spectroscopic mapping of thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layers in fuel cell electrodes by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) have been investigated. These conditions are first identified on model systems of Nafion ionomer-coated nanostructured thin films and nanoporous Si. The optimized conditions are then applied in a quantitative study of the ionomer through-layer loading for two typical electrode catalyst coatings using electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope. The e-beam induced damage to the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer is quantified by following the fluorine mass loss with electron exposure and is then mitigated by a few orders of magnitude using cryogenic specimen cooling and a higher incident electron voltage. Multivariate statistical analysis is also applied to the analysis of spectrum images for data denoising and unbiased separation of independent components related to the catalyst, ionomer, and support.

Cullen, David A [ORNL; Koestner, Roland [General Motors Corporation; Kukreja, Ratan [General Motors Corporation; Minko, Sergiy [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Trotsenko, Oleksandr [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; Tokarev, Alexander V [ORNL; Guetaz, Laure [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Grenoble; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Characterization of polysilicon films by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Samples of chemically-vapor-deposited micrometer and sub-micrometer-thick films of polysilicon were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in cross-section and by Raman spectroscopy with illumination at their surface. TEM and Raman spectroscopy both find varying amounts of polycrystalline and amorphous silicon in the wafers. Raman spectra obtained using blue, green and red excitation wavelengths to vary the Raman sampling depth are compared with TEM cross-sections of these films. Films showing crystalline columnar structures in their TEM micrographs have Raman spectra with a band near 497 cm{sup {minus}1} in addition to the dominant polycrystalline silicon band (521 cm{sup {minus}1}). The TEM micrographs of these films have numerous faulted regions and fringes indicative of nanometer-scale silicon structures, which are believed to correspond to the 497cm{sup {minus}1} Raman band.

Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Medernach, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geyling, F. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)

1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Near-field microwave microscopy of high-? oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer  

SciTech Connect

Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100?nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

Tselev, Alexander, E-mail: tseleva@ornl.gov; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

379

GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS FROM PLANAR SURFACE PATCH MATCHING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOMETRIC CONSTRAINTS FROM PLANAR SURFACE PATCH MATCHING Robert B. Fisher Dept. of Artificial dimensional scene analysis programs pair data surface patches (i.e. as extracted from range data) to model surface patch features. From the correspon- dences, a variety of rotation and translation constraints

Fisher, Bob

380

Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface: Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.

Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen; Helena Ronkainen; Kim Wallin; Simo Varjus; Jari Koskinen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Surface and Interface Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Carlos Gutierrez Carlos Gutierrez Manager Resources Department Folder 01114 Sharepoint Visit Our Labs Grest Group Nanorheology Research (514 KB PDF) Interfacial Force Microscopy Group (701 KB PDF) Research Image Gallery (3,698 KB PDF) Surface Imaging Laboratory Technology - Metals for tomorrow Tina Nenoff Departments Surface and Interface Sciences The Surface and Interface Sciences Department is engaged in a diverse portfolio of leading-edge research projects related to the understanding

383

Numerical analysis of hypersonic continuum and rarefied gas flows near blunt probes is presented under conditions of intensive gas blowing from the surface.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Abstract Numerical analysis of hypersonic continuum and rarefied gas flows near blunt probes injection, hydrogen combustion, hypersonic flow, exponential box-scheme, direct-simulation Monte-Carlo method. 1 Introduction Numerical and experimental studies [1, 2] of aerothermodynamics of hypersonic

Riabov, Vladimir V.

384

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging (XMI) Imaging (XMI) About XMI Science and Research Beamlines Highlights Software and Tools Intranet Search APS... Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Contacts FAQs Beamlines News Publications APS Email Portal APS Intranet APS Phonebook APS Quick Links for Users APS Safety and Training Welcome to the X-ray Microscopy and Imaging group (XMI)! X-ray Microscopy and Imaging is part of the X-ray Science Division at the Advanced Photon Source. We develop and support a diverse and multidisciplinary user research program at Sectors 2 and 32 of the APS, with the overall goal to image and study materials structures at spatial and temporal resolutions that are most scientifically relevant to the cutting-edge advances in materials, biological, environmental, and biomedical sciences. To achieve this goal, we actively engage in various research activities including

385

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

386

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

387

CFN Operations and Safety Awareness (COSA) Checklist Electron Microscopy Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Microscopy Facility Electron Microscopy Facility Building 735 This COSA form must be completed for all experimenters working in the CFN and must be submitted to the CFN User Office for badge access. CFN Safety Awareness Policy: Each user must be instructed in the safe procedures in CFN related activities. CFN Facility Laboratory personnel shall keep readily available all relevant instructions and safety literature. Employee/Guest Name Life/Guest Number Department/Division ES&H Coordinator/Ext. Facility Manager COSA Trainer Guest User Staff USER ADMINISTRATION Checked in at User Administration and has valid BNL ID badge Safety Approval Form (SAF) approved. Training requirements completed (Indicate additional training specified in SAF or ESR in lines provided below):

