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1

EUV mask surface cleaning effects on lithography process performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflective, multilayer based, mask architectures for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are highly susceptible to surface oxidation and contamination. As a result, EUV masks are expected to undergo cleaning processes in order to maintain the lifetimes necessary for high volume manufacturing. For this study, the impact of repetitive cleaning of EUV masks on imaging performance was evaluated. Two, high quality industry standard, EUV masks are used for this study with one of the masks undergoing repeated cleaning and the other one kept as a reference. Lithographic performance, in terms of process window analysis and line edge roughness, was monitored after every two cleans and compared to the reference mask performance. After 8x clean, minimal degradation is observed. The cleaning cycles will be continued until significant loss imaging fidelity is found.

George, Simi; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Naulleau, Patrick; Chen, Robert J.; Liang, Ted

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

2

Development of a microfluidic device for patterning multiple species by scanning probe lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL) is a versatile nanofabrication platform that leverages microfluidic “ink” delivery systems with Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for generating surface-patterned chemical functionality on the sub-100 nm length scale...

Rivas Cardona, Juan Alberto

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

3

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like ?-Al2O3. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of...

4

Absorbance modulation optical lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Surface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understand, and ultimately im- prove, the performance of TiO2 as a gas sensor or heterogeneous catalyst and as a photo-active ma- terial. TiO2 exists in three crystallographic poly- morphs. These are: anatase promise as a more photo-active material than rutile [2], but relatively few surface studies have been

Diebold, Ulrike

6

Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecularly Resolved Images of Peptide-Functionalized Gold Surfaces by Scanning Tunneling propargylglycine unnatural functional groups 20 Ĺ apart and an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a gold-terminated surfaces were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) using a low tunneling current of 10 p

Webb, Lauren J.

7

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

8

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- gineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1637366] Subject terms: 157-nm lithography; immersion fluid; perfluoropolyether

Rollins, Andrew M.

12

Programmable imprint lithography template  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA); Talin, Albert A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Electrical transport and mechanical properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces probed by atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The correlation between molecular conductivity and mechanical properties (molecular deformation and frictional responses) of hexadecylsilane self-assembled monolayers was studied with conductive probe atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Current and friction were measured as a function of applied pressure, simultaneously, while imaging the topography of self-assembled monolayer molecule islands and silicon surfaces covered with a thin oxide layer. Friction images reveal lower friction over the molecules forming islands than over the bare silicon surface, indicating the lubricating functionality of alkylsilane molecules. By measuring the tunneling current change due to changing of the height of the molecular islands by tilting the molecules under pressure from the tip, we obtained an effective conductance decay constant ({beta}) of 0.52/{angstrom}.

Park, Jeong Young; Qi, Yabing; Ashby, Paul D.; Hendriksen, Bas L.M.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

15

Phase states of water near the surface of a polymer membrane. Phase microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase microscopy is used to show that the refractive index in the near-surface layer of water at the surface of a polymer Nafion membrane increases by a factor of 1.1 as compared to bulk water. Moreover, this layer exhibits birefringence. Experiments on UV irradiation of dry (anhydrous) and water-soaked Nafion are performed in grazing-incidence geometry to study their stimulated luminescence spectra. These spectra are found to be identical in both cases. For dry Nafion, luminescence can only be excited if probing radiation illuminates the polymer surface. The luminescence of water-soaked Nafion can also be excited if the distance between the optical axis and the surface is several hundred micrometers.

Bunkin, N. F., E-mail: nbunkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gorelik, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: v.kozlov@hotmail.com; Shkirin, A. V., E-mail: avshkirin@mephi.ru; Suyazov, N. V., E-mail: nvs@kapella.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

Oberbeck, Lars [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); TOTAL Marketing Services, New Energies, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schofield, Steven R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Curson, Neil J., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

17

Direct determination of exact charge states of surface point defects using scanning tunneling microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110... Kuo-Jen Chao, Arthur R. Smith, and Chih-Kang Shih* Department of the charge state of surface As vacancies on p-type GaAs 110 using scanning tunneling microscopy. This method utilizes the compensation between the local band bending result- ing from the As vacancy and the p

18

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

19

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Proximity heater for elevated temperature in situ vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy of metal surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfaces T. P. Pearl and S. J. Sibenera) The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, as well as thermally activated inter- facial chemistry. In this article, we will present a simple. The chamber is pumped by a 220 L/s D-I ion pump, cryoshroud and titanium sublimation pump as well as a 55 L

Sibener, Steven

22

Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

23

Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (Livermore, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

ORC Seminar Series Presents: "Nonlinear laser lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORC Seminar Series Presents: "Nonlinear laser lithography: formation of self-authored 50 journal and more than 150 conference papers and he has given more than 100 invited talks. http://www.orc

Anderson, Jim

28

Diffractive optics for maskless lithography and imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semiconductor industry has primarily been driven by the capability of lithography to pattern smaller and smaller features. However due to increasing mask costs and complexity, and increasing tool costs, the state-of-the-art ...

Menon, Rajesh, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications Stephen Y. Chou,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Lingjie Guo, and Lei Zhuang NanoStructure Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University on its surface is pressed into a thin resist cast on a substrate. The resist, a thermal plastic into the entire resist. Since imprint lithography is not based on modification of resist chemical structure

31

A direct-write thick-film lithography process for multi-parameter control of tooling in continuous roll-to-roll microcontact printing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roll-to-roll (R2R) microcontact printing ([mu]CP) aims to transform micron-precision soft lithography in a continuous, large-scale, high-throughput process for large-area surface patterning, flexible electronics and ...

Nietner, Larissa F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

33

II. Types of LithographyII. Types of Lithography A. Photolithography (optical, UV, EUV) F. Step Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithography S i b I. Self-Assembly J NanotemplatesE. Scanning Probe Voltage pulse CVD Local electrodeposition J. Nanotemplates Diblock copolymer Sphere Alumina membraneLocal electrodeposition Dip Interference Lithography FIG. 1. SEM images of nickel dot arrays fabricated by x-ray interference lithography

Liu, Kai

34

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH3 and H2S. The use of PH3 and H2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

36

Correlation between Charge State of Insulating NaCl Surfaces and Ionic Mobility Induced by Water Adsorption: A Combined Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) and scanning force microscopy were used to characterize the surface discharge induced by water layers grown on (001) surfaces of sodium chloride single crystals. The APPES studies show that both kinetic energy (KE) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Na 2s and Cl 2p core level peaks, monitored as a function of relative humidity (RH), mimic surface conductivity curves measured using scanning force microscopy. The KE position and FWHM of the core level peaks therefore are directly related to the solvation and diffusion of ions at the NaCl(100) surface upon adsorption of water.

Verdaguer, Albert; Jose Segura, Juan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

37

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY Jason P photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). PFPEs are a unique class of fluoropolymers that are liquids at room

Carter, Kenneth

38

Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

Koffas, Telly Stelianos

2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - arf immersion lithography Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

immersion lithography using ArF illumination... node; 38-nm node; high-n immersion fluids; ArF immersion lithography; 193-nm immersion ... Source: French, Roger H. -...

40

An Ice Lithography Instrument Anpan Han 1, John Chervinsky2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 An Ice Lithography Instrument Anpan Han 1, John Chervinsky2 , Daniel Branton3 , and J. A a new nano-patterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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42

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

43

Scanning tuneeling microscopy studies of fivefold surfaces of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals and of thin silver films on those surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work in this dissertation mainly focuses on the clean fivefold surfaces of i-Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystals as well as the nucleation and growth of Ag films on these surfaces. In addition, Ag film growth on NiAl(110) has been explored in the frame of this dissertation. First, we have investigated the equilibration of a fivefold surface of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal at 900-915 K and 925-950 K, using Omicron variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Annealing at low temperatures resulted in many voids on some terraces while the others were almost void-free. After annealing at 925-950K, void-rich terraces became much rarer. Our STM images suggest that through growth and coalescence of the voids, a different termination becomes exposed on host terraces. All of these observations in our study indicate that even after the quasicrystalline terrace-step structure appears, it evolves with time and temperature. More specifically, based on the STM observations, we conclude that during the annealing a wide range of energetically similar layers nucleate as surface terminations, however, with increasing temperature (and time) this distribution gets narrower via elimination of the metastable void-rich terraces. Next, we have examined the bulk structural models of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal in terms of the densities, compositions and interplanar spacings for the fivefold planes that might represent physical surface terminations. In our analyses, we mainly have focused on four deterministic models which have no partial or mixed occupancy but we have made some comparisons with an undeterministic model. We have compared the models with each other and also with the available experimental data including STM, LEED-IV, XPD and LEIS. In all deterministic models, there are two different families of layers (a pair of planes), and the nondeterministic model contains similar group of planes. These two families differ in terms of the chemical decoration of their top planes. Hence, we name them as Pd+(with Pd) and Pd-(without Pd). Based on their planer structure and the step height, it can be said that these two families can be viable surface terminations. However, besides the Pd content, these two sets differ in terms of relative densities of their top planes as well as the gap separating the layer from the nearest atomic plane. The experimental data and other arguments lead to the conclusion that the Pd- family is favored over the Pd+. This has an important implication on the interpretation of local motifs seen in the high resolution STM images. In other words, the dark stars are not formed by cut-Bergmans rather they are formed by cut-Mackays.

Unal, Baris

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) provides information on the crystallographic structure of a sample, while scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) provides information on its electrical properties. The advantage of these techniques is their high spatial resolution, which cannot be attained with any other techniques. However, because these techniques analyze the top layers of the sample, surface or cross section features directly influence the results of the measurements, and sample preparation is a main step in the analysis. In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe films. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (<100 nm) full-field imaging. To obtain high image quality at reasonable exposure times, custom-tailored matched pairs of condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E. [Institute for Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A. [Microresist Technology, Koepenikerstrasse 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

Felter, T. E. (Alameda County, CA); Kubiak, G. D. (Alameda County, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Structural defects in epitaxial graphene layers synthesized on C-terminated 4H-SiC (0001{sup Ż}) surface—Transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal structural defects in graphene multilayers synthesized on the carbon-terminated face of a 4H-SiC (0001{sup Ż}) substrate were investigated using the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The analyzed systems include a wide variety of defected structures such as edge dislocations, rotational multilayers, and grain boundaries. It was shown that graphene layers are composed of grains of the size of several nanometres or larger; they differ in a relative rotation by large angles, close to 30°. The structure of graphene multilayers results from the synthesis on a SiC (0001{sup Ż}) surface, which proceeds via intensive nucleation of new graphene layers that coalesce under various angles creating an immense orientational disorder. Structural defects are associated with a built-in strain resulting from a lattice mismatch between the SiC substrate and the graphene layers. The density functional theory data show that the high-angular disorder of AB stacked bi-layers is not restoring the hexagonal symmetry of the lattice.

Borysiuk, J., E-mail: jolanta.borysiuk@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); So?tys, J.; Piechota, J. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawi?skiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Krukowski, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Pawi?skiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Soko?owska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); St?pniewski, R. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm˛ is ...

Chen, A.

50

Achieving sub-10-nm resolution using scanning electron beam lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achieving the highest possible resolution using scanning-electron-beam lithography (SEBL) has become an increasingly urgent problem in recent years, as advances in various nanotechnology applications have driven demand for ...

Cord, Bryan M. (Bryan Michael), 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Microscopy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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52

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy Carolyn A. SuttonCarolyn A. Sutton PH 464PH 464 #12;OverviewOverview The OpticalThe Optical MicroscopeMicroscopy 4 Pi Microscopy4 Pi Microscopy Optical Microscope for Metallography #12;Optical Microscope: OriginsOptical

La Rosa, Andres H.

53

Pattern-placement-error detection for spatial-phase-locked e-beam lithography (SPLEBL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography (SPLEBL) is a new paradigm for scanning electron-beam lithography (SEBL) that permits nanometer-level pattern placement accuracy. Unlike conventional SEBL systems which run ...

Caramana, Cynthia L. (Cynthia Louise), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - aperture lithography ppal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut Collection: Engineering 26 Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurement using...

55

True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell­57 Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received wide-spread research attention due to their high power incorporated into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) by nanoimprint lithography. The reflectors

McGehee, Michael

57

Microscopy (XSD-MIC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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58

"A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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59

Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ultratech Develops an Improved Lithography Tool for LED Wafer Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ultratech modified an existing lithography tool used for semiconductor manufacturing to better meet the cost and performance targets of the high-brightness LED manufacturing industry. The goal was to make the equipment compatible with the wide range of substrate diameters and thicknesses prevalent in the industry while reducing the capital cost and the overall cost of ownership (COO).

62

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Digital microfluidics using soft lithography{ John Paul Urbanski,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital microfluidics using soft lithography{ John Paul Urbanski,a William Thies,b Christopher published as an Advance Article on the web 29th November 2005 DOI: 10.1039/b510127a Although microfluidic software to drive the pumps, valves, and electrodes used to manipulate fluids in microfluidic devices

Amarasinghe, Saman

64

Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies have been studied. The dependence of the throughput with the exposure field size and the speed of the mechanical stage has been investigated. In order to perform maskless lithography, different micro-fabricated pattern generators have been developed for the MMRL system. Ion beamlet switching has been successfully demonstrated on the MMRL system. A positive bias voltage around 10 volts is sufficient to switch off the ion current on the micro-fabricated pattern generators. Some unexpected problems, such as the high-energy secondary electron radiations, have been discovered during the experimental investigation. Thermal and structural analysis indicates that the aperture displacement error induced by thermal expansion can satisfy the 3{delta} CD requirement for lithography nodes down to 25 nm. The cross-talking effect near the surface and inside the apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in a 3-D ray-tracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposed to reduce the cross-talking effect. In order to eliminate the surface charging effect caused by the secondary electrons, a new beam-switching scheme in which the switching electrodes are immersed in the plasma has been demonstrated on a mechanically fabricated pattern generator.

Jiang, Ximan

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

65

Exploring the nature of surface barriers on MOF Zn(tbip) by applying IR microscopy in high temporal and spatial resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(propane) profiles in nanoporous materials (MOF Zn(tbip)) during transient sorption experiments, are found to exhibit notably reduced surface resistances while, with increasing time of storage under

Li, Jing

66

Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Study of hard disk and slider surfaces using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to study the properties of amorphous hard carbon overcoats on disks and sliders, and the properties of the lubricant. The modification of lubricants after performing thermal desorption studies was measured by NEXAFS, and the results are compared to the thermal desorption data. The study of lubricant degradation in wear tracks is described. Sliders were investigated before and after wear test, and the modification of the slider coating as well as the transfer of lubricant to the slider was studied. The studies show that the lubricant is altered chemically during the wear. Fluorine is removed and carboxyl groups are formed.

Anders, S.; Stammler, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.; Bhatia, C.S. [SSD/IBM, San Jose, CA (United States); Stoehr, J. [IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (United States). Almaden Research Center; Fong, W.; Chen, C.Y.; Bogy, D.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of free-electron lasers for xuv projection lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future rf-linac-driven FELs, operating in the range from 4 nm to 100 nm, could be excellent exposure tools for extending the resolution limit of projection optical lithography to {le}0.1 {mu}m and with adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). When operated at a moderate duty rate of {ge}1%, XUV FELs should be able to supply sufficient average power to support high-volume chip production. Recent developments of the electron beam, magnetic undulator, and resonator mirrors are described which raise our expectation that FEL operation below 100 nm is almost ready for demonstration. Included as a supplement is a review of initial design studies of the reflecting XUV projection optics, fabrication of reflection masks, characterization of photoresists, and the first experimental demonstrations of the capability of projection lithography with 14-nm radiation to produce lines and spaces as small as 0.05 {mu}m. 88 refs., 10 figs.

Newnam, B.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

Denbeaux, G. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Infrared thermometry and interferential microscopy for analysis of crater formation at the surface of fused silica under CO{sub 2} laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ spatial and temporal temperature measurements of a fused silica surface heated by a 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser were performed using an infrared camera. These measurements were derived from heat flux emission of the fused silica. High temperature measurements--in the range 400-2500 K--were performed at the surface of a semi-transparent media with a high spatial resolution. Particular attention was given to the experimental conception and to the calibration of the infrared device. Moreover, both conventional and interferential microscopes were used to characterize the silica surfaces after CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. By associating these results with thermal camera measurements we identified the major surface temperature levels of silica transformation when heated during 250 ms. Surface deformation of silica is observed for temperatures <2000 K. This is consistent with other recent work using CO{sub 2} laser heating. At higher temperatures, matter ejection, as deduced from microscope observations, occurs at temperatures that are still much lower than the standard boiling point. Such evaporation is described by a thermodynamical approach, and calculations show very good agreement with experiment.

Robin, Lucile; Cormont, Philippe; Hebert, David; Mainfray, Christelle; Rullier, Jean-Luc [CEA Cesta, Le Barp, F-33114 France (France); Combis, Patrick [CEA DAM Ile-de-France, Arpajon Cedex, 91297 France (France); Gallais, Laurent [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Marseille, 13013 France (France)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Patterning Organic Electronics Based on Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 3. 2. The fabrication process of OMESFETs with a self-aligned gate electrode. (a) Spin-coat an imprinting resist (PMMA or Teflon) on the Au/Cr surface. (b) Thermally imprint the resist. (c) Remove...-AF film. (d) Remove the Teflon-AF residue layer by oxygen RIE. (e) Spin-coat the PMMA solution on Teflon-AF. (f) Remove the PMMA residue layer by oxygen RIE. (g) Dissolve Teflon-AF by FC-72...

Lo, Yi-Chen

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

75

Resolution limits and process latitude of comformable contact nano-lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conformable Contact Lithography enables researchers to attain high-resolution lithographic patterning at manageable cost. This thesis characterizes the minimum resolvable feature size and process latitude of Conformable ...

Fucetola, Corey Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Nodal photolithography : lithography via far-field optical nodes in the resist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I investigate one approach - stimulated emission depletion - to surmounting the diffraction limitation of optical lithography. This approach uses farfield optical nodes to orchestrate reversible, saturable ...

Winston, Donald, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Structure, defects, and impurities at the rutile TiO2(011)-(2 1) surface: A scanning tunneling microscopy study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Available online 21 July 2006 Abstract The titanium dioxide rutile (011) (equivalent to (101)) surface boundaries 1. Introduction Titanium dioxide is a versatile material that finds appli- cations in a wide range) structure are active adsorption sites. Segregation of calcium impurities from the bulk results in an ordered

Diebold, Ulrike

78

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied by scanning tunneling microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacancy migration, adatom motion, a.nd atomic bistability on the GaAs(110) surface studied temperature are reported. The slow dynamic behavior of vacancies and As adatoms can be resolved within a time scale of about one minute, The vacancies and As adatoms are observed to move preferably along the [110

79

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

McIntyre, B.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Arrays of nanoscale magnetic dots: Fabrication by x-ray interference lithography and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray interference lithography (XIL) was employed in combination with electrodeposition to fabricate arrays of nanoscale nickel dots which are uniform over 40 {mu}m and have periods down to 71 nm. Using extreme-ultraviolet light, XIL has the potential to produce magnetic dot arrays over large areas with periods well below 50 nm, and down to a theoretical limit of 6.5 nm for a 13 nm x-ray wavelength. In the nickel dot arrays, we observed the effect of interdot magnetic stray field interactions. Measuring the hysteresis loops using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, a double switching via the vortex state was observed in the nickel dots with diameters down to 44 nm and large dot separations. As the dot separations are reduced to below around 50 nm a single switching, occurring by collective rotation of the magnetic spins, is favored due to interdot magnetic stray field interactions. This results in magnetic flux closure through several dots which could be visualized with micromagnetic simulations. Further evidence of the stray field interactions was seen in photoemission electron microscopy images, where bands of contrast corresponding to chains of coupled dots were observed.

Heyderman, L.J.; Solak, H.H.; David, C.; Atkinson, D.; Cowburn, R.P.; Nolting, F. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Rochester Building, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

82

Computer-Aided Design for Microfluidic Chips Based on Multilayer Soft Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer-Aided Design for Microfluidic Chips Based on Multilayer Soft Lithography Nada Amin1 Abstract-- Microfluidic chips are emerging as a powerful platform for automating biology experiments automation techniques for microfluidic chips based on multilayer soft lithography. We focus our attention

Rajamani, Sriram K.

83

header for SPIE use Fluoropolymers for 157nm Lithography: Optical Properties from VUV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

new radiation damage mechanisms in previously accepted optical materials. For 157 nm pellicles, newheader for SPIE use Fluoropolymers for 157nm Lithography: Optical Properties from VUV Absorbance With the introduction of 157 nm as the next optical lithography wavelength, the need for new pellicle and photoresist

Rollins, Andrew M.

84

A microfluidic microbial fuel cell fabricated by soft lithography Fang Qian a,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A microfluidic microbial fuel cell fabricated by soft lithography Fang Qian a,b, , Zhen He c microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) platform built by soft-lithography tech- niques. The MFC design includes a unique sub-5 lL polydimethylsiloxane soft chamber featuring carbon cloth electrodes and microfluidic

85

Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A laser triggered vacuum spark x-ray lithography source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ionized state or the physical processes occurring 15 in a high temperature plasma. There are many advantages to the use of the vacuum spark as an x-ray source; the simplicity of the machine is one. The x-ray output is within the range usable for x-ray... spark apparatus ha- been studied here to determine its applicability to x-ray lithography. A capacitor which stored approximately 3 KJ supplied most of the energy for the plasma. A Nd-YAG laser was used to supply electrons and metallic atoms...

Keating, Richard Allen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns Qingqing Sun,1,2 Philip R. Hemmer,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1,2 1Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843..., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 #1;2000#2;. #3;7#4; S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature #1;Lon- don#2; 412, 697 #1;2001#2;. #3;8#4; M. D?Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 #1;2001#2;. #3;9#4; A. Pe?er, B...

Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

Cohen, Simon J. (Pleasanton, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

93

Contact region fidelity, sensitivity, and control in roll-based soft lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft lithography is a printing process that uses small features on an elastomeric stamp to transfer micron and sub-micron patterns to a substrate. Translating this lab scale process to a roll-based manufacturing platform ...

Petrzelka, Joseph E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Computational microscopy for sample analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational microscopy is an emerging technology which extends the capabilities of optical microscopy with the help of computation. One of the notable example is super resolution fluorescence microscopy which achieves ...

Ikoma, Hayato

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

Brueck, Steven R.J. (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Xiaolan (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Daniel J. (Los Gatos, CA)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

96

Nonlinear vibrational microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

Holtom, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Richland, WA); Zumbusch, Andreas (Munchen, DE)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Soft Lithography Using Acryloxy Perfluoropolyether Composite Tu T. Truong, Rongsheng Lin, Seokwoo Jeon, Hee Hyun Lee, Joana Maria,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft Lithography Using Acryloxy Perfluoropolyether Composite Stamps Tu T. Truong, Rongsheng Lin composite patterning elements that use a commercially available acryloxy perfluoropolyether (a

Rogers, John A.

98

Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P. (University of Illinois, Urbana IL)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ?100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

Dhamgaye, V. P., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Proton Beam Lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre , I. Gomez-Morilla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Ion Scan software developed by the National University of Singapore [4]. Simulations with the SRIM in photosensitive glass [3]. This technique has clear advantages in comparison with electron beam lithography and X energy protons have a long range and a low lateral spread making them ideal for exposing thick resist

Webb, Roger P.

103

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene Jules A Gardener1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene Jules A Gardener1 and Jene A Golovchenko1 with a thin ice layer. The irradiated ice plays a crucial role in the process by providing activated species that locally remove graphene from a silicon dioxide substrate. After patterning the graphene, the ice resist

104

Flexible CO2 laser system for fundamental research related to an extreme ultraviolet lithography source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible CO2 laser system for fundamental research related to an extreme ultraviolet lithography 2009; published online 10 December 2009 A CO2 laser system with flexible parameters was developed 1010 W/cm2 . Utilizing this CO2 MOPA laser system, high conversion efficiency from laser to in-band 2

Najmabadi, Farrokh

105

Fabrication of magnetic microfiltration systems using soft lithography Tao Deng, Mara Prentiss,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The combination of microtransfer molding--a soft lithography technique--and electrodeposition generated nickel, Massachusetts 02138 Received 9 August 2001; accepted for publication 9 November 2001 Arrays of nickel posts were field from an external, permanent, neodymium­iron­boron magnet, these nickel posts generated strong

Prentiss, Mara

106

Low-voltage spatial-phase-locked scanning-electron-beam lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography (SPLEBL) is a method that tracks and corrects the position of an electron-beam in real-time by using a reference grid placed above the electron-beam resist. In this thesis, ...

Cheong, Lin Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Toward Optimized Light Utilization in Nanowire Arrays Using Scalable Nanosphere Lithography and Selected Area Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cellsToward Optimized Light Utilization in Nanowire Arrays Using Scalable Nanosphere Lithography promising results when used to fabricate light emitters6-10 and photovoltaic devices.11-15 The small contact

Zhou, Chongwu

108

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

109

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

111

Surface Structures of Black Phosphorus Investigated with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy C. D. Zhang, J. C. Lian, W. Yi, Y. H. Jiang, L. W. Liu, H. Hu, W. D. Xiao, S. X. Du,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perpendicular to the surface, which causes the atoms to take two types of positions (P1 and P2) with a contrast of structural phase transformations was found in the system,11,12 and the Tc of its superconductivity can even, nitrocellulose was dropped on the surface. After solidification, it was peeled off in dry nitrogen gas

Gao, Hongjun

112

Design and analysis of a scanning beam interference lithography system for patterning gratings with nanometer-level distortions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the design and analysis of a system for patterning large-area gratings with nanometer level phase distortions. The novel patterning method, termed scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL), uses ...

Konkola, Paul Thomas, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Theoretical efficiency analysis of a condenser-embedded grating-based spectral purity filter for EUV lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Being based on reflective optics, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography systems are, in principle, relatively immune to chromatic errors. However, illumination bandwidth control is still required for EUV lithography. For example, appreciable amounts of UV power, combined with resist sensitivity to this wavelength band, would decrease image contrast. Also, appreciable amounts of IR power would place unacceptable thermal loads on the projection optics. A practical method for spectral filtering, widely used in short-wavelength synchrotron applications, is the grating monochromator. Here we present the theoretical performance analysis of a grating-based spectral purity filter integrated into an EUV lithography condenser system. Although the specific examples presented here are geared towards a specific condenser design, it should be noted that the methods described are generally applicable to a variety of condenser designs as might be found in future EUV lithography systems.

Naulleau, Patrick P.; Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.

2002-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

114

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng, Duoming Wang, Dongxia Shi,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng: Fabrication of graphene nanostructures is of importance for both investigating their intrinsic physical approach for graphene nanostructures. Compared with conventional lithographic fabrication techniques

Zhang, Guangyu

115

2D and 3D periodic templates through holographic interference lithography : photonic and phononic crystals and biomimetic microlens arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis a simple technique for controlling structure via holographic interference lithography was established and implemented. Access to various space groups including such important structures as the level set ...

Ullal, Chaitanya K. (Chaitanya Kishore)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Micelle microscopy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portalarticles oftheEvaluateMiamiMicelle

120

Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Selectively patterning polymer opal films via microimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

functional patterning of such POFs. 2.1. Microimprinting of Polymer Opal Films The stamps used for imprinting are made by replicating a PDMS mold with epoxy resin. The initial stamp used comprises of a hexagonal array of 30 ?m high posts with diameter... the polymer opal surface to allow the microimprinting process. Microimprinting of Polymer Opal Films: The stamps used for microimprinting were made by replicating PDMS molds with epoxy resin (Sigma-Aldrich Epoxy Embedding Medium Kit). The stamps...

Ding, Tao; Zhao, Qibin; Smoukov, Stoyan; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nanoimprint Lithography of Al Nanovoids for Deep-UV SERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Near-Field Enhanced Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-Tie Nano-Antenna. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 113116. (18) Jha, S. K.; Ahmed, Z.; Agio, M.; Ekinci, Y.; Löffler, J. F., Deep-UV Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman... , G.; Colličre, V.; Lacroix, L. M.; Shafeev, G. A., Internal Structure of Al Hollow Nanoparticles Generated by Laser Ablation in Liquid Ethanol. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2011, 501, 419-422. (25) Maidecchi, G.; Gonella, G.; Proietti Zaccaria, R.; Moroni, R...

Ding, Tao; Sigle, Daniel O.; Herrmann, Lars O.; Wolverson, Daniel; Baumberg, Jeremy

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Low thermal distortion Extreme-UV lithography reticle and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

865.574.7308 ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and...

127

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Optical Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of materials (such as this metallic superlattice) are produced in Optical Microscopy. Web-based Education This department runs four microscopy Web sites that together comprise...

128

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy...

129

Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350?mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Bernardez, Luis J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Wafer chamber having a gas curtain for extreme-UV lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An EUVL device includes a wafer chamber that is separated from the upstream optics by a barrier having an aperture that is permeable to the inert gas. Maintaining an inert gas curtain in the proximity of a wafer positioned in a chamber of an extreme ultraviolet lithography device can effectively prevent contaminants from reaching the optics in an extreme ultraviolet photolithography device even though solid window filters are not employed between the source of reflected radiation, e.g., the camera, and the wafer. The inert gas removes the contaminants by entrainment.

Kanouff, Michael P. (Livermore, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the fabrication of two-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures by nanoimprint lithography and dry etching, and their integration into a 1-{\\mu}m-thin mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. Thanks to the periodic nanopatterning, a better in-coupling and trapping of light is achieved, resulting in an absorption enhancement. The proposed light trapping mechanism can be explained as the superposition of a graded index effect and of the diffraction of light inside the photoactive layer. The absorption enhancement is translated into a 23% increase in short-circuit current, as compared to the benchmark cell, resulting in an increase in energy-conversion efficiency.

Trompoukis, Christos; Depauw, Valérie; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef; 10.1063/1.4749810.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

Dietrich, K., E-mail: dietrich.kay@uni-jena.de; Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hübner, U. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

134

Atom Nano-lithography with Multi-layer Light Masks: Particle Optics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the focusing of atoms by multiple layers of standing light waves in the context of atom lithography. In particular, atomic localization by a double-layer light mask is examined using the optimal squeezing approach. Operation of the focusing setup is analyzed both in the paraxial approximation and in the regime of nonlinear spatial squeezing for the thin-thin as well as thin-thick atom lens combinations. It is shown that the optimized double light mask may considerably reduce the imaging problems, improve the quality of focusing and enhance the contrast ratio of the deposited structures.

R. Arun; I. Sh. Averbukh; T. Pfau

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

135

Fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the ZnO/GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports fabrication of n-ZnO photonic crystal/p-GaN light emitting diode (LED) by nanosphere lithography to further booster the light efficiency. In this article, the fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals is carried out by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs. The CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gas gives high etching rate of n-ZnO film, which yields a better surface morphology and results less plasma-induced damages of the n-ZnO film. Optimal ZnO lattice parameters of 200 nm and air fill factor from 0.35 to 0.65 were obtained from fitting the spectrum of n-ZnO/p-GaN LED using a MATLAB code. In this article, we will show our recent result that a ZnO photonic crystal cylinder has been fabricated using polystyrene nanosphere mask with lattice parameter of 200 nm and radius of hole around 70 nm. Surface morphology of ZnO photonic crystal was examined by scanning electron microscope.

Chen, Shr-Jia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Kao, Jiann-Shiun; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Applied Surface Science 289 (2014) 358365 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Science journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apsusc Electron irradiation-enhanced water of the conventional optical lithography for further reduction in feature size with a reasonable resolution [2 of the EUV optics [5,6]. Carbon contamination in EUV optics is caused by EUV induced dissociation

Harilal, S. S.

137

Achieving clean epitaxial graphene surfaces suitable for device applications by improved lithographic process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well-known that the performance of graphene electronic devices is often limited by extrinsic scattering related to resist residue from transfer, lithography, and other processes. Here, we report a polymer-assisted fabrication procedure that produces a clean graphene surface following device fabrication by a standard lithography process. The effectiveness of this improved lithography process is demonstrated by examining the temperature dependence of epitaxial graphene-metal contact resistance using the transfer length method for Ti/Au (10?nm/50?nm) metallization. The Landauer-Buttiker model was used to explain carrier transport at the graphene-metal interface as a function of temperature. At room temperature, a contact resistance of 140 ?-?m was obtained after a thermal anneal at 523?K for 2?hr under vacuum, which is comparable to state-of-the-art values.

Nath, A., E-mail: anath@gmu.edu; Rao, M. V. [George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Koehler, A. D.; Jernigan, G. G.; Wheeler, V. D.; Hite, J. K.; Hernández, S. C.; Robinson, Z. R.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Garces, N. Y. [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy. Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Very uniform 2 {micro}m-pitch square microlens arrays ({micro}LAs), embossed on the blank glass side of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated 1.1 mm-thick glass, are used to enhance light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by {approx}100%, significantly higher than enhancements reported previously. The array design and size relative to the OLED pixel size appear to be responsible for this enhancement. The arrays are fabricated by very economical soft lithography imprinting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold (itself obtained from a Ni master stamp that is generated from holographic interference lithography of a photoresist) on a UV-curable polyurethane drop placed on the glass. Green and blue OLEDs are then fabricated on the ITO to complete the device. When the {mu}LA is {approx}15 x 15 mm{sup 2}, i.e., much larger than the {approx}3 x 3 mm{sup 2} OLED pixel, the electroluminescence (EL) in the forward direction is enhanced by {approx}100%. Similarly, a 19 x 25 mm{sup 2} {mu}LA enhances the EL extracted from a 3 x 3 array of 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} OLED pixels by 96%. Simulations that include the effects of absorption in the organic and ITO layers are in accordance with the experimental results and indicate that a thinner 0.7 mm thick glass would yield a {approx}140% enhancement.

Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Leung, Wai Y.; Liu, Rui; Ye, Zhuo; Constant, Kristen; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Ho, Kai-Ming

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermal expansion recovery microscopy: Practical design considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of relevant parameters for the design and operation of a photothermal microscope technique recently introduced is presented. The technique, named thermal expansion recovery microscopy (ThERM) relies in the measurement of the defocusing introduced by a surface that expands and recovers upon the heating from a modulated source. A new two lens design is presented that can be easily adapted to commercial infinite conjugate microscopes and the sensitivity to misalignment is analyzed. The way to determine the beam size by means of a focus scan and the use of that same scan to verify if a thermoreflectance signal is overlapping with the desired ThERM mechanism are discussed. Finally, a method to cancel the thermoreflectance signal by an adequate choice of a nanometric coating is presented.