388

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

389

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

390

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: About NCEM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NCEM NCEM The National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) is one of the world's foremost centers for electron microscopy and microcharacterization. It is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Located adjacent to the University of California, Berkeley, NCEM was established in 1983 to maintain a forefront research center for electron-optical characterization of materials with state-of-the-art instrumentation and expertise. As a national user facility, NCEM is open to scientists from universities, government and industrial laboratories. The center provides cutting-edge instrumentation, techniques and expertise for advanced electron beam microcharacterization of materials at high spatial

391

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

392

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

393

Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy  

SciTech Connect

In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Acoustic microscopy for characterization of high?temperature superconducting tape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although material scientists constantly discover superconducting compounds with higher critical temperatures (T c ’s) manufacturing of the high?temperature superconductors(HTS) remains a problem and long lengths (>1 mile) have yet to be produced. In an effort to produce long length superconductors manufacturing steps for HTS tape production have been critically looked at to find their effects in producing tape with the desired characteristics. In support of determining superconducting tapecharacteristics acoustic microscopy offers the potential for internal microstructural material characterization. This research will ultimately support in?process monitoring of HTSmanufacturing as part of an advanced sensing system to determine the presence of defects and/or the effects of process variables on the HTS tape. This presentation will overview scanning acoustic microscopy and present images of HTS tape at several frequencies ranging from 50 to 500 MHz. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of determining the Ag/ceramic interface location and the general integrity of the constituents.

Chiaki Miyasaka; Chris Cobucci; Bernhard Tittmann

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

396

Single molecule microscopy in 3D cell cultures and tissues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract From the onset of the first microscopic visualization of single fluorescent molecules in living cells at the beginning of this century, to the present, almost routine application of single molecule microscopy, the method has well-proven its ability to contribute unmatched detailed insight into the heterogeneous and dynamic molecular world life is composed of. Except for investigations on bacteria and yeast, almost the entire story of success is based on studies on adherent mammalian 2D cell cultures. However, despite this continuous progress, the technique was not able to keep pace with the move of the cell biology community to adapt 3D cell culture models for basic research, regenerative medicine, or drug development and screening. In this review, we will summarize the progress, which only recently allowed for the application of single molecule microscopy to 3D cell systems and give an overview of the technical advances that led to it. While initially posing a challenge, we finally conclude that relevant 3D cell models will become an integral part of the on-going success of single molecule microscopy.

Florian M. Lauer; Elke Kaemmerer; Tobias Meckel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Cross-Linked ZnO nanowalls immobilized onto bamboo surface and their use as recyclable photocatalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ...

Chunde Jin, Jingpeng Li, Jin Wang, Shenjie Han, Zhe Wang, Qingfeng Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Roughening of a Si(100) surface induced by the adsorption of oxygen near the solid-oxide nucleation threshold  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation of the processes on a Si(100) surface interacting with oxygen near the solid-oxide nucleation threshold using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy is described. The nuclea...

V. D. Borman; Yu. Yu. Lebedinskii…

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Investigation of short-range surface forces to develop self-organizing devices by Steven M. Tobias.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Force spectra from atomic force microscopy were used to verify surface energy components of indium tin oxide and mesocarbon microbeads. These materials were selected based on spectroscopic and thermodynamic parameters to ...

Tobias, Steven M., 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Application of surface energy measurements to evaluate moisture susceptibility of asphalt and aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is assessed using surface energy measurements and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Surface energy is defined as the energy needed to create a new unit surface area of material in vacuum condition. Surface energy measurements are used to compute the adhesive...

Zollinger, Corey James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Probing the electronic structure of graphene sheets with various thicknesses by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of an aggregation of graphene sheets with various thicknesses was probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. A uniform oxidation of the graphene sheets in the flat area was observed regardless of the thickness, while in the folded area the result could be strongly affected by the geometry. Moreover, thick parts of the aggregation showed strong angle-dependence to the incident X-ray, while thin parts showed less angle-dependence, which might be related to the surface wrinkles and ripples. The electronic structure differences due to the geometry and thickness suggest a complicated situation in the aggregation of graphene sheets.

Bai, Lili; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

402

Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Eu-Doped Y2O3 Nanosheets and Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize high-purity Eu-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanosheets and nanotubes with an approximate molar ratio of (0.1):(1.0) for Eu:Y. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to characterize these nanomaterials. A body-centered cubic structure was confirmed for the nanotubes. The lattice parameter of Eu-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes were 0.12% larger as compared to that of pure Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} which was attributed to the larger ionic radius of Eu{sup 3+} (0.947 {angstrom}) than that of Y{sup 3+} (0.900 {angstrom}). The nanosheets had a similar structure. Nanosheets of approximate dimensions 600 to 800 nm length and width were obtained using a slightly lower pH value, and they were highly textured. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the nanotubes are fully crystalline. The nanotubes were typically 1.5-3 {micro}m in length and 50-200 nm in diameter. Using a pH value of approximately 10, stable nanotubes were obtained. It is anticipated that nanosheets might have rolled to form more stable nanotubes.