Mingolo, N., E-mail: nmingol@fi.uba.ar; Martínez, O. E. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and chemical mechanical polishing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Received 2 June's size and location, and reactive ion etching was used to form an SiO2 template. Nickel electroplating

143

Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An approach for surface potential imaging based on half-harmonic band excitation (BE) in Kelvin probe force microscopy is demonstrated. Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus allows quantitative separation of surface potential and topographic contributions to the signal, obviating the primary sources of topographic cross-talk. HBE KPFM imaging and voltage spectroscopy methods are illustrated for several model systems.

Guo, Senli [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Development of a cost effective surface-patterned transparent conductive coating as top-contact of light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sol-gel process has been used to form indium zinc oxide films using an optimized combination of zinc to indium concentration in the precursor solutions. Different structures, like one (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) gratings and diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in the form of Fresnel lens are fabricated on the film surface of proposed top metal contact of LED by imprint soft lithography technique. These structures can enhance the LED's light extraction efficiency (LEE) or can shape the output beam pattern, respectively. Several characterizations are done to analyze the material and structural properties of the films. The presence of 1D and 2D gratings as well as DOEs is confirmed from field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopes analyses. Although, X-ray diffraction shows amorphous nature of the film, but transmission electron microscopy study shows that it is nano crystalline in nature having fine particles (?8?nm) of hexagonal ZnO. Shrinkage behaviour of gratings as a function of curing temperature is explained by Fourier transform infra-red spectra and thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The visible transmission and sheet resistance of the sample are found comparable to tin doped indium oxide (ITO). Therefore, the film can compete as low cost substitute of ITO as top metal contact of LEDs.

Haldar, Arpita [Department of Applied Optics and Photonics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bera, Susanta; Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in, E-mail: srirajib@yahoo.com [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharya, Kallol; Chakraborty, Rajib, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in, E-mail: srirajib@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Optics and Photonics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

145

Electrostrictive and electrostatic responses in contact mode voltage modulated Scanning Probe Microscopies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electromechanical response of solids underpins image formation mechanism of several scanning probe microscopy techniques including the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). While the theory of linear piezoelectric and ionic responses are well developed, the contributions of quadratic effects including electrostriction and capacitive tip-surface forces to measured signal remain poorly understood. Here we analyze the electrostrictive and capacitive contributions to the PFM and ESM signals and discuss the implications of the dielectric tip-surface gap on these interactions.

Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL; Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL] [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Surface Localization Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi Lipoproteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these virulence factors reach the spirochetal surface. We observed in previous studies that monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) lipopeptides could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy...

Kumru, Ozan

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

147

Visual-servoing optical microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

Callahan, Daniel E; Parvin, Bahram

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Visual-servoing optical microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

149

Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7 nm for future lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmas containing gadolinium have been proposed as sources for next generation lithography at 6.x nm. To determine the optimum plasma conditions, atomic structure calculations have been performed for Gd{sup 11+} to Gd{sup 27+} ions which showed that n = 4 - n = 4 resonance transitions overlap in the 6.5-7.0 nm region. Plasma modeling calculations, assuming collisional-radiative equilibrium, predict that the optimum temperature for an optically thin plasma is close to 110 eV and that maximum intensity occurs at 6.76 nm under these conditions. The close agreement between simulated and experimental spectra from laser and discharge produced plasmas indicates the validity of our approach.

Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan)

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

Scanning probe microscopy: Sulfate minerals in scales and cements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are illustrated with examples from oilfield mineralogy, particularly emphasizing sulfate minerals involved in scale formation and cement hydration chemistry. The topography of the (010) cleavage surface of gypsum observed by atomic force microscopy shows atomically flat terraces separated by shallow steps often only one unit cell high. SPM allows direct observation of processes on mineral surfaces while they are in contact with solutions. The dissolution etching and crystal growth of gypsum and barite are discussed and rates of step migration estimated. The orientation of steps is related to the crystallographic axes. The action of phosphonate crystal growth inhibitor on gypsum and of a chelating scale solvent on barite are also shown. The multiphase microstructure of an oilwell cement clinker is described in relation to its hydration chemistry in contact with water and its reaction with sulfate ions.

Hall, C. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Characterization of Dynamic Surface Processes by Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen terminated as synthesized but may slowly become oxidized to oxygen termi- nated under long time storage

Shao, Jingru

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Surface contamination effects on resistance of gold nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nanowires were patterned with e-beam lithography and fabricated with a gold film deposited by e-beam evaporation. The resistances of these wires were measured and found to be nonlinear with respect to surface area/volume. With x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, carbon and oxygen contaminants in the forms of C, C-O-C, and C=O were found adsorbed on the gold surface. This contamination adsorbed on the surface may lead to increased resistance of nanowires.

Lilley, Carmen M.; Huang, Qiaojian [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor Street (MC 251), Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2006-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are described for addressable field emission array (AFEA) chips. A method of operating an addressable field-emission array, includes: generating a plurality of electron beams from a pluralitly of emitters that compose the addressable field-emission array; and focusing at least one of the plurality of electron beams with an on-chip electrostatic focusing stack. The systems and methods provide advantages including the avoidance of space-charge blow-up.

Thomas, Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN); Baylor, Larry R. (Farragut, TN); Voelkl, Edgar (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Whitson, John C. (Clinton, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

156

Imaging capabilities of resist in deep ultraviolet liquid immersion interferometric lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 Will Conley Freescale Semiconductor Assignee known from oil-immersion optical microscopy. Through the use of immersion media, such as deionized water

New Mexico, University of

157

Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Synthesis and structure of Al clusters supported on TiO2,,110...: A scanning tunneling microscopy study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis and structure of Al clusters supported on TiO2,,110...: A scanning tunneling microscopy, Texas 77843-3255 Received 14 October 1997; accepted 6 April 1998 Al clusters supported on TiO2(110) have been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy. Al interacts strongly with the TiO2(110) surface

Goodman, Wayne

159

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies of Carbon Nanotubes Teri Wang Odom1 , Jason H. Hafner1 relationship between Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWNT) atomic structure and electronic properties, (2, properties and application of carbon nanotube probe microscopy tips to ultrahigh resolution and chemically

Odom, Teri W.

160

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faculty Position in Materials Electron Microscopy at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in electron microscopy of materials within its Institute of Materials. We seek exceptional individuals who community. Top-level applications are invited from candidates at the cutting edge of electron microscopic

Candea, George

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast agents Siavash Yazdanfar,a, * Chulmin Joo,a Chun limited to the visible spectrum. We introduce a paradigm for MPM of near-infrared NIR fluorescent Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3420209 Keywords: two-photon microscopy; ultrafast fiber lasers; near-infrared

Larson-Prior, Linda

162

Nonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/20/2010 Published on Web: 11/16/2010 FIGURE 1. Illustration of the nonlinear dark-field imaging method. Two incidentNonlinear Dark-Field Microscopy Hayk Harutyunyan, Stefano Palomba, Jan Renger, Romain Quidant Dark-field microscopy is a background-free imaging method that provides high sensitivity and a large

Novotny, Lukas

163

In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Microscopy with Slow Electrons: From LEEM to XPEEM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichaelGE1 Micropulse Lidar TheMicroscopy

165

Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8?×?10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

166

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

Srinivasarao, Mohan

167

Subwavelength optical microscopy in the far field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a procedure for subwavelength optical microscopy. The identical atoms are distributed on a plane and shined with a standing wave. We rotate the plane to different angles and record the resonant fluorescence spectra in the far field, from...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted so as to characterize atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic (pollution) and natural (sea saltAtomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles ZAHAVA BARKAY,1 * AMIT 69978, Israel KEY WORDS atmospheric aerosols; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron microscopy

Shapira, Yoram

169

In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

170

In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

171

In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage...

172

Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and transport measurements on adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have performed not only magnetotransport measurements on two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) formed at the cleaved surfaces of p-InAs but also observations of the surface morphology of the adsorbate atoms, which induced the 2DES at the surfaces of narrow band-gap semiconductors, with use of a scanning tunneling microscopy. The electron density of the 2DESs is compared to the atomic density of the isolated Ag adatoms on InAs surfaces.

Masutomi, Ryuichi; Triyama, Naotaka; Okamoto, Tohru [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

173

Environmental cell assembly for use in for use in spectroscopy and microscopy applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental cell assembly for use in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, including: an environmentally sealed body assembly configured to selectively hold and contain a sample; a plurality of ports manufactured into one or more surfaces of the body assembly for one or more of evacuating the body assembly and injecting a gas into or removing a gas from the body assembly; a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving a translating stage configured to move the sample within the body assembly; and a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for receiving one or more lenses utilized in a microscopy or spectroscopy application; wherein the one or more lenses are disposed adjacent the sample without intervening structures disposed there between. The cell assembly also includes a port manufactured into a surface of the body assembly for retaining a window and providing visualization of the sample.

Stowe, Ashley Clinton; Smyrl, Norman; Hallman, Jr., Russell L.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

174

Defect production in tungsten: A comparison between field-ion microscopy and molecular-dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defect production in tungsten: A comparison between field-ion microscopy and molecular defect production efficiencies obtained by FIM are a consequence of a surface effect, which greatly enhances defect production compared to that in the crystal interior. Comparison of clustering of vacancies

Nordlund, Kai

175

Sub-50 nm high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, ridges, and trenches fabricated using ultrahigh resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching P. B. Fischer and S. Y. Chou University of Minnesota Department of Electrical Engineering, Minneapolis, Minnesota 554~3 (Received 29 July 1992 and chlorine based reactive ion etching. These nanoscale Si features can be further reduced to 10 nm using

176

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene This article has been downloaded from IOPscience PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 23 (2012) 185302 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185302 Ice demonstrate that a low energy focused electron beam can locally pattern graphene coated with a thin ice layer

177

1 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.com Interfacial Nanosphere Lithography toward Ag2SAg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-shell Au@Ag2S nanoparticles,[6] hollow-solid Ag2S­Ag nanocomposites,[2,7] porous Ag2S­Ag hybrid nano- tubes. While a variety of physical processes-aided nano- sphere lithography methods have been developed above the tangent-point plane and Ag nano- bowl arrays enclosing the lower part of the MCC template were

Qi, Limin

178

Fabrication of Sub-10-nm Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Size Reduction Lithography Yang-Kyu Choi, Ji Zhu,, Jeff Grunes,, Jeffrey Bokor, and Gabor. A. Somorjai*,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Introduction The fabrication of nanoscale patterns with dimensions of 10 nm or less has been and space dimensions" from polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon) and a metal oxide by etching one et al. carried out what they called "spacer lithography" to produce electronic devices in silicon

Bokor, Jeffrey

179

Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Specific adhesion of peptides on semiconductor surfaces in experiment and simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with distilled water and drying in air, sample surfaces have been investigated by atomic-force microscopy (AFM phases of peptides on inorganic semiconductor surfaces. The peptide-covered surface fraction can differ

Bachmann, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM by Kris Anne Battleson on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................17 Atomic Force Microscopy on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................21 Numerical Methods...........................................................................

182

Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

Browning, R. [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)] [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

High aspect ratio x-ray waveguide channels fabricated by e-beam lithography and wafer bonding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication and characterization of hard x-ray waveguide channels manufactured by e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and wafer bonding. The guiding layer consists of air or vacuum and the cladding material of silicon, which is favorable in view of minimizing absorption losses. The specifications for waveguide channels which have to be met in the hard x-ray range to achieve a suitable beam confinement in two orthogonal directions are extremely demanding. First, high aspect ratios up to 10{sup 6} have to be achieved between lateral structure size and length of the guides. Second, the channels have to be deeply embedded in material to warrant the guiding of the desired modes while absorbing all other (radiative) modes in the cladding material. We give a detailed report on device fabrication with the respective protocols and parameter optimization, the inspection and the optical characterization.

Neubauer, H.; Hoffmann, S.; Kanbach, M.; Haber, J.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Krüger, S. P.; Salditt, T., E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institut für Röntgenphysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

184

Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

Youvan, Dougalas C.; Silva, Christopher M.; Bylina, Edward J.; Coleman, William J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

Youvan, Douglas C. (San Jose, CA); Silva, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Bylina, Edward J. (San Jose, CA); Coleman, William J. (Moutain View, CA); Dilworth, Michael R. (Santa Cruz, CA); Yang, Mary M. (San Jose, CA)

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Confinement and flow dynamics in thin polymer films for nanoimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a soft film resist deposited on the surface, the film material flows into the mask features in methyl-isobutyl- ketone. The residual stresses and residual solvent in the film were minimized

Boyer, Edmond

187

Ultrahigh density ferroelectric storage and lithography by high order ferroic switching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for switching the direction of polarization in a relatively small domain in a thin-film ferroelectric material whose direction of polarization is oriented normal to the surface of the material involves a step of moving an electrically-chargeable tip into contact with the surface of the ferroelectric material so that the direction of polarization in a region adjacent the tip becomes oriented in a preselected direction relative to the surface of the ferroelectric material. The tip is then pressed against the surface of the ferroelectric material so that the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric material within the area of the ferroelectric material in contact with the tip is reversed under the combined effect of the compressive influence of the tip and electric bias.

Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN); Baddorf, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Ho Nyung (Oak Ridge, TN); Shin, Junsoo (Knoxville, TN); Gruverman, Alexei L. (Raleigh, NC); Karapetian, Edgar (Malden, MA); Kachanov, Mark (Arlington, MA)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

188

Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

An apparatus was developed to obtain, for the first time, 2D maps of the surface resistance of the inner surface of an operating superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity by a low-temperature laser scanning microscopy technique. This allows identifying non-uniformities of the surface resistance with a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than with earlier methods. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB was obtained with 240 mW laser power and 1 Hz modulation frequency. The various components of the apparatus, the experimental procedure and results are discussed in details in this contribution.

Ciovati, Gianluigi; Baldwin, Charles; Cheng, Guangfeng; Flood, Roger; Jordan, Kevin; Kneisel, Peter; Morrone, Michael; Nemes, George; Turlington, Larry; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

Single particle microscopy with nanometer resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally demonstrate nanoscopic transmission microscopy relying on a deterministic single particle source. This increases the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to conventional microscopy methods, which employ Poissonian particle sources. We use laser-cooled ions extracted from a Paul trap, and demonstrate remote imaging of transmissive objects with a resolution of 8.6 $\\pm$ 2.0nm and a minimum two-sample deviation of the beam position of 1.5nm. Detector dark counts can be suppressed by 6 orders of magnitudes through gating by the extraction event. The deterministic nature of our source enables an information-gain driven approach to imaging. We demonstrate this by performing efficient beam characterization based on a Bayes experiment design method.

Georg Jacob; Karin Groot-Berning; Sebastian Wolf; Stefan Ulm; Luc Couturier; Ulrich G. Poschinger; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloys surface enhanced Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

piston alloys at elevated temperature Summary: C. Optical microscopy of sectioned fracture surfaces for alloy A indicated that at low values of DK... and illustrates how the...

192

Sandia National Laboratories: scanning tunneling microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskiteremoving thereversetunneling microscopy

193

Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

Yuen, Chad [Ames Laboratory

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

Zeskind, Benjamin J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology** By Zhong Lin Wang* 1. Electron Microscopy and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, as an international initiative for science manufacturing are the foundation of nanotechnology. Tracking the historical background of why nanotechnology

Wang, Zhong L.

197

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with...

198

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

199

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

377 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS H. STRUNK Max'importance croissante du durcissement de la solution solide. Abstract. 2014 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM Abstracts 7j66 - 7 I' 1. Introduction. - It is only some years ago that transmission electron microscopy

Boyer, Edmond

200

Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy Conor L. Evans1§ , Xiaoyin Xu anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to image brain structure and pathology ex vivo. Although. Definitive diagnosis still requires brain biopsy in a significant number of cases. CARS microscopy

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Electron Microscopy | Center for Functional Nanomaterials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for the‹ See allElectrochemicalElectron Microscopy

203

NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Analytical Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements ofLizResultsGeothermalAnalytical Microscopy

204

In-situ spectro-microscopy on organic films: Mn-Phthalocyanine on Ag(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal phthalocyanines are attracting significant attention, owing to their potential for applications in chemical sensors, solar cells and organic magnets. As the electronic properties of molecular films are determined by their crystallinity and molecular packing, the optimization of film quality is important for improving the performance of organic devices. Here, we present the results of in situ low-energy electron microscopy / photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) studies of incorporation-limited growth [1] of manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) on Ag(100) surfaces. MnPc thin films were grown on both, bulk Ag(100) surface and thin Ag(100)/Fe(100) films, where substrate spin-polarized electronic states can be modified through tuning the thickness of the Ag film [2]. We also discuss the electronic structure and magnetic ordering in MnPc thin films, investigated by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

Al-Mahboob A.; Vescovo, E.; Sadowski, J.T.

2013-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

205

Surface figure control for coated optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Kanouff, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Microscopy image segmentation tool: Robust image data analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Valmianski, Ilya, E-mail: ivalmian@ucsd.edu; Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tuning extreme ultraviolet emission for optimum coupling with multilayer mirrors for future lithography through control of ionic charge states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the identification of the optimum plasma conditions for a laser-produced plasma source for efficient coupling with multilayer mirrors at 6.x nm for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography. A small shift to lower energies of the peak emission for Nd:YAG laser-produced gadolinium plasmas was observed with increasing laser power density. Charge-defined emission spectra were observed in electron beam ion trap (EBIT) studies and the charge states responsible identified by use of the flexible atomic code (FAC). The EBIT spectra displayed a larger systematic shift of the peak wavelength of intense emission at 6.x nm to longer wavelengths with increasing ionic charge. This combination of spectra enabled the key ion stage to be confirmed as Gd{sup 18+}, over a range of laser power densities, with contributions from Gd{sup 17+} and Gd{sup 19+} responsible for the slight shift to longer wavelengths in the laser-plasma spectra. The FAC calculation also identified the origin of observed out-of-band emission and the charge states responsible.

Ohashi, Hayato, E-mail: ohashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kanehara, Tatsuhiko; Aida, Yuya; Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Torii, Shuichi; Makimura, Tetsuya [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Direct measurements of ensemble particle and surface interactions on homogeneous and patterned substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in colloidal ensembles levitated above macroscopic surfaces. TIRM and VM are well established optical microscopy techniques for measuring normal and lateral colloidal excursions near macroscopic planar surfaces. The interactions between particle-particle...

Wu, Hung-Jen

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

212

Self-Aligned Colloidal Lithography for Controllable and Tuneable Plasmonic Nanogaps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

–9 ] with controlled interparticle separations. Light-driven mutual electromagnetic coupling between coherent surface charge oscillations in the NPs then creates intense local electric fi elds in the gaps between the particles. [ 10 ] The magnitude of these fi elds... d) clearly shows the Au NPs on the fl at Si wafer with a shadow region below. After evaporating a layer of 30 nm Au (voltage: small 2014, DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402639 This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons...

Ding, Tao; Herrmann, Lars O.; de Nijs, Bart; Benz, Felix; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Atom chip microscopy: A novel probe for strongly correlated materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improved measurements of strongly correlated systems will enable the predicative design of the next generation of supermaterials. In this program, we are harnessing recent advances in the quantum manipulation of ultracold atomic gases to expand our ability to probe these technologically important materials in heretofore unexplored regions of temperature, resolution, and sensitivity parameter space. We are working to demonstrate the use of atom chips to enable single-shot, large area detection of magnetic flux at the 10^-7 flux quantum level and below. By harnessing the extreme sensitivity of atomic clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to external perturbations, the cryogenic atom chip technology developed here will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques---such as scanning SQUIDs---by a factor of 10--1000. We are testing the utility of this technique by using rubidium BECs to image the magnetic fields emanating from charge transport and magnetic domain percolation in strongly correlated materials as they undergo temperature-tuned metal--to--insulator phase transitions. Cryogenic atom chip microscopy introduces three very important features to the toolbox of high-resolution, strongly correlated material microscopy: simultaneous detection of magnetic and electric fields (down to the sub-single electron charge level); no invasive large magnetic fields or gradients; simultaneous micro- and macroscopic spatial resolution; freedom from 1/f flicker noise at low frequencies; and, perhaps most importantly, the complete decoupling of probe and sample temperatures. The first of these features will play an important role in studying the interplay between magnetic and electric domain structure. The last two are crucial for low frequency magnetic noise detection in, e.g., the cuprate pseudogap region and for precision measurements of transport in the high temperature, technologically relevant regime inaccessible to other techniques based on superconducting scanning probes. In periods 1--3 of this grant, which we now close at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and restart at Stanford University where our new lab is being built, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly create Rb BECs and trap them within microns of a surface ina cryostat. Period 4 of this grant, to be performed at Stanford, will demonstrate the feasibility of using atom chips with a BEC to image transport features on a cryogenically cooled surface. Successful demonstration, in future funding cycles, will lead directly to the use of system for studies of transport in exotic and technologically relevant materials such as cuprate superconductors and topological insulators.

Lev, Benjamin L

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Instrument Series: Microscopy Aberration-Corrected  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and material defects Chemistry ­ understanding particle surface interactions, atomic-level structure-tilt Crystallographic and Tomographic Analysis Ě Silicon-Lithium [Si(Li)] X-ray EDS Ě Cryogenic Imaging Capability Ě

215

Lithography High-Resolution Soft Lithography: Enabling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs).[6] PFPE-based materials are liquids at room temperature

Carter, Kenneth

216

Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, J.R.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

Malinowski, Michael E.

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

218

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

219

Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL of biomass feedstocks. BSCL imaging capabilities include: · Confocal microscopy and Raman microscopy

220

Investigation of wettability by NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The wettability of reservoir rock has an important impact on the efficiency of oil recovery processes and the distribution of oil and water within the reservoir. One of the potentially useful tools for wettability measurements is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spin-lattice relaxation. More recently using NMR microscopy NIPER has developed the capability of imaging one- and two-phase fluid systems in reservoir rock at resolutions to 25 microns. Effects seen in the images of fluids within the pore space of rocks near the rock grain surfaces hinted at the possibility of using NMR microscopy to map the wettability variations at grain sites within the pore space. Investigations were begun using NMR microscopy and spin-lattice relaxation time measurements on rock/fluid systems and on well-defined fractional wet model systems to study these effects. Relaxation data has been modelled using the stretched exponential relationship recently introduced. Comparisons of the NMR microscopy results of the model system with the rock results indicate that the observed effects probably do not reflect actual wettability variations within the pore space. The results of the relaxation time measurements reveal that even in the simple model studied, the behavior of two phases is somewhat ambiguous and much more complex and requires more study.

Doughty, D.A.; Tomutsa, Liviu

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SENSOR RESEARCH (NCSR) Research Engineer Fluorescence Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manuals, prepare standard operating procedures and ensure documentation is maintained. · Manage online projects. · Undertake the commissioning and maintenance of microscopy equipment. · Collate operations

Humphrys, Mark

222

Scanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

briefly in running water for 30 minutes and were dehydrated through graded ethanol series (1 hour each in 50, 70, 80, 95 and 100 %). Dehydrated specimens were dried in a carbon dioxide critical point drier to avoid exposure of the specimens to any surface tension forces when drying. The dried specimens were

Boyer, Edmond

223

Instrument Series: Microscopy Helium Ion Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nature of nanostructure and chemical functionality Energy ­ studying surface/interface characteristics charge for insulating samples based on line or frame scans Small beam size ­ provides stable beam energy Novel features ­ offers EMSL users an additional 4.5-inch center port and two 2.75-inch ports for other

224

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

225

Video Article Three-dimensional Optical-resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of optical microscopy optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM)1, where the optical irradiation © 2011 Journal of Visualized Experiments 1. Optical irradiation 1. Optical irradiation source: a diode for ultrasonic detection, which is aligned coaxially with the diffraction-limited optical irradiation. 3

Wang, Lihong

226

Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz Sarah J. Van microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz,a Sarah J. VanVickle-Chavez,b Junjie Yao for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical res

Wang, Lihong

227

Infrared near-field microscopy of materials motivation: ,,chemical nanoscope"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared near-field microscopy of materials motivation: ,,chemical nanoscope" scattering principle) topography s-SNOM infrared: = 9.7 µm visible: = 633 nm #12; Ein Near-field interaction is nonlinear in z resolution /2000000 !! 700 MHz 7 MHz #12;Apertureless near-field microscopy chances wavelength

228

Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which explains this behavior.

Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which expla...

Carpentier, Simon; Costa, Luca; Vitorino, Miguel V; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

1996, Journal of Microscopy 181, 225-237 (and vol 182, p 240.) Multimodal microscopy by digital image processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Blakistone and Kyryk 1990 compared applications of polarised light, bright eld, DIC and scanning electron microscopy SEM in the paper industry. Fluorescence microscopy adds further possible imaging modes to light. 1 #12;1 Introduction Di erent imaging modes with the light microscope convey complementary infor

Stone, J. V.

231

Infrared transparent frequency selective surface based on metallic meshes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an infrared transparent frequency selective surface (ITFSS) based on metallic meshes. In this ITFSS structure, periodic cross-slot units are integrated on square metallic meshes empowered by coating and UV-lithography. A matching condition is proposed to avoid the distortion of units. Experimental results show that this ITFSS possesses a good transmittance of 80% in the infrared band of 3–5 ?m, and also a stable band-pass behavior at the resonance frequency of 36.4 GHz with transmittance of ?0.56 dB. Theoretical simulations about the ITFSS diffractive characteristics and frequency responses are also investigated. The novel ITFSS will attract renewed interest and be exploited for applications in various fields.

Yu, Miao [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Nianxi; Liu, Hai; Gao, Jinsong, E-mail: gaojs@ciomp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale LandscapeImports 5.90 4.86

233

Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous study investigated various fly ashes that had comparable loss on ignition values, but significant differences with respect to air entrainment performance. Thermal analysis data suggested that a poorly performing fly ash, with respect to air entrainment, contained a higher proportion of carbon that gasifies (oxidizes) at comparatively low temperatures. A relatively high abundance of isotropic carbon was identified in the poor-performing ash using optical microscopy. The present investigation examined a larger collection of fly ash samples to determine if thermal analysis could be used as a prognostic tool for fly ash performance. An attempt was made to correlate mortar air and foam index values for each sample with differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Optical microscopy and BET surface area analysis were used as supportive techniques. No clear relationship could be established with the thermal or optical methods, although fly ash performance did correlate well with BET surface area. A low temperature component of the DTA exotherms was considered to be a function of inorganic catalytic species that reside on the carbon surface and lower the ignition temperature.

Hill, R. [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ion-induced electron emission microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vizkelethy, Gyorgy (Albuquerque, NM); Weller, Robert A. (Brentwood, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Growth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e-beam lithography and defined by dry etching for field emission application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Individual vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, Electron-beam lithography, Dry etching, Field emission and uniform electronic emission, cathodes based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patternedGrowth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e

Boyer, Edmond

238

Target-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) can be used to delineate prominent architectonic features in the human brain, but increased contrast is required to visualize more subtle distinctions. The goal ...

Hepler Blackwell, Megan Leticia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). Web: http:prl.aps.orgpdfPRLv107i3e033904...

240

Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around a laser generating...

Larson, Adam Michael

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Doppler optical coherence microscopy for studies of cochlear mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described ...

Hong, Stanley S.

242

Estimating Geometric Dislocation Densities in Polycrystalline Materialsfrom Orientation Imaging Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Herein we consider polycrystalline materials which can be taken as statistically homogeneous and whose grains can be adequately modeled as rigid-plastic. Our objective is to obtain, from orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), estimates of geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities.

Man, Chi-Sing [University of Kentucky; Gao, Xiang [University of Kentucky; Godefroy, Scott [University of Kentucky; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

244

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

Heller, Eric

245

Nanoimprint Lithography | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaff NUGWedged Crater.Nanoimprint

246

Advances in Lithography  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAP Aircraft Enginesof

247

Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Surface structure of cleaved (001) USb2 single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have achieved what we believe to be the first atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images for a uranium compound USb2 taken at room temperature. The a, b, and c lattice parameters in the images confirm that the tetragonal USb2 crystals cleave on the (001) basal plane as expected. Our calculations indicate a symmetric cut between Sb planes to be the most favorable cleavage plane and U atoms to be responsible for most of the density of states measured by STM. Since the spacing between Sb atoms and between U atoms is the same, STM topography alone cannot unambiguously identify the surface atom species.

Chen, Shao-ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Imaging doped silicon test structures using low energy electron microscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final SAND Report for the LDRD Project 105877 - 'Novel Diagnostic for Advanced Measurements of Semiconductor Devices Exposed to Adverse Environments' - funded through the Nanoscience to Microsystems investment area. Along with the continuous decrease in the feature size of semiconductor device structures comes a growing need for inspection tools with high spatial resolution and high sample throughput. Ideally, such tools should be able to characterize both the surface morphology and local conductivity associated with the structures. The imaging capabilities and wide availability of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) make them an obvious choice for imaging device structures. Dopant contrast from pn junctions using secondary electrons in the SEM was first reported in 1967 and more recently starting in the mid-1990s. However, the serial acquisition process associated with scanning techniques places limits on the sample throughput. Significantly improved throughput is possible with the use of a parallel imaging scheme such as that found in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The application of PEEM and LEEM to device structures relies on contrast mechanisms that distinguish differences in dopant type and concentration. Interestingly, one of the first applications of PEEM was a study of the doping of semiconductors, which showed that the PEEM contrast was very sensitive to the doping level and that dopant concentrations as low as 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} could be detected. More recent PEEM investigations of Schottky contacts were reported in the late 1990s by Giesen et al., followed by a series of papers in the early 2000s addressing doping contrast in PEEM by Ballarotto and co-workers and Frank and co-workers. In contrast to PEEM, comparatively little has been done to identify contrast mechanisms and assess the capabilities of LEEM for imaging semiconductor device strictures. The one exception is the work of Mankos et al., who evaluated the impact of high-throughput requirements on the LEEM designs and demonstrated new applications of imaging modes with a tilted electron beam. To assess its potential as a semiconductor device imaging tool and to identify contrast mechanisms, we used LEEM to investigate doped Si test structures. In section 2, Imaging Oxide-Covered Doped Si Structures Using LEEM, we show that the LEEM technique is able to provide reasonably high contrast images across lateral pn junctions. The observed contrast is attributed to a work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-type regions. However, because the doped regions were buried under a thermal oxide ({approx}3.5 nm thick), e-beam charging during imaging prevented quantitative measurements of {Delta}{phi}. As part of this project, we also investigated a series of similar test structures in which the thermal oxide was removed by a chemical etch. With the oxide removed, we obtained intensity-versus-voltage (I-V) curves through the transition from mirror to LEEM mode and determined the relative positions of the vacuum cutoffs for the differently doped regions. Although the details are not discussed in this report, the relative position in voltage of the vacuum cutoffs are a direct measure of the work function difference ({Delta}{phi}) between the p- and n-doped regions.

Nakakura, Craig Yoshimi; Anderson, Meredith Lynn; Kellogg, Gary Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

251

A new approach to nuclear microscopy: The ion-electron emission microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new multidimensional high lateral resolution ion beam analysis technique, Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy or IEEM is described. Using MeV energy ions, IEEM is shown to be capable of Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) measurements in semiconductors. IEEM should also be capable of microscopically and multidimensionally mapping the surface and bulk composition of solids. As such, IIEM has nearly identical capabilities as traditional nuclear microprobe analysis, with the advantage that the ion beam does not have to be focused. The technique is based on determining the position where an individual ion enters the surface of the sample by projection secondary electron emission microscopy. The x-y origination point of a secondary electron, and hence the impact coordinates of the corresponding incident ion, is recorded with a position sensitive detector connected to a standard photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). These signals are then used to establish coincidence with IBICC, atomic, or nuclear reaction induced ion beam analysis signals simultaneously caused by the incident ion.

Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Senftinger, B. [Staib Instrumente GmbH, Langenbach (Germany); Mellon, M. [Quantar Technologies Inc., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Confocal microscopy studies of colloidal assembly on microfabricated physically templated surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2.1 Materials................................................................................. 52 4.2.2 Substrate preparation procedure ............................................. 53 4.2.3 PMMA machining... substrates.................................................... 74 5.3.2 Imaging of PMMA substrates................................................ 79 5.4 Conclusions...

Sharma, Sumit

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

255

Reflection Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy for Surface Analysis Georgia Institute of Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.4 Fourier transformation 1.5 Scattering factor and charge density function 1.6 Single scattering theory 1 Historical background Scope of the book Chapter 1. Kinematical electron diffraction 1.1 Electron wavelength 1.7 Reciprocal space and reciprocal lattice vector 1.8 Bragg's law and Ewald sphere 1.9 Abbe's imaging theory 1

Wang, Zhong L.

256

Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the TiO2 anatase ,,101... surface Wilhelm Hebenstreit,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of tunneling sites in STM. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a versatile material that finds uses as a promoter. Fourfold-coordinated Ti atoms at step edges are preferred adsorption sites and allow the identification

Diebold, Ulrike

257

Evanescent wave and video microscopy methods for directly measuring interactions between surface-immobilized biomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and temporal tracking of passively diffusing functionalized colloids continues to be an improving and auspicious approach to measuring weak specific and non-specific biomolecular interactions. Evidence of this is given by the recent increase...

Everett, William Neil

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A:decisional. 1 B OTom D'AgostinoTomstudy

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced microscopy techniques Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microscopy techniques and their practice in relationship to materials structure characterization... of Microscopy", Edited by P.W. Hawkes and J.C.H. Spence, Springer, 2006 (An...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic force microscopy-based Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrochemical strain microscopy... -ion kinetics without changing the charging state of the battery. An atomic force microscopy tip in contact Source: Pint, Bruce A. -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular...

262

Swept source optical coherence microscopy for pathological assessment of cancerous tissues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with confocal microscopy and enables depth resolved visualization of biological specimens with cellular resolution. OCM offers a suitable ...

Ahsen, Osman Oguz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Application of a Theory for Generation of Soft X-Ray by Storage Rings and Its Use For X-Ray Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theory has been developed for generation of soft X-ray transition radiation (TR) by storage ring synchrotrons. It takes into consideration that the dielectric constant of the TR target material is a complex number, utilizes an explicit expression for the number of passes of an injected electron through the target, and describes more precisely the absorption of TR in the target. Such TR can be used for performing X-ray lithography (XRL), and therefore a formula is included for the sensitivity of the photoresist used in XRL. TR targets for XRL can be optimized, based on finding a maximum of the resist sensitivity. Application of this theory to optimization of Mg target shows that a target containing only one Mg foil, with a thickness of about 245 nm is the best Mg target, for performing XRL by our storage ring synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20SX.