H Sun; T Chaudhuri; E Kenik; H Zhu; Y Ma

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Vibration measurement of a miniature component by high-speed image-plane digital holographic microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Measuring deformation of vibrating specimens whose dimensions are in the submillimeter range introduces a number of difficulties using laser interferometry. Normal interferometry is not suitable because of a phase ambiguity problem. In addition, the noise effect is much more serious in the measurement of small objects because a high-magnification lens is used. We present a method for full-field measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating miniature object based on image-plane digital holographic microscopy. A miniature cantilever beam is excited by a piezoelectric transducer stage with a sinusoidal configuration. A sequence of digital holograms is captured using a high-speed digital holographic microscope. Windowed Fourier analysis is applied in the spatial and spatiotemporal domains to extract the displacement, velocity and acceleration. The result shows that a combination of image-plane digital holographic microscopy and windowed Fourier analyses can be used to study vibration without encountering a phase ambiguity problem, and one can obtain instantaneous kinematic parameters on each point.

Fu Yu; Shi Hongjian; Miao Hong

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Spatial Gradients in Particle Reinforced Polymers Characterized by X-Ray Attenuation and Laser Confocal Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to develop techniques for measuring gradients in particle concentration within filled polymers, such as encapsulant. A high concentration of filler particles is added to such materials to tailor physical properties such as thermal expansion coefficient. Sedimentation and flow-induced migration of particles can produce concentration gradients that are most severe near material boundaries. Therefore, techniques for measuring local particle concentration should be accurate near boundaries. Particle gradients in an alumina-filled epoxy resin are measured with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm using an x-ray beam attenuation technique, but an artifact related to the finite diameter of the beam reduces accuracy near the specimen's edge. Local particle concentration near an edge can be measured more reliably using microscopy coupled with image analysis. This is illustrated by measuring concentration profiles of glass particles having 40 {micro}m median diameter using images acquired by a confocal laser fluorescence microscope. The mean of the measured profiles of volume fraction agrees to better than 3% with the expected value, and the shape of the profiles agrees qualitatively with simple theory for sedimentation of monodisperse particles. Extending this microscopy technique to smaller, micron-scale filler particles used in encapsulant for microelectronic devices is illustrated by measuring the local concentration of an epoxy resin containing 0.41 volume fraction of silica.

LAGASSE,ROBERT R.; THOMPSON,KYLE R.

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

405

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Cellular resolution ex vivo imaging of gastrointestinal tissues with coherence microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve imaging depth and contrast, enabling cellular imaging in human tissues. We aim to investigate OCM for ex ...

Fujimoto, James G.

407

Comparison between direct methods for determination of microbial cell volume: electron microscopy and electronic particle sizing.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than those processed for electronic particle sizing, reflecting...Electron Microscopy and Electronic Particle Sizing E. MONTESINOS...ofMicrobiology and Institute for Fundamental Biology, Autonomous University...transmission electron microscopy and electronic particle sizing. Statistically...

E Montesinos; I Esteve; R Guerrero

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00...

409

Direct interaction between surface ?1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibits EGFR activation in hepatocellular carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •?1,4GT1 interacts with EGFR both in vitro and in vivo. •?1,4GT1 co-localizes with EGFR on the cell surface. •?1,4GT1 inhibits {sup 125}I-EGF binding to EGFR. •?1,4GT1 inhibits EGF induced EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that cell surface ?1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (?1,4GT1) negatively regulated cell survival through inhibition and modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SMMC-7721 cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that ?1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (?1,4GT1) interacted with EGFR in vitro by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ?1,4GT1 bound to EGFR in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation and determined the co-localization of ?1,4GT1 and EGFR on the cell surface via confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis. Finally, using {sup 125}I-EGF binding experiments and Western blot analysis, we found that overexpression of ?1,4GT1 inhibited {sup 125}I-EGF binding to EGFR, and consequently reduced the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of ?1,4GT1 increased the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. These data suggest that cell surface ?1,4GT1 interacts with EGFR and inhibits EGFR activation.

Tang, Wenqing; Weng, Shuqiang [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Si; Wu, Weibing [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Dong, Ling; Shen, Xizhong [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Songwen; Gu, Jianxin [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xue, Ruyi, E-mail: xue.ruyi@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

410

Towards automatic cell identi cation in DIC microscopy , C.A. Glasbey2y  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1998. Journal of Microscopy, 192, 186-193. #12;a b c Figure 1: DIC microscope images: a Chlorella algal

Stone, J. V.

411

Atomic structure of the high-temperature O/W(001)-(2×1) surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface reconstruction of the W(001) surface in the presence of oxygen has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. A two-domain (2×1) structure with domain size ?30 Å was observed after the oxygen-covered surface was annealed at >1000 °C for <1 min. Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy results support the missing-row model for the (2×1) structure; the preferred location for adsorbed oxygen is either the threefold-hollow site or a site on top of a W atom in the second layer.

J. A. Meyer; Y. Kuk; P. J. Estrup; P. J. Silverman

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

ELSEVIER Surface Science 329 (1995) 255-268 Predicting STM images of molecular adsorbates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Surface Science 329 (1995) 255-268 Predicting STM images of molecular adsorbates V of a simple computational method for predicting scanning tunneling microscopy images for molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces. Development of the technique is described, including adsorbate geometry selection

Chiang, Shirley

413

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature; accepted 22 March 2001 Abstract A method for submicrosecond heating of sensor surfaces and simultaneous as well as photo thermal and scanning force microscopy measurements were performed to optimize the heating

Moritz, Werner

414

Structural observation of Pd silicide islands on Si (111) surfaces with UHV-TEM/STM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......silicide islands on Si (111) surfaces with UHV-TEMSTM Miyoko Tanaka Masaki Takeguchi...microscopyscanning tunnelling microscopy (UHV-TEMSTM) combined system to clarify the...silicide islands on Si (111) surfaces with UHV-TEM/STM Miyoko Tanaka * , Masaki Takeguchi......

Miyoko Tanaka; Masaki Takeguchi; Hidehiro Yasuda; Kazuo Furuya

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Electron Microscopy of Myosin Molecules from Muscle and Non-Muscle Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1976 research-article Electron Microscopy of Myosin...Muscle and Non-Muscle Sources A. Elliott G. Offer...give the two heads). Electron microscopy of myosin...muscle and non-muscle sources. | Journal Article...Chickens Microscopy, Electron Muscle Proteins Myosins...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research  

SciTech Connect

The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

Subhash Chandra

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Cryogenic X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

Enju Lima; Lutz Wiegart; Petra Pernot; Malcolm Howells; Joanna Timmins; Federico Zontone; Anders Madsen

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Cryogenic X-ray Diffraction Microscopy for Biological Samples  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is well suited for nondestructive, high-resolution biological imaging, especially for thick samples, with the high penetration power of x rays and without limitations imposed by a lens. We developed nonvacuum, cryogenic (cryo-) XDM with hard x rays at 8 keV and report the first frozen-hydrated imaging by XDM. By preserving samples in amorphous ice, the risk of artifacts associated with dehydration or chemical fixation is avoided, ensuring the imaging condition closest to their natural state. The reconstruction shows internal structures of intact D. radiodurans bacteria in their natural contrast.

E Lima; L Wiegart; P Pernot; M Howells; J Timmins; F Zontone; A Madsen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Single Molecule Emission Characteristics in Near-Field Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), the measured fluorescence lifetime of a single dye molecule can be shortened or lengthened, sensitively dependent on the relative position between the molecule and aluminum coated fiber tip. The modified lifetimes and other emission characteristics are simulated by solving Maxwell equations with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The 2D computation reveals insight into the lifetime behaviors and provides guidance for nonperturbative spectroscopic measurements with NSOM. This new methodology is capable of predicting molecular emission properties in front of a metal/dielectric interface of arbitrary geometry.

Randy X. Bian; Robert C. Dunn; X. Sunney Xie; P. T. Leung

1995-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

420

Genesis and evolution of surface species during Pt atomic layer deposition on oxide supports characterized by in-situ XAFS analysis and water-gas shift reaction.  

SciTech Connect

Platinum atomic layer deposition (ALD) using MeCpPtMe{sub 3} was employed to prepare high loadings of uniform-sized, 1-2 nm Pt nanoparticles on high surface area Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and SrTiO{sub 3} supports. X-ray absorption fine structure was utilized to monitor the changes in the Pt species during each step of the synthesis. The temperature, precursor exposure time, treatment gas, and number of ALD cycles were found to affect the Pt particle size and density. Lower-temperature MeCpPtMe{sub 3} adsorption yielded smaller particles due to reduced thermal decomposition. A 300 C air treatment of the adsorbed MeCpPtMe{sub 3} leads to PtO. In subsequent ALD cycles, the MeCpPtMe{sub 3} reduces the PtO to metallic Pt in the ratio of one precursor molecule per PtO. A 200 C H{sub 2} treatment of the adsorbed MeCpPtMe{sub 3} leads to the formation of 1-2 nm, metallic Pt nanoparticles. During subsequent ALD cycles, MeCpPtMe{sub 3} adsorbs on the support, which, upon reduction, yields additional Pt nanoparticles with a minimal increase in size of the previously formed nanoparticles. The catalysts produced by ALD had identical water-gas shift reaction rates and reaction kinetics to those of Pt catalysts prepared by standard solution methods. ALD synthesis of catalytic nanoparticles is an attractive method for preparing novel model and practical catalysts.