Minkov, D. [21st Century COE SLLS (Japan); Yamada, H. [21st Century COE SLLS (Japan); Ritsumeikan University (Japan); PPL Co. Ltd., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu City, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Toyosugi, N.; Morita, M. [PPL Co. Ltd., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu City, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T. [Ritsumeikan University (Japan)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Atomic and electronic structure of monolayer graphene on 6H-SiC(0001)(3 3) : a scanning tunneling microscopy study.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic and electronic structure of monolayer graphene on 6H-SiC(0001)(3 × 3) : a scanning tunneling of the atomic and electronic structure of graphene monolayer islands on the 6H-SiC(0001)(3×3) (SiC(3×3)) surface reconstruction using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The orientation of the graphene

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Determination and Characterization of Ice Propagation Mechanisms on Surfaces Undergoing Dropwise Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanisms responsible for ice propagation on surfaces undergoing dropwise condensation have been determined and characterized. Based on experimental data acquired non-invasively with high speed quantitative microscopy, the freezing process...

Dooley, Jeffrey B.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

267

Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryo-electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in the collapse of hydrated gel-like EPS into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Surface Plasmon mediated near-field imaging and optical addressing in nanoscience  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an overview of recent progress in plasmonics. We focus our study on the observation and excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with optical near-field microscopy. We discuss in particular recent applications of photon scanning tunnelling microscope (PSTM) for imaging of SPP propagating in metal and dielectric wave guides. We show how near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) can be used to optically and actively address remotely nano-objects such as quantum dots. Additionally we compare results obtained with near-field microscopy to those obtained with other optical far-field methods of analysis such as leakage radiation microscopy (LRM).

Drezet, A; Krenn, J R; Brun, M; Huant, S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Study of the Effects of Surface Morphology and Droplet Growth Dynamics on Condensation Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system 2 on Sample 3 (50??m micropillar spacing hybrid surface) ............................................................................................... 66 Figure 24. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) time- sequence images... tension gradients to promote and induce a droplet removal mechanism. They concluded that their gradient surface exhibited a higher heat transfer coefficient than a hydrophobic silane based surface. More recently, environmental scanning electron...

Yao, Chun-Wei

2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

271

3D rotational diffusion microrheology using 2D video microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a simple way to perform three-dimensional (3D) rotational microrheology using two-dimensional (2D) video microscopy. The 3D rotational brownian motion of micrometric wires in a viscous fluid is deduced from their projection on the focal plane of an optical microscope objective. The rotational diffusion coefficient of the wires of length between 1-100 \\mu m is extracted, as well as their diameter distribution in good agreement with electron microscopy measurements. This is a promising way to characterize soft visco-elastic materials, and probe the dimensions of anisotropic objects.

Rémy Colin; Minhao Yan; Loudjy Chevry; Jean-François Berret; Bérengčre Abou

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Generative Models for Super-Resolution Single Molecule Microscopy Images of Biological Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an information bridge between super-resolution microscopy and structural biology by using generative models

Matsuda, Noboru

274

Characterization of gold nanoparticle films: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d{sub g}—from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticles—was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d{sub g} were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.

Lansĺker, Pia C., E-mail: pia.lansaker@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ĺngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, Anders [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Elektrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Lithography-free sub-100nm nanocone array antireflection layer for low-cost silicon solar cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density and uniformity sub-100nm surface oxidized silicon nanocone forest structure is created and integrated onto the existing texturization microstructures on photovoltaic device surface by a one-step high throughput plasma enhanced texturization method. We suppressed the broadband optical reflection on chemically textured grade-B silicon solar cells for up to 70.25% through this nanomanufacturing method. The performance of the solar cell is improved with the short circuit current increased by 7.1%, fill factor increased by 7.0%, conversion efficiency increased by 14.66%. Our method demonstrates the potential to improve the photovoltaic device performance with low cost high and throughput nanomanufacturing technology.

Xu, Zhida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Sample heating in near-field scanning optical microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating near the aperture of aluminumcoated,fiber opticnear-field scanning optical microscopy probes was studied as a function of input and output powers. Using the shear-force feedback method, near-field probes were positioned nanometers above a...

Erickson, Elizabeth S.; Dunn, Robert C.

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ecological and agricultural applications of synchrotron IR microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecological and agricultural applications of synchrotron IR microscopy T.K. Raab a,*, J.P. Vogel b factors to the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, a causative agent of powdery mildew disease. Three genes to pro- liferate when environmental conditions and re- sources are optimum. Cellulose, an abundant

278

Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Denk, J. H. Stricker and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990). 3. S. Maiti, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel and W. W. Webb, "Measuring-214 (1996). 6. R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen, "Nonlinear optical microscopic examination of structure

Silberberg, Yaron

279

AiR surface: AiR surface 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

Tanaka, Jiro

280

Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The appearance of the static domains with depth above 200??m in the bulk of MgO-doped lithium niobate single crystals as a result of focused electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface was demonstrated. The created domain patterns were visualized by high-resolution methods including piezoresponse force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy. The main stages of the domain structure formation were revealed and explained in terms of the original model.

Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Chezganov, D. S.; Smirnov, M. M.; Alikin, D. O.; Neradovskiy, M. M.; Kuznetsov, D. K. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy of electron beam evaporated cobalt and nickel silicides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal silicide thin films on single-crystal silicon substrates are the subject of much research, due to their applications as electrical contacts and interconnects, diffusion barriers, low resistance gates, and field-assisted positron moderators, among others. Defects within the silicide layer and/or at the silicide/silicon interface are detrimental to device performance, since they can act as traps for charge carriers, as well as positrons. Pinholes penetrating the film are another detriment particularly for cobalt silicide films, since they allow electrons to permeate the film, rather than travel ballistically, in addition to greatly increasing surface area for recombination events. A series of epitaxial cobalt and nickel silicide thin films, deposited via electron-beam evaporation and annealed at various temperatures, have been grown on single-crystal silicon (111) substrates, in an effort to establish a relationship between deposition and processing parameters and film quality. The films have been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, sputter depth profile Auger, and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy. The latter has been shown to both correlate and complement the traditional electron microscopy results.

Frost, R.L.; DeWald, A.B. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (USA)); Zaluzec, M.; Rigsbee, J.M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)); Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Near-field microwave microscopy of high-? oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100?nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

Tselev, Alexander, E-mail: tseleva@ornl.gov; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

283

Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; Sayre, D.

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

Scanning Probe Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy System Ryotaro INOUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is irradiated from the vicinity of the surface by an optical-fiber probe. The large numerical aperture pulse is irradiated to the sample surface by a commercial optical-fiber probe (LWP-LEN-SM, Cascade the sample surface, and terahertz emission from the locally photoexcited area is obtained. Using an optical-fiber

Tonouchi, Masayoshi

286

Scanning acoustic microscopy for mapping the microstructure of soft materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acoustics provides a powerful modality with which to 'see' the mechanical properties of a wide range of elastic materials. It is particularly adept at probing soft materials where excellent contrast and propagation distance can be achieved. We have constructed a scanning acoustic microscope capable of mapping the microstructure of such materials. We review the general principles of scanning acoustic microscopy and present new examples of its application in imaging biological matter, industrial materials and particulate systems.

N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India)] [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India)] [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

Probing the electronic structure of graphene sheets with various thicknesses by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure of an aggregation of graphene sheets with various thicknesses was probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. A uniform oxidation of the graphene sheets in the flat area was observed regardless of the thickness, while in the folded area the result could be strongly affected by the geometry. Moreover, thick parts of the aggregation showed strong angle-dependence to the incident X-ray, while thin parts showed less angle-dependence, which might be related to the surface wrinkles and ripples. The electronic structure differences due to the geometry and thickness suggest a complicated situation in the aggregation of graphene sheets.

Bai, Lili; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

289

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High throughput 3D optical microscopy : from image cytometry to endomicroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical microscopy is an imaging technique that allows morphological mapping of intracellular structures with submicron resolution. More importantly, optical microscopy is a technique that can readily provide images with ...

Choi, Heejin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a technique that facilitates the incorporation of confocal microscopy into small, portable clinical instruments. This would allow in vivo evaluation of cellular and sub-cellular ...

Boudoux, Caroline

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00...

293

Towards automatic cell identi cation in DIC microscopy , C.A. Glasbey2y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1998. Journal of Microscopy, 192, 186-193. #12;a b c Figure 1: DIC microscope images: a Chlorella algal

Stone, J. V.

294

Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain)] [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fault localization and analysis in semiconductor devices with optical-feedback infrared confocal microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a cost-effective optical setup for characterizing light-emitting semiconductor devices with optical-feedback confocal infrared microscopy and optical beam-induced resistance change.We utilize the focused beam from an infrared laser diode to induce local thermal resistance changes across the surface of a biased integrated circuit (IC) sample. Variations in the multiple current paths are mapped by scanning the IC across the focused beam. The high-contrast current maps allow accurate differentiation of the functional and defective sites, or the isolation of the surface-emittingp-i-n devices in the IC. Optical beam-induced current (OBIC) is not generated since the incident beam energy is lower than the bandgap energy of the p-i-n device. Inhomogeneous current distributions in the IC become apparent without the strong OBIC background. They are located at a diffraction-limited resolution by referencing the current maps against the confocal reflectance image that is simultaneously acquired via optical-feedback detection. Our technique permits the accurate identification of metal and semiconductor sites as well as the classification of different metallic structures according to thickness, composition, or spatial inhomogeneity.

Sarmiento, Raymund; Cemine, Vernon Julius; Tagaca, Imee Rose; Salvador, Arnel; Mar Blanca, Carlo; Saloma, Caesar

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature; accepted 22 March 2001 Abstract A method for submicrosecond heating of sensor surfaces and simultaneous as well as photo thermal and scanning force microscopy measurements were performed to optimize the heating

Moritz, Werner

298

Confocal Microscopy for Modeling Electron Microbeam Irradiation of Skin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For radiation exposures employing targeted sources such as particle microbeams, the deposition of energy and dose will depend on the spatial heterogeneity of the spample. Although cell structural variations are relatively minor for two-dimensional cell cultures, they can vary significantly for fully differential tissues. Employing high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have determined the spatial distribution, size, and shape of epidermal kerantinocyte nuclei for the full-thickness EpiDerm skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). Application of these data to claculate the microdosimetry and microdistribution of energy deposition by an electron microbeam is discussed.

Miller, John H.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Sowa, Marianne B.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.

Li, Peng; Zhang, Changlin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

300

DeepView: A collaborative framework for distributed microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines the motivation, requirements, and architecture of a collaborative framework for distributed virtual microscopy. In this context, the requirements are specified in terms of (1) functionality, (2) scalability, (3) interactivity, and (4) safety and security. Functionality refers to what and how an instrument does something. Scalability refers to the number of instruments, vendor-specific desktop workstations, analysis programs, and collaborators that can be accessed. Interactivity refers to how well the system can be steered either for static or dynamic experiments. Safety and security refers to safe operation of an instrument coupled with user authentication, privacy, and integrity of data communication. To meet these requirements, we introduce three types of services in the architecture: Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), and Computational Services (CS). These services may reside on any host in the distributed system. The IS provide an abstraction for manipulating different types of microscopes; the ES provide common services that are required between different resources; and the CS provide analytical capabilities for data analysis and simulation. These services are brought together through CORBA and its enabling services, e.g., Event Services, Time Services, Naming Services, and Security Services. Two unique applications have been introduced into the CS for analyzing scientific images either for instrument control or recovery of a model for objects of interest. These include: in-situ electron microscopy and recovery of 3D shape from holographic microscopy. The first application provides a near real-time processing of the video-stream for on-line quantitative analysis and the use of that information for closed-loop servo control. The second application reconstructs a 3D representation of an inclusion (a crystal structure in a matrix) from multiple views through holographic electron microscopy. These application require steering external stimuli or computational parameters for a particular result. In a sense, ''computational instruments'' (symmetric multiprocessors) interact closely with data generated from ''experimental instruments'' (unique microscopes) to conduct new experiments and bring new functionalities to these instruments. Both of these features exploit high-performance computing and low-latency networks to bring novel functionalities to unique scientific imaging instruments.

Parvin, B.; Taylor, J.; Cong, G.

1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device, inserted in a transmission electron microscope. The scheme significantly improves the prospect of realizing a quantum-enhanced electron microscope for radiation-sensitive specimens.

Okamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: okamoto@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Nagatani, Yukinori [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising ScienceRecent SREL Reprints BackRecord-Setting Microscopy

303

Positive and Negative Contrast Lithography on Silver Quantum Dot Monolayers Sven E. Henrichs, Jennifer L. Sample, Joe J. Shiang, and James R. Heath*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the microscope using a single mode optical fiber [1], and focused through a series of optics and filters to a 2 Form: March 1, 1999 Scanning nonlinear optical microscopy, at a resolution of 2 µm, was utilized irradiated with a pulse train of picosecond 1064 nm laser pulses, and then the second harmonic generation

Cohen, Ronald C.

304

Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D{sub 0}?=?0.53(×2.1±1) cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1} that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitŕ di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

308

Dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction surfacing involves complex thermo-mechanical phenomena. In this study, the nature of dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L coatings was investigated using electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the alloy 316L undergoes discontinuous dynamic recrystallization under conditions of moderate Zener-Hollomon parameter during friction surfacing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L friction surfaced coatings is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfacing leads to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain rates in friction surfacing exceed 400 s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated grain size matches well with experimental observations in 316L coatings.

Puli, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshpuli2000@gmail.com; Janaki Ram, G.D.

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution (laser scatter- ing) q Powder surface area by gas adsorption (BET) Commercially Available of a failed austenitic stainless steel tube. The failure type is identified as a fatigue failure, due

311

Initial stages of the autocatalytic oxidation of the InAs(0 0 1)-(4 2)/c(8 2) surface by molecular oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by molecular oxygen Jonathon B. Clemens a , Sarah R. Bishop a , Darby L. Feldwinn a,1 , Ravi Droopad b,2 simulations Scanning tunneling microscopy Chemisorption Oxidation Indium arsenide Oxygen Semi conducting) surface by molecular oxygen (O2) were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density

Kummel, Andrew C.

312

Photoionization microscopy in terms of local frame transformation theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-photon ionization of an alkali-metal atom in the presence of a uniform electric field is investigated using a standardized form of local frame transformation and generalized quantum defect theory. The relevant long-range quantum defect parameters in the combined Coulombic plus Stark potential is calculated with eigenchannel R-matrix theory applied in the downstream parabolic coordinate $\\eta$. The present formulation permits us to express the corresponding microscopy observables in terms of the local frame transformation, and it gives a critical test of the accuracy of the Harmin-Fano theory permitting a scholastic investigation of the claims presented in Zhao {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. A 86, 053413 (2012)].

P. Giannakeas; F. Robicheaux; Chris H. Greene

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

313

In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the composite electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in conventional lithium ion batteries, depicted in Fig.1b, where quantitative interface characterization is extremely difficult if not impossible. A second strategy involves organic electrolyte, though this approach more closely resembles the actual operation conditions of a LIB, the extreme volatility In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry by Ying Shirley Meng, Thomas McGilvray, Ming-Che Yang, Danijel Gostovic, Feng Wang, Dongli Zeng, Yimei Zhu, and Jason Graetz of the organic electrolytes present significant challenges for designing an in situ cell that is suitable for the vacuum environment of the TEM. Significant progress has been made in the past few years on the development of in situ electron microscopy for probing nanoscale electrochemistry. In 2008, Brazier et al. reported the first cross-section observation of an all solid-state lithium ion nano-battery by TEM. In this study the FIB was used to make a 'nano-battery,' from an all solid-state battery prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ TEM observations were not possible at that time due to several key challenges such as the lack of a suitable biasing sample holder and vacuum transfer of sample. In 2010, Yamamoto et al. successfully observed changes of electric potential in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery in situ with electron holography (EH). The 2D potential distribution resulting from movement of lithium ions near the positive-electrode/electrolyte interface was quantified. More recently Huang et al. and Wang et al. reported the in situ observations of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire electrode in two different in situ setups. In their approach, a vacuum compatible ionic liquid is used as the electrolyte, eliminating the need for complicated membrane sealing to prevent the evaporation of carbonate based organic electrolyte into the TEM column. One main limitation of this approach is that EELS spectral imaging is not possible due to the high plasmon signal of the ionic li

Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Two-Color Ultrafast Photoexcited Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on two-color two-photon photoexcitation of a metal surface driven by ultrafast laser pulses and detected with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a proximate anode. Results are presented for two cases: (i) where the tip is retracted from the surface far enough to prohibit tunneling, and (ii) where the tip is within tunneling range of the surface. A delay-modulation technique is implemented to isolate the two-color photoemission from concurrent one-color two-photon photoemission and provide subpicosecond time-resolved detection. When applied with the tip in tunneling range, this approach effectively isolates the two-photon photoexcited current signal from the conventional tunneling current and enables subpicosecond time-resolved detection of the photoexcited surface electrons. The advantage of the two-color approach is highlighted by comparison with the one-color case where optical interference causes thermal modulation of the STM tip length, resulting in tunneling current modulations that are orders of magnitude larger than the current due to photoexcitation of surface electrons. By completely eliminating this interference, and thereby avoiding thermal modulation of the STM tip length, the two-color approach represents an important step toward the ultimate goal of simultaneous subnanometer and subpicosecond measurements of surface electron dynamics by ultrafast-laser-excited STM.

Camillone, N.; Dolocan, A.; Acharya, D.P.; Zahl, P.; Sutter, P.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ?SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (?SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava, Guowei He, and R. M. Feenstra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comparison of Graphene Formation on C-face and Si-face SiC {0001} Surfaces Luxmi, N. Srivastava of graphene formed on the ( 1000 ) surface (the C-face) and the (0001) surface (the Si-face) of Si) and low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The graphene forms due to preferential sublimation of Si from

Feenstra, Randall

325

Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Manaka, Sachie [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Nakane, Daisuke [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)] [Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Nishizaka, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8588 (Japan); Miyata, Makoto [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Maruyama, Yuusuke [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)] [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectroscopic microscopy Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

version of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The tunable infrared radiation... the l 3.5 mm, CH vibrational stretch mode absorption band. ... Source:...

327

Transmission electron microscopy of whiskers and hillocks formed on Al films deposited onto a glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Whiskers and hillocks formed on an Al film deposited onto a glass substrate have been observed by means of a variety of transmission electron microscopy technique.

Saka, H.; Fujino, S.; Kuroda, K. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Tsujimoto, K.; Tsuji, S. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Shimotsuruma, Yamato, Kanagawa 242 (Japan); Takatsuji, H. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Ichimiyake, Yasu-gun, Shiga 520-23 (Japan)

1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical electron microscopy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Director Rutgers Research Showcase Summary: Electron Microscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy X-Ray Diffraction Facility (XRD) Micro-Analytical... for...

329

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Formation of Ti-B surface alloys by excimer laser mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have formed a surface Ti-B alloy by excimer laser mixing of a single B layer on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates a uniform B:Ti ratio of approximately 0.7 in the surface layer. A Boron layer 60 nm thick resulted in an alloy layer approximately 200 nm thick. There is little indication, by either Auger electron spectroscopy or nuclear reaction analysis, of substantial oxygen incorporation in the surface alloy despite the fact that the processing was done in air. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface alloy shows a completely amorphous surface layer underlain by a martensitic structure.

Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.P.; Zocco, T.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

surface science | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Nonlinear Photoemission Electron Micrographs of Plasmonic Nanoholes in Gold Thin Films. Abstract:...

333

Surface tension and contact with soft elastic solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Johnson-Kendall-Robert (JKR) theory is the basis of modern contact mechanics. It describes how two deformable objects adhere together, driven by adhesion energy and opposed by elasticity. However, it does not include solid surface tension, which also opposes adhesion by acting to flatten the surface of soft solids. We tested JKR theory to see if solid surface tension affects indentation behaviour. Using confocal microscopy, we characterised the indentation of glass particles into soft, silicone substrates. While JKR theory held for particles larger than a critical, elastocapillary lengthscale, it failed for smaller particles. Instead, adhesion of small particles mimicked the adsorption of particles at a fluid interface, with a size-independent contact angle between the undeformed surface and the particle given by a generalised version of Young's law. A simple theory quantitatively captures this behaviour, and explains how solid surface tension dominates elasticity for small-scale indentation of soft materials.

Robert W. Style; Callen Hyland; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

334

Predicting the stability of surface phases of molybdenum selenides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The selenization of molybdenum might become an important step in the production of nanostructures based on the layered compound MoSe{sub 2}. It is already technologically relevant for the production of thin film chalcopyrite solar cells. However, the control of the process is still very poor, due to the lack of basic knowledge of the surface thermodynamics of the system. Here, we present a theoretical study on the stability of surface adlayers of Se on the Mo(110) surface, predicting surface patterns and their stability range in terms of temperature and selenium partial pressure. Our results, based on density functional theory, show that the attainable Se coverages range from 1/4 to 3/4 of a monolayer for systems in equilibrium with a gas formed of Se molecules. We provide simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images to help the experimental characterization of adsorbed surface patterns.

Roma, Guido [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ghorbani, Elaheh [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); IBM Mainz (Germany); Mirhosseini, Hossein; Kühne, Thomas D. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Kiss, Janos; Felser, Claudia [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55128, Mainz (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

335

Corrosion protection of ENIG surface finishing using electrochemical methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four types of thin film coating were carried out on copper for electronic materials by the electroless plating method at a pH range from 3 to 9. The coating performance was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction were also used to analyze the coating surfaces. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was improved using the electroless nickel plating solution of pH 5. The electroless nickel/immersion gold on the copper substrate exhibited high protective efficiency, charge transfer resistance and very low porosity, indicating an increase in corrosion resistance. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the surface uniformity and the formation of the crystalline-refined NiP {l_brace}1 2 2{r_brace} phase at pH 5.

Bui, Q.V.; Nam, N.D.; Choi, D.H.; Lee, J.B.; Lee, C.Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kar, A. [National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR), Jamshedpur 831007 (India)] [National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR), Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Kim, J.G. [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S.B., E-mail: sbjung@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

techniques) to examine the molecular-level details of heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. Among them range of surface analytical techniques at low temperature ­ enables ultra-violet/X-ray photoelectron electron diffraction (LEED). In situ sample preparation ­ offers heating up to 1500 K, cooling down to 50 K

337

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF HELIUM BEARING FUSION WELDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

338

Microrheological Studies of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Solution by Video Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have carried out studies on the rheological properties of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) solution using video microscopy. The degummed silk from the Bombyx mori silkworm was used to prepare RSF solution by dissolving it in calcium nitrate tetrahydrate-methanol solvent. Measurements were carried out by tracking the position of an embedded micron-sized polystyrene bead within the RSF solution through video imaging. The time dependent mean squared displacement (MSD) of the bead in solution and hence, the complex shear modulus of this solution was calculated from the bead's position information. An optical tweezer was used to transport and locate the bead at any desired site within the micro-volume of the sample, to facilitate the subsequent free-bead video analysis. We present here the results of rheological measurements of the silk polymer network in solution over a frequency range, whose upper limit is the frame capture rate of our camera, at full resolution. By examining the distribution of MSD of beads at different locations within the sample volume, we demonstrate that this probe technique enables us to detect local inhomogeneties at micrometer length scales, not detectable either by a rheometer or from diffusing wave spectroscopy.

Raghu A; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Improved LWR Cladding Performance by EPD Surface Modification Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will utilize the electro-phoretic deposition technique (EPD) in conjunction with nanofluids to deposit oxide coatings on prototypic zirconium alloy cladding surfaces. After demonstrating that this surface modification is reproducible and robust, the team will subject the modified surface to boiling and corrosion tests to characterize the improved nucleate boiling behavior and superior corrosion performance. The scope of work consists of the following three tasks: The first task will employ the EPD surface modification technique to coat the surface of a prototypic set of zirconium alloy cladding tube materials (e.g. Zircaloy and advanced alloys such as M5) with a micron-thick layer of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The team will characterize the modified surface for uniformity using optical microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy, and for robustness using standard hardness measurements. After zirconium alloy cladding samples have been prepared and characterized using the EPD technique, the team will begin a set of boiling experiments to measure the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) limit for each prepared sample and its control sample. This work will provide a relative comparison of the heat transfer performance for each alloy and the surface modification technique employed. As the boiling heat transfer experiments begin, the team will also begin corrosion tests for these zirconium alloy samples using a water corrosion test loop that can mimic light water reactor (LWR) operational environments. They will perform extended corrosion tests on the surface-modified zirconium alloy samples and control samples to examine the robustness of the modified surface, as well as the effect on surface oxidation

Michael Corradini; Kumar Sridharan

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Surface texture and specific adsorption sites of sol-gel synthesized anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface properties of sol-gel synthesized anatase titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are probed by sorptiometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal strong correlations of the surface area, porosity, pyridine adsorption capacity and strength, and catalytic methylbutynol decomposition activity.

Zaki, Mohamed I., E-mail: mizaki@link.net [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Mekhemer, Gamal A.H.; Fouad, Nasr E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61519 (Egypt); Jagadale, Tushar C. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)] [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Ogale, Satishchandra B., E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

344

Extreme-UV lithography system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photolithography system that employs a condenser that includes a series of aspheric mirrors on one side of a small, incoherent source of radiation producing a series of beams is provided. Each aspheric mirror images the quasi point source into a curved line segment. A relatively small arc of the ring image is needed by the camera; all of the beams are so manipulated that they all fall onto this same arc needed by the camera. Also, all of the beams are aimed through the camera's virtual entrance pupil. The condenser includes a correcting mirror for reshaping a beam segment which improves the overall system efficiency. The condenser efficiently fills the larger radius ringfield created by today's advanced camera designs. The system further includes (i) means for adjusting the intensity profile at the camera's entrance pupil or (ii) means for partially shielding the illumination imaging onto the mask or wafer. The adjusting means can, for example, change at least one of: (i) partial coherence of the photolithography system, (ii) mask image illumination uniformity on the wafer or (iii) centroid position of the illumination flux in the entrance pupil. A particularly preferred adjusting means includes at least one vignetting mask that covers at least a portion of the at least two substantially equal radial segments of the parent aspheric mirror.

Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2)isomerase from GiardiaA CombinedSolvent

346

Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE-EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis Science #12;ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis) ______________________________ ______________________________ Ergun Akleman Valerie Taylor (Member) (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Computer Science

Keyser, John

349

High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a total optical power proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth power. An object that hasHigh spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a) S. A. Thorne, M. G increasing lens technique to subsurface thermal emission microscopy of Si integrated circuits. We achieve

350

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy Yining-downregulated alfalfa lines were imaged using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The 1,600-cm-1 (CARS) . Lignin-downregulated alfalfa Introduction Lignocellulosic biomass is under consideration

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

351

Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy Fook representation of holographic video microscopy. The sample scatters light from a collimated laser beam. Both to a video camera, which records their interference as a hologram. A typical example of one fat droplet

Grier, David

352

Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

Sansoz, Frederic

353

Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene-based devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene; accepted 24 July 2007; published online 15 August 2007 Raman microscopy of graphene was carried out over-band frequencies extracted from Raman spectra of the single-layer graphene are - 1.6±0.2 10-2 cm-1 /K and - 3

354

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology Ji 11747-3157 USA ABSTRACT Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with fast., 1990). Duncan et al. constructed the first CARS microscope by use of two dye laser beams

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

355

SUBMOLECULAR IMAGING OF EPITAXIALLY CRYSTALLIZED HELICAL POLYOLEFINS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Instruments, Inc., Santa Barbara, Cal. USA. Images were taken with an A­type scan head (max. scan microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED. AFM pictures with high resolution could be obtained when using polypropylene has been determined by electron microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED: chain conformation

Peters, Achim

356

Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Zelenovskiy, P. S. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

NANOMETER-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY INTO THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE SURFACE STRUCTURE OF HAIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

number rms r oughn ess (n m) 0   10   20   30   40   50   1   6   11   16   Shampoos C O Before washing FIGURE 11 ...

Durkan, C.; Wang, N.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Multifocal Multiphoton Laser-Scanning Structured Illumination Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface1JUN 2

359

Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy for Catalysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,

360

Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Transport Measurements by Scanning Probe Microscopy:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,October

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Los Alamos: MST-MTM: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos, Sandia National

362

Los Alamos: MST-MTM: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos, Sandia

363

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos, SandiaXL30

364

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos, SandiaXL30Strata

365

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos,

366

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos,840 EPMA with

367

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos,840 EPMA withCM30

368

Los Alamos: MST: MST-6: EML: Electron Microscopy Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLosAlamos,840 EPMA withCM30XL30

369

Femtosecond time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy for spatiotemporal imaging of photogenerated carrier dynamics in semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We constructed an instrument for time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM) utilizing femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to visualize the dynamics of photogenerated electrons in semiconductors on ultrasmall and ultrafast scales. The spatial distribution of the excited electrons and their relaxation and/or recombination processes were imaged by the proposed TR-PEEM method with a spatial resolution about 100 nm and an ultrafast temporal resolution defined by the cross-correlation of the fs laser pulses (240 fs). A direct observation of the dynamical behavior of electrons on higher resistivity samples, such as semiconductors, by TR-PEEM has still been facing difficulties because of space and/or sample charging effects originating from the high photon flux of the ultrashort pulsed laser utilized for the photoemission process. Here, a regenerative amplified fs laser with a widely tunable repetition rate has been utilized, and with careful optimization of laser parameters, such as fluence and repetition rate, and consideration for carrier lifetimes, the electron dynamics in semiconductors were visualized. For demonstrating our newly developed TR-PEEM method, the photogenerated carrier lifetimes around a nanoscale defect on a GaAs surface were observed. The obtained lifetimes were on a sub-picosecond time scale, which is much shorter than the lifetimes of carriers observed in the non-defective surrounding regions. Our findings are consistent with the fact that structural defects induce mid-gap states in the forbidden band, and that the electrons captured in these states promptly relax into the ground state.

Fukumoto, Keiki, E-mail: fukumoto.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp; Yamada, Yuki; Matsuki, Takashi; Koshihara, Shin-ya [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency JST-CREST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Onda, Ken [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency JST-PRESTO, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Mukuta, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Sei-ichi [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Terahertz imaging of sub-wavelength particles with Zenneck surface waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impact of sub-wavelength-size dielectric particles on Zenneck surface waves on planar metallic antennas is investigated at terahertz (THz) frequencies with THz near-field probe microscopy. Perturbations of the surface waves show the particle presence, despite its sub-wavelength size. The experimental configuration, which utilizes excitation of surface waves at metallic edges, is suitable for THz imaging of dielectric sub-wavelength size objects. As a proof of concept, the effects of a small strontium titanate rectangular particle and a titanium dioxide sphere on the surface field of a bow-tie antenna are experimentally detected and verified using full-wave simulations.

Navarro-Cía, M., E-mail: m.navarro@imperial.ac.uk [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Centre for Plasmonics and Metamaterials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Terahertz Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Natrella, M.; Graham, C.; Renaud, C. C.; Seeds, A. J.; Mitrofanov, O., E-mail: o.mitrofanov@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Dominec, F.; Kužel, P., E-mail: kuzelp@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Delagnes, J. C.; Mounaix, P., E-mail: p.mounaix@loma.u-bordeaux1.fr [LOMA, Bordeaux 1 University, CNRS UMR 4798, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

371

Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ?50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng, E-mail: wy3121685@163.com; Zhou, Zhi Ping [Department of Microelectronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)] [Department of Microelectronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

surface chemistry | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface chemistry surface chemistry Leads No leads are available at this time. FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study....

374

Two-dimensional Vortex Behavior in Highly Underdoped YBa2Cu3O6 x Observed by Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report scanning Hall probe microscopy of highly underdoped superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} with T{sub c} ranging from 5 to 15 K which showed distinct flux bundles with less than one superconducting flux quantum ({Iota}{sub 0}) through the sample surface. The sub-{Iota}{sub 0} features occurred more frequently for lower T{sub c}, were more mobile than conventional vortices, and occurred more readily when the sample was cooled with an in-plane field component. We show that these features are consistent with kinked stacks of pancake vortices.

Guikema, J.W.

2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

375

Two-dimensional Vortex Behavior in Highly Underdoped YBa_2Cu_3O_{6+x} Observed byScanning Hall Probe Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report scanning Hall probe microscopy of highly underdoped superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+z} with T{sub c} ranging from 5 to 15 K which showed distinct flux bundles with less than one superconducting flux quantum ({Phi}{sub 0}) through the sample surface. The sub-{Phi}{sub 0} features occurred more frequently for lower T{sub c}, were more mobile than conventional vortices, and occurred more readily when the sample was cooled with an in-plane field component. We show that these features are consistent with kinked stacks of pancake vortices.

Guikema, J.W.; Bluhm, Hendrik; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Bonn, D.A.; Liang, Ruixing; Hardy, W.N.; /British Columbia U.; Moler, K.A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

In Situ Optical Extinction Measurement for Locally Control of Surface Plasmon Resonance During Nanosecond Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nanosecond irradiation coupled with extinction measurement Total deposited fluence Fig. 2 Optical microscopyIn Situ Optical Extinction Measurement for Locally Control of Surface Plasmon Resonance During Nanosecond Laser Irradiation of Silver Ion Exchanged Silicate Glass Olivier VĂ©ron & Jean-Philippe Blondeau

380

Graphene on Carbon-face SiC{0001} Surfaces Formed in a Disilane Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene on Carbon-face SiC{0001} Surfaces Formed in a Disilane Environment N. Srivastavaa , Guowei-face, graphene, interface structure, low energy electron microscopy, disilane Abstract. The formation of epitaxial graphene on SiC( 1000 ) in a disilane environment is studied. The higher graphitization

Feenstra, Randall

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-differential-interference-contrast microscopy; Scanning force microscopy; Natural radiation damage 1. Introduction Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTsAlpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force

382

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

Wang, Shouhong

383

Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu [Department 'Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Wegmann, Urs [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Maier, Urs [Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel [SPECS Zurich GmbH, Technoparkstr. 1, CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon Marcus Freitag,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon nanotubes Marcus Freitag generated photovoltage in carbon nanotubes to image potential modulations produced by defects are consistent with trapped electrons near the tube. An offset photovoltage is generated when the laser populates

Liu, Jie

386

Optimizing and extending light-sculpting microscopy for fast functional imaging in neuroscience  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of questions in systems biology such as understanding how dynamics of neuronal networks are related to brain function require the ability to capture the functional dynamics of large cellular populations at high speed. Recently, this has driven the development of a number of parallel and high speed imaging techniques such as light-sculpting microscopy, which has been used to capture neuronal dynamics at the whole brain and single cell level in small model organism. However, the broader applicability of light-sculpting microscopy is limited by the size of volumes for which high speed imaging can be obtained and scattering in brain tissue. Here, we present strategies for optimizing the present tradeoffs in light-sculpting microscopy. Various scanning modalities in light-sculpting microscopy are theoretically and experimentally evaluated, and strategies to maximize the obtainable volume speeds, and depth penetration in brain tissue using different laser systems are provided. Design-choices, important par...

Rupprecht, Peter; Groessl, Florian; Haubensak, Wulf E; Vaziri, Alipasha

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Analytical Electron Microscopy examination of uranium contamination at the DOE Fernald operation site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) has been used to identify uranium-bearing phases present in contaminated soils from the DOE Fernald operation site. A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and AEM was used in isolating and characterizing uranium-rich regions of the contaminated soils. Soil samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by ultramicrotomy using an embedding resin previously employed for aquatic colloids and biological samples. This preparation method allowed direct comparison between SEM and TEM images. At the macroscopic level much of the uranium appears to be associated with clays in the soils; however, electron beam analysis revealed that the uranium is present as discrete phases, including iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Only low levels of uranium were actually within the clay minerals. The distribution of uranium phases was inhomogeneous at the submicron level.

Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Industrial Affiliates Day 2006, April 21, 2006 ULTRAFAST NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of studies, including photochemical reactions, molecular dynamics, micropharmacology and optical memory. History of Two-Photon Molecular Excitation 1905 First Conception: A. Einstein: Creation and Conversion for data storage. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, multiphoton excitation (MPE) provides 3D

Van Stryland, Eric

389

Super-resolution wide-field optical microscopy by use of Evanescent standing waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of high resolution, high speed imaging techniques allows the study of dynamical processes in biological systems. Optical fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool for investigations in many disciplines ...

Chung, Euiheon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells., University of Pittsburgh The most efficient organic solar cell today is made from blending conjugated donors and acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Most microscopic characterization

Fisher, Frank

391

Improving the delivery and efficacy of molecular medicine via extracellular matrix modulation : insights from intravital microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The extracellular matrix of tumors is a major barrier to the delivery of molecular medicine. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching combined with intravital microscopy to quantitate the transport properties of ...

McKee, Trevor David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Application of magnetic resonance microscopy to tissue engineering: A polylactide model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of magnetic resonance microscopy to tissue engineering: A polylactide model K. J. L seeding; magnetic resonance mi- croscopy; polylactide; tissue engineering INTRODUCTION Absorbable polymers Engineering Research Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 2 Department of Radiology

393

Thermal and Optical Characterization of Photonic Integrated Circuits by Thermoreflectance Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report high resolution, non-invasive, thermal and optical characterization of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and SOA-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs) using thermoreflectance microscopy. Chip-scale ...

Hudgings, Janice A.

394

Demonstration of Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy / Spectroscopy on the Au/Si (001) system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microscopy; hence, the analytical capabilities of BEEM are on a manometer scale. To use BEEM, low-noise Au/Si (001) Schottky diodes have been fabricated. The diodes were macroscopically tested for their electrical properties using conventional current...

Drummond, Mary Alyssa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms for Early Detection of Oral Epithelial Cancer Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, the clinical potential of the endogenous multispectral Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was investigated to objectively detect oral cancer. To this end, in vivo FLIM imaging was performed on a hamster cheek pouch model...

Lee, Joohyung

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method of detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

Gourley, Paul L

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

Method for detecting cancer in a single cell using mitochondrial correlation microscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for distinguishing a normal cell from an abnormal cell, such as, for example a cancer cell or diseased cell, of the same tissue type using mitochondrial correlation microscopy.

Gourley, Paul L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

The Application of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy to Quantitatively Map Mixing and Temperature in Microfluidic Systems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The technique of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been employed to quantitatively and spatially map the fluid composition and temperature within microfluidic systems. A molecular probe with a ...

Graham, Emmelyn M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Design and implementation of a fiber optic doppler optical coherence microscopy system for cochlear imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the design and implementation of a fiber optic Doppler optical coherence microscopy (FO-DOCM) system for cochlear imaging applications is presented. The use of a fiber optic design significantly reduces ...

Williams, Logan P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the ...

So, Peter T. C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolu- tion limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11–13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of mole- cular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lec- tin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

Nelson, J.; Huang, X.; Steinbrener, J.; Shapiro, D.; Kirz, J.; Marchesini, S.; Neiman, A. M.; Turner, J. J.; Jacobsen, C.

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

403

Colour centres and nanostructures on the surface of laser crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of structural and radiationinduced colour centres in the bulk and ordered nanostructures on the surface of doped laser crystals: sapphire, yttrium aluminium garnet and strontium titanate. The influence of thermal annealing, ionising radiation and plasma exposure on the spectroscopic properties of high-purity materials and crystals containing Ti, V and Cr impurities is examined. Colour centres resulting from changes in the electronic state of impurities and plasma-induced surface modification of the crystals are studied by optical, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray line valence shift measurements are used to assess changes in the electronic state of some impurity and host ions in the bulk and on the surface of oxide crystals. Conditions are examined for the formation of one- and two-level arrays of ordered crystallites 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -7} m in size on the surface of crystals doped with irongroup and lanthanoid ions. The spectroscopic properties of the crystals are analysed using ab initio self-consistent field calculations for Me{sup n+} : [O{sup 2-}]{sub k} clusters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Kulagin, N A [Firma SIFA Ukraine - Germany Joint Venture, ul. Shekspira 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Development of the Ultrashort Pulse Nonlinear Optical Microscopy Spectral Imaging System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ULTRASHORT PULSE NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM A Dissertation by ANTHONY CHIEN-DER LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Anthony Chien-der Lee DEVELOPMENT OF THE ULTRASHORT PULSE NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM A Dissertation by ANTHONY CHIEN-DER LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

Lee, Anthony Chien-der

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Analytical electron microscopy examination of solid reaction products in long-term test of SRL 200 waste glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alteration phases, found on the leached surfaces and present as colloids in the leachates of 200-based frit (fully active and simulated) nuclear waste glass, reacted under static test conditions, at a surface area to leachate volume ratio of 20,000 m{sup {minus}1} for 15 days to 728 days, have been examined by analytical electron microscopy. The compositions of the secondary phases were determined using x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and structural analysis was accomplished by electron diffraction. Long-term samples of simulated glass, which had undergone an acceleration of reaction after 182 days, possessed a number of silicate secondary phases, including; smectite (iron silicate and potassium iron alumina-silicate, weeksite (uranium silicate), zeolite (calcium potassium alumino-silicate), tobermorite (calcium silicate), and a pure silica phase. However, uranium silicates and smectite have also been observed in tests, which have not undergone the acceleration of reaction, in both the leachate and leached layer, suggesting that these phases are not responsible for the acceleration of reaction.

Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Dietz, N.L.; Bradley, C.R.; Tani, B.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Investigations of laser-induced damages in fused silica optics using x-ray laser interferometric microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel x-ray laser (XRL) application, aimed at understanding the microscopic effects involved in formation of laser-induced damage in optical materials exposed to high-power sub-ns laser pulses, is presented. Standard fused silica substrates with permanent damage threshold below 20 J/cm{sup 2}, when irradiated by 438 nm laser pulses, were probed in situ by a neonlike zinc XRL at 21.2 nm. The probing beamline employed a double Lloyd's mirror x-ray interferometer, used in conjunction with an imaging mirror to achieve magnification of {approx}8. In conjunction with an array of in situ optical diagnostics, the main question addressed is whether the damage on the rear surface of the beamsplitter is transient or permanent. The second issue, examined by both the x-ray interferometric microscopy and the optical diagnostics, is whether a local rear-surface modification is associated with nonlinear effects such as self-focusing or filamentation of the damaging laser beam in the bulk.

Margarone, D.; Rus, B.; Kozlova, M.; Nejdl, J.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M. [Department of X-ray Lasers/PALS Centre, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Lagron, J. C.; Ros, D. [LIXAM, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Danson, C.; Hawkes, S. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

Influence of GaAs surface termination on GaSb/GaAs quantum dot structure and band offsets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the influence of GaAs surface termination on the nanoscale structure and band offsets of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy reveals both coherent and semi-coherent clusters, as well as misfit dislocations, independent of surface termination. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal clustered GaSb QDs with type I band offsets at the GaSb/GaAs interfaces. We discuss the relative influences of strain and QD clustering on the band offsets at GaSb/GaAs interfaces.

Zech, E. S.; Chang, A. S.; Martin, A. J.; Canniff, J. C.; Millunchick, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Lin, Y. H. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2136 (United States)

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

410

EMSL - surface chemistry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface-chemistry en FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

411

The use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) for biomedical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to poor data reproducibility. The different methods examined to create robust SERS substrates include the creation of thermally evaporated silver island films on microscope glass slides, using the technique of Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) to create...

Chowdhury, Mustafa Habib

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

412

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

413

Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and SurfaceImproving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

414

Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture.

Pemmasani, Sai Pramod [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad — 500005 India (India); School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad — 500046 India (India); Rajulapati, Koteswararao V. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad — 500046 India (India); Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad — 500005 India (India); Gundakaram, Ravi C., E-mail: ravi.gundakaram@arci.res.in [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad — 500005 India (India); Joshi, Shrikant V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad — 500005 India (India)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Rodriguez, Brian J [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Karapetian, Edgar [ORNL; Mirman, B [Suffolk University, Boston; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Application of Surface Analysis Methods to Nanomaterials: Summaryof ISO/TC 201 Technical Report: ISO 14187:2011 -Surface Chemical Analysis- Characterization of Nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ISO Technical Report (TR) 14187 provides an introduction to (and examples of) the information that can be obtained about nanostructured materials using surface-analysis tools. In addition, both general issues and challenges associated with characterising nanostructured materials and the specific opportunities and challenges associated with individual analytical methods are identified. As the size of objects or components of materials approaches a few nanometres, the distinctions among 'bulk', 'surface' and 'particle' analysis blur. This Technical Report focuses on issues specifically relevant to surface chemical analysis of nanostructured materials. The report considers a variety of analysis methods but focuses on techniques that are in the domain of ISO/TC 201 including Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and scanning probe microscopy. Measurements of nanoparticle surface properties such as surface potential that are often made in a solution are not discussed.

Baer, Donald R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Electron microscopy of phase and structural transformations in soft magnetic nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-N films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of deposition conditions (film thickness) on the structure of soft magnetic Fe{sub 80-78}Zr{sub 10}N{sub 10-12} films formed by reactive magnetron deposition on a heat-resistant glass substrate has been investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy, and diffraction analysis. The processes of evolution of the phase and structural state of films and the film-substrate interface upon annealing in the temperature range of 200-650 Degree-Sign C have been analyzed taking into account the thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural factors and the specific features of the nanocrystalline state.

Zhigalina, O. M., E-mail: zhigal@ns.crys.ras.ru; Khmelenin, D. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sheftel', E. N.; Usmanova, G. Sh. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Vasil'ev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Carlsson, A. [FEI Company (Netherlands)] [FEI Company (Netherlands)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 µm in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

420

Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A surface science investigation of silicon carbide: Oxidation, crystal growth and surface structural analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the semiconductor SiC to fulfill its potential as an electronic material, methods must be developed to produce insulating surface oxide layers in a reproducible fashion. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to investigate the oxidation of single crystal {alpha}-SiC over a wide temperature and O{sub 2} pressure range. The {alpha}-SiC surface becomes graphitic at high temperatures and low O{sub 2} pressures due to Si and SiO sublimation from the surface. Amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layers from on {alpha}-SiC at elevated O{sub 2} pressures and temperatures. Both the graphitization and oxidation of {alpha}-SiC appears to be enhanced by surface roughness. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is currently the preferred method of producing single crystal SiC, although the method is slow and prone to contamination. We have attempted to produce SiC films at lower temperatures and higher deposition rates using plasma enhanced CVD with CH{sub 3}SiH{sub 3}. Scanning AES, XPS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the composition and morphology of the deposited Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films as a function of substrate temperature, plasma power and ion flux bombardment of the film during deposition. High energy ion bombardment during deposition was found to increase film density and substrate adhesion while simultaneously reducing hydrogen and oxygen incorporation in the film. Under all deposition conditions the Si{sub x}C{sub y}H{sub z} films were found to be amorphous, with the ion bombarded films showing promise as hard protective coatings. Studies with LEED and AES have shown that {beta}-SiC (100) exhibits multiple surface reconstructions, depending on the surface composition. These surface reconstructions possess substantially different surface reactivities at elevated temperatures, which can complicate the fabrication of metal on SiC junctions.

Powers, J.M.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Structural, chemical, and electronic state on La[subscript 0.7]Sr[subscript 0.3]MnO[subscript 3] dense thin-film surfaces at high temperature - Surface segregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evolution of the surface topographic and electronic structure and chemical state of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films were probed using Scanning Tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify ...

Jalili, Helia

423

Surface wave interferometry   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis concerns the application of seismic interferometry to surface waves. Seismic interferometry is the process by which the wavefield between two recording locations is estimated, resulting in new recordings at ...

Halliday, David Fraser

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A surface ionization source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

Buzatu, Daniel J.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

Shen, Y.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Entropy and surfaceness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

Casper, James Kyle

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Asteroid Surface Geophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (?f) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the ?f(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the ?f signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of ?f with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the ?f with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the ?f(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the ?f minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup Ż}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp, E-mail: rahe@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Effect of plasma CVD operating temperature on nanomechanical properties of TiC nanostructured coating investigated by atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The TiC{sub x} nanostructure coatings have been deposited by PACVD method. ? Dominant mechanism of growth structure at 490 °C is island-layer type. ? TiC{sub x} nanostructure coating applied at 490 °C, exhibits lowest friction coefficient. ? Young's moduli are 289.9, 400 and 187.6 GPa for 470, 490 and 510 °C, respectively. ? This higher elastic modulus and higher hardness of nanocoating obtain at 490 °C. -- Abstract: The structure, composition, and mechanical properties of nanostructured titanium carbide (TiC) coatings deposited on H{sub 11} hot-working tool steel by pulsed-DC plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition at three different temperatures are investigated. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are carried out by atomic force microscopy to determine the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and friction coefficient. The nanostructured TiC coatings prepared at 490 °C exhibit lower friction coefficient (0.23) than the ones deposited at 470 and 510 °C. Increasing the deposition temperature reduces the Young's modulus and hardness. The overall superior mechanical properties such as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient render the coatings deposited at 490 °C suitable for wear resistant applications.

Shanaghi, Ali, E-mail: alishanaghi@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour, E-mail: sabour01@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Shahrokh, E-mail: sh.ahangarani@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

In Situ, Real-Time Characterization of Silicide Nanostructure Coarsening Dynamics by Photo-Electron Emission Microscopy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Photo-electron emission microscopy (PEEM) was used to observe the growth and coarsening dynamics of transition metal (TM) silicide and rare earth (RE) silicide nanostructures on… (more)

Zeman, Matthew Casimir

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

2005The Royal Microscopical Society Journal of Microscopy,Vol. 219, Pt 2 August 2005, pp. 4349  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resolutions, practical limitations, such as avoiding radiation damage, as well as 3D optical microscopy specimens. Introduction The conventional wisdom in modern structural

Agard, David

433

Direct Probing of Charge Injection and Polarization-Controlled Ionic Mobility on Ferroelectric LiNbO3 Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mapping surface potential with time-resolved Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (tr-KPFM) in LiNbO3 periodically-poled single crystal revealed activation of the surface ionic subsystem. Electric fields higher than certain threshold value but lower than the switching field induce injection of charge from the biased electrode, formation of an active region in its vicinity and uneven distribution of screening charge on the opposite ferroelectric domains. Tr-KPFM technique allows investigating these phenomena in details.

Strelcov, Evgheni [ORNL] [ORNL; Ievlev, Dr. Anton [Ural State University, Russia] [Ural State University, Russia; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Shur, V.Y. [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University] [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Noncovalent Cross-Linking of Casein by Epigallocatechin Gallate Characterized by Single Molecule Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

force microscopy; astrin- gency; compaction INTRODUCTION Green tea contains a large amount is produced from green tea by fermentation, which oxidizes many of the tea polyphenols into higher molecular, Sheffield S3 7RH, United Kingdom Interaction of the tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG

Williamson, Mike P.

435

Bioelectrical SPMs (G. Gomila, UB-IBEC) Bioelectric Scanning Probe Microscopies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ups: Micropippete based electrodes Measurements of cell membrane ion transport on single cells 2. Scanning Ion (SNOM),Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope (SICM), Scanning Conductance Microscopy #12;7 Bioelectrical SPMs (G. Gomila, UB-IBEC) Single ion channels recordings Average

Ritort, Felix

436

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda School 21 November 2006 The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating measurement with the atomic force microscope AFM requires the sensitivity of the photodiode, which re- lates

Attard, Phil

437

Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Energy Electron Microscopy Studies of Interlayer Mass Transport Kinetics on TiN(111) S annealing of three-dimensional (3D) TiN(111) mounds, consisting of stacked 2D islands, at temperatures-limited decay of 2D TiN islands on atomically-flat TiN(111) terraces [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 176102

Israeli, Navot

438

NREL scientists develop near-field optical microscopy techniques for imaging solar cell junctions and identify  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Characterization team examined local junction breakdown in silicon and thin-film solar cells by electroluminescenceNREL scientists develop near-field optical microscopy techniques for imaging solar cell junctions is an increasingly important issue for silicon solar cells. The issue has taken center stage now that the solar

439

FtsZ Condensates: An In Vitro Electron Microscopy Study David Popp,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FtsZ Condensates: An In Vitro Electron Microscopy Study David Popp,1 Mitsusada Iwasa,1 Akihiro in vitro system of supramolecular condensates experimentally and theoretically is DNA, which also exists in highly condensed, tightly packed states in viruses and sperm cells in vivo.2 The principle morphologies

Erickson, Harold P.

440

Thermal emission microscopy measures the spa-tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per unit area emitted by an object is proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth powerThermal emission microscopy measures the spa- tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal- cause the optical power emitted by the sample is a function of its local temperature. The optical power

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

FEATURE ARTICLE Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

probes fast diffusion dynamics with vibrational selectivity. 1. Introduction Investigation of molecular-photon fluorescence microscopy a useful tool for in vivo imaging. Chemical imaging by use of inherent molecular is, however, limited by the long excitation wavelength (several micrometers) and the IR absorption

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

442

Single-Molecule Microscopy Studies of Electric-Field Poling in Chromophore-Polymer Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-Molecule Microscopy Studies of Electric-Field Poling in Chromophore-Polymer Composite electrooptic devices based on chromophore-polymer composite materials is to improve chromophore ordering of susceptibility.16 Chromophore-polymer composite materials lack inherent non- centrosymmetry, which is required

Reid, Philip J.

443

Contribution to crystallographic slip assessment by means of topographic measurements achieved with atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively characterize the plastic glide occurring during tensile deformation of a duplex 2205 stainless steel sample. We demonstrate that an appropriate treatment of the topographic image issued from AFM measurements allows precise and quantitative information about the characteristics of plastic deformation and especially the amount of crystallographic slip.

Kahloun, C. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Badji, R. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Welding and NDT Research Centre, B. P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bacroix, B., E-mail: bacroix@lpmtm.univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouabdallah, M. [E.N.P, 10 av. Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah Alger (Algeria)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

Cui, Yi

445

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier digitized video microscope images of colloidal suspensions. In a typical application, these direct imaging information from a sequence of video images into single­particle trajectories makes pos­ sible measurements

Grier, David

446

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier digitized video microscope images of colloidal suspensions. In a typical application, these direct imaging information from a sequence of video images into single-particle trajectories makes pos- sible measurements

Grier, David

447

Video-Rate Scanning Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Ratio Imaging with Cameleons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Video-Rate Scanning Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy and Ratio Imaging with Cameleons ABSTRACT A video-rate (30 frames/s) scanning two-photon excitation microscope has been successfully tested 690 to 1050 nm, prechirper optics for laser pulse-width compression, resonant galvanometer for video

Tsien, Roger Y.

448

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods of Digital Video Microscopy for Colloidal Studies John C. Crocker and David G. Grier digitized video microscope im­ ages of colloidal suspensions. In a typical application, these direct imaging information from a sequence of video images into single­ particle trajectories makes possible measurements

Grier, David

449

Tracking molecules at video rate Scientists push SRS microscopy to new levels of spatial precision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tracking molecules at video rate Scientists push SRS microscopy to new levels of spatial precision at Harvard University, is so fast and sensitive it can capture "video" of blood cells squeezing through at the subcellular level, catching video of proteins, lipids, and water within cells. "When we started this project

Heller, Eric

450

Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water A strengthened ferritic steel alloys during exposure to 600 °C supercritical water for 2- and 4-weeks were cladding include austenitic stainless steels, solid solution and precipitation-hardened alloys, ferritic

Motta, Arthur T.

451

Two-photon microscopy to measure blood flow and concurrent brain cell activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluorescent molecules occurs only at the laser focus. Past studies have made use of two-photon microscopy-27) and the olfactory bulb (6, 28-31), down to depths of 600 µm, which is sufficient to resolve vessels and neurons and endogenous fluorescence-based functional reporters to observe cellular activity, such as changes

Kleinfeld, David

452

Polymerization kinetics of ADP-and ADP-Pi-actin determined by fluorescence microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymerization kinetics of ADP- and ADP-Pi-actin determined by fluorescence microscopy Ikuko of depolymerizing filaments, we measured the polymerization rate constants of ADP-actin and ADP-Pi-actin. Saturating phosphate reduces the critical concentra- tion for polymerization of Mg-ADP-actin from 1.8 to 0.06 M almost

453

Dynamic Characterization of Graphene Growth and Etching by Oxygen on Ru(0001) by Photoemission Electron Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Characterization of Graphene Growth and Etching by Oxygen on Ru(0001) by Photoemission of graphene on Ru(0001) was investigated by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and scanning tunneling, we show that graphene overlayers with sizes ranging from nanometers to sub-millimeters have been

Bao, Xinhe

454

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1 William and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all

GrĂĽtter, Peter

455

Postdoctoral Positions In-vivo Optical Imaging and Microscopy of the Living Brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postdoctoral Positions In-vivo Optical Imaging and Microscopy of the Living Brain Columbia insight into the function and physiology of the living brain. We are particularly interested in exploring brain. Neurovascular coupling is important both because it is the basis of the fMRI BOLD signal

Adams, Mark

456

Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy STM has been used to observe the oxygen induced reconstruction behavior of Ni for the merging of steps in the presence of small amounts of adsorbed oxygen, less than 2% of a monolayer. Point

Sibener, Steven

457

TheElectronMicroscopyCore(EMC) UniversityofMissouriColumbia,MO65211  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TheElectronMicroscopyCore(EMC) UniversityofMissouriColumbia,MO65211 The. The EMC houses two field emission SEM's, a Hitachi cold-field SEM (S-4700) and a FEI thermal FE SEM imaging and chemical analysis from their SEM/EDS systems. AdditionalSupportby: FormoreInformationortoregistergoto:http://www.emc

Noble, James S.

458

Nano-mineralogy studies by advanced electron microscopy Chi Ma and George R. Rossman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-mineralogy studies by advanced electron microscopy Chi Ma and George R. Rossman Division and planetary materials easier and faster down to nano-scales. Small but new minerals with important geological significance are being discovered. Nano-features are being discovered in many common minerals and gems, which

Ma, Chi

459

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies Arkady V STM images of both metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies predict that vacancies should result in the formation of hillock-like features in STM images of metallic

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

460

Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell Xiaojing Huang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 e of biological electron microscopy [1­3]. Radiation damage precludes repeated imaging of live specimens [4 in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103

Mohseni, Hooman

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A method for the alignment of heterogeneous macromolecules from electron microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dataset. Ă? 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc. 1. Introduction Single-particle electron microscopy (EM and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA b Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 13

462

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy C Mign6, E-Genès-Champanelle, France The microbial degradation of modified lignin tobacco (Samson variety) plants (homozygous line 40 to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohols which are the direct monomeric precursors of the lignin. Only the stems were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

464

Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

465

National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. (eds.)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991. Volume 1, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Microscopy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for converting biomass-derived light hydrocarbons and aromatics into a mixture of carbon monoxide and... Key changes in proteins occur in cyanobacteria Posted: September 22,...

468

EMSL - Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:DirectivesSAND2015-21271 7 6 EIA-176Pageenergymicroscopy

469

Dual surface interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

470

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

471

Surface transport properties of Fe-based superconductors: The influence of degradation and inhomogeneity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface properties of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} epitaxial superconducting thin films were inspected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM), and point contact spectroscopy (PCS). It has been shown that surface of Fe-based superconductors degrades rapidly if being exposed to air, what results in suppression of gap-like structure on PCS spectra. Moreover, SSRM measurements revealed inhomogeneous surface conductivity, what is consistent with strong dependence of PCS spectra on contact position. Presented results suggest that fresh surface and small probing area should be assured for surface sensitive measurements like PCS to obtain intrinsic properties of Fe-based superconductors.

Plecenik, T.; Gregor, M.; Sobota, R.; Truchly, M.; Satrapinskyy, L.; Kus, P.; Plecenik, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kurth, F.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P. O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P. O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

472

Experimental evidence of slippage breakdown for a superhydrophobic surface in a microfluidic device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A full characterization of the water flow past a silicon superhydrophobic surface with longitudinal micro-grooves enclosed in a microfluidic device is presented. Fluorescence microscopy images of the flow seeded with fluorescent passive tracers were digitally processed to measure both the velocity field and the position and shape of the liquid-air interfaces at the superhydrophobic surface. The simultaneous access to the meniscus and velocity profiles allows us to put under a strict test the no-shear boundary condition at the liquid-air interface. Surprisingly, our measurements show that air pockets in the surface cavities can sustain non-zero interfacial shear stresses, thereby hampering the friction reduction capabilities of the surface. The effects of the meniscus position and shape as well as of the liquid-air interfacial friction on the surface performances are separately assessed and quantified.

Guido Bolognesi; Cecile Cottin-Bizonne; Christophe Pirat

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

473

Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

Schwarz, Udo [Yale University

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

474

Surface morphology of atomic nitrogen on Pt(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface morphology of chemisorbed N on the Pt(111) surface has been studied at the atomic level with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). When N is coadsorbed with O on the surface, they form a mixed (2 × 2)-N+O structure. When the surface is covered with N atoms only, isolated atoms and incomplete (2 × 2) patches are observed at low coverages. In a dense N layer, two phases, (?3 × ?3)R30°-N and p(2 × 2)-N, are found to coexist at temperatures between 360 and 400 K. The (?3 × ?3)R30° phase converts to the (2 × 2) phase as temperature increases. For both phases, nitrogen occupies fcc-hollow sites. At temperatures above 420 K, nitrogen starts to desorb. The p(2 × 2)-N phase shows a honeycomb structure in STM images with three nitrogen and three platinum atoms forming a six-membered ring, which can be attributed to the strong nitrogen binding to the underlying Pt surface.

Liang, Zhu; Trenary, Michael, E-mail: mtrenary@uic.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Jin Yang, Hyun [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo, E-mail: ykim@riken.jp [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Time-resolved measurement of single pulse femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-resolved diffraction microscopy technique has been used to observe the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) from the interaction of a single femtosecond laser pulse (pump) with a nano-scale groove mechanically formed on a single-crystal Cu substrate. The interaction dynamics (0-1200 ps) was captured by diffracting a time-delayed, frequency-doubled pulse from nascent LIPSS formation induced by the pump with an infinity-conjugate microscopy setup. The LIPSS ripples are observed to form sequentially outward from the groove edge, with the first one forming after 50 ps. A 1-D analytical model of electron heating and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation induced by the interaction of incoming laser pulse with the groove edge qualitatively explains the time-evloution of LIPSS formation.

Kafka, K R P; Li, H; Yi, A; Cheng, J; Chowdhury, E A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High-Efficiency Sub-5 keV Electron Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Versatile Silicon Photodiode Detector Technology for Scanning Electron Microscopy with High for Scanning Electron Microscopy, based on ultrashallow p+ n boron-layer photodiodes, features nm-thin anodes, closely-packed photodiodes and through-wafer apertures allow flexible configurations for optimal material

Technische Universiteit Delft

477

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

478

Graphene-based textured surface by pulsed laser deposition as a robust platform for surface enhanced Raman scattering applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on gold nanoparticles-decorated few-layer (fl) graphene grown by pulsed laser deposition. Diamond-Like Carbon film has been converted to fl-graphene after thermal annealing at low temperature. The formation of fl-graphene was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and surface morphology was highlighted by scanning electron microscopy. We found that textured fl-graphene film with nanoscale roughness was highly beneficial for SERS detection. Rhodamine 6G and p-aminothiophenol proposed as test molecules were detected with high sensitivity. The detection at low concentration of deltamethrin, an active molecule of a commercial pesticide was further demonstrated.

Tite, T.; Donnet, C.; Loir, A.-S.; Reynaud, S.; Michalon, J.-Y.; Vocanson, F.; Garrelie, F., E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); and Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

479

Imaging of ferromagnetic domains using photoelectrons: Photoelectron emission microscopy of neodymium-iron-boron (Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferromagnetic domains of a single crystal of neodymium-iron-boron, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (one of the strongest permanent magnetic materials known) are imaged by focusing a beam of photoelectrons with electrostatic optics in a photoelectron emission microscope. Photoelectrons emitted from the surface are deflected laterally into two opposite directions by stray magnetic fields that exist above the domains. The photoelectron beam is partially split into two. Magnetic contrast is produced by blocking part of the beam and imaging with an edge of the beam. The magnetic contrast mechanism appears to be similar to the type I magnetic contrast mechanism known from scanning electron microscopy, in which stray magnetic fields above the ferromagnetic domains deflect secondary electrons either towards or away from the electron detector. Upon heating the sample above the Curie temperature, the ferromagnetic domains gradually disappear, as expected for a second order phase transition. They reappear upon cooling. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

Mundschau, M.; Romanowicz, J. [Center for Materials Science, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403-0213 (United States)] [Center for Materials Science, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403-0213 (United States); Wang, J.Y.; Sun, D.L.; Chen, H.C. [Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People`s Republic of (China)] [Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People`s Republic of (China)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "microscopy lithography surface" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Decontaminating metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

Childs, E.L.

1984-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

483

Decontaminating metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

Childs, Everett L. (Boulder, CO)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

484

Onset of surface superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the onset of superconductivity in the surface region of a metal. Surface effects are particularly important in systems with a short bulk coherence length {xi}{sub 0}. We show that, to the accuracy of the calculation, the surface transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}} equals the bulk transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} if the electron-electron interaction is of the standard BCS form, i.e., a single attractive square well, extending up to some critical energy {omega}{sub 0} much smaller than the Fermi energy {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}. If one takes into account, in addition, the repulsive part of the interaction extending beyond {omega}{sub 0} up to energies of order {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}, then one may have {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}}{gt}{ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} in certain cases, although, due to restrictions imposed on the parameter values by various physical conditions, the relative increase of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is very small, typically 10{sup {minus}3}, at least in the weak coupling limit. However, we also find a considerable gap enhancement, of order 20%, near the surface which could be of interest for critical-current measurements. Therefore we suggest an experimental reexamination of systems with short {xi}{sub 0}, i.e., superconducting degenerate semiconductors and the new high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} oxides in confined geometries where the surface-to-volume ratio is non-negligible.

Giamarchi, T.; Beal-Monod, M.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud 91405 Orsay, (France)); Valls, O.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, (France) Center for the Science and Application of Superconductivity, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained Electron Beam Delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Several photocathode degradation processes are suspected, including defect formation by ion back bombardment, photochemistry of surface adsorbed species and irradiation-induced surface defect formation. To better understand the mechanisms of photocathode degradation, we have conducted surface and bulk analysis studies of two GaAs photocathodes removed from the FEL photoinjector after delivering electron beam for a few years. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, strained super-lattice GaAs photocathode samples, removed from the CEBAF photoinjector were analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. This analysis of photocathode degradation during nominal photoinjector operating conditions represents first steps towards developing robust new photocathode designs necessary for generating sub-micron emittance electron beams required for both fourth generation light sources and intense polarized CW electron beams for nuclear and high energy physics facilities.

Shutthanandan, V.; Zhu, Zihua; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Hannon, Fay; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hess, Wayne P.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

486

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

Hively, L.M.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

487

Smart, passive sun facing surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Surface decontamination compositions and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

Wright; Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Hull, Laurence C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

489

X-Ray Microscopy at BESSY: From Nano-Tomography to Fs-Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BESSY X-ray microscopy group has developed a new full-field x-ray microscope with glass capillary condenser. It permits tomography and spectromicroscopy of cryogenic as well as heated samples. Correlative light and x-ray microscopy is supported by an incorporated high resolution light microscope. Spectromicroscopy with polarized x-rays from a helical undulator can be performed with E/{delta}E = 104. With the planned BESSY High Gain Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser (HGHG-FEL) x-ray imaging with ultra-short pulses and an integral photon flux of about 1011 photons/pulse in an energy bandwidth of 0.1% will be possible. Single shot imaging with a full field Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) employing a beam shaper as a condenser will be feasible with 20 fs pulses.

Schneider, G.; Heim, S.; Rehbein, S.; Eichert, D. [BESSY GmbH, Albert Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Guttmann, P. [IRP, c/o BESSY m.b.H., Albert Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niemann, B. [IRP, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

490

Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Microscopy imaging system and method employing stimulated raman spectroscopy as a contrast mechanism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscopy imaging system includes a first light source for providing a first train of pulses at a first center optical frequency .omega..sub.1, a second light source for providing a second train of pulses at a second center optical frequency .omega..sub.2, a modulator system, an optical detector, and a processor. The modulator system is for modulating a beam property of the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency f of at least 100 kHz. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of the first train of pulses from the common focal volume by blocking the second train of pulses being modulated. The processor is for detecting, a modulation at the modulation frequency f, of the integrated intensity of the optical frequency components of the first train of pulses to provide a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Lexington, MA); Freudiger, Christian (Boston, MA); Min, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

492

Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) degradation is due to residual gasses in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but shows evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Fay Hannon, Marcy Stutzman, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, M. Nandasri, S. V. Kuchibhatla, S. Thevuthasan, W. P. Hess

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

494

Imaging an ionic liquid adlayer by scanning tunneling microscopy at the solid|vacuum interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany 2 Institute of Particle Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal- Zellerfeld, Gemany Abstract The first imaging(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([Py1,4]FAP) was evaporated onto a clean Au(111) surface by a Knudsen-type evaporator and the surface

Pfeifer, Holger

495

Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

Gray, George T., III [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

496

CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh

2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

497

Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mapping—the enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier.

Zhang, Chi, E-mail: chizheung@gmail.com; Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y., E-mail: kywong@eee.hku.hk [Photonic Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

498

Effect of flame-retarding additives on surface chemistry in Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examined the properties of 1 wt.% vinylene carbonate (VC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), and diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOF) additive electrolytes as a promising way of beneficially improving the surface and cell resistance of Li-ion batteries. Surface film formation on the negative and positive electrodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, EIS, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM results confirmed that DPOF is an excellent additive to the electrolyte in the Li-ion batteries due to the improved co-intercalation of the solvent molecules.

Nam, N.D.; Park, I.J. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.G., E-mail: kimjg@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)] [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Pocked surface neutron detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its