Setthapun, W.; Williams, W.; Kim, S.; Feng, H.; Elam, J.; Rabuffetti, F.; Poeppelmeier, K.; Stair, P.; Stach, E.; Ribeiro, F.; Miller, J.; Marshall, C.; Northwestern Univ.; Purdue Univ.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Surface Treatment by Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By this treatment, new hardenings of the surface can occur; the surface is higher alloyed by remelting, or layers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

423

Ionization of Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces: Influence of stray fields  

SciTech Connect

The ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces is examined. The data show that, when the effects of stray electric 'patch' fields present on the surface are taken into account, ionization is well described by a simple over-the-barrier model. The patch fields are determined from direct measurements of the potential variations across the target surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Monte Carlo techniques are used to model the atom-surface interaction. The results confirm the important role that patch fields can play during Rydberg atom-surface interactions and suggest that such interactions can provide a sensitive probe of stray fields at surfaces.

Pu, Y.; Neufeld, D. D.; Dunning, F. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University MS61, Houston, Texas 77005-1892 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)  

SciTech Connect

A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

426

Sample mounting and transfer for coupling an ultrahigh vacuum variable temperature beetle scanning tunneling microscope with conventional surface probes  

SciTech Connect

We present a new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface analysis and microscopy at controlled, variable temperatures. The new instrument allows surface analysis with Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, quadrupole mass spectrometer, argon ion sputtering gun, and a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (VT-STM). In this system, we introduce a novel procedure for transferring a sample off a conventional UHV manipulator and onto a scanning tunneling microscope in the conventional ''beetle'' geometry, without disconnecting the heating or thermocouple wires. The microscope, a modified version of the Besocke beetle microscope, is mounted on a 2.75 in. outer diameter UHV flange and is directly attached to the base of the chamber. The sample is attached to a tripod sample holder that is held by the main manipulator. Under UHV conditions the tripod sample holder can be removed from the main manipulator and placed onto the STM. The VT-STM has the capability of acquiring images between the temperature range of 180--500 K. The performance of the chamber is demonstrated here by producing an ordered array of island vacancy defects on a Pt(111) surface and obtaining STM images of these defects.

Nafisi, Kourosh; Ranau, Werner; Hemminger, John C.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel coatings  

SciTech Connect

Friction surfacing involves complex thermo-mechanical phenomena. In this study, the nature of dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L coatings was investigated using electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the alloy 316L undergoes discontinuous dynamic recrystallization under conditions of moderate Zener-Hollomon parameter during friction surfacing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L friction surfaced coatings is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfacing leads to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain rates in friction surfacing exceed 400 s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated grain size matches well with experimental observations in 316L coatings.

Puli, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshpuli2000@gmail.com; Janaki Ram, G.D.

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance  

SciTech Connect

In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness  

SciTech Connect

Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Theory of correlated hops in surface diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scanning tunneling microscopy observations of long hops in the diffusion of Pb atoms on Ge surfaces are explained by the model of a Brownian particle in a periodic potential. The classical turnover theory for barrier crossing predicts a large correlated hopping probability in the underdamped limit, consistent with experiment and in agreement with simulations. The corresponding quantum theory predicts that in the underdamped limit the rate is dominated by tunneling. This causes the quantum correlated hopping probability to vanish in this limit and may be thought of as a new form of quantum localization.

Eli Pollak, Joel Bader, B. J. Berne, and Peter Talkner

1993-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

431

Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry Edited by K. S. Birdi. CRC Press:? Boca Raton, FL. 1998. $139.95. 738 pp. ISBN 0-8493-9459-7.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry Edited by K. S. Birdi. ... The book does an excellent job in reviewing the fundamental principles of colloid chemistry. ... The final chapter covers scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques, certainly falling within the scope of providing some of the most recent characterization techniques of colloid chemistry. ...

Jean-Claude Bradley

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

Initial stages of the autocatalytic oxidation of the InAs(0 0 1)-(4 2)/c(8 2) surface by molecular oxygen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by molecular oxygen Jonathon B. Clemens a , Sarah R. Bishop a , Darby L. Feldwinn a,1 , Ravi Droopad b,2 simulations Scanning tunneling microscopy Chemisorption Oxidation Indium arsenide Oxygen Semi conducting) surface by molecular oxygen (O2) were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density

Kummel, Andrew C.

433

Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior  

SciTech Connect

1) Electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces were studied up to 580oC in 10-3mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy (STM/STS). A threshold-like drop in the tunneling current was observed at positive bias in STS, which is interpreted as a unique indicator for the activation polarization in cation oxygen bonding on LSM cathodes. Sr-enrichment was found on the surface at high temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy, and was accompanied by a decrease in tunneling conductance in STS. This suggests that Sr-terminated surfaces are less active for electron transfer in oxygen reduction compared to Mn-terminated surfaces on LSM. 2) Effects of strain on the surface cation chemistry and the electronic structure are important to understand and control for attaining fast oxygen reduction kinetics on transition metal oxides. Here, we demonstrate and mechanistically interpret the strain coupling to Sr segregation, oxygen vacancy formation, and electronic structure on the surface of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin films as a model system. Our experimental results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are discussed in light of our first principles-based calculations. A stronger Sr enrichment tendency and a more facile oxygen vacancy formation prevail for the tensile strained LSM surface. The electronic structure of the tensile strained LSM surface exhibits a larger band gap at room temperature, however, a higher tunneling conductance near the Fermi level than the compressively strained LSM at elevated temperatures in oxygen. Our findings suggest lattice strain as a key parameter to tune the reactivity of perovskite transition metal oxides with oxygen in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. 3) Cation segregation on perovskite oxide surfaces affects vastly the oxygen reduction activity and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. A unified theory that explains the physical origins of this phenomenon is therefore needed for designing cathode materials with optimal surface chemistry. We quantitatively assessed the elastic and electrostatic interactions of the dopant with the surrounding lattice as the key driving forces for segregation on model perovskite compounds, LnMnO3 (host cation Ln=La, Sm). Our approach combines surface chemical analysis with X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy on model dense thin films, and computational analysis with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and analytical models. Elastic energy differences were systematically induced in the system by varying the radius of the selected dopants (Ca, Sr, Ba) with respect to the host cations (La, Sm) while retaining the same charge state. Electrostatic energy differences were introduced by varying the distribution of charged oxygen and cation vacancies in our models. Varying the oxygen chemical potential in our experiments induced changes in both the elastic energy and electrostatic interactions. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that the mechanism of dopant segregation on perovskite oxides includes both the elastic and electrostatic energy contributions. A smaller size mismatch between the host and dopant cations and a chemically expanded lattice were found to reduce the segregation level of the dopant and to enable more stable cathode surfaces. Ca-doped LaMnO3 was found to have the most stable surface composition with the least cation segregation among the compositions surveyed. The diffusion kinetics of the larger dopants, Ba and Sr, was found to be slower, and can kinetically trap the segregation at reduced temperatures despite the larger elastic energy driving force. Lastly, scanning probe image-contrast showed that the surface chemical heterogeneities made of dopant oxides upon segregation were electronically insulating. The consistency between the results obtained from experiments, DFT calculations and analytical theory in this work provides a predictive capability to tailor the cathode surface compositions for high-performance SO

Yildiz, Bilge; Heski, Clemens

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Advanced Photon Source | Combining Scanning Probe Microscopy and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

01.2013 01.2013 Nanoscience Seminar presented at Tokyo University On November 1, 2013, Volker Rose was invited to present the Nanoscience Seminar at the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) of the University of Tokyo. In his seminar he discussed the physical principles of Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SXSTM) as well as the recent progress made by his team at the Advanced Photon Source. He was invited by Prof. Yukio Hasegawa, who himself conducts SXSTM experiment at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, Japan. The ISSP serves as the central laboratory of materials science in Japan equipped with state-of-art facilities. It was relocated to the new campus in Kashiwa of the University of Tokyo in 2000 after the 43 years of activities at the Roppongi campus in downtown Tokyo. Here ISSP is focusing

435

Advanced Photon Source | Combining Scanning Probe Microscopy and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

27.2013 27.2013 Researchers from NSLS-II visit SXSPM team at Argonne Synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy will soon also be developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In order to establish collaboration between the two National Laboratories, Drs. Evgeny Nazaretski and Hui Yan fom BNL visited Argonne to learn more about recent progress made in the SXSPM project. During the 2-day visit the teams discussed mutual scientific goals and strategies to achieve them. NSLS-II will be a new state-of-the-art, medium-energy electron storage ring at BNL designed to deliver high intensity and brightness. Construction of the NSLS-II's ring building began in March 2009. The new facility will begin operating in 2014

436

Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the composite electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in conventional lithium ion batteries, depicted in Fig.1b, where quantitative interface characterization is extremely difficult if not impossible. A second strategy involves organic electrolyte, though this approach more closely resembles the actual operation conditions of a LIB, the extreme volatility In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry by Ying Shirley Meng, Thomas McGilvray, Ming-Che Yang, Danijel Gostovic, Feng Wang, Dongli Zeng, Yimei Zhu, and Jason Graetz of the organic electrolytes present significant challenges for designing an in situ cell that is suitable for the vacuum environment of the TEM. Significant progress has been made in the past few years on the development of in situ electron microscopy for probing nanoscale electrochemistry. In 2008, Brazier et al. reported the first cross-section observation of an all solid-state lithium ion nano-battery by TEM. In this study the FIB was used to make a 'nano-battery,' from an all solid-state battery prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ TEM observations were not possible at that time due to several key challenges such as the lack of a suitable biasing sample holder and vacuum transfer of sample. In 2010, Yamamoto et al. successfully observed changes of electric potential in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery in situ with electron holography (EH). The 2D potential distribution resulting from movement of lithium ions near the positive-electrode/electrolyte interface was quantified. More recently Huang et al. and Wang et al. reported the in situ observations of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire electrode in two different in situ setups. In their approach, a vacuum compatible ionic liquid is used as the electrolyte, eliminating the need for complicated membrane sealing to prevent the evaporation of carbonate based organic electrolyte into the TEM column. One main limitation of this approach is that EELS spectral imaging is not possible due to the high plasmon signal of the ionic li

Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron microscopy techniques in strongly correlated electron systems and nanostructured materials. As a first step, with the support of Materials Science Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, US Department of Energy, and the New York State Office of Science, Technology, and Academic Research, recently we acquired three aberration-corrected electron microscopes from the three major microscope manufacturers, i.e., JEOL, Hitachi, and FEI. The Hitachi HD2700C is equipped with a probe corrector, the FEI Titan 80-300 has an imaging corrector, while the JEOL2200MCO has both. All the correctors are of the dual-hexapole type, designed and manufactured by CEOS GmbH based on the design due to Rose and Haider [3, 18]. All these three are one-of-a-kind in the US, designed for specialized capabilities in characterizing nanoscale structure. In this chapter, we review the performance of these state-of-the art instruments and the new challenges associated with the improved spatial resolution, including the environment requirements of the laboratory that hosts these instruments. Although each instrument we describe here has its own strengths and drawbacks, it is not our intention to rank them in terms of their performance, especially their spatial resolution in imaging.

Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

LANL: Facility Focus, MST-6 Materials Surface Science Investigations Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

07-018 Spring 2007 07-018 Spring 2007 T he MST-6 Materials Surface Science Investigations Laboratory is home to a one-of-a-kind integrated instrument for surface science and materials research, allowing scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory the unique opportunity to perform coordinated research using ultra-high vacuum surface measurements, in situ reactions, and materials synthesis tools. Housed in the Materials Science Laboratory, the surface science instrument features an ultra-clean integrated system for surface analysis and in situ surface modification, thin film deposition, and surface gas reactions. This integrated system is used for analytical surface science; materials electronic

440

NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS  

SciTech Connect

Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ?SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (?SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

Chemical, Electronic and Nanostructure Dynamics on Sr(Ti[subscript 1 - x]FE[subscript x])O[subscript 3] Thin-Film Surfaces at High Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface structure, chemical composition and electronic structure of Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3 under different temperatures and oxygen pressures were studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy / Spectroscopy (STM/S) and X-ray ...

Chen, Yan

442

Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava, Guowei He, and R. M. Feenstra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava of graphene formed on the ( 1000 ) surface (the C-face) and the (0001) surface (the Si-face) of Si) and low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The graphene forms due to preferential sublimation of Si from

Feenstra, Randall

444

Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2,,110... surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature ,,12... structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2,,110... surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low microscopy images of the strands are consistent with the added- Ti2O3-row model. UHV annealing of oxygen. Restructured surfaces are annealed in ul- trahigh vacuum UHV at temperatures between 620 and 830 K. The surface

Diebold, Ulrike

445

6230 surface treatment [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr. (Surfacing of manufactured stone products, metals, wood,...Specific term for surface treatment of stones with hammer and chisel tooling); syn. surfacing [n] (2);s tratamiento [m] de superfici...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

447

Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction  

SciTech Connect

An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

448

surface science | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Metal-Insulator Photocathode Heterojunction for Directed Electron Emission. Abstract: New photocathode...

449

Surface tension and contact with soft elastic solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Johnson-Kendall-Robert (JKR) theory is the basis of modern contact mechanics. It describes how two deformable objects adhere together, driven by adhesion energy and opposed by elasticity. However, it does not include solid surface tension, which also opposes adhesion by acting to flatten the surface of soft solids. We tested JKR theory to see if solid surface tension affects indentation behaviour. Using confocal microscopy, we characterised the indentation of glass particles into soft, silicone substrates. While JKR theory held for particles larger than a critical, elastocapillary lengthscale, it failed for smaller particles. Instead, adhesion of small particles mimicked the adsorption of particles at a fluid interface, with a size-independent contact angle between the undeformed surface and the particle given by a generalised version of Young's law. A simple theory quantitatively captures this behaviour, and explains how solid surface tension dominates elasticity for small-scale indentation of soft materials.

Robert W. Style; Callen Hyland; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

450

Predicting the stability of surface phases of molybdenum selenides  

SciTech Connect

The selenization of molybdenum might become an important step in the production of nanostructures based on the layered compound MoSe{sub 2}. It is already technologically relevant for the production of thin film chalcopyrite solar cells. However, the control of the process is still very poor, due to the lack of basic knowledge of the surface thermodynamics of the system. Here, we present a theoretical study on the stability of surface adlayers of Se on the Mo(110) surface, predicting surface patterns and their stability range in terms of temperature and selenium partial pressure. Our results, based on density functional theory, show that the attainable Se coverages range from 1/4 to 3/4 of a monolayer for systems in equilibrium with a gas formed of Se molecules. We provide simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images to help the experimental characterization of adsorbed surface patterns.

Roma, Guido [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ghorbani, Elaheh [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); IBM Mainz (Germany); Mirhosseini, Hossein; Kühne, Thomas D. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

451

Observation of buried interfaces with low energy electron microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter we show that a coherent low energy electron beam (<100 eV) can be used to obtain real space images of structures and defects buried deep below the surface of the sample. The elastic strain fields of such buried structures, extending to the free surface, are found to give rise to localized phase shifts in the reflected electron waves, resulting in excellent image contrast under slight objective lens defocus conditions. We can now image the formation and evolution of buried interfaces and defects in situ, and in real time. Because of the very low electron energies used, this imaging method is nondestructive.

R. M. Tromp, A. W. Denier van der Gon, F. K. LeGoues, and M. C. Reuter

1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical electron microscopy Sample Search...  

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Director Rutgers Research Showcase Summary: Electron Microscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy X-Ray Diffraction Facility (XRD) Micro-Analytical... for...

455

Cell Division Stage in C. elegans Imaged Using Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy  

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C. elegans embryogenesis, at the cell division stage, was imaged using third harmonic generation microscopy employing ultrashort pulsed lasers at 1028nm and 1550nm. This technique...

Aviles-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Tserevelakis, G J; Santos, Susana I c o; Filippidis, G; Krmpot, A J; Vlachos, M; Tavernarakis, N; Brodschelm, A; Kaenders, W; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

456

Label-free hyperspectral nonlinear optical microscopy of the biofuel micro-algae Haematococcus Pluvialis  

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We consider multi-modal four-wave mixing microscopies to be ideal tools for the in vivo study of carotenoid distributions within the important biofuel microalgae Haematococcus...

Barlow, Aaron M; Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; McGinn, Patrick J; Stolow, Albert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Pixel super-resolution in serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM)  

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We propose pixel super-resolution serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) for achieves high speed and high-resolution imaging - relaxing the stringent requirement on the...

Wong, Terence T W; Chan, Antony; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K

458

Coherence-Controlled Holographic Microscopy for Coherence-Gated Quantitative Phase Imaging  

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We show that the use of incoherent illumination in coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) enables coherence-gated quantitative phase imaging of objects through turbid...

Slaby, Tomas; Kolman, Pavel; Dostal, Zbynek; Antos, Martin; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Collakova, Jana; Kollarova, Vera; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectroscopic microscopy Sample...  

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version of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The tunable infrared radiation... the l 3.5 mm, CH vibrational stretch mode absorption band. ... Source:...

460

Data Reduction Enables Massive Data Handling in Super-resolution Localization Microscopy  

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Massive data handling is the major challenge in super-resolution localization microscopy. Here we present a data reduction approach to solve this challenge. This approach enables the...

Ma, Hongqiang; Zeng, Shaoqun; Huang, Zhen-li

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy surface analysis" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

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Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Materials Sciences and Engineering (MSE) Division MSE Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs BES Funding Opportunities The Computational Materials and Chemical Sciences Network (CMCSN) Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Scientific Highlights Reports and Activities Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page This research area supports basic research in condensed matter physics and materials physics using electron scattering and microscopy and scanning probe techniques. The research includes experiments and theory to understand the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structures of materials.

462

EMSL: Capabilities: Spectroscopy and Diffraction: Tools for Surface  

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Tools for Surface Analysis Tools for Surface Analysis This information is provided through the cooperation of EMSL and the ASTM E42 committee. This page provides information about terminology, analysis guides, recommended practices, reference data, reference materials and standards, and other tools that enable accurate analysis of surfaces. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee E42 on Surface Analysis was established in 1976 to help improve and advance the quality of surface analysis. Through the development of terminology, conducting round robin (interlaboratory) comparison studies, and the development of recommended practices and standards, the E42 Committee has worked to advance the concepts and analysis approaches that have significantly improved the ability to obtain accurate reproducible and quantitative

463

Scanning Multiprobe Surface Analysis System | EMSL  

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an intense He lamp for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), an argon ion gun for sputter depth profiling, and a C60 ion gun for high-resolution sputter depth...

464

Interferometric Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (IMASW)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Number 08HQGR0068 and by the Department of Energy (DOE) under award number DE-EE0002758 with the disclaimer http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/disclaimer.cfm (last accessed June 2011). References Abrahamson, N...

Daniel R. H. O’Connell; James P. Turner

465

Electron Spectrometer: Scanning Multiprobe Surface Analysis System...  

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(CNPs) have shown tremendous potential in various applications such as water gas shift catalysis, chemical mechanical... Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single...

466

Electron Spectrometer: Scanning Multiprobe Surface Analysis System...  

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based systems can be used as electrolytes to develop solid oxide fuel cells for clean energy production and to prevent air... Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide...