National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for microscope n2 purged

  1. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Evan O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  2. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  3. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  4. Automated Purge Valve Joseph Edward Farrell, III.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III. Bachelor of Science Marine Engineering the undersigned committee hereby approve the attached thesis Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III.D. Department Head Department of Marine and Environmental Systems #12;iii Abstract Title: Automated Purge Valve

  5. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  6. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  7. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, Ronald (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Ronald M. (Richland, WA); Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA); Smart, John E. (Richland, WA); Gustafson, Gregg S. (Redmond, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  8. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, R.; Smith, R.M.; Hall, S.H.; Smart, J.E.; Gustafson, G.S.

    1995-10-24

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion. 8 figs.

  9. Benefits of evaporating FGD purge water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, W.A. [HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2008-03-15

    In the US and the European Union, scrubbers are installed on all new coal-fired power plants because their technology is considered the best available for removing SO{sub 2}. A zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system is the best technology for treating wet scrubber wastewate. With the future promising stricter limits on power plants' water use, ZLD systems that concentrate scrubber purge streams are sure to become as common as ZLD cooling tower blowdonw systems. 7 figs.

  10. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  11. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  12. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA); Antenucci, Annette B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  13. Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode plugging of the channels, and flooding of the gas diffusion layer. The observation of each phenomenon

  14. Whitey Swagelok SCHe Ball Valves Provide Isolation between SCHe Purge Lines C and D and the Process Vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-15

    These valves are 1/4 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They provide an isolation function betwen SCHe Purge Line C, (PV-V-*079), and Purge Line D, (PV-V-*080), and the Process Vent.

  15. Whitey Swagelok SCHe Ball Valves Provide Isolation between SCHe Purge Lines C and D and the Process Vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These valves are 1/4 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They provide an isolation function between SCHe Purge Line C, (PV-V-*079), and Purge Line D, (PV-V-*080), and the Process Vent.

  16. Whitey Swagelok SCHe ball valves Provide Isolation between SCHe Purge Lines C and D and the Process Vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    These valves are 1/4 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They provide an isolation function betwen SCHe Purge Line C, (PV-V-*079), and Purge Line D, (PV-V-*080), and the Process Vent.

  17. Characterization of BCl3/N-2 plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sia, S. F.

    2003-08-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy, quadrupole mass spectrometry, and electron density measurements were used to study the effect of the percentage of N-2 on the characteristics of BCl3/N-2 plasmas and their resulting etch processes. The etch rate of Ga...

  18. The Microscopic Linear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition References The Microscopic Brain Will Penny 7th April 2011 #12;The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear;The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition

  19. Optimization of purge cycle for dead-ended anode fuel cell Jixin Chen a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Optimization of purge cycle for dead-ended anode fuel cell operation Jixin Chen a, *, Jason B 9 March 2013 Keywords: Dead-ended anode Fuel cell optimization Hydrogen loss Carbon corrosion, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA b Fuel Cell Stack Research, Research

  20. Self-filling and self-purging apparatus for detecting spontaneous radiation from substances in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, I. Lauren (Oak Ridge, TN); Chiles, Marion M. (Knoxville, TN); Miller, V. Clint (Concord, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a radiation detector providing for the in situ automatic sampling of fluids containing substances emitting radiation, especially Cerenkov radiation. The detector permits sampling within well casings and is self-purging such that no additional provisions must be established for the storage and disposal of contaminated fluids.

  1. N=2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Masterov

    2015-05-29

    We construct an N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for distinct frequencies of oscillation. A link to a set of decoupled N=2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators with alternating sign in the Hamiltonian is introduced. Symmetries of the model are discussed in detail. The investigation of a quantum counterpart of the constructed model shows that the corresponding Fock space contains negative norm states and the energy spectrum of the system is unbounded from below.

  2. Aero III/IV Sheet 2 Solutions 1 A. G. Walton 5 ' % n +c + 52 n 25 ' E% n +2 n 2E% n + ' %2 +2 n 2% n E2+ n 2%+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Andrew G

    Aero III/IV Sheet 2 Solutions 1 A. G. Walton 1(i) 5 ' % n +c + 52 n 25 ' E% n +2 n 2E% n + ' %2 +2 #12;Aero III/IV Sheet 2 Solutions 2 A. G. Walton and let @ ' Z*2 (inside Then, U ' 2ZsE@ ' 2Ze 3Z*2

  3. An Extremal N=2 Superconformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Benjamin; Ethan Dyer; A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Shamit Kachru

    2015-06-30

    We provide an example of an extremal chiral ${\\cal N}=2$ superconformal field theory at $c=24$. The construction is based on a ${\\mathbb Z}_2$ orbifold of the theory associated to the $A_{1}^{24}$ Niemeier lattice. The statespace is governed by representations of the sporadic group $M_{23}$.

  4. New Seiberg Dualities from N=2 Dualities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Masato Taki; Seiji Terashima; Futoshi Yagi

    2009-09-01

    We propose a number of new Seiberg dualities of N=1 quiver gauge theories. The new Seiberg dualities originate in new S-dualities of N=2 superconformal field theories recently proposed by Gaiotto. N=2 S-dual theories deformed by suitable mass terms flow to our N=1 Seiberg dual theories. We show that the number of exactly marginal operators is universal for these Seiberg dual theories and the 't Hooft anomaly matching holds for these theories. These provide strong evidence for the new Seiberg dualities. Furthermore, we study in detail the Klebanov-Witten type theory and its dual as a concrete example. We show that chiral operators and their non-linear relations match between these theories. These arguments also give non-trivial consistency checks for our proposal.

  5. Thermodynamics of the N=2* flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchel, A S; Buchel, Alex; Liu, James T.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the N=2*, SU(N) gauge theory at large 't Hooft coupling. The tool we use is the non-extremal deformation of the supergravity solution of Pilch and Warner (PW) [hep-th/0004063], dual to N=4, SU(N) gauge theory softly broken to N=2. We construct the exact non-extremal solution in five-dimensional gauged supergravity and further uplift it to ten dimensions. Turning to the thermodynamics, we analytically compute the leading correction in m/T to the free energy of the non-extremal D3 branes due to the PW mass deformation, and find that it is positive. We also demonstrate that the mass deformation of the non-extremal D3 brane geometry induces a temperature dependent gaugino condensate. We find that the standard procedure of extracting the N=2* gauge theory thermodynamic quantities from the dual supergravity leads to a violation of the first law of thermodynamics. We speculate on a possible resolution of this paradox.

  6. RSE Table N2.1 and N2.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables N2.1 and N2.2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousanda Oxygenated55,453.9151 and N1.2.N2.1

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-19

    This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  9. Photometric on-line monitor for total oxidants in the ports purge cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, W.L.

    1990-12-01

    A proposed scheme for the continuous, on-line monitoring of the total concentration of oxidizing (fluorinating) gases in the top purge section of a gaseous diffusion cascade was evaluated using simulated process conditions in a laboratory. The scheme involves the reaction of the oxidizing gases in a sample stream with sodium chloride to produce chlorine, which is then measured with an ultraviolet photometer to yield a value for total oxidant concentration. This report describes the experimental apparatus used in studying this method and presents the resulting data and conclusions. The study found that the technique would work under some conditions, but would be troublesome and probably undependable if implemented as a real-time process monitor. During the study, it was discovered that the photometric approach could provide a measurement of total oxidant concentration without resorting to the salt reaction. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. N=2 String as a Topological Conformal Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Gomis; H. Suzuki

    1991-11-28

    We prove that critical and subcritical N=2 string theory gives a realization of an N=2 superfield extension of the topological conformal algebra. The essential observation is the vanishing of the background charge.

  11. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  12. Superfield Realizations of $N=2$ Super-$W_3$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ivanov; S. Krivonos

    1992-04-10

    We present a manifestly $N=2$ supersymmetric formulation of $N=2$ super-$W_3$ algebra (its classical version) in terms of the spin 1 and spin 2 supercurrents. Two closely related types of the Feigin-Fuchs representation for these supercurrents are found: via two chiral spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ superfields generating $N=2$ extended $U(1)$ Kac-Moody algebras and via two free chiral spin 0 superfields. We also construct a one-parameter family of $N=2$ super Boussinesq equations for which $N=2$ super-$W_3$ provides the second hamiltonian structure.

  13. Renormalizable N=2 supersymmetric and gauge invariant interactions from the N=2 harmonic superspace with central charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, E.H. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte de Sciences, Battouta, Rabat (MA))

    1987-01-01

    The N=2 harmonic superspace in the presence of central charges is developed. Renormalizable interactions unusual in N=2 supersymmetric theories are derived in a consistent way. Symmetries generated by the central charges are discussed. A certain equivalence between N=2 harmonic superspace with and without central charges is established. An Abelian generalization of the model is given.

  14. Angular Momentum and Gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky

    2011-02-09

    In this note we discuss the gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum in the $\\Omega$-background. It is argued that the Seiberg-Witten prepotential is related to the vacuum density of the angular momentum in the Euclidean $R^4$ space. The possible role of the dyonic instantons as the microscopic angular momentum carriers which could yield the spontaneous vacuum gravimagnetization is conjectured. We interpret the dyonic instanton as a kind of the Euclidean bounce in $R^4$ similar to one responsible for the Schwinger pair creation. The induced angular momentum in $R^4$ is also briefly considered in the dual Liouville formulation of $SU(2)$ theory via AGT relation.

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  16. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  17. Combustion oscillation: Chemical control showing mechanistic link to recirculation zone purge time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Norton, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    Active control mechanisms are being examined for lean premix combustion applications, such as gas turbine generators. Lean premix combustors are susceptible to large combustion oscillations, particularly when driven very lean to achieve low NOx. While past design work has been focussed on understanding the source of the oscillation and modifying the combustor to avoid such oscillations, commercial combustion designers have more recently considered applying new control elements. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is investigating various active control techniques. This paper presents results from experiments studying the effect of pilot fuel modulation on combustor oscillation and pollutant emissions for a pilot stabilized dump swirl combustor, typical of gas turbine combustors. The results show that a significant level of attenuation can be achieved in the combustor pressure oscillation (50 to 90 percent) while only moderately affecting pollutant emissions. The control mechanism producing the attenuation is shown to be purely chemical in nature, rather than fluid mechanic. In addition, the frequency region over which control is obtained is shown to be related to the recirculation zone purge time. For this reason, control can be achieved at control frequencies much lower than the frequency of oscillation.

  18. (n, 2)-SETS HAVE FULL HAUSDORFF DIMENSION THEMIS MITSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jyväskylä, University of

    : dist(x, Le(a)) } is the infinite tube with axis Le(a) and cross-section radius . 2000 Mathematics measure n,2 which is invariant under the action of the orthogonal group. The elements of Gn that n,2({P Gn : d(P, P0) }) 2(n-2) for all P0 Gn, 1. So if A Gn and B is a maximal -separated

  19. N=2 Superfields and the M-Fivebrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. D. Lambert; P. C. West

    1998-02-23

    In this paper we provide a manifestly N=2 supersymmetric formulation of the M-fivebrane in the presence of threebrane solitons. The superspace form of four-dimensional effective equations for the threebranes are readily obtained and yield the complete Seiberg-Witten equations of motion for N=2 super-Yang-Mills. A particularly simple derivation is given by introducing an N=2 superfield generalisation of the Seiberg-Witten differential.

  20. CO and N$_2$ desorption energies from water ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayolle, Edith C; Loomis, Ryan; Bergner, Jennifer; Graninger, Dawn M; Rajappan, Mahesh; berg, Karin I

    2015-01-01

    The relative desorption energies of CO and N$_2$ are key to interpretations of observed interstellar CO and N$_2$ abundance patterns, including the well-documented CO and N$_2$H$^+$ anti-correlations in disks, protostars and molecular cloud cores. Based on laboratory experiments on pure CO and N$_2$ ice desorption, the difference between CO and N$_2$ desorption energies is small; the N$_2$-to-CO desorption energy ratio is 0.93$\\pm$0.03. Interstellar ices are not pure, however, and in this study we explore the effect of water ice on the desorption energy ratio of the two molecules. We present temperature programmed desorption experiments of different coverages of $^{13}$CO and $^{15}$N$_2$ on porous and compact amorphous water ices and, for reference, of pure ices. In all experiments, $^{15}$N$_2$ desorption begins a few degrees before the onset of $^{13}$CO desorption. The $^{15}$N$_2$ and $^{13}$CO energy barriers are 770 and 866 K for the pure ices, 1034-1143 K and 1155-1298 K for different sub-monolayer co...

  1. Electron Microscope Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

  2. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  3. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  4. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  5. Lorentz Symmetry Breaking in $\\mathcal{N} =2$ Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will study the deformation of a three dimensional theory with $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. This theory will be deformed by the presence of a constant vector field. This deformation will break the Lorentz symmetry. So, we will analyse this theory using $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace. The $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace will be obtained from a deformation of the usual $\\mathcal{N} =2$ superspace. This will be done by deforming the generators of the three dimensional $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. After analysing this deformed superalgebra, we will derive an explicit expression for the superspace propagators in this deformed superspace. Finally, we will use these propagators for performing perturbative calculations.

  6. Lorentz Symmetry Breaking in $\\mathcal{N} =2$ Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir Faizal; Prince A. Ganai

    2015-09-09

    In this paper, we will study the deformation of a three dimensional theory with $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. This theory will be deformed by the presence of a constant vector field. This deformation will break the Lorentz symmetry. So, we will analyse this theory using $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace. The $\\mathcal{N} =2$ aether superspace will be obtained from a deformation of the usual $\\mathcal{N} =2$ superspace. This will be done by deforming the generators of the three dimensional $\\mathcal{N} =2$ supersymmetry. After analysing this deformed superalgebra, we will derive an explicit expression for the superspace propagators in this deformed superspace. Finally, we will use these propagators for performing perturbative calculations.

  7. Potential Flammable Gas Explosion in the TRU Vent and Purge Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A

    2006-04-05

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the failure of the Vent and Purge (V&P) Machine due to potential explosion in the Transuranic (TRU) drum during its venting and/or subsequent explosion in the V&P machine from the flammable gases (e.g., hydrogen and Volatile Organic Compounds [VOCs]) vented into the V&P machine from the TRU drum. The analysis considers: (a) increase in the pressure in the V&P cabinet from the original deflagration in the TRU drum including lid ejection, (b) pressure wave impact from TRU drum failure, and (c) secondary burns or deflagrations resulting from excess, unburned gases in the cabinet area. A variety of cases were considered that maximized the pressure produced in the V&P cabinet. Also, cases were analyzed that maximized the shock wave pressure in the cabinet from TRU drum failure. The calculations were performed for various initial drum pressures (e.g., 1.5 and 6 psig) for 55 gallon TRU drum. The calculated peak cabinet pressures ranged from 16 psig to 50 psig for various flammable gas compositions. The blast on top of cabinet and in outlet duct ranged from 50 psig to 63 psig and 12 psig to 16 psig, respectively, for various flammable gas compositions. The failure pressures of the cabinet and the ducts calculated by structural analysis were higher than the pressure calculated from potential flammable gas deflagrations, thus, assuring that V&P cabinet would not fail during this event. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 68 calculations showed that for a failure pressure of 20 psig, the available vent area in the V&P cabinet is 1.7 to 2.6 times the required vent area depending on whether hydrogen or VOCs burn in the V&P cabinet. This analysis methodology could be used to design the process equipment needed for venting TRU waste containers at other sites across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  8. ELECTROSTATIC (LANGMUIR) PROBE MEASUREMENTS IN RF DRIVEN He, N2, BCl3, AND BCl3/N2 PLASMAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Bogdan Amaru

    2008-08-01

    of GaAs with nitrogen addition. The system was validated in both helium and nitrogen plasmas. Probe measurements showed that as the nitrogen concentration in BCl3/N2 plasmas increased, the average electron energy actually decreased (5.52 eV @ 0% N2, 4...

  9. On the Provenance of Pluto's Nitrogen (N2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Kelsi N

    2015-01-01

    N2 is abundant in Pluto's atmosphere and on its surface, but the supply is depleted by prodigious atmospheric escape. We demonstrate that cometary impacts could not have delivered enough N2 mass to resupply Pluto's atmospheric escape over time; thus Pluto's N2 is likely endogenous, and therefore was either acquired early in its history or created by chemistry inside/on Pluto. We find that cratering could excavate a considerable amount of N2 to resupply the atmosphere against escape if the near-surface N2 reservoir is deep. However, we find that this process likely falls short of that necessary to resupply the atmosphere against escape by at least an order of magnitude. We conclude that either the escape of N2 from Pluto's atmosphere was on average much lower than the predictions for the current epoch, or that internal activity could be necessary to bring N2 to the surface and resupply escape losses. Observations made by the New Horizons spacecraft in mid-2015 will yield further constraints on the provenance a...

  10. Scattering and Thermodynamics of Integrable N=2 Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fendley; K. Intriligator

    1992-02-04

    We study $N$=2 supersymmetric integrable theories with spontaneously-broken \\Zn\\ symmetry. They have exact soliton masses given by the affine $SU(n)$ Toda masses and fractional fermion numbers given by multiples of $1/n$. The basic such $N$=2 integrable theory is the $A_n$-type $N$=2 minimal model perturbed by the most relevant operator. The soliton content and exact S-matrices are obtained using the Landau-Ginzburg description. We study the thermodynamics of these theories and calculate the ground-state energies exactly, verifying that they have the correct conformal limits. We conjecture that the soliton content and S-matrices in other integrable \\Zn\\ $N$=2 theories are given by the tensor product of the above basic $N$=2 \\Zn\\ scattering theory with various $N$=0 theories. In particular, we consider integrable perturbations of $N$=2 Kazama-Suzuki models described by generalized Chebyshev potentials, $CP^{n-1}$ sigma models, and $N$=2 sine-Gordon and its affine Toda generalizations.

  11. Stress-tensor OPE in N=2 Superconformal Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Liendo; Israel Ramirez; Jihye Seo

    2015-08-31

    We carry out a detailed superspace analysis of the OPE of two N=2 stress-tensor multiplets. Knowledge of the multiplets appearing in the expansion, together with the two-dimensional chiral algebra description of N=2 SCFTs, imply an analytic bound on the central charge c. This bound is valid for any N=2 SCFT regardless of its matter content and flavor symmetries, and is saturated by the simplest Argyres-Douglas fixed point. We also present a partial conformal block analysis for the scalar superconformal primary of the multiplet.

  12. Chiral and real N=2 supersymmetric ?-conformal Galilei algebras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizawa, N. [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Nakamozu Campus, Sakai, Osaka 599-8351 (Japan)] [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Nakamozu Campus, Sakai, Osaka 599-8351 (Japan); Kuznetsova, Z. [UFABC, Rua Santa Adlia 166, Bangu, cep 09210-170, Santo Andr, SP (Brazil)] [UFABC, Rua Santa Adlia 166, Bangu, cep 09210-170, Santo Andr, SP (Brazil); Toppan, F. [CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Inequivalent N=2 supersymmetrizations of the ?-conformal Galilei algebra in d-spatial dimensions are constructed from the chiral (2, 2) and the real (1, 2, 1) basic supermultiplets of the N=2 supersymmetry. For non-negative integer and half-integer ?, both superalgebras admit a consistent truncation with a (different) finite number of generators. The real N=2 case coincides with the superalgebra introduced by Masterov, while the chiral N=2 case is a new superalgebra. We present D-module representations of both superalgebras. Then we investigate the new superalgebra derived from the chiral supermultiplet. It is shown that it admits two types of central extensions, one is found for any d and half-integer ?, and the other only for d= 2 and integer ?. For each central extension, the centrally extended ?-superconformal Galilei algebra is realized in terms of its super-Heisenberg subalgebra generators.

  13. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  14. A Specific N = 2 Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanical Model: Supervariable Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, Aradhya

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting the supersymmetric invariant restrictions on the chiral and anti-chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetry transformations for a specific (0 + 1)-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables (\\theta, \\bar\\theta). We also provide the geometrical meaning to the symmetry transformations. Finally, we show that this specific N = 2 SUSY quantum mechanical model is a model for Hodge theory.

  15. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  16. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  17. N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems N2O Emissions From 2010 SCR Systems Reviews potential contribution to N2O formation of typical diesel exhaust aftertreatment system based on...

  18. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-10-15

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  19. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  20. K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker J.E.

    2009-05-13

    K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

  1. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  2. Nonlocality from N>2 independent single-photon emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiel, C.; Wiegner, R.; Zanthier, J. von [Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We demonstrate that intensity correlations of second order in the fluorescence light of N>2 single-photon emitters may violate locality while the visibility of the signal remains below 1/{radical}(2){approx_equal}71%. For this, we derive a homogeneous Bell-Wigner-type inequality, which can be applied to a broad class of experimental setups. We trace the violation of this inequality back to path entanglement created by the process of detection.

  3. Photodesorption of ices I: CO, N2 and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2009-01-23

    A longstanding problem in astrochemistry is how molecules can be maintained in the gas phase in dense inter- and circumstellar regions. Photodesorption is a non-thermal desorption mechanism, which may explain the small amounts of observed cold gas in cloud cores and disk mid-planes. This paper aims to determine the UV photodesorption yields and to constrain the photodesorption mechanisms of three astrochemically relevant ices: CO, N2 and CO2. In addition, the possibility of co-desorption in mixed and layered CO:N2 ices is explored. The ice photodesorption is studied experimentally under ultra high vacuum conditions and at 15-60 K using a hydrogen discharge lamp (7-10.5 eV). The ice desorption during irradiation is monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy of the ice and simultaneous mass spectrometry of the desorbed molecules. Both the UV photodesorption yields per incident photon and the photodesorption mechanisms are molecule specific. CO photodesorbs without dissociation from the surface layer of the ice. N2, which lacks an electronic transition in this wavelength range, has a photodesorption yield that is more than an order of magnitude lower. This yield increases significantly due to co-desorption when N2 is mixed in with or layered on top of CO ice. CO2 photodesorbs through dissociation and subsequent recombination from the top 10 layers of the ice. At low temperatures (15-18 K) the derived photodesorption yields are 2.7x10^-3 and CO2 photodesorption yield is 1.2x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/2.9)) + 1.1x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/4.6)) molecules photon-1, where X is the ice thickness in monolayers and the two parts of the expression represent a CO2 and CO photodesorption pathway.

  4. N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories and quantum integrable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan Luo; Meng-Chwan Tan; Junya Yagi

    2014-04-01

    We study N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories on the product of a two-sphere and a cylinder. We show that the low-energy dynamics of a BPS sector of such a theory is described by a quantum integrable system, with the Planck constant set by the inverse of the radius of the sphere. If the sphere is replaced with a hemisphere, then our system reduces to an integrable system of the type studied by Nekrasov and Shatashvili. In this case we establish a correspondence between the effective prepotential of the gauge theory and the Yang-Yang function of the integrable system.

  5. Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jrg Teschner

    2015-03-10

    This is the introduction to the collection of review articles "Exact results on N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories". The first three sections are intended to give a general overview over the physical motivations behind this direction of research, and some of the developments that initiated this project. These sections are written for a broad audience of readers with interest in quantum field theory, assuming only very basic knowledge of supersymmetric gauge theories and string theory. This will be followed by a brief overview over the different chapters collected in this volume, while the last section indicates some related developments that we were unfortunately not able to cover.

  6. Pure N=2 Super Yang-Mills and Exact WKB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir-Kian Kashani-Poor; Jan Troost

    2015-04-30

    We apply exact WKB methods to the study of the partition function of pure N=2 epsilon_i-deformed gauge theory in four dimensions in the context of the 2d/4d correspondence. We study the partition function at leading order in epsilon_2/epsilon_1 (i.e. at large central charge) and in an expansion in epsilon_1. We find corrections of the form ~ exp[- SW periods / epsilon_1] to this expansion. We attribute these to the exchange of the order of summation over gauge instanton number and over powers of epsilon_1 when passing from the Nekrasov form of the partition function to the topological string theory inspired form. We conjecture that such corrections should be computable from a worldsheet perspective on the partition function. Our results follow upon the determination of the Stokes graphs associated to the Mathieu equation with complex parameters and the application of exact WKB techniques to compute the Mathieu characteristic exponent.

  7. Pure N=2 Super Yang-Mills and Exact WKB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

    2015-01-01

    We apply exact WKB methods to the study of the partition function of pure N=2 epsilon_i-deformed gauge theory in four dimensions in the context of the 2d/4d correspondence. We study the partition function at leading order in epsilon_2/epsilon_1 (i.e. at large central charge) and in an expansion in epsilon_1. We find corrections of the form ~ exp[- SW periods / epsilon_1] to this expansion. We attribute these to the exchange of the order of summation over gauge instanton number and over powers of epsilon_1 when passing from the Nekrasov form of the partition function to the topological string theory inspired form. We conjecture that such corrections should be computable from a worldsheet perspective on the partition function. Our results follow upon the determination of the Stokes graphs associated to the Mathieu equation with complex parameters and the application of exact WKB techniques to compute the Mathieu characteristic exponent.

  8. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    in Microbial Production and Consumption of Green- housesoil denitrification: Production and consumption of nitrouspathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical

  9. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment Investigation of a series of transition metal...

  10. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  11. O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic. (2007) O_3-N_2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: revisiting a diagnostic outputs online #12;O3-N2O correlations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Revisiting a diagnostic

  12. Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic eects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems: natural emissions and anthropogenic, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission the remainder. Over 80% of aquatic anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the Northern Hemisphere mid

  13. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative species Steamed Fe-zeolites Mssbauer spectroscopy UVVis FTIR H2-TPR N2O decomposition Propane oxidative of propane to propene with N2O. The evacuated non-steamed FeH-ZSM-5 contained high concentration of Brnsted

  14. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  15. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-rayOptical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes Patrick P.the development of Fresnel zoneplate based microscopes.

  16. The development of N2S2 metal complexes as bidentate ligands for organometallic chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rampersad, Marilyn Vena

    2007-04-25

    from CO addition to (NiN2S2)W(CO)4, which is in equilibrium with the resulting (NiN2S2)W(CO)5 species (Keq = 2.8 M-1, G = -1.4 kJ/mole at 50C). Complete NiN2S2 ligand displacement by CO-cleavage of the remaining W-S bond to form W(CO)6 was not observed...

  17. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  18. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  19. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  20. N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    N2 DISSOCIATION IN THE MESOSPHERE DUE TO SECONDARY ELECTRONS DURING A SOLAR PROTON EVENT, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen

  1. Extended BRS and anti-BRS symmetries in N=2 harmonic superspace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lhallabi, T.; Saidi, E.H. (L.P.T., av. Ibn Battouta, Rabat (MA))

    1988-01-01

    The full set of extended BRS and anti-BRS symmetries are derived for components of superconnection and gauge superfield using the N = 2 harmonic superspace. The quantization of N = 2 supersymmetric theory is developed and the proof of its gauge invariance is presented.

  2. Multiparameter statistical models from $N^2\\times N^2$ braid matrices: Explicit eigenvalues of transfer matrices ${\\bf T}^{(r)}$, spin chains, factorizable scatterings for all $N$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Abdesselam; A. Chakrabarti

    2008-07-02

    For a class of multiparameter statistical models based on $N^2\\times N^2$ braid matrices the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix ${\\bf T}^{(r)}$ are obtained explicitly for all $(r,N)$. Our formalism yields them as solutions of sets of linear equations with simple constant coefficients. The role of zero-sum multiplets constituted in terms of roots of unity is pointed out and their origin is traced to circular permutations of the indices in the tensor products of basis states induced by our class of ${\\bf T}^{(r)}$ matrices. The role of free parameters, increasing as $N^2$ with $N$, is emphasized throughout. Spin chain Hamiltonians are constructed and studied for all $N$. Inverse Cayley transforms of Yang-Baxter matrices corresponding to our braid matrices are obtained for all $N$. They provide potentials for factorizable $S$-matrices. Main results are summarized and perspectives are indicated in the concluding remarks.

  3. Determination of parts-per-billion concentrations of dioxane in water and soil by purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or charcoal tube enrichment gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, P.S.; Mauer, T.; Wagner, M.; Chase, S.; Giles, B.

    1987-08-01

    Two methods for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in water have been studied. The first method is a heated purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system following salting out with sodium sulfate. The second method is an adsorption on coconut-shell charcoal and solvent desorption with carbon disulfide/methanol followed by analysis of the desorbate by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The first method is also successful for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in solids and sediments. The second method is shown to be successful for 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and butoxyethanol in water. The two methods are compared by analyzing 15 samples by both methods and achieving similar results.

  4. Analytical Formulas of Molecular Ion Abundances and N2H+ Ring in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Qi, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry of ion molecules in protoplanetary disks, motivated by the detection of N$_2$H$^+$ ring around TW Hya. While the ring inner radius coincides with the CO snow line, it is not apparent why N$_2$H$^+$ is abundant outside the CO snow line in spite of the similar sublimation temperatures of CO and N$_2$. Using the full gas-grain network model, we reproduced the N$_2$H$^+$ ring in a disk model with millimeter grains. The chemical conversion of CO and N$_2$ to less volatile species (sink effect hereinafter) is found to affect the N$_2$H$^+$ distribution. Since the efficiency of the sink depends on various parameters such as activation barriers of grain surface reactions, which are not well constrained, we also constructed the no-sink model; the total (gas and ice) CO and N$_2$ abundances are set constant, and their gaseous abundances are given by the balance between adsorption and desorption. Abundances of molecular ions in the no-sink model are calculated by analytical formulas, which a...

  5. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wei, Tao (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  6. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Alameda, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscope (FEI Nova NanoSEM 2300)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    submenu. If chamber takes longer than 1 minute to vent, click Pump and notify Instrument Manager. 3. Insert sample stub and tighten using locking screw. 4. Close the chamber door and select Pump. Always wear gloves when loading samples into the chamber. Load sample while nitrogen purge is active to avoid

  8. Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Peter

    Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena Paul J. Atzberger Department of Mathematics University of California, Santa Barbara 25, 2007) The basic ingredients of osmotic pressure are a solvent fluid with a soluble molecular

  9. The inverse conductivity problem with power densities in dimension n2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franois Monard, Guillaume Bal

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... The model: X ? Rn bounded domain, n ? 2. ? (??u) ? ? .... A first-order quasi-linear system is then derived for the frame S. ?Si = HkqHjp(...

  10. Topics in 3D N=2 AdS supergravity in superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli

    2012-02-01

    We review some recent results on the construction in superspace of 3D N=2 AdS supergravities and on the formulation of rigid supersymmetric theories in (1,1) and (2,0) AdS superspaces.

  11. Elastic stability and electronic structure of pyrite type PtN2: Ahard semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Rong; Zhan, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Feng

    2006-08-29

    The elastic properties and electronic structure of PtN2 withthe pyrite structure (PtN2(C2)) were studied with first-principlescalculations. The crystal structure is demonstrated to be elasticallystable with a lower energy than the metastable fluorite structureproposed before. The calculated shear modulus of 214 GPa suggests thatPtN2(C2) is harder than some well known hard materials such as TiN andSiC. The high elastic moduli are attributed to a stacking ofcorner-shared PtN6 octahedra bonded by strong N-N covalent bonding. Incontrast to the metallic fluorite-type phase, PtN2(C2) is semiconductingwith an indirect band gap.

  12. Classical M-Fivebrane Dynamics and Quantum N=2 Yang-Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Howe; N. D. Lambert; P. C. West

    1997-11-05

    We obtain the complete quantum Seiberg-Witten effective action for N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory from the classical M-fivebrane equations of motion with N threebranes moving in its worldvolume.

  13. D-module Representations of N=2,4,8 Superconformal Algebras and Their Superconformal Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhanna Kuznetsova; Francesco Toppan

    2011-12-05

    The linear (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) (k, N, N-k) supermultiplets of the N-extended one-dimensional Supersymmetry Algebra induce D-module representations for the N=2,4,8 superconformal algebras. For N=2, the D-module representations of the A(1,0) superalgebra are obtained. For N=4 and scaling dimension \\lambda=0, the D-module representations of the A(1,1) superalgebra are obtained. For $\\lambda\

  14. D-module Representations of N=2,4,8 Superconformal Algebras and Their Superconformal Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuznetsova, Zhanna

    2011-01-01

    The linear (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) (k, N, N-k) supermultiplets of the N-extended one-dimensional Supersymmetry Algebra induce D-module representations for the N=2,4,8 superconformal algebras. For N=2, the D-module representations of the A(1,0) superalgebra are obtained. For N=4 and scaling dimension \\lambda=0, the D-module representations of the A(1,1) superalgebra are obtained. For $\\lambda\

  15. Hybrid r-Vacua in N=2 Supersymmetric QCD: Universal Condensate Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Shifman; A. Yung

    2013-03-06

    We derive an exact unified formula for all condensates (quark and monopole) in the hybrid r vacua in N=2 supersymmetric QCD slightly deformed by a \\mu A^2 term. The gauge group is assumed to be U(N) and the number of the quark flavors N_f subject to the condition Nhybrid r vacua in \\mu-deformed N=2 SQCD (the small-\\mu limit).

  16. Global Focus Microscope The Global Health Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To address this need, we developed the Global Focus Microscope (GFM): a portable, battery- powered, inverted digi- tal images, the Global Focus Microscope comes with shelf for an iPhone 4. Figure 1. From left to right: Malaria parasites imaged at 1000x in bright field mode, tuberculosis imaged at 400x in bright

  17. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  18. N2 and CO2 vibrational modes in solid nitrogen under pressure M. D. McCluskeya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    . For CO2 concentrations of 0.1%, phase separation is present at low pressures, but is suppressed for pressures greater than 1 GPa. In summary, these studies have contributed to the knowledge of the N2 phase on N2 under hydrostatic pressure. These studies contribute to the knowledge of the N2 phase diagram

  19. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  20. Scanning Electron Microscopes in Materials Characterization ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Electron Microscopes in Materials Characterization Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in...

  1. Gauge/Gravity Duality, Green Functions of N=2 SYM and Radial/Energy-Scale Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Jun Wang; Seng Hu

    2002-07-19

    We consider supergravity configuration of D5 branes wrapped on supersymmetric 2-cycles and use it to calculate one-point and two-point Green functions of some special operators in N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. We show that Green functions obtained from supergravity include two very different parts. One of them corresponds to perturbative results of quantum field theory, and another is a non-perturbative effect which corresponds to contribution from instantons with fractional charge. Comparing Green functions obtained from supergravity and gauge theory, we obtain radial/energy-scale relation for this gauge/gravity correspondence with N=2 supersymmetry. This relation leads right beta-function of N=2 SYM from supergravity configuration.

  2. The classical mechanics of autonomous microscopic engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Gilz; Eike P. Thesing; James R. Anglin

    2015-09-08

    Even microscopic engines have hitherto been defined to require macroscopic elements such as heat reservoirs, but here we observe that what makes engines useful is energy transfer across a large ratio of dynamical time scales ("downconversion"), and that small, closed dynamical systems which could perform steady downconversion ("Hamiltonian daemons") would fulfill the practical requirements of autonomous microscopic engines. We show that such daemons are possible, and obey mechanical constraints comparable to, but different from, the laws of thermodynamics.

  3. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  4. Supersymmetric extension of the nine-dimensional continuation of the Euler density with N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokhtar Hassaine; Rodrigo Olea; Ricardo Troncoso

    2004-08-26

    A local supersymmetric extension with N=2 of the dimensional continuation of the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet density from eight to nine dimensions is constructed. The gravitational sector is invariant under local Poincare translations, and the full field content is given by the vielbein, the spin connection, a complex gravitino, and an Abelian one-form. The local symmetry group is shown to be super Poincare with N=2 and a U(1) central extension, and the full supersymmetric Lagrangian can be written as a Chern-Simons form.

  5. Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic Theory of Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fragment Yields Calculated in a Time-Dependent Microscopic...

  6. Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene Prev Next Title: Microscopic theory of quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene Authors: Qiao, Zhenhua ;...

  7. Toward Understanding the Microscopic Origin of Nuclear Clustering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward Understanding the Microscopic Origin of Nuclear Clustering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward Understanding the Microscopic Origin of Nuclear Clustering Open...

  8. H-2(p,n)2p Spin Transfer from 305 to 788 Mev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNaughton, M. W.; Koch, K.; Supek, I.; Tanaka, N.; Ambrose, DA; Coffey, P.; Johnston, K.; McNaughton, K. H.; Riley, P. J.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, John C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Simon, A. J.; Mercer, D. J.; Adams, D. L.; Spinka, H.; Jeppersen, R. H.; Tripard, G. E.; Woolverton, H.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the spin-transfer parameter K(LL) for H-2(p, n)2p at 0-degrees to calibrate the neutron-beam polarization clarify a normalization discrepancy affecting np data at LAMPF. The new data are in good agreement with theoretical predictions....

  9. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are a strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gasEnhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification Youn-Sang Bae

  10. THE RADIO NUMBERS OF ALL GRAPHS OF ORDER n AND DIAMETER n -2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomova, Maggy

    THE RADIO NUMBERS OF ALL GRAPHS OF ORDER n AND DIAMETER n - 2 KATHERINE BENSON, MATTHEW PORTER, AND MAGGY TOMOVA Abstract. A radio labeling of a connected graph G is a function c : V (G) Z+ such that for every two distinct vertices u and v of G distance(u, v) + |c(u) - c(v)| 1 + diameter(G). The radio

  11. Shock-Tube Study of Methane Ignition with NO2 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pemelton, John

    2012-10-19

    . The experimental pressure range was 1 - 44 atm and the temperature range tested was 1177 2095 K. The additives NO2 and N2O were added in concentrations from 831 ppm to 3539 ppm. The results of the mixtures with NO2 have a reduction in ignition delay time across...

  12. Sminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrand, Franois

    Sminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics Le 06 Septembre TOULOUSE Cedex 4 Rsum Droplet-based microfluidics has a tremendous potential for the miniaturization of chemicals in microfluidic systems is therefore a key to reliably downscale the assays from microtiter plates

  13. Miniature self-contained vacuum compatible electronic imaging microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Batson, Phillip J. (Alameda, CA); Denham, Paul E. (Crockett, CA); Jones, Michael S. (San Francisco, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A vacuum compatible CCD-based microscopic camera with an integrated illuminator. The camera can provide video or still feed from the microscope contained within a vacuum chamber. Activation of an optional integral illuminator can provide light to illuminate the microscope subject. The microscope camera comprises a housing with a objective port, modified objective, beam-splitter, CCD camera, and LED illuminator.

  14. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  15. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  16. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  17. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  18. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  19. 2.2.29. Demostrar que nx((n) -(n))2 Solucion: Para el resto de la prueba, p y q representan siempre un

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cilleruelo, Javier

    2.2.29. Demostrar que nx((n) - (n))2 = O(x). Soluci´on: Para el resto de la prueba, p y q (n) = p|n 1, por tanto lo que queremos estimar es: nx ((n) - (n))2 = nx ( p|n 2 1)2 . Donde es un cantidad elevada al cuadrado, podemos poner eso como nx ((n) - (n))2 = nx ( p|n 2 1)( q|n 2 1). Reordenando

  20. Dielectric response of N2-Ar solid solutions in the audio frequency range S. Pilla,* J. A. Hamida, K. A. Muttalib, and N. S. Sullivan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muttalib, Khandker

    -long-range quadrupolar ordered phase phase IB .5,6 At intermediate N2 concentrations, 57 x(N2) 78 mol%, the lattice

  1. New classes of D = 4, N = 2 supersymmetric nonlinear /sigma/ models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors show that there exists three independent N = 2, harmonic superspaces denoted as (2,2-bar)/sub +-/; (2,2-bar)/sub ++/ and (2,2)/sub +-/. These superspaces are in one-to-one correspondence with the three complex structures of the quaternionic body. The underlying supersymmetric nonlinear /sigma/ models preserving the SU(2) symmetry are developed. Two of them are described by a neutral hyperkahler potential. New results are obtained.

  2. AN IMPROVED BOUND FOR THE HAUSDORFF DIMENSION OF (n, 2)-SETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jyväskylä, University of

    )-sets. In higher dimensions it is an open question whether an (n, 2)-set must have positive measure. We = {x Rn : dist(x, Le(a)) } is the infinite tube with axis Le(a) and cross-section radius . 2000, 1 Pl, 2 T e (a), where = C/d(P1, P2). Therefore |Pl, 1 Pl, 2 | |Pl, 1 T e (a)| n-1 d(P1, P2

  3. Vafa-Witten Theory on N=2 and N=4 Twisted Superspace in Four Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kato, Junji

    2009-01-01

    We construct a new off-shell twisted hypermultiplet with a scalar and an anti-self-dual tensor superfields. Using the N=2 twisted superspace formalism, we construct a Donaldson-Witten theory coupled to the hypermultiplet. We show that this action possesses the Vafa-Witten type N=4 twisted supersymmetry at the on-shell level. We also reconstruct the action using a N=4 twisted superconnection formalism.

  4. Vafa-Witten Theory on N=2 and N=4 Twisted Superspace in Four Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junji Kato; Akiko Miyake

    2008-08-25

    We construct a new off-shell twisted hypermultiplet with a scalar and an anti-self-dual tensor superfields. Using the N=2 twisted superspace formalism, we construct a Donaldson-Witten theory coupled to the hypermultiplet. We show that this action possesses the Vafa-Witten type N=4 twisted supersymmetry at the on-shell level. We also reconstruct the action using a N=4 twisted superconnection formalism.

  5. Steric, Quantum, and Electrostatic Effects on S{sub N}2 Reaction Barriers in Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Hu, Hao; Pedersen, Lee G.

    2010-05-13

    Biomolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions, S{sub N}2, are fundamental and commonplace in chemistry. It is the well-documented experimental finding in the literature that vicinal substitution with bulkier groups near the reaction center significantly slows the reaction due to steric hindrance, but theoretical understanding in the quantitative manner about factors dictating the S{sub N}2 reaction barrier height is still controversial. In this work, employing the new quantification approach that we recently proposed for the steric effect from the density functional theory framework, we investigate the relative contribution of three independent effectssteric, electrostatic, and quantumto the S{sub N}2 barrier heights in gas phase for substituted methyl halide systems, R{sub 1}R{sub 2}R{sub 3}CX, reacting with the fluorine anion, where R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, and R{sub 3} denote substituting groups and X = F or Cl. We found that in accordance with the experimental finding, for these systems, the steric effect dominates the transition state barrier, contributing positively to barrier heights, but this contribution is largely compensated by the negative, stabilizing contribution from the quantum effect due to the exchange-correlation interactions. Moreover, we find that it is the component from the electrostatic effect that is linearly correlated with the S{sub N}2 barrier height for the systems investigated in the present study. In addition, we compared our approach with the conventional method of energy decomposition in density functional theory as well as examined the steric effect from the wave function theory for these systems via natural bond orbital analysis.

  6. Non Abelian Sugawara Construction and the q-deformed N=2 Superconformal Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Batista; J. F. Gomes; I. J. Lautenschleguer

    1996-03-06

    The construction of a q-deformed N=2 superconformal algebra is proposed in terms of level 1 currents of ${\\cal{U}}_{q} ({\\widehat{su}}(2))$ quantum affine Lie algebra and a single real Fermi field. In particular, it suggests the expression for the q-deformed Energy-Momentum tensor in the Sugawara form. Its constituents generate two isomorphic quadratic algebraic structures. The generalization to ${\\cal{U}}_{q} ({\\widehat{su}}(N+1))$ is also proposed.

  7. Observations on BI from $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supergravity and the General Ward Identity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrianopoli, Laura; D'Auria, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Evelyn; Trigiante, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The multi-vector generalization of a rigid, partially-broken $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric theory is presented as a rigid limit of a suitable gauged $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity with electric, magnetic charges and antisymmetric tensor fields. This on the one hand generalizes a known result by Ferrara, Girardello and Porrati while on the other hand allows to recover the multi-vector BI models from $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity as the end-point of a hierarchical limit in which the Planck mass first and then the supersymmetry breaking scale are sent to infinity. We define, in the parent supergravity model, a new symplectic frame in which, in the rigid limit, manifest symplectic invariance is preserved and the electric and magnetic Fayet-Iliopoulos terms are fully originated from the dyonic components of the embedding tensor. The supergravity origin of several features of the resulting rigid supersymmetric theory will be elucidated, such as the presence of a traceless ${\\rm SU}(2)$- Lie algebra term in the Ward i...

  8. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Del Zotto; Cumrun Vafa; Dan Xie

    2015-05-31

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  9. Angular Momentum of the N2H+ Cores in the Orion A Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Mizuno, Norikazu

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the angular momentum of the molecular cloud cores in the Orion A giant molecular cloud observed in the N2H+ J = 1-0 line with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. We have measured the velocity gradient using position velocity diagrams passing through core centers, and made sinusoidal fitting against the position angle. 27 out of 34 N2H+ cores allowed us to measure the velocity gradient without serious confusion. The derived velocity gradient ranges from 0.5 to 7.8 km/s/pc. We marginally found that the specific angular momentum J/M (against the core radius R) of the Orion N2H+ cores tends to be systematically larger than that of molecular cloud cores in cold dark clouds obtained by Goodman et al., in the J/M-R relation. The ratio beta of rotational to gravitational energy is derived to be beta = 10^{-2.3+/-0.7}, and is similar to that obtained for cold dark cloud cores in a consistent definition. The large-scale rotation of the integral-shaped filament of the Orion A giant molecular cloud does n...

  10. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  11. O2Purge.key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer under pressureNavyNumericalO K H A V E N L E C T U

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER N2 fixation estimates in real-time by cavity ring-down laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    by flame ionization detector gas chromatography. First, the detection of acetylene reduction to ethylene on a modestly priced, commercially available instrument. We illustrate its use for measuring N2 fixation using of atmospheric N2 to ammonium, is the dominant natural pathway for new nitrogen that enters most ecosystems

  13. Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product J; accepted 17 January 1996 The velocity and angular distributions of N2 produced from the reduction temperature. Both the angular and velocity distributions are well fit by bimodal forms. The high energy

  14. Unified Approach to Pore Size Characterization of Microporous Carbonaceous Materials from N2, Ar, and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    , and CO2 Adsorption Isotherms Peter I. Ravikovitch, Aleksey Vishnyakov, Ron Russo, and Alexander V adsorption at standard temperatures, 77 K for N2 and Ar and 273 K for CO2. Reference isotherms of N2, Ar, and CO2 in a series of model slit-shaped carbon pores in the range from 0.3 to 36 nm have been calculated

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  16. A $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric $AdS_4$ Solution in M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, Yolanda; Montero, Jess

    2015-01-01

    We find a new $\\mathcal{N}=2$ $AdS_4$ solution in M-theory supported by purely magnetic flux via a sequence of abelian and non-abelian T-dualities. This provides the second known example in this class besides the uplift of the Pernici and Sezgin solution to 7d gauged supergravity constructed in the eighties. We compute the free energy of the solution, and show that it scales as $N^{3/2}$. It is intriguing that even though the natural holographic interpretation is in terms of M5-branes wrapped on a special Lagrangian 3-cycle, this solution does not exhibit the expected $N^3$ behavior.

  17. Lagrangians with electric and magnetic charges of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathijs de Vroome; Bernard de Wit

    2007-07-18

    General Lagrangians are constructed for N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in four space-time dimensions involving gauge groups with (non-abelian) electric and magnetic charges. The charges induce a scalar potential, which, when the charges are regarded as spurionic quantities, is invariant under electric/magnetic duality. The resulting theories are especially relevant for supergravity, but details of the extension to local supersymmetry will be discussed elsewhere. The results include the coupling to hypermultiplets. Without the latter, it is demonstrated how an off-shell representation can be constructed based on vector and tensor supermultiplets.

  18. The free energy of N=2 supersymmetric AdS_4 solutions of M-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxime Gabella; Dario Martelli; Achilleas Passias; James Sparks

    2011-07-29

    We show that general N=2 supersymmetric AdS_4 solutions of M-theory with non-zero M2-brane charge admit a canonical contact structure. The free energy of the dual superconformal field theory on S^3 and the scaling dimensions of operators dual to supersymmetric wrapped M5-branes are expressed via AdS/CFT in terms of contact volumes. In particular, this leads to topological and localization formulae for the coefficient of N^{3/2} in the free energy of such solutions.

  19. Higher Rank Wilson Loops in N = 2* Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinyi Chen-Lin; Konstantin Zarembo

    2015-02-13

    The N=2* Super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM*) undergoes an infinite sequence of large-N quantum phase transitions. We compute expectation values of Wilson loops in k-symmetric and antisymmetric representations of the SU(N) gauge group in this theory and show that the same phenomenon that causes the phase transitions at finite coupling leads to a non-analytic dependence of Wilson loops on k/N when the coupling is strictly infinite, thus making the higher-representation Wilson loops ideal holographic probes of the non-trivial phase structure of SYM*.

  20. Fermionic Luttinger liquids from a microscopic perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Valiente; Lawrence G. Phillips; Nikolaj T. Zinner; Patrik Ohberg

    2015-05-13

    We consider interacting one-dimensional, spinless Fermi gases, whose low-energy properties are described by Luttinger liquid theory. We perform a systematic, in-depth analysis of the relation between the macroscopic, phenomenological parameters of Luttinger liquid effective field theory, and the microscopic interactions of the Fermi gas. In particular, we begin by explaining how to model effective interactions in one dimension, which we then apply to the main forward scattering channel -- the interbranch collisions -- common to these systems. We renormalise the corresponding interbranch phenomenological constants in favour of scattering phase shifts. Interestingly, our renormalisation procedure shows (i) how Luttinger's model arises in a completely natural way -- and not as a convenient approximation -- from Tomonaga's model, and (ii) the reasons behind the interbranch coupling constant remaining unrenormalised in Luttinger's model. We then consider the so-called intrabranch processes, whose phenomenological coupling constant is known to be fixed by charge conservation, but whose microscopic origin is not well understood. We show that, contrary to general belief and common sense, the intrabranch interactions appearing in Luttinger liquid theory do not correspond to an intrabranch scattering channel, nor an energy shift due to intrabranch interactions, in the microscopic theory. Instead, they are due to interbranch processes. We finally apply our results to a particular example of an exactly solvable model, namely the fermionic dual to the Lieb-Liniger model in the Tonks-Girardeau and super-Tonks-Girardeau regimes.

  1. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2015-06-23

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  2. Construction of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramasesh, Vinay (Vinay V.)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports the construction of a novel apparatus for experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices: the Fermi gas microscope. Improving upon similar designs for bosonic atoms, our Fermi gas microscope has ...

  3. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2014-09-15

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  4. N = 2 Supersymmetric Harmonic Oscillator: Basic Brackets Without Canonical Conjugate Momenta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Srinivas; A. Shukla; R. P. Malik

    2015-08-16

    We exploit the ideas of spin-statistics theorem, normal-ordering and the key concepts behind the symmetry principles to derive the canonical (anti)commutators for the case of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) N = 2 supersymmetric (SUSY) harmonic oscillator (HO) without taking the help of the mathematical definition of canonical conjugate momenta with respect to the bosonic and fermionic variables of this toy model for the Hodge theory (where the continuous and discrete symmetries of the theory provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry). In our present endeavor, it is the full set of continuous symmetries and their corresponding generators that lead to the derivation of basic (anti)commutators amongst the creation and annihilation operators that appear in the normal mode expansions of the dynamical fermionic and bosonic variables of our present N = 2 SUSY theory of a HO. These basic brackets are in complete agreement with such kind of brackets that are derived from the standard canonical method of quantization scheme.

  5. Two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory on computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    2007-09-05

    We carry out preliminary numerical study of Sugino's lattice formulation \\cite{Sugino:2004qd,Sugino:2004qdf} of the two-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ super Yang-Mills theory (2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ SYM) with the gauge group $\\SU(2)$. The effect of dynamical fermions is included by re-weighting a quenched ensemble by the pfaffian factor. It appears that the complex phase of the pfaffian due to lattice artifacts and flat directions of the classical potential are not problematic in Monte Carlo simulation. Various one-point supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi (WT) identities are examined for lattice spacings up to $a=0.5/g$ with the fixed physical lattice size $L=4.0/g$, where $g$ denotes the gauge coupling constant in two dimensions. WT identities implied by an exact fermionic symmetry of the formulation are confirmed in fair accuracy and, for most of these identities, the quantum effect of dynamical fermions is clearly observed. For WT identities expected only in the continuum limit, the results seem to be consistent with the behavior expected from supersymmetry, although we do not see clear distintion from the quenched simulation. We measure also the expectation values of renormalized gauge-invariant bi-linear operators of scalar fields.

  6. PET exam A 424304 20-032013 Short answers 111. Ex = Ex (O2) + Ex(N2) + Ex (unmix)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    (303/293)+8,314*293*ln(5) = 2288,6 W Similar Ex (N2) = 3709,8 W, and Ex (unmix) = 3478,1 W Total = 9475PET exam A 424304 20-032013 Short answers 111. Ex = Ex (O2) + Ex(N2) + Ex (unmix) Ex (O2) = (O2 --- Similar for N2. Ex (unmix) = -RT(0.21ln0.21 + 079ln0.79) Ex (O2) = (2100/3600)*(29,4*10-293*29,4*ln

  7. Microscopic Theory of Nuclear Fission: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Schunck; L. M. Robledo

    2015-11-24

    This article reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. In spontaneous fission, half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, while in induced fission the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are needed. The cornerstone of the current microscopic theory of fission is the energy density functional formalism. Its basic tenets, including tools such as the HFB theory, effective two-body effective nuclear potentials, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly. The EDF approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schr\\"odinger equation into a collective Schr\\"odinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. Scission configurations indicate where the split occurs. This collective Schr\\"odinger equation depends on an inertia tensor that includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables and also plays a special role in the determination of spontaneous fission half-lives. A trademark of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed.

  8. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  9. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA); Parent, Philippe (Chilly-Mazarin, FR); Reinholdtsen, Paul A. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respected to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations.

  10. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Wei, Tao (Albany, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  11. Microscopic calculations in asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Alonso; F. Sammarruca

    2003-02-06

    A microscopic calculation of the equation of state for asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. We employ realistic nucleon-nucleon forces and operate within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach to nuclear matter. The focal point of this paper is a (momentum-space) G-matrix which properly accounts for the asymmetry between protons and neutrons. This will merge naturally into the development of an effective interaction suitable for applications to asymmetric nuclei, which will be the object of extensive study in the future.

  12. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  13. Microscopic Models of Heavy Ion Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capella, A

    2003-01-01

    An introduction to dynamical microscopic models of hadronic and nuclear interactions is presented. Special emphasis is put in the relation between multiparticle production and total cross-section contributions. In heavy ion collisions, some observables, considered as signals of the production of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), are studied. It is shown that they can only be described if final state interactions are introduced. It is argued that the cross-sections required are too small to drive the system to thermal equilibrium within the duration time of the final state interaction.

  14. A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAA Microscopic Double-Slit

  15. A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAA Microscopic Double-SlitA

  16. A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAA Microscopic Double-SlitAA

  17. A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAA Microscopic Double-SlitAAA

  18. A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAA Microscopic

  19. Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory | National(Technical Report)Disorder-Induced Microscopic

  20. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 201, Problem 14 Evaluating the importance of Heterogeneous Chemistry of N2O5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    for NOx, because when sunlight returns it will photolyzes to reform NOx (NO + NO2). However, N2O5 can also been destroyed by catalytic reactions with the original NOx. The reactions described above are written

  1. Spectral Sequences and Vacua in N = 2 Gauged Linear Quantum Mechanics with Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenny Wong

    2015-11-24

    We study the behaviour of supersymmetric ground states in a class of one-dimensional N = 2 abelian gauged linear sigma models, including theories for which the target space is a complete intersection in projective space, and more generally, models with an interaction term introduced by Herbst, Hori and Page in which the vacua correspond to elements of hypercohomology groups of complexes of sheaves. Combining physical insights from recent work by Hori, Kim and Yi with the use of spectral sequences, we propose a way to reconcile the non-linear sigma model description, valid deep within a geometric phase, with the effective Coulomb branch description, valid near a phase boundary. This leads to a physical interpretation of the hypercohomology groups from the perspective of the Coulomb branch, as well as an interpretation for the spectral sequences used to compute them.

  2. Strong-field control of the dissociative ionization of N2O with near-single-cycle pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kling, Matthias

    Strong-field control of the dissociative ionization of N2O with near-single-cycle pulses M Kübel1.1088/1367-2630/16/6/065017 Abstract The dissociative ionization of N2O by near-single-cycle laser pulses is studied using phase, journal citation and DOI. #12;results demonstrate how few-femtosecond dynamics can drive and steer mole

  3. Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. Atzberger; P. R. Kramer

    2009-10-29

    The basic ingredients of osmotic pressure are a solvent fluid with a soluble molecular species which is restricted to a chamber by a boundary which is permeable to the solvent fluid but impermeable to the solute molecules. For macroscopic systems at equilibrium, the osmotic pressure is given by the classical van't Hoff Law, which states that the pressure is proportional to the product of the temperature and the difference of the solute concentrations inside and outside the chamber. For microscopic systems the diameter of the chamber may be comparable to the length-scale associated with the solute-wall interactions or solute molecular interactions. In each of these cases, the assumptions underlying the classical van't Hoff Law may no longer hold. In this paper we develop a general theoretical framework which captures corrections to the classical theory for the osmotic pressure under more general relationships between the size of the chamber and the interaction length scales. We also show that notions of osmotic pressure based on the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid and the mechanical pressure on the bounding walls of the chamber must be distinguished for microscopic systems. To demonstrate how the theoretical framework can be applied, numerical results are presented for the osmotic pressure associated with a polymer of N monomers confined in a spherical chamber as the bond strength is varied.

  4. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  5. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Fission Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard

    2010-03-22

    We discuss possible avenues to study fission dynamics starting from a time-dependent mean-field approach. Previous attempts to study fission dynamics using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory are analyzed. We argue that different initial conditions may be needed to describe fission dynamics depending on the specifics of the fission phenomenon and propose various approaches towards this goal. In particular, we provide preliminary calculations for studying fission following a heavy-ion reaction using TDHF with a density contraint. Regarding prompt muon-induced fission, we also suggest a new approach for combining the time-evolution of the muonic wave function with a microscopic treatment of fission dynamics via TDHF.

  6. A microscopic perspective on stochastic thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Altaner; Jrgen Vollmer

    2015-05-18

    We consider stochastic thermodynamics as a theory of statistical inference for experimentally observed fluctuating time-series. To that end, we introduce a general framework for quantifying the knowledge about the dynamical state of the system on two scales: a fine-grained or microscopic, deterministic and a coarse-grained or mesoscopic, stochastic level of description. For a generic model dynamics, we show how the mathematical expressions for fluctuating entropy changes used in Markovian stochastic thermodynamics emerge naturally. Our ideas are conceptional approaches towards (i) connecting entropy production and its fluctuation relations in deterministic and stochastic systems and (ii) providing a complementary information-theoretic picture to notions of entropy and entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics.

  7. Long working distance incoherent interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-25

    A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

  8. Microscopic study of Ca$+$Ca fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Keser; A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2012-02-17

    We investigate the fusion barriers for reactions involving Ca isotopes $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}$, $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$, and $\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ using the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. We also study the excitation of the pre-equilibrium GDR for the $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ system and the associated $\\gamma$-ray emission spectrum. Fusion cross-sections are calculated using the incoming-wave boundary condition approach. We examine the dependence of fusion barriers on collision energy as well as on the different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction.

  9. Three-dimensional N=2 (AdS) supergravity and associated supercurrents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei M. Kuzenko; Gabriele Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli

    2012-09-28

    Long ago, Achucarro and Townsend discovered that in three dimensions (3D) N-extended anti-de Sitter (AdS) supergravity exists in several incarnations, which were called the (p,q) AdS supergravity theories with non-negative integers p>=q such that N=p+q. Using the superspace approach to 3D N-extended supergravity developed in arXiv:1101.4013, we present three superfield formulations for N=2 supergravity that allow for well defined cosmological terms and supersymmetric AdS solutions. The conformal compensators corresponding to these theories are respectively: (i) a chiral scalar multiplet: (ii) a vector multiplet; and (iii) an improved complex linear multiplet. The theories corresponding to (i) and (iii) are shown to provide two dually equivalent realizations of the (1,1) AdS supergravity, while (ii) describes the (2,0) AdS supergravity. We associate with each supergravity formulation, with and without a cosmological term, a consistent supercurrent multiplet. The supercurrents in the (1,1) and (2,0) AdS backgrounds are derived for the first time. We elaborate on rigid supersymmetric theories in (1,1) and (2,0) AdS superspaces.

  10. N=2 Supersymmetry, Painleve III and Exact Scaling Functions in 2D Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fendley; H. Saleur

    1992-04-29

    We discuss in this paper various aspects of the off-critical $O(n)$ model in two dimensions. We find the ground-state energy conjectured by Zamolodchikov for the unitary minimal models, and extend the result to some non-unitary minimal cases. We apply our results to the discussion of scaling functions for polymers on a cylinder. We show, using the underlying N=2 supersymmetry, that the scaling function for one non-contractible polymer loop around the cylinder is simply related to the solution of the Painleve III differential equation. We also find the ground-state energy for a single polymer on the cylinder. We check these results by numerically simulating the polymer system. We also analyze numerically the flow to the dense polymer phase. We find there surprising results, with a $c_{\\hbox{eff}}$ function that is not monotonous and seems to have a roaming behavior, getting very close to the values 81/70 and 7/10 between its UV and IR values of 1.

  11. Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference...

  12. ORNL's Kalinin awarded Royal Microscopical Society medal | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory has been awarded the inaugural Medal for Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) by the Royal Microscopical Society (RMS). Kalinin is director of ORNL's Institute for...

  13. Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale in a Mediterranean climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale tillage may increase N2O emissions under certain circumstances, thereby offsetting C sequestration manage- ment accounted for almost 94% of total US N2O emissions from 1990 to 2004 (USEPA, 2006). In 2004

  14. Structures, Energetics and Spectroscopic Fingerprints of Water Clusters n = 2-24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-01-01

    Water's function as a universal solvent and its role in mediating several biological functions that are responsible for sustaining life has created tremendous interest in the understanding of its structure at the molecular level.1 Due to the size of the simulation cells and the sampling time needed to compute many macroscopic properties, most of the initial simulations are performed using a classical force field whereas several processes that involve chemistry are subsequently probed with electronic structure based methods. A significant effort has therefore been devoted towards the development of classical force fields for water.2 Clusters of water molecules are useful in probing the intermolecular interactions at the microscopic level as well as providing information about the subtle energy differences that are associated with different bonding arrangements within a hydrogen bonded network. They moreover render a quantitative picture of the nature and magnitude of the various components of the intermolecular interactions such as exchange, dispersion, induction etc. They can finally serve as a vehicle for the study of the convergence of properties with increasing size.

  15. Electron-Transfer Collisions of Low-Energy Multicharged Nitrogen-Ions with H-2 and N-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, H. Y.; Church, David A.

    1987-01-01

    VOLUME 36, NUMBER 9 NOVEMBER 1, 1987 Electron-transfer collisions of low-energy multicharged nitrogen ions with H2 and N2 Hua-Ying Wang and D. A. Church Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (Received 27 April... 1987) A stored-ion collision technique has been used to study the charge-changing collisions of mul- ticharged nitrogen ions with H2 and N2 target gases. The ions were produced inside a Penning trap with use of electron-impact ionization. The time...

  16. Computation of the Central Charge for the Leading Order of the N=2 Super-Yang-Mills Effective Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain Wolf

    1999-05-26

    The central charge in the N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theory plays an essential role in the work of Seiberg and Witten as it gives the mass spectrum of the BPS states of the quantum theory. Our aim in this note is to present a direct computation of this central charge for the leading order (in a momentum expansion) of the effective action. We will consider the N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(2). The leading order of the effective action is given by the same holomorphic function F appearing in the low energy U(1) effective action.

  17. CMORE GEMS Report "Microscopes for SEEQS Life Science Curriculum"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMORE GEMS Report "Microscopes for SEEQS Life Science Curriculum" School for Examining Essential Teacher March 24, 2015 The aim of the project, titled "Microscopes for SEEQS Life Science Curriculum", was to supplement our curriculum with handson scientific experience in our school's inquiry and issuebased

  18. Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azwinndini Muronga

    2003-12-02

    The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times.

  19. HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the OctoberNovember 2003 solar proton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 enhancements after the OctoberNovember 2003 solar proton events M. Lo-energy protons which reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions solar proton events. Two distinct HNO3 enhancements were observed. An instantaneous increase of 12 ppbv

  20. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    is from the use of nitrogenous fertilizer in the agricultural sector; others include combustion of fossil radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg pulse emission of CO2. The GWP time horizon must also be specified typically it is 100 yr, but IPCC

  1. Accurate Modeling of the Siemens S7 SCADA ... JDFSL V9N2 ACCURATE MODELING OF THE SIEMENS S7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wool, Avishai

    Accurate Modeling of the Siemens S7 SCADA ... JDFSL V9N2 ACCURATE MODELING OF THE SIEMENS S7 SCADA is commonly used in SCADA systems for communications between a Human Machine Interface (HMI.82% of the traffic was identified as normal. Keywords: network, intrusion-detection, SCADA, S7 1. INTRODUCTION

  2. 19Agrociencia (2008) Vol XII N 2 pg. 19 -30 Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus and Native Myrtaceae in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    19Agrociencia (2008) Vol XII N 2 pg. 19 - 30 Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus and Native on plantation grown Eucalyptus globulus. These fungi also exist as endophytes in healthy Eucalyptus leaves that species of the Botryosphaeriaceae, other than those previously reported, could cause cankers on Eucalyptus

  3. MRC Technique for RNS to Decimal Conversion Using the Moduli Set {2n + 2, 2n + 1, 2n}

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotofana, Sorin

    MRC Technique for RNS to Decimal Conversion Using the Moduli Set {2n + 2, 2n + 1, 2n} Kazeem Alagbe, Navrongo, Ghana. Abstract--This paper investigates the conversion of Residue Number System (RNS) operands to decimal, which is an important issue concerning the utilization of RNS numbers in digital signal

  4. An Improved RNS Reverse Converter for the {22n+1 -1,2n,2n -1} Moduli Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotofana, Sorin

    An Improved RNS Reverse Converter for the {22n+1 -1,2n,2n -1} Moduli Set K.A. Gbolagade1,2, R Residue Number Systems (RNS) have significant ad- vantages over conventional binary number systems tolerance. RNS have been widely applied in Digital Signal Pro- cessing (DSP) applications [5]. However

  5. An Efficient RNS to Binary Converter Using the Moduli Set {2n + 1, 2n, 2n -1}

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotofana, Sorin

    An Efficient RNS to Binary Converter Using the Moduli Set {2n + 1, 2n, 2n - 1} Kazeem Alagbe System (RNS) to decimal conversion which is an important issue concerning the utilization of RNS numbers System (RNS) is an unweighted number system with inherent parallel characteristics, which supports carry

  6. Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    examine the dynamics of the NO H2 reaction on the Rh 111 surface by measuring the velocity distribution. Product velocity distributions have been measured for a number of surface reactions, and show a wideDynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product J

  7. Quantum Hall Effect in n-p-n and n-2D Topological Insulator-n Junctions G. M. Gusev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gusev, Guennady

    Quantum Hall Effect in n-p-n and n-2D Topological Insulator-n Junctions G. M. Gusev,1 A. D. Levin,1 TI) with locally controlled density allowing n-p-n and n-2D TI-n junctions. The resistance reveals quantization in the graphene p-n [1] or n-p-n [2,3] junctions, which has been attributed to chiral edge states

  8. Determination of the cross sections of (n,2n), (n,gamma) nuclear reactions on germanium isotopes at the energy of neutrons 13.96 MeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Begun; O. G. Druzheruchenko; O. O. Pupirina; V. K. Tarakanov

    2007-01-23

    The cross sections of 70Ge(n,2n)69Ge, 72Ge(n,2n)71Ge, 76Ge(n,gamma)77(g+0.21m)Ge, 76Ge(n,2n)75Ge nuclear reactions were measured at the energy of neutrons 13.96(6) MeV by activation method with gamma-ray and X-ray spectra studies.

  9. Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubicic, Dean M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

  10. Wolter mirror microscope : novel neutron focussing and imaging optic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagdasarova, Yelena S. (Yelena Sergeyevna)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigated the effectiveness of a Wolter Type I neutron microscope as a focusing and imaging device for thermal and cold neutrons sources by simulating the performance of the optics in a standard neutron ...

  11. Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Rifai, Osamah M

    2002-01-01

    The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

  12. Optical system for high-speed Atomic Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kwang Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and development of an optical cantilever deflection sensor for a high speed Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This optical sensing system is able to track a small cantilever while the X-Y scanner ...

  13. High-Permeance Room-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, JS; Mok, MM; Cowan, MG; McDanel, WM; Carlisle, TK; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-12-24

    We have developed and fabricated thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with an active layer consisting of a room-temperature ionic liquid/polymerized (room-temperature ionic liquid) [i.e., (RTIL)/poly(RTIL)] composite material. The resulting membrane has a CO2 permeance of 6100 +/- 400 GPU (where 1 GPU = 10(-6) cm(3)/(cm(2) s cmHg)) and an ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 22 +/- 2. This represents a new membrane with state-of-the-art CO2 permeance and good CO2/N-2 selectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a TFC gas separation membrane composed of an RTIL-containing active layer.

  14. Exact results for ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric gauge theories on compact toric manifolds and equivariant Donaldson invariants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershtein, Mikhail; Ronzani, Massimiliano; Tanzini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We provide a contour integral formula for the exact partition function of ${\\cal N}=2$ super-symmetric $U(N)$ gauge theories on compact toric four-manifolds by means of supersymmetric localisation. We perform the explicit evaluation of the contour integral for $U(2)$ ${\\cal N}=2$ theory on $\\mathbb{P}^2$ for all instanton numbers. In the zero mass case, corresponding to the ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory, we obtain the generating function of the Euler characteristics of instanton moduli spaces in terms of quasi-modular forms. In the decoupling limit of infinite mass we find that the generating function of local and surface observables computes equivariant Donaldson invariants, thus proving in this case a long-standing conjecture by N. Nekrasov. In the case of vanishing first Chern class the resulting equivariant Donaldson polynomials are new.

  15. Impact of air-exposure on the chemical and electronic structure ofZnO:Zn3N2 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar, M.; Ahn, K.-S.; Shet, S.; Yan, Y.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; George, K.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J.D.; Al-Jassim, M.; Heske, C.

    2008-09-08

    The chemical and electronic surface structure of ZnO:Zn3N2 ("ZnO:N") thin films with different N contents was investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. Upon exposure to ambient air (in contrast to storage in vacuum), the chemical and electronic surface structure of the ZnO:N films changes substantially. In particular, we find that the Zn3N2/(Zn3N2+ZnO) ratio decreases with exposure time and that this change depends on the initial N content. We suggest a degradation mechanism based on the reaction of the Zn3N2 content with atmospheric humidity.

  16. From Microscopic Gravitational Waves to the Quantum Indeterminism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Thuan, Vo

    2015-01-01

    Based on an extended space-time symmetry a new attempt to search for links between general relativity and quantum mechanics is proposed. A simplified cylindrical model of gravitational geometrical dynamics leads to a microscopic geodesic description of strongly curved extradimensional space-time which implies a duality between an emission law of microscopic gravitational waves and the quantum mechanical equations of free elementary particles. Consequently, the Heisenberg indeterminism would originate from the time-space curvatures.

  17. From Microscopic Gravitational Waves to the Quantum Indeterminism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vo Van Thuan

    2015-06-30

    Based on an extended space-time symmetry a new attempt to search for links between general relativity and quantum mechanics is proposed. A simplified cylindrical model of gravitational geometrical dynamics leads to a microscopic geodesic description of strongly curved extradimensional space-time which implies a duality between an emission law of microscopic gravitational waves and the quantum mechanical equations of free elementary particles. Consequently, the Heisenberg indeterminism would originate from the time-space curvatures.

  18. N = 2 superconformal algebra in NSR string and Gepner approach to space-time supersymmetry in ten dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belavin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fermionic NSR string possesses a hidden N = 2 superconformal algebra on the world-sheet. In this work, we show how to use an isomorphism of this algebra, the so-called spectral flow, for construction of a subspace of physical states of the string, on which space-time supersymmetry acts. This construction is an alternative to the GSO-projection in string theory.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  20. BPS black holes in a non-homogeneous deformation of the stu model of $N=2$, $D=4$ gauged supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Klemm; Alessio Marrani; Nicol Petri; Camilla Santoli

    2015-07-20

    We consider a deformation of the well-known stu model of $N=2$, $D=4$ supergravity, characterized by a non-homogeneous special K\\"{a}hler manifold, and by the smallest electric-magnetic duality Lie algebra consistent with its upliftability to five dimensions. We explicitly solve the BPS attractor equations and construct static supersymmetric black holes with radial symmetry, in the context of $\\text{U}(1)$ dyonic Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging, focussing on axion-free solutions. Due to non-homogeneity of the scalar manifold, the model evades the analysis recently given in the literature. The relevant physical properties of the resulting black hole solution are discussed.

  1. BPS black holes in a non-homogeneous deformation of the stu model of $N=2$, $D=4$ gauged supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klemm, Dietmar; Petri, Nicol; Santoli, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    We consider a deformation of the well-known stu model of $N=2$, $D=4$ supergravity, characterized by a non-homogeneous special K\\"{a}hler manifold, and by the smallest electric-magnetic duality Lie algebra consistent with its upliftability to five dimensions. We explicitly solve the BPS attractor equations and construct static supersymmetric black holes with radial symmetry, in the context of $\\text{U}(1)$ dyonic Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging, focussing on axion-free solutions. Due to non-homogeneity of the scalar manifold, the model evades the analysis recently given in the literature. The relevant physical properties of the resulting black hole solution are discussed.

  2. A $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Supersymmetric $AdS_4$ Solution in M-theory with Purely Magnetic Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yolanda Lozano; Niall T. Macpherson; Jess Montero

    2015-07-10

    We find a new $\\mathcal{N}=2$ $AdS_4$ solution in M-theory supported by purely magnetic flux via a sequence of abelian and non-abelian T-dualities. This provides the second known example in this class besides the uplift of the Pernici and Sezgin solution to 7d gauged supergravity constructed in the eighties. We compute the free energy of the solution, and show that it scales as $N^{3/2}$. It is intriguing that even though the natural holographic interpretation is in terms of M5-branes wrapped on a special Lagrangian 3-cycle, this solution does not exhibit the expected $N^3$ behavior.

  3. Accretions of Dark Matter and Dark Energy onto ($n+2$)-dimensional Schwarzschild Black Hole and Morris-Thorne Wormhole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ujjal Debnath

    2015-03-06

    We have studied accretion of the dark matter and dark energy onto of $(n+2)$-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and Morris-Thorne wormhole. The mass and the rate of change of mass for $(n+2)$-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and Morris-Thorne wormhole have been found. We have assumed some candidates of dark energy like holographic dark energy, new agegraphic dark energy, quintessence, tachyon, DBI-essence, etc. The black hole mass and the wormhole mass have been calculated in term of redshift when dark matter and above types of dark energies accrete onto them separately. We have shown that the black hole mass increases and wormhole mass decreases for holographic dark energy, new agegraphic dark energy, quintessence, tachyon accretion and the slope of increasing/decreasing of mass sensitively depends on the dimension. But for DBI-essence accretion, the black hole mass first increases and then decreases and the wormhole mass first decreases and then increases and the slope of increasing/decreasing of mass not sensitively depends on the dimension.

  4. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  5. A variable-temperature nanostencil compatible with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steurer, Wolfram, E-mail: wst@zurich.ibm.com; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R.; Meyer, Gerhard [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rschlikon (Switzerland)] [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rschlikon (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at variable temperatures down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate temperature drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K.

  6. Stemi 1000/2000/2000-C Stereo Microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    12 Stemi 1000/2000/2000-C Stereo Microscopes Operating Manual #12;Unless expressly authorized in the event of granting of patents or registration of a utility model. #12;Stemi 1000, Stemi 2000, Stemi 2000, Stemi 2000, Stemi 2000-C 12/98 B 40-002 eII 4 CARE AND TROUBLESHOOTING 4.1 Care 4

  7. Dislocation dynamics: from microscopic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Hajj, Ahmad

    Dislocation dynamics: from microscopic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity A. El Hajj , H study ranges from atomic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity. At each scale, dislocations can crystal Z3 where each position with integer coordinates is occupied by one atom. We want to describe

  8. Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches Andre M of the sorption mechanisms of heavy metals on soil mineral surfaces is therefore of fundamental importance. This study examined Ni(Il) sorption mechanisms on pyrophyllite. The removal of Ni from solution was studied

  9. Neutrinoless double beta decay in the microscopic interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory Yale University New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States)

    2009-11-09

    The results of a calculation of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay in the closure approximation in several nuclei within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) are presented and compared with those calculated in the shell model (SM) and quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA)

  10. Laser excited confocal microscope fluorescence scanner and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, R.A.; Peck, K.

    1992-02-25

    A fluorescent scanner is designed for scanning the fluorescence from a fluorescence labeled separated sample on a sample carrier. The scanner includes a confocal microscope for illuminating a predetermined volume of the sample carrier and/or receiving and processing fluorescence emissions from the volume to provide a display of the separated sample. 8 figs.

  11. Adhesion and cohesion in structures containing suspended microscopic polymeric films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Wanliang

    Adhesion and cohesion in structures containing suspended microscopic polymeric films W.L. Shan a 2011 Accepted 12 December 2011 Available online 16 December 2011 Keywords: Adhesive strength Cohesive presents a novel technique for the characterization of adhesion and cohesion in suspended micro

  12. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (?4 ?m), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup ?7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  13. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced of either electron beam deposition and/or focused ion beam milling. Attachment/ growth of carbon nanotubes carbon nanotube MWNT capped with a magnetic catalyst particle onto the apex of a commercial Si cantilever

  14. 1 INTRODUCTION 2 2 MICROSCOPIC MODELING OF HBTs 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    in the engineering-design of high-frequency and high-speed devices. At the microscopic level, the emphasis, is related to the unity gain, power cut-off frequency, fmax. These two frequencies are the main performance into a large-signal equivalent circuit suitable for the simulation of HBTs in switching applications. 2 #12

  15. Dynamic microscopic theory of fusion using DC-TDHF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Keser, R.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2012-10-20

    The density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) theory is a fully microscopic approach for calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross sections below and above the fusion barrier. We discuss recent applications of DC-TDHF method to fusion of light and heavy systems.

  16. Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

    2014-11-02

    The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

  17. Effects of EGR, water/N2/CO2 injection and oxygen enrichment on the availability destroyed due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivadas, Hari Shanker

    2009-06-02

    This study was directed at examining the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), water/N2/CO2 injections and oxygen enrichment on availability destroyed because of combustion in simple systems like those of constant ...

  18. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O-- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At lower-intermediate exhaust temperatures, N2O is emitted in two peaks. This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions.

  19. Characterization of patinas by means of microscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2007-11-15

    Many stone-made historic buildings have a yellowish layer called 'patina' on their external surface. In some cases, it is due to the natural ageing of the stone caused by chemical-physical reactions between the surface of the stone and the environment, and in other cases it is the result of biological activity. The origin of these patinas can be also be due to ancient protective treatments. The use of organic additives, such as protein-based compounds, in lime or gypsum-based patinas is a traditional technique, which has been used in past centuries for the conservation and protection of stone materials. The thinness of the patinas ensures that microscopic techniques are irreplaceable for their analysis. Optical Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy together with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer, and Electron Microprobe are the microscopic techniques used for the characterization of these coverings, providing very useful information on their composition, texture and structure.

  20. Mean field extrapolations of microscopic nuclear equations of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rrapaj, Ermal; Holt, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of mean field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of ...

  1. Prospective study on microscopic potential with Gogny interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchon, G; Arellano, H F

    2015-01-01

    We present our current studies and our future plans on microscopic potential based on effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and many-body theory. This framework treats in an unified way nuclear structure and reaction. It offers the opportunity to link the underlying effective interaction to nucleon scattering observables. The more consistently connected to a variety of reaction and structure experimental data the framework will be, the more constrained effective interaction will be. As a proof of concept, we present some recent results for both neutron and proton scattered from spherical target nucleus, namely 40 Ca, using the Gogny D1S interaction. Possible fruitful crosstalks between microscopic potential, phenomenological potential and effective interaction are exposed. We then draw some prospective plans for the forthcoming years including scattering from spherical nuclei experiencing pairing correlations, scattering from axially deformed nuclei, and new effective interaction with reaction constraints.

  2. Simulation of High Density Pedestrian Flow: Microscopic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dridi, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years modelling crowd and evacuation dynamics has become very important, with increasing huge numbers of people gathering around the world for many reasons and events. The fact that our global population grows dramatically every year and the current public transport systems are able to transport large amounts of people, heightens the risk of crowd panic or crush. Pedestrian models are based on macroscopic or microscopic behaviour. In this paper, we are interested in developing models that can be used for evacuation control strategies. This model will be based on microscopic pedestrian simulation models, and its evolution and design requires a lot of information and data. The people stream will be simulated, based on mathematical models derived from empirical data about pedestrian flows. This model is developed from image data bases, so called empirical data, taken from a video camera or data obtained using human detectors. We consider the individuals as autonomous particles interacting through socia...

  3. Motion-reversal in a simple microscopic swimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Alexander-Katz

    2007-05-18

    We study the motion of a microscopic swimmer composed of a semiflexible polymer anchored at the surface of a magnetic sphere using hydrodynamic simulations and scaling arguments. The swimmer is driven by a rotating magnetic field, and displays forward and backward motion depending on the value of the rotational frequency. In particular, the system exhibits forward thrust for frequencies below a critical frequency $\\omega^*$, while above $\\omega^*$ the motion is reversed.

  4. An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Joseph); Steven Blankenship, Alan Band (NIST) G O A L To develop an ultra-high vacuum, ultra-low temperature, high of subpicometer stability and can operate in ultra-high vacuum at 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 15 T

  5. Investigation of Microscopic Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anlage, Steven

    2014-07-23

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities is often limited by breakdown events below the intrinsic limiting surface fields of Nb, and there is abundant evidence that these breakdown events are localized in space inside the cavity. Also, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the causal links between surface treatments and ultimate RF performance at low temperatures. An understanding of these links would provide a clear roadmap for improvement of SRF cavity performance, and establish a cause-and-effect RF materials science of Nb. We propose two specific microscopic approaches to addressing these issues. First is a spatially-resolved local microwave-microscope probe that operates at SRF frequencies and temperatures to discover the microscopic origins of breakdown, and produce quantitative measurements of RF critical fields of coatings and films. Second, RF Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has allowed visualization of RF current flow and sources of nonlinear RF response in superconducting devices with micro-meter spatial resolution. The LSM will be used in conjunction with surface preparation and characterization techniques to create definitive links between physical and chemical processing steps and ultimate cryogenic microwave performance. We propose to develop RF laser scanning microscopy of small-sample Nb pieces to establish surface-processing / RF performance relations through measurement of RF current distributions on micron-length scales and low temperatures.

  6. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; FIBER OPTICS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MICROSCOPES; POLARIZATION; RESOLUTION; DESIGN; OPERATION Word Cloud...

  7. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; FIBER OPTICS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MICROSCOPES; POLARIZATION; RESOLUTION; DESIGN; OPERATION...

  8. A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaginghigh-magnification all-EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the

  9. UV-light microscope: improvements in optical imaging for a secondary ion mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    UV-light microscope: improvements in optical imaging for a secondary ion mass spectrometer Noriko T10 mm. However, the original reflected light microscope of the CAMECA IMS 1280 SIMS had an optical at the mm scale. We modified the optical microscope to use ultraviolet (UV) light illumination and UV

  10. An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm Kenneth lithography design rules. The proposed microscope features an array of user-selectable Fresnel zoneplate-EUV, Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the AIT has been in the vanguard of high-resolution EUV mask imaging

  11. Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Wal, Caspar H.

    Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport with 1 m spatial resolution. The microscope was designed to study spin transport, a critical issue-temperature optical microscope, elec- tromagnet and cryogenic cell with cold finger to measure continuous-wave cw

  12. Chemical evolution of the HC3N and N2H+ molecules in dense cores of the Vela C giant molecular cloud complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Sanhueza, Patricio; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Choi, Minho; Hirota, Tomoya; Mizuno, Norikazu

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the HC3N (J=10-9) and N2H+ (J=1-0) lines toward the Vela C molecular clouds with the Mopra 22 m telescope to study chemical characteristics of dense cores. The intensity distributions of these molecules are similar to each other at an angular resolution of 53", corresponding to 0.19 pc suggesting that these molecules trace the same dense cores. We identified 25 local peaks in the velocity-integrated intensity maps of the HC3N and/or N2H+ emission. Assuming LTE conditions, we calculated the column densities of these molecules and found a tendency that N2H+/HC3N abundance ratio seems to be low in starless regions while it seems to be high in star-forming regions, similar to the tendencies in the NH3/CCS, NH3/HC3N, and N2H+/CCS abundance ratios found in previous studies of dark clouds and the Orion A GMC. We suggest that carbon chain molecules, including HC3N, may trace chemically young molecular gas and N-bearing molecules, such as N2H+, may trace later stages of chemical evolution in the Vela ...

  13. Jacobi Forms of Higher Index and Paramodular Groups in N=2, D=4 Compactifications of String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caner Nazaroglu

    2013-09-25

    We associate a Jacobi form over a rank s lattice to N=2, D=4 heterotic string compactifications which have s Wilson lines at a generic point in the vector multiplet moduli space. Jacobi forms of index m=1 and m=2 have appeared earlier in the context of threshold corrections to heterotic string couplings. We emphasize that higher index Jacobi forms as well as Jacobi forms of several variables over more generic even lattices also appear and construct models in which they arise. In particular, we construct an orbifold model which can be connected to models that give index m=3, 4 or 5 Jacobi forms through the Higgsing process. Constraints from being a Jacobi form are then employed to get threshold corrections using only partial information on the spectrum. We apply this procedure for index m=3, 4 or 5 Jacobi form examples and also for Jacobi forms over A_2 and A_3 root lattices. Examples with a single Wilson line are examined in detail and we display the relation of Siegel forms over a paramodular group \\Gamma_m to these models, where \\Gamma_m is associated with the T-duality group of the models we study. Finally, results on the heterotic string side are used to clarify the linear mapping of vector multiplet moduli to Type IIA duals without using the one-loop cubic part of the prepotential on the Type II side, and also to give predictions for the geometry of the dual Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  14. Twisted compactification of N=2 5D SCFTs to three and two dimensions from F(4) gauged supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karndumri, Parinya

    2015-01-01

    We study supersymmetric $AdS_4\\times \\Sigma_2$ and $AdS_3\\times \\Sigma_3$ solutions in half-maximal gauged supergravity in six dimensions with $SU(2)_R\\times SU(2)$ gauge group. The gauged supergravity is obtained by coupling three vector multiplets to the pure $F(4)$ gauged supergravity. The $SU(2)_R$ R-symmetry together with the $SO(3)\\sim SU(2)$ symmetry of the vector multiplets are gauged. The resulting gauged supergravity admits supersymmetric $AdS_6$ critical points with $SO(4)\\sim SU(2)\\times SU(2)$ and $SO(3)\\sim SU(2)_{\\textrm{diag}}$ symmetries. The former corresponds to five-dimensional $N=2$ superconformal field theories (SCFTs) with $E_1\\sim SU(2)$ symmetry. We find new classes of supersymmetric $AdS_4\\times \\Sigma_2$ and $AdS_3\\times \\Sigma_3$ solutions with $\\Sigma_{2,3}$ being $S^{2,3}$ and $H^{2,3}$. These solutions describe SCFTs in three and two dimensions obtained from twisted compactifications of the aforementioned five-dimensional SCFTs with different numbers of unbroken supersymmetry an...

  15. Microscopically-constrained Fock energy density functionals from chiral effective field theory. I. Two-nucleon interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Gebremariam; S. K. Bogner; T. Duguet

    2010-03-26

    The density matrix expansion (DME) of Negele and Vautherin is a convenient tool to map finite-range physics associated with vacuum two- and three-nucleon interactions into the form of a Skyme-like energy density functional (EDF) with density-dependent couplings. In this work, we apply the improved formulation of the DME proposed recently in arXiv:0910.4979 by Gebremariam {\\it et al.} to the non-local Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two-nucleon (NN) interactions at next-to-next-to-leading-order (N$^2$LO). The structure of the chiral interactions is such that each coupling in the DME Fock functional can be decomposed into a cutoff-dependent coupling {\\it constant} arising from zero-range contact interactions and a cutoff-independent coupling {\\it function} of the density arising from the universal long-range pion exchanges. This motivates a new microscopically-guided Skyrme phenomenology where the density-dependent couplings associated with the underlying pion-exchange interactions are added to standard empirical Skyrme functionals, and the density-independent Skyrme parameters subsequently refit to data. A Mathematica notebook containing the novel density-dependent couplings is provided.

  16. Microscopic theory of elastico-mechanoluminescent smart materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, B. P., E-mail: bpchandra4@yahoo.co.in; Jha, Piyush [Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482001, MP (India); Chandra, V. K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001, CG (India)

    2014-01-20

    The concepts of piezoelectric field dependence of the detrapping probability and lifetime of charge carriers in traps are developed. The charge carriers in traps become unstable after a particular piezoelectric field whereby more number of charge carriers are detrapped with increasing piezoelectric field. The detrapped electrons tunnel to the energy level of the hole-captured activator ions lying adjacent to the conduction band or tunnel to conduction band. Subsequently, luminescence is induced by the electron-hole recombination. Using these concepts microscopic theory of elastico-mechanoluminescent smart materials is explored. Present study may be useful in tailoring intense elastico-mechanoluminescent materials needed for different applications.

  17. Relativistic Viscous Fluid Description of Microscopic Black Hole Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Kapusta

    2001-05-25

    Microscopic black holes explode with their temperature varying inversely as their mass. Such explosions would lead to the highest temperatures in the present universe, all the way to the Planck energy. Whether or not a quasi-stationary shell of matter undergoing radial hydrodynamic expansion surrounds such black holes is been controversial. In this paper relativistic viscous fluid equations are applied to the problem. It is shown that a self-consistent picture emerges of a fluid just marginally kept in local thermal equilibrium; viscosity is a crucial element of the dynamics.

  18. Circular dichroism in the electron microscope: Progress and applications (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schattschneider, P.; Loeffler, S.; Ennen, I.; Stoeger-Pollach, M.; Verbeeck, J.

    2010-05-15

    According to theory, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in a synchrotron is equivalent to energy loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). After a synopsis of the development of EMCD, the theoretical background is reviewed and recent results are presented, focusing on the study of magnetic nanoparticles for ferrofluids and Heusler alloys for spintronic devices. Simulated maps of the dichroic strength as a function of atom position in the crystal allow evaluating the influence of specimen thickness and sample tilt on the experimental EMCD signal. Finally, the possibility of direct observation of chiral electronic transitions with atomic resolution in a TEM is discussed.

  19. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (1025 ?m) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 ?m resolution over a 300 ?m field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 ?m field of view.

  20. Microscopic Calculation of Heavy-Ion Potentials Based on TDHF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard\\

    2011-06-17

    We discuss the implementation and results of a recently developed microscopic method for calculating ion-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross-sections. The method uses the TDHF evolution to obtain the instantaneous many-body collective state using a density constraint. The ion-ion potential as well as the coordinate dependent mass are calculated from these states. The method fully accounts for the dynamical processes present in the TDHF time-evolution and provides a parameter-free way of calculating fusion cross-sections.

  1. Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Maitra; A. Heuer

    2007-05-11

    A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

  2. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.830 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.848 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  3. Microscopic analysis of order parameters in nuclear quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-12-15

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes are studied using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. As a function of the physical control parameter, the number of nucleons, energy gaps between the ground state and the excited vibrational states with zero angular momentum, isomer shifts, and monopole transition strengths exhibit sharp discontinuities at neutron number N=90, which is characteristic of a first-order quantum phase transition.

  4. Microscopic Description of Induced Nuclear Fission (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) |monitoring.(Patent)Connect Microscopic

  5. 47Agrociencia. (2006) Vol. X N 2 pg. 47 -61 CAMBIOS EN EL USO DE LA TIERRA EN ARGENTINA Y URUGUAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    2006-01-01

    47Agrociencia. (2006) Vol. X N 2 pg. 47 - 61 CAMBIOS EN EL USO DE LA TIERRA EN ARGENTINA Y. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2 Ecologa Terrestre, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de la Repblica. Montevideo. Uruguay. 3 Grupo de Estudios Ambientales Universidad Nacional de San Luis. San Luis. Argentina

  6. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN S T R AT E G I C P L A N 2 0 1 3 -1 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    , Professsor Department of Physics Robert Hauser, Dean College of ACES Stig Lanesskog, Associate Provost OfficeUNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN S T R AT E G I C P L A N 2 0 1 3 - 1 6 #12;Strategic Vice Provost - Office of the Provost Kenneth Ballom, Dean Office of the Dean of Students Jeffrey Brown

  7. Ultrasimple calculation of very-low-energy momentum-transfer and rotational-excitation cross sections: e-N2 scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Michael A.

    Ultrasimple calculation of very-low-energy momentum-transfer and rotational-excitation cross energies. We apply this method to the calculation of e-N2 momentum-transfer and rotational excitation cross. INTRODUCTION Integral elastic, momentum transfer, and rotational exci- tation cross sections at energies below

  8. Off-shell Invariant D=N=2 Twisted Super Yang-Mills Theory with a Gauged Central Charge without Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asaka, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Noboru; Miyake, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    We formulate N=2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge by superconnection formalism in two dimensions. We obtain off-shell invariant supermultiplets and actions with and without constraints, which is in contrast with the off-shell invariant D=N=4 super Yang-Mills formulation with unavoidable constraints.

  9. Off-shell Invariant D=N=2 Twisted Super Yang-Mills Theory with a Gauged Central Charge without Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keisuke Asaka; Junji Kato; Noboru Kawamoto; Akiko Miyake

    2013-09-18

    We formulate N=2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge by superconnection formalism in two dimensions. We obtain off-shell invariant supermultiplets and actions with and without constraints, which is in contrast with the off-shell invariant D=N=4 super Yang-Mills formulation with unavoidable constraints.

  10. IL NUOVO CIMENTO Vol. 110 B, N. 2 Febbraio 1995 A novel method to detect quantum states of the radiation field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris, Matteo G. A.

    . --- We propose a new method for detecting the density matrix of the radiation field via optical homodyneIL NUOVO CIMENTO Vol. 110 B, N. 2 Febbraio 1995 A novel method to detect quantum states of the radiation field G. M. D'Ariano ( 1 )( 2 ), Chiara Macchiavello( 1 ), Matteo G. A. Paris( 1 ) ( 1

  11. Nighttime NO3y chemistry: In situ Observation of the Various Removal Pathways of NO3 and N2O5 around the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    and synoptic wind suggest air mass originated from the European continent; High aerosol organics in this aged on the left shows a typical scenario when urban emitted NO2 was transported to > 3 km, forming N2O5 which and to falling ice were frequently observed (even though days with forecast precipitation were deliberately

  12. Q1 Consider the n = 1 and n = 2 states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. The energy eigenfunctions nlm(r, , ) are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Q1 Consider the n = 1 and n = 2 states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. The energy eigenfunctions for the spherical harmonics Y m l (, ) may be found in the formul pages at the beginning of the exam. The hydrogen energy due to H is zero. You may do this by either explicit calculation, or by applying selection rules

  13. Modeling impacts of farming management alternatives on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions: A case study for water management of rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions about 40%, or 5 Tg CH4 yr1 , roughly 510% of total global methane emissions from rice paddies contribution to the net climate impact due to the low radiative potential of CO2. The change in water. Introduction [2] Food production contributes approximately 70% of global atmospheric input of nitrous oxide (N2

  14. Optical Nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the Ionization Threshold J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    Optical Nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the Ionization Threshold J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, Y measure the nonlinear optical response in argon and nitrogen in a thin gas target to laser intensities.103901 PACS numbers: 42.65.An, 42.65.Jx, 42.65.Re The optical Kerr effect, the intensity-dependent refrac

  15. Evidence for inelastic processes for N3 and N4 from ion energy distributions in He/N2 radio frequency glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Evidence for inelastic processes for N3 and N4 from ion energy distributions in He/N2 radio May 1995; accepted for publication 19 September 1995 The ion energy distributions IEDs striking. The importance of the distributions of ion energies and angles striking the wafer in obtaining straight walled

  16. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Duewer, Fred (Albany, CA); Yang, Hai Tao (Albany, CA); Lu, Yalin (Chelmsford, MA)

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  17. Fully microscopic shell-model calculations with realistic effective hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Coraggio; A. Covello; A. Gargano; N. Itaco; T. T. S. Kuo

    2011-01-24

    The advent of nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory, as well as the so-called V-low-k approach to the renormalization of the strong short-range repulsion contained in the potentials, have brought renewed interest in realistic shell-model calculations. Here we focus on calculations where a fully microscopic approach is adopted. No phenomenological input is needed in these calculations, because single-particle energies, matrix elements of the two-body interaction, and matrix elements of the electromagnetic multipole operators are derived theoretically. This has been done within the framework of the time-dependent degenerate linked-diagram perturbation theory. We present results for some nuclei in different mass regions. These evidence the ability of realistic effective hamiltonians to provide an accurate description of nuclear structure properties.

  18. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cloutier, Sylvain G. (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  19. Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milas, Mirko (Port Jefferson, NY); Zhu, Yimei (Stony Brook, NY); Rameau, Jonathan David (Coram, NY)

    2012-03-27

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  20. Highly charged ion based time of flight emission microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Alan V. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Thomas (San Francisco, CA); Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Schneider, Dieter H. (Livermore, CA); Doyle, Barney (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope has been designed, which improves the surface sensitivity of static SIMS measurements because of the higher ionization probability of highly charged ions. Slow, highly charged ions are produced in an electron beam ion trap and are directed to the sample surface. The sputtered secondary ions and electrons pass through a specially designed objective lens to a microchannel plate detector. This new instrument permits high surface sensitivity (10.sup.10 atoms/cm.sup.2), high spatial resolution (100 nm), and chemical structural information due to the high molecular ion yields. The high secondary ion yield permits coincidence counting, which can be used to enhance determination of chemical and topological structure and to correlate specific molecular species.

  1. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  2. Microscopic return point memory in Co/Pd multilayer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seu, K.A.; Su, R.; Roy, S.; Parks, D.; Shipton, E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kevan, S.D.

    2009-10-01

    We report soft x-ray speckle metrology measurements of microscopic return point and complementary point memory in Co/Pd magnetic films having perpendicular anisotropy. We observe that the domains assemble into a common labyrinth phase with a period that varies by nearly a factor of two between initial reversal and fields near saturation. Unlike previous studies of similar systems, the ability of the film to reproduce its domain structure after magnetic cycling through saturation varies from loop to loop, from position to position on the sample, and with the part of the speckle pattern used in the metrology measurements. We report the distribution of memory as a function of field and discuss these results in terms of the reversal process.

  3. Remote control of a scanning electron microscope aperture and gun alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cramer, Charles E.; Campchero, Robert J.

    2003-10-07

    This invention relates to a remote control system which through gear motors coupled to the scanning electron microscope (SEM) manual control knobs readily permits remote adjustments as necessary.

  4. EST-CE QU'ON VOlT ATRAVERS UN MICROSCOPE? '

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubin, David

    'aimable autonsatJon de1auteur etde Blackwell Publishing. EST-CE QU'ON VOlT ATRAVERS UN MICROSCOPE? 239 Les

  5. European Journal of Soil Science, December 2010, 61, 903913 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01217.x Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    that of CO2, and an atmospheric lifetime of about 120 years (IPCC, 2007). It also contributes source of N2O. It has been estimated that total anthropogenic emissions are 6.7 Tg N2O-N year-1, 42 Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops J . W . V a n G r o e n i

  6. Multielectron effects in high harmonic generation in N_2 and benzene: simulation using a non-adiabatic quantum molecular dynamics approach for laser-molecule interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A mixed quantum-classical approach is introduced which allows the dynamically response of molecules driven far from equilibrium to be modeled. This method is applied here to the interaction of molecules with intense, short-duration laser pulses. The electronic response of the molecule is described using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and the resulting Kohn-Sham equations are solved numerically using finite difference techniques in conjunction with local and global adaptations of an underlying grid in curvilinear coordinates. Using this approach, simulations can be carried out for a wide range of molecules and both all-electron and pseudopotential calculations can be performed. The approach is applied to the study of high harmonic generation in N_2 and benzene using linearly-polarized laser pulses and to the best of our knowledge, the results for benzene represent the first TDDFT calculations of high harmonic generation in benzene using linearly polarized laser pulses. For N_2 an enhancement ...

  7. 15N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed 15N18O exposure of MnOx/CeO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos

    2014-12-23

    Pulsing 15N18O onto an annealed 1% Mn16Ox/Ce16O2 catalyst resulted in very fast oxygen isotope exchange and 15N2 formation at 295 K. In the 1st 15N18O pulse, due to the presence of large number of surface oxygen defects, extensive 15N218O and 15N2 formations were observed. In subsequent pulses oxygen isotope exchange dominated as a result of highly labile oxygen in the oxide. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  8. Microscopic Mechanisms and Dynamics Simulations of S3/2) Reacting with Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Microscopic Mechanisms and Dynamics Simulations of O+ (4 S3/2) Reacting with Methane Lipeng Sun: The reaction O+ (4 S3/2) + methane is studied as a benchmark for developing the theory of polymer erosion by O;2 Microscopic Mechanisms and Dynamics Simulations of O+ (4 S3/2) Reacting with Methane spacecraft,3 surprisingly

  9. AOML Keynotes July-August 2004 Students Discover Microscopic World of Marine Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodwin, Kelly D.

    AOML Keynotes July-August 2004 Students Discover Microscopic World of Marine Bacteria AOML microbiologist Kelly Goodwin helped teach young girls about the invisible world of marine bacteria at a recent support the growth of marine bacteria, microscopic life forms living in the ocean. They were taught how

  10. Macroscopic traffic models from microscopic car-following models H. K. Lee,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Doochul

    Macroscopic traffic models from microscopic car-following models H. K. Lee,1 H.-W. Lee,2 and D. Kim microscopic car-following models via a coarse-graining procedure. The method is first demonstrated. The derivation is also extended to general car-following models. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.056126 PACS number

  11. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection (OI-RD) microscope, a form of polarization-modulated imaging ellipsometer, for label on the polarizer compensatorsampleanalyzer scheme and under the off-null condition, a polarization-modulated OI

  12. Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norgren, Duane U. (Orinda, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  13. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  14. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  15. Photocathode Optimization for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T

    2011-08-04

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for optimizing the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.

  16. Microscopic dissipation in a cohesionless granular jet impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Guttenberg

    2012-03-29

    Sufficiently fine granular systems appear to exhibit continuum properties, though the precise continuum limit obtained can be vastly different depending on the particular system. We investigate the continuum limit of an unconfined, dense granular flow. To do this we use as a test system a two-dimensional dense cohesionless granular jet impinging upon a target. We simulate this via a timestep driven hard sphere method, and apply a mean-field theoretical approach to connect the macroscopic flow with the microscopic material parameters of the grains. We observe that the flow separates into a cone with an interior cone angle determined by the conservation of momentum and the dissipation of energy. From the cone angle we extract a dimensionless quantity $A-B$ that characterizes the flow. We find that this quantity depends both on whether or not a deadzone --- a stationary region near the target --- is present, and on the value of the coefficient of dynamic friction. We present a theory for the scaling of $A-B$ with the coefficient of friction that suggests that dissipation is primarily a perturbative effect in this flow, rather than the source of qualitatively different behavior.

  17. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-28

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(SrO){sub x} were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T?=?20300?C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x?=?10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An unusual property of high level (x?=?10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100200?C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3??10{sup ?13}?cm{sup 2}/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  18. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lowe, Douglas; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Morgan, Will; Allan, James D.; Utembe, Steve; Ouyang, Bin; Aruffo, Eleonora; Le Breton, Michael; Zaveri, Rahul A.; di Carlo, Piero; et al

    2015-02-09

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlationsmorewith measurements of 0.70.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.50.7 ?g kg?1air, compared with measurements of 1.01.5 ?g kg?1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases one with low relative humidity (RH) (6070%), the other with high RH (8090%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes ( 80) and comparable for dimethylsulfide (DMS). However the suppression of NO3 mixing ratios across the domain by N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry has only a very slight, negative, influence on this oxidative capacity. The influence on regional particulate nitrate mass loadings is stronger. Night-time N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry maintains the production of particulate nitrate within polluted regions: when this process is taken into consideration, the daytime peak (for the 95th percentile) of PM10 nitrate mass loadings remains around 5.6 ?g kg?1air, but the night-time minimum increases from 3.5 to 4.6 ?g kg?1air. The sustaining of higher particulate mass loadings through the night by this process improves model skill at matching measured aerosol nitrate diurnal cycles and will negatively impact on regional air quality, requiring this process to be included in regional models.less

  19. Multispectrum analysis of the v9 band of 12C2H6: Positions, intensities, self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Benner, D. C.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Line positions, intensities, Lorentz self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients have been measured for PQ3, PQ2, PQ1, RQ0,RQ1, RQ2, and RQ3 sub-band transitions in the 9 fundamental band of 12C2H6. A multispectrum nonlinear least-squares fitting technique was used to fit up to 17 high-resolution (~0.00156 cm-1), room temperature absorption spectra of pure (99.99% chemical purity) natural sample of ethane and lean mixtures of the high-purity ethane diluted with N2. A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in Richland, Washington was used to record the data. A standard Voigt line shape was assumed to fit all the data since no line mixing or other non Voigt line shapes were required to fit any of the spectra used in the analysis. Short spectral intervals (~2 to 2.5 cm-1) of all 17 spectra covering a specific PQ or RQ sub band were fit simultaneously. For the first time in an ethane band, pressure-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for each of the torsional-split components. Constraints were used such that the half-width coefficients of both torsional-split components were identical for a specific broadening gas. No pressure-induced shift coefficients were necessary to fit the spectra to their noise level. The present study revealed for the first time the dependence of self- and N2-broadened half-width coefficients upon the J, K quantum numbers of the transitions in ethane. A number of transitions belonging to the 9+ 4- 4 and the 9+2 4-2 4 hot bands were also observed in the fitted regions and measurements were made when possible.

  20. 1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    -Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3 Log In Sign Up Energy on the Go Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energy on the Go By Brian Westenhaus | Thu, 23;1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News

  1. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-06

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  2. Accessing Your EM Data Through the File Server A major problem of putting flash drives directly into the microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Timothy S.

    into the microscope computer is the threat of viruses. A particularly malevolent virus could shut the microscope down including your home computer. Here are the steps for transferring and accessing your files. 1. On the microscope computer go to the Desktop and then to: My Computer/Tools/M ap Network Drive. 2. In the Drive: box

  3. R-matrix calculation of integral and differential cross sections for low-energy electron impact excitations of N2 molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motomichi Tashiro; Keiji Morokuma

    2006-12-21

    Low-energy electron impact excitations of N$_2$ molecules are studied using the fixed-bond R-matrix method based on state-averaged complete active space SCF orbitals. Thirteen target electronic states of N$_2$ are included in the model within a valence configuration interaction representations of the target states. Integrated as well as differential cross sections of the $A^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{+}$, $B^{3} \\Pi_{g}$, $W^{3} \\Delta_{u}$, ${B'}^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{-}$, ${a'}^{1} \\Sigma_{u}^{-}$, $a^{1} \\Pi_{g}$, $w^{1} \\Delta_{u}$ and $C^{3} \\Pi_{u}$ states are calculated and compared with the previous experimental measurements. These excitations, especially of the higher four states, have not been studied enough theoretically in the previous literature. In general, good agreements are observed both in the integrated and differential cross sections. However, some discrepancies are seen in the integrated cross sections of the $A^{3} \\Sigma_{u}^{+}$ and $C^{3} \\Pi_{u}$ states, especially around a peak structure.

  4. A New Equation of State for CCS Pipeline Transport: Calibration of Mixing Rules for Binary Mixtures of CO2 with N2, O2 and H2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demetriades, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    One of the aspects currently holding back commercial scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an accurate understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of carbon dioxide and relevant impurities during the pipeline transport stage. In this article we develop a general framework for deriving pressure-explicit EoS for impure CO2. This flexible framework facilitates ongoing development of custom EoS in response to new data and computational applications. We use our method to generalise a recent EoS for pure CO2 [Demetriades et al. Proc IMechE Part E, 227 (2013) pp. 117] to binary mixtures with N2, O2 and H2, obtaining model parameters by fitting to experiments made under conditions relevant to CCS-pipeline transport. Our model pertains to pressures up to 16MPa and temperatures between 273K and the critical temperature of pure CO2. In this region, we achieve close agreement with experimental data. When compared to the GERG EoS, our EoS has a comparable level of agreement with CO2 -N2 VLE experiments ...

  5. The scanning electron microscope as an accelerator for the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Randolph S.

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator ...

  6. Automation of Challenging Spatial-Temporal Biomedical Observations With the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsaid, Benjamin M.

    Biological studies, drug discovery, and medical diagnostics benefit greatly from automated microscope platforms that can outperform even the most skilled human operators in certain tasks. However, the small field-of-view ...

  7. Microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ?SN nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karki, Bhishma

    2000-01-01

    This thesis presents a microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ? Sn nuclei within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Random-Phase-Approximation (HF-RPA) theory. Such characteristic features...

  8. A Novel Method for Passive Digital Image Acquisition from a Scanning Electron Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarewicz, Joseph Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Nanotechnology at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a microcolumn scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (MSEMS). The MSEMS has the potential for space explorations because it is lightweight, low...

  9. Transplanting assembly of carbon-nanotube-tipped atomic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soohyung, Kim

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT)-tipped atomic force microscope (AFM) probes were assembled in a deterministic and reproducible manner by transplanting a CNT bearing polymeric carrier to a microelectromechanical systems cantilever. ...

  10. Design and control of high-speed and large-range atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soltani Bozchalooi, Iman, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, control and instrumentation of a novel atomic force microscope (AFM). This AFM is capable of high-speed imaging while maintaining large out-of-plane and lateral scan ranges. The primary ...

  11. Low energy ($p,?$) reactions in Ni and Cu nuclei using microscopic optical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gangopadhyay

    2010-08-05

    Radiative capture reactions for low energy protons have been theoretically studied for Ni and Cu isotopes using the microscopic optical model. The optical potential has been obtained in the folding model using different microscopic interactions with the nuclear densities from Relativistic Mean Field calculations. The calculated total cross sections as well as the cross sections for individually low lying levels have been compared with measurements involving stable nuclear targets. Rates for the rapid proton capture process have been evaluated for astrophysically important reactions.

  12. Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to nucleolin and fibrillarin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meln, Krister; Tynell, Janne; Fagerlund, Riku; Roussel, Pascal; Hernandez-Verdun, Danile; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into theBinding of the influenza A virus NS1 protein to PKR mediatespathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. Nature 2008, 456:985988.

  13. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karc?, zgr; Dede, Mnir

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ~12 fm/?Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  14. Neutron scattering evidence for isolated spin-1/2 ladders in (C5D12N)2CuBr4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savici, Andrei T [ORNL; Granroth, Garrett E [ORNL; Broholm, Collin L [ORNL; Pajerowski, Daniel M. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Brown, Craig [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Talham, Daniel R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Meisel, Mark W. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Schmidt, K. P. [Technische Universit Dortmund, Germany; Uhrig, G. S. [Technische Universit Dortmund, Germany; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to determine the spin Hamiltonian for the singlet ground state system (C5D12N)2CuBr4 (BPCB). A 2-leg spin 1/2 ladder model, with J? = 1:084 0:005 meV and Jk = 0:321 0:008 meV, accurately describes the data. The experimental limit on the inter-ladder exchange constant is jJ0j 0.005 meV, and the limit on diagonal, intra-ladder exchange is jJF j 0.1 meV. The experimental ratios of intra-ladder bond energies are consistent with the predictions of continuous unitary transformations calculations.

  15. Microscopic calculations of the characteristics of radiative nuclear reactions for double-magic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Achakovskiy; Sergei Kamerdzhiev; Victor Tselyaev; Mikhail Shitov

    2015-11-03

    The neutron capture cross sections and average radiative widths of neutron resonances for two double-magic nuclei 132Sn and 208Pb have been calculated using the microscopic photon strength functions, which were obtained within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the time blocking approximation. For the first time, the microscopic PSFs have been obtained within the fully self-consistent approach with exact accounting for the single particle continuum (for 208Pb). The approach includes phonon coupling effects in addition to the standard RPA approach. The known Skyrme force has been used. The calculations of nuclear reaction characteristics have been performed with the EMPIRE 3.1 nuclear reaction code. Here, three nuclear level density (NLD) models have been used: the so-called phenomenological GSM, the EMPIRE specific (or Enhanced GSM) and the microscopical combinatorial HFB NLD models. For both considered characteristics we found a significant disagreement between the results obtained with the GSM and HFB NLD models. For 208Pb, a reasonable agreement has been found with systematics for the average radiative widths values with HFB NLD and with the experimental data for the HFB NLD average resonance spacing D0, while for these two quantities the differences between the values obtained with GSM and HFB NLD are of several orders of magnitude. The discrepancies between the results with the phenomenological EGLO PSF and microscopic RPA or TBA are much less for the same NLD model.

  16. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomons, Mark [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)] [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Martins, Bruno V. C.; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A., E-mail: rwolkow@ualberta.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe.

  17. Power and energy relations for macroscopic dipolar continua derived from the microscopic Maxwell equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghjian, Arthur D

    2015-01-01

    Positive semi-definite expressions for the macroscopic energy density in passive, spatially nondispersive dipolar continua are derived from the underlying microscopic Maxwellian equations satisfied by discrete bound dipolar molecules or inclusions of the material or metamaterial continua. The microscopic derivation reveals two distinct positive semi-definite macroscopic energy expressions, one that applies to diamagnetic continua and another that applies to nondiamagnetic continua (for example, paramagnetic or ferro(i)magnetic material). The diamagnetic dipoles are unconditionally passive in that their Amperian magnetic dipole moments are zero in the absence of applied fields. The analysis of the nondiamagnetic continua, which are defined in terms of magnetization caused by the alignment of randomly oriented pre-existing Amperian magnetic dipole moments that dominate any induced diamagnetic magnetization, is greatly simplified by first proving that the microscopic power equations for rotating pre-existing Amp...

  18. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew; Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Waldron, John

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(?)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(?). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (?1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(?) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(?) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(?) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(?) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(?) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(?) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(?) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(?) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(?) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12 weeks after treatment. Post radiation neck dissection is advisable for all non-CR HPV(?)/non-CR N3 HPV(+) cases, but it may be avoided for selected non-CR N2 HPV(+) cases with a significant LN involution if they can undergo continued imaging surveillance. The role of positron emission tomography for response assessment should be investigated.

  19. Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Rodrigo, Jos G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der; Agrat, Nicols; Condensed Matter Physics Center and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales Nicols Cabrera, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid; Instituto Madrileo de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid

    2014-02-15

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  20. Interference-based Investigation of Microscopic Objects Near Surfaces: a View From Below

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras Naranjo, Jose Clemente

    2013-11-26

    in the following. 13 2.3.1 Measurement of RICM set-up parameters Light coming through the objective illuminates the focal area with a cone of light, ???? (as measured on the glass side), given by the size of the aperture stop in the microscope....17 aperture where the top inset shows the illumination cone as seen in air. 14 2.3.2 Scale factor between simulated and experimental intensities Prior to observing the specimens under the microscope, a scale factor between experimental and simulated...

  1. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

  2. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  3. Auxiliary Ligand-Dependent Assembly of Several Ni/Ni-Cd Compounds with N2O2 Donor Tetradentate Symmetrical Schiff Base Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Ying Ying; Li, Guo-Bi; Fang, Hua-Cai; Zhan, Xu Lin; Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Jin Hao; Sun, Feng; Cai, Yue-Peng; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-09-18

    Several low-dimensional Ni/Ni-Cd complexes containing N2O2 donor tetradentate symmetrical Schiff base ligand bis(acetylacetone)ethylene-diamine (sy-H2L2), namely, [Ni(sy-L2)]2?HLa?ClO4 (2), (HLa)2?(ClO4)?(NO3) (3), [Ni(sy-L2)X]2](4,4-bipy) (where La = 5,7-dimethyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-diazepine, X = ClO4 (4), X=NO3 (5), [Ni(sy-L2)Cd(SCN)2]n (6) and [Ni(sy-L2)?Cd(N3)2]n (7) have been synthesized from [Ni(sy-L2)]2?H2O (1). Complex 2, is three component discrete assembly generated from (HLa)+ moiety bridged with [Ni(sy-L2)] unit and ClO4- anion. A solution containing complex 2 and Cd(NO3)2 results in a mixture of 1 and 3. Further re-crystallization of 1 and 3 with various auxiliary ligands, provides coordination complexes 4 7 stabilized by weak hydrogen bonds in which 6 and 7 represent the first 1D heteronuclear complexes based on symmetric acacen-base Schiff base ligand.

  4. Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a MachZehnder interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a MachZehnder interferometer Andrew Ahn, Changhuei Yang S. Feld Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new

  5. A microscopic, mechanical derivation of the adiabatic gas relation P. M. Bellana)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    A microscopic, mechanical derivation of the adiabatic gas relation P. M. Bellana) Department constant is a direct consequence of an impor- tant property of periodic mechanical motion, namely adia- batic invariance. Although the word adiabatic is used in both the mechanical and thermodynamic contexts

  6. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the basis of the oceanic food web the surface, corals and other deepwater OIL AND HUMAN USE Wellhead CORALS Coral surveys Tissue collections Transect surveys to detect submerged oil Oil plume modeling Sediment sampling AQUATIC VEGETATION

  7. Smart align -- A new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include bias voltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the carefulmorealignment of these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.less

  8. Microscopic PIV Measurements for Electro-osmotic Flows in PDMS Microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    Microscopic PIV Measurements for Electro-osmotic Flows in PDMS Microchannels Kim, M. J. *1 and Kihm of experimental measurements of electro-osmotically driven flows in elementary microchannel configurations, which various micro-configurations show feasibilities of the electro-osmotic flows to use for micro

  9. Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

  10. Development of a secondary-electron ion-microscope for microbeam diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Development of a secondary-electron ion-microscope for microbeam diagnostics G. Garty *, G. Randers for diagnostics of the upcoming sub- micron Columbia University charged-particle microbeam. This secondary-electron previously available, for rapid and accurate diagnostics of sub-micron charged-particle beams. Based on ion

  11. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Fondeur, Fernando F. (North Augusta, SC)

    2011-10-18

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  12. MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that area to provide image contrast. Several different model systems were imaged with the Raman microscope by Professor Heather C. Allen, Advisor Professor Richard L. McCreery _________________________________ Advisor, but there are a few that deserve a special thank you. First of all, I would like to thank my advisor, Heather Allen

  13. INTRODUCTION The use of confocal laser-scanning microscopes in con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Ian

    have been designed based on several, very different scanning mechanisms (see6 for review). Of these microscope, and illustrate its use for rapid imaging of elementary intracellular calcium signaling events commercially available components and requires little custom construction of mechanical parts or electronic

  14. Smart alignA new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include biasvoltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the careful alignmentmoreof these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.less

  15. Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic imager is familiar to geologists as the sites where crystals of salt minerals form within rocks that sit in briny minerals. On the front: Scraping up clues Spirit's stuck right front wheel scraped a trench in the Mars

  16. Transmission-mode imaging in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staniewicz, Lech Thomas Leif

    2012-02-07

    . . . . . . . . . . 118 iv 0.0: CONTENTS 8.2.4 Sterilisation at Microscope Vacuum Levels . . . . . . . 119 8.3 Imaging Bacteria with Wet STEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8.3.1 STEM and SE Imaging Compared . . . . . . . . . . . 122 8.3.2 The Effect of Hydration...

  17. Measuring Boltzmann's constant with a low-cost atomic force microscope: An undergraduate experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manalis, Scott

    to directly control it. Its pedagogical advantage is that students interact with a complete instrument system measurements, students learn to apply numerous concepts such as digital sampling, Fourier-domain analysis designed and built an inexpen- sive atomic force microscope AFM system that enables this type of hands

  18. Microscopic mechanism of the noncrystalline anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyborny, Karel; Kucera, Jan; Sinova, Jairo; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with a microscopic model based on the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian and kinetic p-d exchange combined with Boltzmann formula for conductivity we identify the scattering from magnetic Mn combined with the strong spin-orbit interaction of the GaAs...

  19. Rapid and precise scanning helium ion microscope milling of solid-state nanopores for biomolecule detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Rapid and precise scanning helium ion microscope milling of solid-state nanopores for biomolecule detection This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article Nanotechnology 22 (2011) 285310 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/22/28/285310 Rapid and precise scanning helium ion

  20. Controlling Nanometer-Scale Crystal Growth on a Model Biomaterial with a Scanning Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    Controlling Nanometer-Scale Crystal Growth on a Model Biomaterial with a Scanning Force Microscope the changes in a quantitative fashion. Single-crystal brushite, an important biomineral and biomaterial,7 (enamel, dentine, bone) and pathological (dental cavities, kidney stones) calcifications. Under weakly

  1. On Macroscopic and MicroscopicAnalyses for Crack Initiationand Crack Growth Toughness in DuctileAlloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    On Macroscopic and MicroscopicAnalyses for Crack Initiationand Crack Growth Toughness in Ductile microvoid coalescence, expressions are shown for the fracture toughness of materials in terms and the nondimensionalized crack initiation fracture toughness Ji~ is described and shown to yield a good fit to experimental

  2. Macromolecules 1996,28, 5819-5826 6819 Microscopic Theory of Chain Pullout in Amorphous Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip L.

    Macromolecules 1996,28, 5819-5826 6819 Microscopic Theory of Chain Pullout in Amorphous Polymers T: The statistical-mechanical problem of chain pullout from an amorphous polymer under the influence of a constant in both polymer glasses and elastomeric materials from a single point of view. A mean-field approximation

  3. Macroscopic description of microscopically strongly inhomogenous systems: A mathematical basis for the synthesis of higher gradients metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Carcaterra; Francesco dell'Isola; Raffaele Esposito; Mario Pulvirenti

    2015-04-29

    We consider the time evolution of a one dimensional $n$-gradient continuum. Our aim is to construct and analyze discrete approximations in terms of physically realizable mechanical systems, called microscopic because they are living on a smaller space scale. We validate our construction by proving a convergence theorem of the microscopic system to the given continuum, as the scale parameter goes to zero.

  4. Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions and their relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jen

    Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic The room temperature macroscopic and microscopic plastic behavior of four face-centered cubic metals (Al dislocations during plastic flow. It is shown that forest dislocations develop primarily due to interaction

  5. Experimental investigation of beam heating in a soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Experimental investigation of beam heating in a soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope and an accuracy of 1 C has been fabricated for scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM). Here we describe at temperatures near their respective melting points as a means of checking for possible sample heating caused

  6. Transpiring purging access probe for particulate laden or hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G

    2013-12-03

    An access probe for remote-sensing access through a viewing port, viewing volume, and access port into a vessel. The physical boundary around the viewing volume is partially formed by a porous sleeve lying between the viewing volume and a fluid conduit. In a first mode of operation, a fluid supplied to the fluid conduit encounters the porous sleeve and flows through the porous material to maintain the viewing volume free of ash or other matter. When additional fluid force is needed to clear the viewing volume, the pressure of the fluid flow is increased sufficiently to slidably translate the porous sleeve, greatly increasing the flow into the viewing volume. The porous sleeve is returned to position by an actuating spring. The access probe thereby provides for alternate modes of operation based on the pressure of an actuating fluid.

  7. Solar panel driven air purging apparatus for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobier, J.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes improvement in a motor vehicle having an enclosable cabin an internal combustion engine, a battery, an ignition switch having an on position for enabling the internal combustion engine and an off position, an electric motor coupled in driving relationship with an air circulating fan for circulating air through the cabin. The improvement comprises: a solar panel mounted upon the vehicle having a panel output exhibiting variable voltage levels including a peak voltage level and substantially constant current; a power transfer regulator for transferring power form the panel to the motor when enabled, including: energy storage means connectable across the panel output and chargeable by the current to variable charge levels; solid-state switch means connected in energy transfer relationship with the energy storage means and actuable between conducting and non-conducting states when the power transfer regulator is enabled; inductor means connected with the solid-state switch means and connectable with the electric motor for conveying current thereto from the panel and the energy storage means when the solid-state switch means is in the conducting state.

  8. [FIXED] JGI data loss in /projectb/sandbox area [purge]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largestnamedGroup! ! NUG 2014!EVALUATION OFJGI data

  9. components of the droplet stream in the first regime before,during, and after the impact. The energy audit shows thatthe change in trandiameter dropllo theleiee smpo ohat modes (i.e. n [ 2) decay quickly, leaving the dominant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Thomas B.

    . The energy audit shows thatthe change in trandiameter dropllo theleiee smpo ohat #12;#12;modes (i.e. n [ 2 (Rayleigh 1945). Often, rotation is observed in rebounding droplets. The downstream velocity and reflection in #12;interference between the incoming and outgoing streams after they rebound; something that might

  10. L I B R A R Y B U S I N E S S P L A N 2 0 1 4 The Library supports the University's goals of excellence in research, excellence in education and contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All pcs in library public spaces replaced 2 Respond more effectively to student needs through1 | L I B R A R Y B U S I N E S S P L A N 2 0 1 4 Context The Library supports the University. The University library provides a collection, library services, digital literacy and research skills, the ANU

  11. TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Annealed in N2 for Efficient Lithium-Ion Intercalation Dawei Liu, Peng Xiao,, Yunhuai Zhang,, Betzaida B. Garcia, Qifeng Zhang, Qing Guo,|

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Annealed in N2 for Efficient Lithium-Ion Intercalation Dawei Liu, Peng Xiao capacity and improved cyclic stability. TiO2 nanotube arrays annealed at 300 C exhibited the best lithium capacity decreased, but the cyclic stability improved; 400 C annealed TiO2 nanotube arrays possessed

  12. Fluctuations of particle motion in granular avalanches - from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziwei Wang; Jie Zhang

    2015-02-03

    In this study, we have investigated the fluctuations of particle motion, i.e. the non-affine motion, during the avalanche process, discovering a rich dynamics from the microscopic to the macroscopic scales. We find that there is strong correlation between the magnitude of the velocity fluctuation and the velocity magnitude in the spatial and temporal domains. The possible connection between this finding and STZ is discussed based on the direct measurement of the T1 events. In addition, the velocity magnitude of the system and the stress fluctuations of the system are strongly correlated temporally. Our finding will pose challenges to the development of more rigorous theories to describe the avalanche dynamics based on the microscopic approach. Moreover, our finding presents a plausible mechanism of the particle entrainment in a simple system.

  13. Ultra low-K shrinkage behavior when under electron beam in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorut, F.; Imbert, G. [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France)] [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Roggero, A. [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we investigate the tendency of porous low-K dielectrics (also named Ultra Low-K, ULK) behavior to shrink when exposed to the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. Various experimental electron beam conditions have been used for irradiating ULK thin films, and the resulting shrinkage has been measured through use of an atomic force microscope tool. We report the shrinkage to be a fast, cumulative, and dose dependent effect. Correlation of the shrinkage with incident electron beam energy loss has also been evidenced. The chemical modification of the ULK films within the interaction volume has been demonstrated, with a densification of the layer and a loss of carbon and hydrogen elements being observed.

  14. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  15. Microscopic Study of (p,$?$) Reactions in Mass Region A=110-125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dipti Chakraborty; Saumi Dutta; G. Gangopadhyay; Abhijit Bhattacharyya

    2015-05-14

    Low energy proton capture reactions have been studied in statistical model using the semi-microscopic optical potential in the mass range A=110-125. Nuclear density obtained from relativistic mean field calculation has been folded with nucleon-nucleon interaction to obtain the optical potential. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental measurements to normalize the potential. Results have also been compared with a standard calculation available in the literature.

  16. A one-piece 3D printed microscope and flexure translation stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharkey, James P; Kabla, Alexandre; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Bowman, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance microscope consists not only of optics but also mechanics; a useful instrument must be able to precisely focus on the specimen, and to translate the sample to find or track features of interest. We demonstrate a monolithic 3D printed flexure translation stage, capable of sub-micron-scale motion over a range of $8\\times8\\times4\\,$mm. An Arduino microcontroller can be used to automate the stage with inexpensive stepper motors. The resulting plastic composite structure is very stiff and exhibits remarkably low drift, moving less than $20\\,\\mu$m over the course of a week. This enables us to construct a low-cost microscope with excellent mechanical stability, perfect for timelapse measurements in situ in an incubator or fume hood. Utilizing the Raspberry Pi camera module means very little power or space is required, enabling experiments to be run in parallel. The low cost of this microscope lends itself to use in containment facilities where disposability is advantageous, and to educational work...

  17. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, Sorin

    2013-07-01

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  18. From Animaculum to single-molecules: 300 years of the light microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wollman, Adam J M; Hedlund, Erik G; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term biologists). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes with which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarising the key developments over the last ca. 300 years which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek's day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells...

  19. Microscopic model versus systematic low-energy effective field theory for a doped quantum ferromagnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, U.; Wiese, U.-J.; Hofmann, C. P.; Kaempfer, F.

    2010-02-01

    We consider a microscopic model for a doped quantum ferromagnet as a test case for the systematic low-energy effective field theory for magnons and holes, which is constructed in complete analogy to the case of quantum antiferromagnets. In contrast to antiferromagnets, for which the effective field theory approach can be tested only numerically, in the ferromagnetic case, both the microscopic and the effective theory can be solved analytically. In this way, the low-energy parameters of the effective theory are determined exactly by matching to the underlying microscopic model. The low-energy behavior at half-filling as well as in the single- and two-hole sectors is described exactly by the systematic low-energy effective field theory. In particular, for weakly bound two-hole states the effective field theory even works beyond perturbation theory. This lends strong support to the quantitative success of the systematic low-energy effective field theory method not only in the ferromagnetic but also in the physically most interesting antiferromagnetic case.

  20. A versatile three-contact electrical biasing transmission electron microscope specimen holder for electron holography and electron tomography of working devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    A versatile three-contact electrical biasing transmission electron microscope specimen holder to characterize nanoscale materials and devices under operating conditions in the transmission electron microscope in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) at a spatial resolution that can approach the nanometer scale

  1. Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscope quantitatively demonstrates marked increase of collagen in tumor after chemotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Anju M.

    Pulse-modulated second harmonic imaging microscopes (PM-SHIMs) exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over conventional SHIMs on sensitive imaging and quantification of weak collagen signals inside tissues. We quantify ...

  2. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  3. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

    2006-01-01

    The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

  4. Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2013-10-29

    Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

  5. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  6. Microscopic derivation of the quadrupole collective Hamiltonian for shape coexistence/mixing dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuyanagi, Kenichi; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Hinohara, Nobuo; Sato, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Assuming that the time-evolution of the self-consistent mean field is determined by five pairs of collective coordinate and collective momentum, we microscopically derive the collective Hamiltonian for low-frequency quadrupole modes of excitation. We show that the five-dimensional collective Schr\\"odinger equation is capable of describing large-amplitude quadrupole shape dynamics seen as shape coexistence/mixing phenomena. We focus on basic ideas and recent advances of the approaches based on the time-dependent mean-field theory, but relations to other time-independent approaches are also briefly discussed.

  7. Neutrinoless double-{beta} decay in the microscopic interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barea, J.; Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    We present a formalism for calculating nuclear matrix elements of double-{beta} decay within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model. We calculate Fermi, Gamow-Teller, and tensor matrix elements in the decay of Ge-Se-Mo-Te-Xe-Nd-Sm and compare our results with those of the shell-model (SM) and of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Our results are in agreement with QRPA. We discuss simple features of the matrix elements and give a formula that allows one to estimate matrix elements in terms of the number of valence proton and neutron pairs.

  8. Nonminimal Macroscopic Models of a Scalar Field Based on Microscopic Dynamics. II. Transport Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. G. Ignat'ev

    2015-04-14

    The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on a sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artificial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity. Additionally, as a condition of internal consistency of the theory, particle effective mass function is found.

  9. Mechanical and microscopic properties of the reversible plastic regime in a 2D jammed material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan C. Keim; Paulo E. Arratia

    2013-11-20

    At the microscopic level, plastic flow of a jammed, disordered material consists of a series of particle rearrangements that cannot be reversed by subsequent deformation. An infinitesimal deformation of the same material has no rearrangements. Yet between these limits, there may be a self-organized plastic regime with rearrangements, but with no net change upon reversing a deformation. We measure the oscillatory response of a jammed interfacial material, and directly observe rearrangements that couple to bulk stress and dissipate energy, but do not always give rise to global irreversibility.

  10. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, W.E.

    1986-01-06

    This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  11. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jhilam Sadhukhan; Witold Nazarewicz; Nicolas Schunck

    2015-10-27

    In this letter, we outline a methodology to calculate microscopically mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multi-dimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic characteristics.

  12. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Schunck, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we outline a methodology to calculate microscopically mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multi-dimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic characteristics.

  13. Nonminimal Macroscopic Models of a Scalar Field Based on Microscopic Dynamics. II. Transport Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on a sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artificial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity. Additionally, as a condition of internal consistency of the theory, particle effective mass function is found.

  14. Direct photon emission in Heavy Ion Collisions from Microscopic Transport Theory and Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjoern Baeuchle; Marcus Bleicher

    2010-03-29

    Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are made.

  15. Microscopic Calculation of Pre-Compound Excitation Energies for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard

    2009-09-18

    We introduce a microscopic approach for calculating the excitation energies of systems formed during heavy-ion collisions. The method is based on time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory and allows the study of the excitation energy as a function of time or ion-ion separation distance. We discuss how this excitation energy is related to the estimate of the excitation energy using the reaction $Q$-value, as well as its implications for dinuclear pre-compound systems formed during heavy-ion collisions.

  16. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne E. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons, simultaneously measuring the electron dosage and x-ray intensities for each sample of element to determine a "K.sub.AB " value to be used in the equation ##EQU1## where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B, and exposing the multielement sample to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  17. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O surface studied by means of scanning tunnelling microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witek, A.; Dabkowski, A.; Rauluszkiewicz, J.

    1989-03-10

    Surface topography of the high-T/sub c/ superconductor BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ has been investigated by means of scanning tunnelling microscope. The measurements were performed on the natural surface of ceramics material in air at room temperature. It can be deduced from the surface images, that bulk orthorhombic crystal structure extends to the surface. The surface seems to be uniform metallic in character and not drastically contaminated. Regular steps observed on the surface correspond to the dimension of the unit cell in z direction or its multiples.

  18. The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Zhenglian; Bass, Steffen A

    2009-01-01

    The excitation function of freeze-out time, average freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of (multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic transport model. We find that the Omega on average freezes out earlier than the nucleon, Xi and Lambda. The average freeze-out temperature and energy density as well as the spread between the different baryonicstates increase monotonously with increasing beam energy and should approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing Quark-Gluon-Plasma.

  19. The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhenglian Xie; Pingzhi Ning; Steffen A. Bass

    2009-11-23

    The excitation function of freeze-out time, average freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of (multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic transport model. We find that the Omega on average freezes out earlier than the nucleon, Xi and Lambda. The average freeze-out temperature and energy density as well as the spread between the different baryonicstates increase monotonously with increasing beam energy and should approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing Quark-Gluon-Plasma.

  20. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.830 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.848 MeV). Thus, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  1. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  2. Nanometer scale elemental analysis in the helium ion microscope using time of flight spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klingner, Nico; Hlawacek, Gregor; von Borany, Johannes; Notte, John; Huang, Jason; Facsko, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Time of flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (ToF-RBS) was successfully implemented in a helium ion microscope (HIM). Its integration introduces the ability to perform laterally resolved elemental analysis as well as elemental depth profiling on the nm scale. A lateral resolution of $\\leq$ 54 nm and an energy resolution of $\\Delta E \\leq$ 1.5 keV $(\\Delta E/E=5.4\\%)$ are achieved. By using the energy of the backscattered particles for contrast generation, we introduce a new imaging method to the HIM allowing direct elemental mapping as well as local spectrometry. In addition laterally resolved time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can be performed with the same setup. Time of flight is implemented by pulsing the primary ion beam. This is achieved in a cost effective and minimal invasive way that does not influence the high resolution capabilities of the microscope when operating in standard secondary electron (SE) imaging mode. This technique can thus be easily adapted to existing...

  3. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

    2014-02-26

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

  4. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bruer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 ?m. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup } HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 1000 ?m{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 ?m, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required. Dosimetry at low photon energies should be performed with great caution due to the energy sensitivity of the films. In this respect, HD-V2 films showed to have an advantage over HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films have a lower statistical noise level. When a higher resolution is required, e.g., for the dosimetry of pencil beam irradiations, noise may render HD-V2 films inapplicable.

  5. Collective aspects deduced from time-dependent microscopic mean-field with pairing: application to the fission process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanimura, Yusuke; Scamps, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Given a set of collective variables, a method is proposed to obtain the associated conjugated collective momenta and masses starting from a microscopic time-dependent mean-field theory. The construction of pairs of conjugated variables is the first step to bridge microscopic and macroscopic approaches. The method is versatile and can be applied to study a large class of nuclear processes. An illustration is given here with the fission of $^{258}$Fm. Using the quadrupole moment and eventually higher-order multipole moments, the associated collective masses are estimated along the microscopic mean-field evolution. When more than one collective variable are considered, it is shown that the off-diagonal matrix elements of the inertia play a crucial role. Using the information on the quadrupole moment and associated momentum, the collective evolution is studied. It is shown that dynamical effects beyond the adiabatic limit are important. Nuclei formed after fission tend to stick together for longer time leading to...

  6. Regression analysis with missing data and unknown colored noise: application to the MICROSCOPE space mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baghi, Q; Berg, J; Christophe, B; Touboul, P; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of physical measurements often copes with highly correlated noises and interruptions caused by outliers, saturation events or transmission losses. We assess the impact of missing data on the performance of linear regression analysis involving the fit of modeled or measured time series. We show that data gaps can significantly alter the precision of the regression parameter estimation in the presence of colored noise, due to the frequency leakage of the noise power. We present a regression method which cancels this effect and estimates the parameters of interest with a precision comparable to the complete data case, even if the noise power spectral density (PSD) is not known a priori. The method is based on an autoregressive (AR) fit of the noise, which allows us to build an approximate generalized least squares estimator approaching the minimal variance bound. The method, which can be applied to any similar data processing, is tested on simulated measurements of the MICROSCOPE space mission, whos...

  7. A microscopic derivation of nuclear collective rotation-vibration model, axially symmetric case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parviz Gulshani

    2015-05-12

    We derive a microscopic version of the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for collective rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude. The nuclear Schrodinger equation is canonically transformed the to collective co-ordinates, which is then linearized using a constrained variational method. The associated constraints are imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms and applied to the ground-state rotational bands in some axially-symmetric nuclei. The results are compared with the measured data.

  8. High-speed imaging upgrade for a standard sample scanning atomic force microscope using small cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Nievergelt, Adrian; Erickson, Blake W.; Yang, Chen; Dukic, Maja; Fantner, Georg E., E-mail: georg.fantner@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    We present an atomic force microscope (AFM) head for optical beam deflection on small cantilevers. Our AFM head is designed to be small in size, easily integrated into a commercial AFM system, and has a modular architecture facilitating exchange of the optical and electronic assemblies. We present two different designs for both the optical beam deflection and the electronic readout systems, and evaluate their performance. Using small cantilevers with our AFM head on an otherwise unmodified commercial AFM system, we are able to take tapping mode images approximately 510 times faster compared to the same AFM system using large cantilevers. By using additional scanner turnaround resonance compensation and a controller designed for high-speed AFM imaging, we show tapping mode imaging of lipid bilayers at line scan rates of 100500 Hz for scan areas of several micrometers in size.

  9. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  10. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Jonge, Niels (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  11. Microscopic Description of Entanglements in Polyethylene Networks and Melts: Strong, Weak, Pairwise, and Collective Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anogiannakis, Stefanos D; Theodorou, Doros N

    2012-01-01

    We present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two Polyethylene systems where all entanglements are trapped: a perfect network, and a melt with grafted chain ends. We examine microscopically at what level topological constraints can be considered as a collective entanglement effect, as in tube model theories, or as certain pairwise uncrossability interactions, as in slip-link models. A pairwise parameter, which varies between these limiting cases, shows that, for the systems studied, the character of the entanglement environment is more pairwise than collective. We employ a novel methodology, which analyzes entanglement constraints into a complete set of pairwise interactions, similar to slip links. Entanglement confinement is assembled by a plethora of links, with a spectrum of confinement strengths, from strong to weak. The strength of interactions is quantified through a link `persistence', which is the fraction of time for which the links are active. By weighting links according to their strength,...

  12. The effect of microscopic texture on the direct plasma surface passivation of Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrabian, S. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xu, S. [Plasma Sources and Applications Center, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 Singapore (Singapore); Qaemi, A. A. [Physics Department, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chan, C. S. [Plasma Sources and Applications Center, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 Singapore (Singapore); Division of Microelectronics, School of EEE, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Ostrikov, K. [Plasma Nanoscience Center Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218 Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Plasma Sources and Applications Center, NIE, Nanyang Technological University, 637616 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Textured silicon surfaces are widely used in manufacturing of solar cells due to increasing the light absorption probability and also the antireflection properties. However, these Si surfaces have a high density of surface defects that need to be passivated. In this study, the effect of the microscopic surface texture on the plasma surface passivation of solar cells is investigated. The movement of 10{sup 5} H{sup +} ions in the texture-modified plasma sheath is studied by Monte Carlo numerical simulation. The hydrogen ions are driven by the combined electric field of the plasma sheath and the textured surface. The ion dynamics is simulated, and the relative ion distribution over the textured substrate is presented. This distribution can be used to interpret the quality of the Si dangling bonds saturation and consequently, the direct plasma surface passivation.

  13. A general end point free energy calculation method based on microscopic configurational space coarse-graining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Free energy is arguably the most important thermodynamic property for physical systems. Despite the fact that free energy is a state function, presently available rigorous methodologies, such as those based on thermodynamic integration (TI) or non-equilibrium work (NEW) analysis, involve energetic calculations on path(s) connecting the starting and the end macrostates. Meanwhile, presently widely utilized approximate end-point free energy methods lack rigorous treatment of conformational variation within end macrostates, and are consequently not sufficiently reliable. Here we present an alternative and rigorous end point free energy calculation formulation based on microscopic configurational space coarse graining, where the configurational space of a high dimensional system is divided into a large number of sufficiently fine and uniform elements, which were termed conformers. It was found that change of free energy is essentially decided by change of the number of conformers, with an error term that accounts...

  14. In situ scanning tunneling microscope tip treatment device for spin polarization imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, An-Ping [Oak Ridge, TN; Jianxing, Ma [Oak Ridge, TN; Shen, Jian [Knoxville, TN

    2008-04-22

    A tip treatment device for use in an ultrahigh vacuum in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The device provides spin polarization functionality to new or existing variable temperature STM systems. The tip treatment device readily converts a conventional STM to a spin-polarized tip, and thereby converts a standard STM system into a spin-polarized STM system. The tip treatment device also has functions of tip cleaning and tip flashing a STM tip to high temperature (>2000.degree. C.) in an extremely localized fashion. Tip coating functions can also be carried out, providing the tip sharp end with monolayers of coating materials including magnetic films. The device is also fully compatible with ultrahigh vacuum sample transfer setups.

  15. Hyperspectral microscope for in vivo imaging of microstructures and cells in tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros G. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-05-17

    An optical hyperspectral/multimodal imaging method and apparatus is utilized to provide high signal sensitivity for implementation of various optical imaging approaches. Such a system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives so as to enable off-axis illumination of predetermined tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength, simplifies design, reduces required optical elements, significantly reduces spectral noise from the optical elements and allows for fast image acquisition enabling high quality imaging in-vivo. Such a technology provides a means of detecting disease at the single cell level such as cancer, precancer, ischemic, traumatic or other type of injury, infection, or other diseases or conditions causing alterations in cells and tissue micro structures.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  17. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tbingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tbingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ?10?100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  18. Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 ?m/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

  19. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  20. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L. (12508 Loyola, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Gourley, Mark F. (7509 Spring Lake Dr., Apt. B1, Bethesda, MD 20817)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

  1. Collectivity in small and large amplitude microscopic mean-field dynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacroix, Denis; Scamps, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependent energy density functional with pairing allows to describe a large variety of phenomena from small to large amplitude collective motion. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progresses made in the field using the TD-BCS approach. A focus is made on the mapping of the microscopic mean-field dynamic to the macroscopic dynamic in collective space. A method is developed to extract the collective mass parameter from TD-EDF. Illustration is made on the fission of $^{258}$Fm. The collective mass and collective momentum associated to quadrupole deformation including non-adiabatic effects is estimated along the TD-EDF path. With these information, the onset of dissipation during fission is discussed.

  2. Improved microscopic-macroscopic approach incorporating the effects of continuum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tajima, Naoki; Takahara, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky method (the microscopic-macroscopic method) combined with Kruppa's prescription for positive energy levels, which is necessary to treat neutron rich nuclei, is studied to clarify the reason for its success and to propose improvements for its shortcomings. The reason why the plateau condition is met for the Nilsson model but not for the Woods-Saxon model is understood in a new interpretation of the Strutinsky smoothing procedure as a low-pass filter. Essential features of Kruppa's level density is extracted in terms of the Thomas-Fermi approximation modified to describe spectra obtained from diagonalization in truncated oscillator bases. A method is proposed which weakens the dependence on the smoothing width by applying the Strutinsky smoothing only to the deviations from a reference level density. The BCS equations are modified for the Kruppa's spectrum, which is necessary to treat the pairing correlation properly in the presence of continuum. The potential depth is adjusted for th...

  3. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen; Wu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  4. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z)?=?Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t}?=??L{sub t}. Relation ?L{sub t}/R{sub t}???0.235 was obtained.

  5. Superconducting qubit as a quantum transformer routing entanglement between a microscopic quantum memory and a macroscopic resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Alexander; Saito, Shiro; Semba, Kouichi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Munro, William J. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); National Institute of Informatics 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the creation and measurement of an entangled state between a microscopic two-level system (TLS), formed by a defect in an oxide layer, and a macroscopic superconducting resonator, where their indirect interaction is mediated by an artificial atom, a superconducting persistent current qubit (PCQB). Under appropriate conditions, we found the coherence time of the TLS, the resonator, and the entangled state of these two are significantly longer than the Ramsey dephasing time of PCQB itself. This demonstrates that a PCQB can be used as a quantum transformer to address high coherence microscopic quantum memories by connecting them to macroscopic quantum buses.

  6. Design of a new reactor-like high temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope for catalysis studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Nguyen, Luan; Zhang, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the design of a new reactor-like high-temperature near ambient pressure scanning tunneling microscope (HT-NAP-STM) for catalysis studies. This HT-NAP-STM was designed for exploration of structures of catalyst surfaces at atomic...

  7. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 043105 (2011) Polarization-preserving confocal microscope for optical experiments in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Wal, Caspar H.

    2011-01-01

    April 2011) We present the design and operation of a fiber-based cryogenic confocal microscope requirements such as cryogenic temperatures, high optical intensities, high mag- netic fields, and precise become of interest, since freezing out the phonons at energies of the Zeeman splitting of electron

  8. Quantum erasure in the presence of a thermal bath: the effects of system-environment microscopic correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. R. Bosco de Magalhes; J. G. Peixoto de Faria; R. Rossi Jr

    2015-05-22

    We investigate the role of the environment in a quantum erasure setup in the cavity quantum electrodynamics domain. Two slightly different schemes are analyzed. We show that the effects of the environment vary when a scheme is exchanged for another. This can be used to estimate the macroscopic parameters related to the system-environment microscopic correlations.

  9. Mechanisms of Molecular Manipulation with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Room Temperature: Chlorobenzene=Si111-7 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Mats

    of negative (or positive) ion resonances of the chemisorbed molecule by the tunneling electrons (or holes- scale structures which can be employed to trap electrons in ``textbook'' quantum boxes [2Mechanisms of Molecular Manipulation with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Room Temperature

  10. Measuring charge trap occupation and energy level in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots using a scanning tunneling microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hummon, M. R.

    We use a scanning tunneling microscope to probe single-electron charging phenomena in individual CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots (QDs) at room temperature. The QDs are deposited on top of a bare Au thin film and form a ...

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 012103 (2011) Comparison of the Kubo formula, the microscopic response method, and the Greenwood formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drabold, David

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 012103 (2011) Comparison of the Kubo formula, the microscopic response method, and the Greenwood formula Mingliang Zhang and D. A. Drabold Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University to and more convenient to use than the Kubo formula. When the gradient of the carrier density is small

  12. Real-Time, Non-Contact Plant Growth Monitoring at Microscopic Levels using 3D Laser Scanner.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, John

    Real-Time, Non-Contact Plant Growth Monitoring at Microscopic Levels using 3D Laser Scanner. M differential inspection techniques applied to plant growth monitoring. Experimental results shows growth rate of detailed plants and leaves motion. Such studies have been made on single or few leaves at a time

  13. In vivo brain imaging using a portable 2.9 g two-photon microscope based on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Mark

    on a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) laser-scanning mirror. The microscope has a focusing motor and a micro, as well as microelectromechanical sys- tems (MEMS) scanning mirrors [3,6,14,15]. Cantile- ver scanners on a microelectromechanical systems scanning mirror Wibool Piyawattanametha,1,2 Eric D. Cocker,1 Laurie D. Burns,1 Robert P. J

  14. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

  15. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dispersed nanodiamond novel hybrids: Microscopic structure evolution, physical properties, and radiation resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S.; Farmer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure and physical properties of novel hybrids of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ultradispersed diamond (UDD) forming nanocomposite ensemble that were subjected to 50, 100, and 10{sup 3} kGy gamma ray doses and characterized using various analytical tools to investigate hierarchical defects evolution. This work is prompted by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (L{sub a}) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation from the ratio of D to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp{sup 2} and UDD core (C sp{sup 3}) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp{sup 2} at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp{sup 2}) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q{approx}0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at relatively good interfacial contact. Furthermore, owing to high thermal and electrical conductivity properties, they can facilitate potentially efficient heat-transfer applications and some results deduced using Nielsen's model is provided.

  16. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12?m. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than 0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to determine these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were also found to follow distinctively different patterns. The variations of the observed half-width coefficients and their temperature dependences with respect to J, K quantum numbers are discussed. Because of the high density of torsionally split spectral lines, hot-band ransitions as well as blends, it was not possible to retrieve any information on the small pressure-induced shift coefficients. Present results are compared to other available measurements.

  17. An Epi-Detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) Microscope with High Spectral Resolution and High Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    LETTERS An Epi-Detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) Microscope with High-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope that uses two synchronized picosecond pulse (CARS) microscopy provides a unique approach to imaging chemical and biological samples by using

  18. Regression analysis with missing data and unknown colored noise: application to the MICROSCOPE space mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Baghi; G. Mtris; J. Berg; B. Christophe; P. Touboul; M. Rodrigues

    2015-03-04

    The analysis of physical measurements often copes with highly correlated noises and interruptions caused by outliers, saturation events or transmission losses. We assess the impact of missing data on the performance of linear regression analysis involving the fit of modeled or measured time series. We show that data gaps can significantly alter the precision of the regression parameter estimation in the presence of colored noise, due to the frequency leakage of the noise power. We present a regression method which cancels this effect and estimates the parameters of interest with a precision comparable to the complete data case, even if the noise power spectral density (PSD) is not known a priori. The method is based on an autoregressive (AR) fit of the noise, which allows us to build an approximate generalized least squares estimator approaching the minimal variance bound. The method, which can be applied to any similar data processing, is tested on simulated measurements of the MICROSCOPE space mission, whose goal is to test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) with a precision of $10^{-15}$. In this particular context the signal of interest is the WEP violation signal expected to be found around a well defined frequency. We test our method with different gap patterns and noise of known PSD and find that the results agree with the mission requirements, decreasing the uncertainty by a factor 60 with respect to ordinary least squares methods. We show that it also provides a test of significance to assess the uncertainty of the measurement.

  19. An ytterbium quantum gas microscope with narrow-line laser cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Ryuta; Kuno, Takuma; Kato, Kohei; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic $^{174}\\mathrm{Yb}$ atoms in a Hubbard-regime two-dimensional optical lattice with a short lattice constant of 266 nm. To suppress the heating by probe light with the $^1S_0$-$^1P_1$ transition of the wavelength $\\lambda$ = 399 nm for high-resolution imaging and preserve atoms at the same lattice sites during the fluorescence imaging, we simultaneously cool atoms by additionally applying narrow-line optical molasses with the $^1S_0$-$^3P_1$ transition of the wavelength $\\lambda$ = 556 nm. We achieve a low temperature of $T = 7.4(1.3)\\ \\mu\\mathrm{K}$, corresponding to a mean oscillation quantum number along the horizontal axes of 0.22(4) during imaging process. We detect on average 200 fluorescence photons from a single atom within 400 ms exposure time, and estimate the detection fidelity of 87(2)%. The realization of a quantum gas microscope with enough fidelity for Yb atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice opens up the possibilities for studying v...

  20. Novel scanning electron microscope bulge test technique integrated with loading function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chuanwei; Xie, Huimin E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Zhanwei E-mail: xiehm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    Membranes and film-on-substrate structures are critical elements for some devices in electronics industry and for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems devices. These structures are normally at the scale of micrometer or even nanometer. Thus, the measurement for the mechanical property of these membranes poses a challenge over the conventional measurements at macro-scales. In this study, a novel bulge test method is presented for the evaluation of mechanical property of micro thin membranes. Three aspects are discussed in the study: (a) A novel bulge test with a Scanning Electron Microscope system realizing the function of loading and measuring simultaneously; (b) a simplified Digital Image Correlation method for a height measurement; and (c) an imaging distortion correction by the introduction of a scanning Moir method. Combined with the above techniques, biaxial modulus as well as Young's modulus of the polyimide film can be determined. Besides, a standard tensile test is conducted as an auxiliary experiment to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. 2013 R&D 100 Award: Movie-mode electron microscope captures nanoscale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan

    2014-07-21

    A new instrument developed by LLNL scientists and engineers, the Movie Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (MM-DTEM), captures billionth-of-a-meter-scale images with frame rates more than 100,000 times faster than those of conventional techniques. The work was done in collaboration with a Pleasanton-based company, Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions (IDES) Inc. Using this revolutionary imaging technique, a range of fundamental and technologically important material and biological processes can be captured in action, in complete billionth-of-a-meter detail, for the first time. The primary application of MM-DTEM is the direct observation of fast processes, including microstructural changes, phase transformations and chemical reactions, that shape real-world performance of nanostructured materials and potentially biological entities. The instrument could prove especially valuable in the direct observation of macromolecular interactions, such as protein-protein binding and host-pathogen interactions. While an earlier version of the technology, Single Shot-DTEM, could capture a single snapshot of a rapid process, MM-DTEM captures a multiframe movie that reveals complex sequences of events in detail. It is the only existing technology that can capture multiple electron microscopy images in the span of a single microsecond.

  2. THE NONLINEAR AND NONLOCAL LINK BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC ALFVNIC AND MICROSCOPIC ELECTROSTATIC SCALES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, F.; Vecchio, A.; Donato, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.; Briand, C.; Bougeret, J.

    2014-06-10

    The local heating of the solar-wind gas during its expansion represents one of the most intriguing problems in space plasma physics and is at present the subject of a relevant scientific effort. The possible mechanisms that could account for local heat production in the interplanetary medium are most likely related to the turbulent character of the solar-wind plasma. Nowadays, many observational and numerical analyses are devoted to the identification of fluctuation channels along which energy is carried from large to short wavelengths during the development of the turbulent cascade; these fluctuation channels establish the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this Letter, by means of a quantitative comparison between in situ measurements in the solar wind from the STEREO spacecraft and numerical results from kinetic simulations, we identify an electrostatic channel of fluctuations that develops along the turbulent cascade in a direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field. This channel appears to be efficient in transferring the energy from large Alfvnic to short electrostatic acoustic-like scales up to a range of wavelengths where it can finally be turned into heat, even when the electron to proton temperature ratio is of the order of unity.

  3. Microscopic Description of Entanglements in Polyethylene Networks and Melts: Strong, Weak, Pairwise, and Collective Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanos D. Anogiannakis; Christos Tzoumanekas; Doros N. Theodorou

    2013-01-30

    We present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two Polyethylene systems where all entanglements are trapped: a perfect network, and a melt with grafted chain ends. We examine microscopically at what level topological constraints can be considered as a collective entanglement effect, as in tube model theories, or as certain pairwise uncrossability interactions, as in slip-link models. A pairwise parameter, which varies between these limiting cases, shows that, for the systems studied, the character of the entanglement environment is more pairwise than collective. We employ a novel methodology, which analyzes entanglement constraints into a complete set of pairwise interactions, similar to slip links. Entanglement confinement is assembled by a plethora of links, with a spectrum of confinement strengths, from strong to weak. The strength of interactions is quantified through a link `persistence', which is the fraction of time for which the links are active. By weighting links according to their strength, we show that confinement is imposed mainly by the strong ones, and that the weak, trapped, uncrossability interactions cannot contribute to the low frequency modulus of an elastomer, or the plateau modulus of a melt. A self-consistent scheme for mapping topological constraints to specific, strong binary links, according to a given entanglement density, is proposed and validated. Our results demonstrate that slip links can be viewed as the strongest pairwise interactions of a collective entanglement environment. The methodology developed provides a basis for bridging the gap between atomistic simulations and mesoscopic slip link models.

  4. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, Anita [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Dreyer, M. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C. [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)] [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 ?eV.

  5. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and ngstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the ngstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  6. Generalized microscopic theory of ion selectivity in voltage-gated ion channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Das Arulsamy

    2012-09-12

    Ion channels are specific proteins present in the membranes of living cells. They control the flow of specific ions through a cell, initiated by an ion channel's electrochemical gradient. In doing so, they control important physiological processes such as muscle contraction and neuronal connectivity, which cannot be properly activated if these channels go haywire, leading to life-threatening diseases and psychological disorders. Here, we will develop a generalized microscopic theory of ion selectivity applicable to KcsA, Na$_{\\rm v}$Rh and Ca$_{\\rm v}$ (L-type) ion channels. We unambiguously expose why and how a given ion-channel can be highly selective, and yet has a conductance of the order of one million ions per second, or higher. We will identify and prove the correct physico-biochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the high selectivity of a particular ion in a given ion channel. The above mechanisms consist of five conditions, which can be directly associated to these parameters - (i) dehydration energy, (ii) concentration of the "correct" ions (iii) Coulomb-van-der-Waals attraction, (iv) pore and ionic sizes, and indirectly to (v) the thermodynamic stability and (vi) the "knock-on" assisted permeation.

  7. Microscopic self-energy calculations and dispersive optical-model potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Waldecker; C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff

    2011-05-21

    Nucleon self-energies for 40Ca, 48Ca, 60Ca isotopes are generated with the microscopic Faddeev-random-phase approximation (FRPA). These self-energies are compared with potentials from the dispersive optical model (DOM) that were obtained from fitting elastic-scattering and bound-state data for 40Ca and 48Ca. The \\textit{ab initio} FRPA is capable of explaining many features of the empirical DOM potentials including their nucleon asymmetry dependence. The comparison furthermore provides several suggestions to improve the functional form of the DOM potentials, including among others the exploration of parity and angular momentum dependence. The non-locality of the FRPA imaginary self-energy, illustrated by a substantial orbital angular momentum dependence, suggests that future DOM fits should consider this feature explicitly. The roles of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force and charge-exchange component in generating the asymmetry dependence of the FPRA self-energies are explored. The global features of the FRPA self-energies are not strongly dependent on the choice of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  8. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  9. Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2011-09-15

    A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.

  10. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S., E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  11. A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached to a Glassy Carbon Electrode: Preparation, Characterization, and Catalysis. Comparisons With the Homogeneous Analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

    2014-07-07

    A hydrogen-evolving homogeneous Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst with peripheral ester groups has been covalently attached to a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated glassy carbon electrode. The surface-confined complex is an electroctalyst for hydrogen evolution, showing onset of catalytic current at the same potential as the soluble parent complex. X-ray photoemission spectra show excellent agreement between the coupled and homogeneous species. Coverage approaches a dense monolayer. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. The XPS measurements were performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. Frelsning 12 O(n2)-algoritmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passar bra i olika sammanhang. Ingen enskild algoritm r bst i alla mjliga situtioner. PFK (Frelsning

  13. N2Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,Mereg GmbHMontebalitoMtMxEnergy

  14. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackley, Jason D.; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A.; Beaman, Daniel K.; Nazin, George V.; Ulrich, Stefan

    2014-10-15

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 /h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale.

  15. Microscopic quantum structure of black hole and vacuum versus quantum statistical origin of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shun-Jin Wang

    2014-10-28

    The Planckon densely piled model of vacuum is proposed. Based on this model, the microscopic quantum structure of Schwarzschild black hole and quantum statistical origin of its gravity are studied. The cutoff of black hole horizon leads to Casimir effect inside the horizon. This effect makes the inside vacuum has less zero quantum fluctuation energy than that of outside vacuum and the spin 1/2 radiation hole excitations are resulted inside the horizon. The mean energy of the radiation hole excitations is related to the temperature decrease of the Hawking-Unruh type by the period law of the Fermion temperature greens function and a temperature difference as well as gravity are created on the horizon. A dual relation of the gravity potentials between inside and outside regions of the black hole is found. An attractor behaviour of the horizon surface is unveiled. The gravity potential inside the black hole is linear in radial coordinate and no singularity exists at the origin of the black hole, in contrast to the conventional conjecture. All the particles absorbed by the black hole have fallen down to the horizon and converted into spin 1/2 radiation quanta with the mean energy related to the Hawking-Unruh temperature, the thermodynamic equilibrium and the mechanical balance make the radiation quanta be tightly bound in the horizon. The gravitation mass $2M$ and physical mass $M$ of the black hole are calculated. The calculated entropy of the black hole is well consistent with Hawking. Outside the horizon, there exist thermodynamic non-equilibrium and mechanical non-balance which lead to an outward centrifugal energy flow and an inward gravitation energy flow. The lost vacuum energy in the negative gravitation potential region has been removed to the black hole surface to form a spherical Planckon shell with the thickness of Planckon diameter so that energy conservation is guaranteed.

  16. Identification of Fragile Microscopic Structures during Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Qafoku, Odeta; Wang, Zheming; Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we examine the nature of highly fragile reaction products that form in low water content super critical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy/focus ion beam (SEM/FIB), confocal Raman spectroscopy, helium ion microscopy (HeIM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HeIM images show these precipitates to be fragile rosettes that can readily decompose even under slight heating from an electron beam. Using the TEM revealed details on the interfacial structure between the newly formed surface precipitates and the underlying initial solid phases. The detailed microscopic analysis revealed that the growth of the precipitates either followed a tip growth mechanism with precipitates forming directly on the forsterite surface if the initial solid was non-porous (natural forsterite) or growth from the surface of the precipitates where fluid was conducted through the porous (nanoforsterite) agglomerates to the growth center. The mechanism of formation of the hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonate compound (HHMC) phases offers insight into the possible mechanisms of carbonate mineral formation from scCO2 solutions which has recently received a great deal of attention as the result of the potential for CO2 to act as an atmospheric greenhouse gas and impact overall global warming. The techniques used here to examine these fragile structures an also be used to examine a wide range of fragile material surfaces. SEM and FIB technologies have now been brought together in a single instrument, which represents a powerful combination for the studies in biological, geological and materials science.

  17. Aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope with a sub-50-pm resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanigaki, Toshiaki Shimakura, Tomokazu; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Furutsu, Tadao; Shinada, Hiroyuki; Osakabe, Nobuyuki; Mller, Heiko; Haider, Maximilian; Tonomura, Akira

    2015-02-16

    Atomic-resolution electromagnetic field observation is critical to the development of advanced materials and to the unveiling of their fundamental physics. For this purpose, a spherical-aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope has been developed. The microscope has the following superior properties: stabilized accelerating voltage, minimized electrical and mechanical fluctuation, and coherent electron emission. These properties have enabled to obtain 43-pm information transfer. On the bases of these performances, a 43-pm resolution has been obtained by correcting lens aberrations up to the third order. Observations of GaN [411] thin crystal showed a projected atomic locations with a separation of 44?pm.

  18. Adsorption desorption processes on mesoscopic pores conected to microscopic pores of complex geometry using the Ising model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Balderas Altamirano; S. Cordero; G. Roman; A. Gama Goicochea

    2015-03-15

    In this work we report studies of nitrogen adsorption and desorption onto solid surfaces using computer simulations of the three dimensional Ising model, for systems with complex porous structures at the mesoscopic and microscopic levels. A hysteresis cycle between the adsorption and desorption processes appears and we find that its characteristics are dependent on the geometry of the pore and on the strength of the surface fluid interaction. We obtained also an average adsorption isotherm, which represents a combination of differently shaped pores, and shows robust jumps at certain values of the chemical potential as a consequence of the structures of the pores. Lastly, we compare our results with experimental data and also report the filling process of microscopic pores connected with mesopores. It is argued that these predictions are useful for researchers working on the enhanced recovery of oil and for the design of new nanomaterials, among others.

  19. Herschel-HIFI observations of H2O, NH3 and N2H+ toward high-mass starless and proto-stellar clumps identified by the Hi-GAL survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olmi, Luca; Codella, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Our present understanding of high-mass star formation still remains very schematic. In particular, it is not yet clear how much of the difference between low-mass and high-mass star formation occurs during the earliest star formation phases. The chemical characteristics of massive cold clumps, and the comparison with those of their low-mass counterparts, could provide crucial clues about the exact role that chemistry plays in differentiating the early phases of low-mass and high-mass star formation. Water, in particular, is a unique probe of physical and chemical conditions in star-forming regions. Using the HIFI instrument of Herschel we have observed the ortho-NH3 (1_0-0_0) (572GHz), ortho-H2O (1_10-1_01) (557GHz) and N2H+ (6-5) (559GHz) lines toward a sample of high-mass starless and proto-stellar clumps selected from the "Herschel} Infrared Galactic Plane Survey" (Hi-GAL). We compare our results to previous studies of low-mass and high-mass proto-stellar objects. At least one of the three molecular lines ...

  20. Chemically sensitive 3D imaging at sub 100 nm spatial resolution using tomography in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    transmission x-ray microscope, at BL 5.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source. These glass capillaries are similar a complex community of bacteria and algae in river water. The capillaries were then centrifuged for 5

  1. Strong Electromechanical Coupling of an Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever to a Quantum Dot Steven D. Bennett, Lynda Cockins, Yoichi Miyahara, Peter Grutter, and Aashish A. Clerk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grtter, Peter

    Strong Electromechanical Coupling of an Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever to a Quantum Dot Steven [2]. Electromechanical systems that have attracted considerable attention recently include quantum. In this Letter we study strong coupling effects, both theoretically and experimentally, in an electromechanical

  2. Stress relaxation and creep experiments with the atomic force microscope: a unified method to calculate elastic moduli and viscosities of biomaterials (and cells)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno-Flores, Susana; Vivanco, Maria dM; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    We show that the atomic force microscope can perform stress relaxation and creep compliance measurements on living cells. We propose a method to obtain the mechanical properties of the studied biomaterial: the relaxation time, the elastic moduli and the viscosity.

  3. In-situ optical transmission electron microscope study of exciton phonon replicas in ZnO nanowires by cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shize; Tian, Xuezeng; Wang, Lifen; Wei, Jiake; Qi, Kuo; Li, Xiaomin; Xu, Zhi E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn Wang, Wenlong; Zhao, Jimin; Bai, Xuedong E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, Enge E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn

    2014-08-18

    The cathodoluminescence spectrum of single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is measured by in-situ optical Transmission Electron Microscope. The coupling between exciton and longitudinal optical phonon is studied. The band edge emission varies for different excitation spots. This effect is attributed to the exciton propagation along the c axis of the nanowire. Contrary to free exciton emission, the phonon replicas are well confined in ZnO nanowire. They travel along the c axis and emit at the end surface. Bending strain increases the relative intensity of second order phonon replicas when excitons travel along the c-axis.

  4. Nonminimal Macroscopic Models of a Scalar Field Based on Microscopic Dynamics. I. Extension of the Theory for Negative Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat'ev, Yu G

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes generalizations of the macroscopic model of plasma of scalar charged particles to the cases of inter-particle interaction with multiple scalar fields and negative effective masses of these particles. The model is based on the microscopic dynamics of a particle at presence of scalar fields. The theory is managed to be generalized naturally having strictly reviewed a series of its key positions depending on the sign of particle masses. Thereby, it is possible to remove the artiicial restriction contradicting the more fundamental principle of action functional additivity.

  5. Manipulation of subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? using a scanning tunneling microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stollenwerk, A. J.; Gu, G.; Hurley, N.; Beck, B.; Spurgeon, K.; Kidd, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    We present evidence that subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? can be manipulated with nanometer precision using a scanning tunneling microscope. High resolution images indicate that most of the carbon particles remain subsurface after transport observable as a local increase in height as the particle pushes up on the surface. Tunneling spectra in the vicinity of these protrusions exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a band gap of approximately 1.8 eV, indicating that the incorporation of carbon locally alters the electronic properties near the surface.

  6. Review of the Microscopic Approach to the Higgs Mechanism and to Quark and Lepton Masses and Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampe, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the results of a series of recent papers, where a microscopic model underlying the physics of elementary particles has been proposed. The model relies on the existence of an internal isospin space, in which an independent physical dynamics takes place. This idea is critically re-considered in the present work. As becomes evident in the course of discussion, the model not only describes electroweak phenomena but also modifies our understanding of other physical topics, like the big bang cosmology and the nature of the strong interactions.

  7. Fermi-level shifts in graphene transistors with dual-cut channels scraped by atomic force microscope tips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Meng-Yu [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Hao [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung [College of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan 71150, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shu-Wei [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-13

    We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.

  8. Microscopic interpretation of the results of new measurements for the {sup 3}He(?, ?){sup 7}Be reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyev, A. S., E-mail: alexander.solovyev@mail.ru; Igashov, S. Yu. [Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA) (Russian Federation); Tchuvilsky, Yu. M. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    A microscopic approach based on the algebraic version of the resonating group method was implemented by applying it to the radiative capture reaction {sup 3}He(?, ?){sup 7}Be. The astrophysical S-factor of the reaction and the branching ratio between the capture to the ground and the first excited states of the {sup 7}Be nucleus were calculated. A comparison of the theoretical results with the most recent experimental data was performed, and good agreement with these data was found. Advantages of the theoretical approach realized are indicated, and possible ways to refine upon it are outlined.

  9. TCO (n=2, k=0), 80 nm TCO (n=2, k=0), 80 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    between non-radiative recombination and light trapping in crystalline silicon p-n junctions. We adopt the scientific and PV industrial communities with the common aim of developing thin and cheap devices, while

  10. Centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence microscopic imaging with high signal-to-noise ratio and picomole sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Bingbing; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; DSouza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Tang, Liping; Yuan, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic imaging in centimeter-deep tissue has been highly sought-after for many years because much interesting in vivo micro-information, such as microcirculation, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis, may deeply locate in tissue. In this study, for the first time this goal has been achieved in 3-centimeter deep tissue with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and picomole sensitivity under radiation safety thresholds. These results are demonstrated not only in tissue-mimic phantoms but also in actual tissues, such as porcine muscle, ex vivo mouse liver, ex vivo spleen, and in vivo mouse tissue. These results are achieved based on three unique technologies: excellent near infrared ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF) contrast agents, a sensitive USF imaging system, and an effective correlation method. Multiplex USF fluorescence imaging is also achieved. It is useful to simultaneously image multiple targets and observe their interactions. This work opens the door for future studies of centimeter...

  11. Comprehensive metabolomic, lipidomic and microscopic profiling of Yarrowia lipolytica during lipid accumulation identifies targets for increased lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Wei, Siwei; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Orr, Galya; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2015-04-23

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that accumulates large amounts of lipids and has potential as a biofuel producing organism. Despite a growing scientific literature focused on lipid production by Y. lipolytica, there remain significant knowledge gaps regarding the key biological processes involved. We applied a combination of metabolomic and lipidomic profiling approaches as well as microscopic techniques to identify and characterize the key pathways involved in de novo lipid accumulation from glucose in batch cultured, wild-type Y. lipolytica. We found that lipids accumulated rapidly and peaked at 48 hours during the five day experiment, concurrent with a shift in amino acid metabolism. We also report that Y. lipolytica secretes disaccharides early in batch culture and reabsorbs them when extracellular glucose is depleted. Exhaustion of extracellular sugars coincided with thickening of the cell wall, suggesting that genes involved in cell wall biogenesis may be a useful target for improving the efficiency of lipid producing yeast strains.

  12. Microscopic dynamical description of proton-induced fission with the Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Vonta; G. A. Souliotis; M. Veselsky; A. Bonasera

    2015-06-16

    The microscopic description of nuclear fission still remains a topic of intense basic research. Un- derstanding nuclear fission, apart from a theoretical point of view, is of practical importance for energy production and the transmutation of nuclear waste. In nuclear astrophysics, fission sets the upper limit to the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements via the r-process. In this work we initiated a systematic study of intermediate energy proton-induced fission using the Constrained Molecu- lar Dynamics (CoMD) code. The CoMD code implements an effective interaction with a nuclear matter compressibility of K=200 (soft EOS) with several forms of the density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon symmetry potential. Moreover, a constraint is imposed in the phase-space occu- pation for each nucleon restoring the Pauli principle at each time step of the collision. A proper choice of the surface parameter of the effective interaction has been made to describe fission. In this work, we present results of fission calculations for proton-induced reactions on : a) 232 Th at 27 and 63 MeV, b) 235 U at 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV, and c) 238 U at 100 and 660 MeV. The calculated observables include fission-fragment mass distributions, total fission energies, neutron multiplicities and fission times. These observables are compared to available experimental data. We show that the microscopic CoMD code is able to describe the complicated many-body dynamics of the fission process at intermediate and high energy and give a reasonable estimate of the fission time scale. Sensitivity of the results to the density dependence of the nucleon symmetry potential (and, thus, the nuclear symmetry energy) is found. Further improvements of the code are necessary to achieve a satisfactory description of low energy fission in which shell effects play a dominant role.

  13. Microscopically-based energy density functionals for nuclei using the density matrix expansion: Implementation and pre-optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Stoitsov; M. Kortelainen; S. K. Bogner; T. Duguet; R. J. Furnstahl; B. Gebremariam; N. Schunck

    2010-09-17

    In a recent series of papers, Gebremariam, Bogner, and Duguet derived a microscopically based nuclear energy density functional by applying the Density Matrix Expansion (DME) to the Hartree-Fock energy obtained from chiral effective field theory (EFT) two- and three-nucleon interactions. Due to the structure of the chiral interactions, each coupling in the DME functional is given as the sum of a coupling constant arising from zero-range contact interactions and a coupling function of the density arising from the finite-range pion exchanges. Since the contact contributions have essentially the same structure as those entering empirical Skyrme functionals, a microscopically guided Skyrme phenomenology has been suggested in which the contact terms in the DME functional are released for optimization to finite-density observables to capture short-range correlation energy contributions from beyond Hartree-Fock. The present paper is the first attempt to assess the ability of the newly suggested DME functional, which has a much richer set of density dependencies than traditional Skyrme functionals, to generate sensible and stable results for nuclear applications. The results of the first proof-of-principle calculations are given, and numerous practical issues related to the implementation of the new functional in existing Skyrme codes are discussed. Using a restricted singular value decomposition (SVD) optimization procedure, it is found that the new DME functional gives numerically stable results and exhibits a small but systematic reduction of our test $\\chi^2$ function compared to standard Skyrme functionals, thus justifying its suitability for future global optimizations and large-scale calculations.

  14. Catalytic Micropumps: Microscopic Convective Fluid Flow and Pattern Timothy R. Kline, Walter F. Paxton, Yang Wang, Darrell Velegol,*, Thomas E. Mallouk,* and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalytic Micropumps: Microscopic Convective Fluid Flow and Pattern Formation Timothy R. Kline of the driving forces for developing micro/nanofluidics. Engineering fluid flows at this scale remains a "fuel" can be converted locally at a catalyst surface, possibly eliminating external pumps or power

  15. Search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state using large track multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    A search is presented for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state in protonproton collisions at s?=8??TeV. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 and correspond ...

  16. arXiv:1304.3175v2[nucl-th]17Apr2013 Microscopic optical potential from chiral nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weise, Wolfram

    -order terms from both two- and three-nucleon forces give rise to real, energy-independent contributions to the nucleon self-energy. The Hartree-Fock contribution from the two-nucleon force is attractive and stronglyarXiv:1304.3175v2[nucl-th]17Apr2013 Microscopic optical potential from chiral nuclear forces J. W

  17. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallraff, Andreas

    in the literature and the possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in otherFabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps This article has been of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About

  18. Riemann's hypothesis and some infinite set of microscopic universes of the Einstein's type in the early period of the evolution of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Moser

    2013-07-28

    We obtain in this paper, as a consequence of the Riemann hypothesis, certain class of topological deformations of the graph of the function $|\\zf|$. These are used to construct an infinite set of microscopic universes (on the Planck's scale) of the Einstein type. Dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the A.S. Edington's book \\emph{The mathematical theory of relativity}.

  19. S P R I N G C O N V O C AT I O N 2 0 1 4 S F U ' S V I S I O N | T H E E N G A G E D U N I V E R S I T Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S P R I N G C O N V O C AT I O N 2 0 1 4 #12;S F U ' S V I S I O N | T H E E N G A G E D U N I V E ..............................................................................................................2 P R E S I D E N T ' S W E L C O M E .................................................................................................................................................3 P A R T I C I P A N

  20. Treanor, D., Jordan Owers, N, Hodrien, J., Quirke, P., & Ruddle, R. A. (2009). Virtual reality Powerwall versus conventional microscope for viewing pathology slides: an experimental comparison. Histopathology, 5, 294-300.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddle, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Powerwall versus conventional microscope for viewing pathology slides: an experimental comparison. Histopathology, 5, 294-300. 1 Virtual reality Powerwall versus conventional microscope for viewing pathology Owers, N, Hodrien, J., Quirke, P., & Ruddle, R. A. (2009). Virtual reality Powerwall versus conventional

  1. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sader, John E.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  2. Transmission Electron Microscope In Situ Straining Technique to Directly Observe Defects and Interfaces During Deformation in Magnesium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morrow, Benjamin M.; Cerreta, E. K.; McCabe, R. J.; Tom, C. N.

    2015-05-14

    In-situ straining was used to study deformation behavior of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals.Twinning and dislocation motion, both essential to plasticity in hcp materials, were observed.Typically, these processes are characterized post-mortem by examining remnant microstructural features after straining has occurred. By imposing deformation during imaging, direct observation of active deformation mechanisms is possible. This work focuses on straining of structural metals in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a recently developed technique that utilizes familiar procedures and equipment to increase ease of experiments. In-situ straining in a TEM presents several advantages over conventional post-mortem characterization, most notably time-resolution of deformation andmorestreamlined identification of active deformation mechanisms. Drawbacks to the technique and applicability to other studies are also addressed. In-situ straining is used to study twin boundary motion in hcp magnesium. A {1012} twin was observed during tensile and compressive loading. Twin-dislocation interactions are directly observed. Notably, dislocations are observed to remain mobile, even after multiple interactions with twin boundaries, a result which suggests that Basinkis dislocation transformation mechanism by twinning is not present in hcp metals. The coupling of in-situ straining with traditional post-mortem characterization yields more detailed information about material behavior during deformation than either technique alone.less

  3. A study on the Fresnel diffraction of {sup 6}He by means of different microscopic density distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aygun, M.; Boztosun, I.; Sahin, Y.

    2012-08-15

    The elastic scattering of the halo nucleus {sup 6}He from heavy targets such as {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb has been investigated in order to explain the Coulomb rainbow peak due to the Fresnel-type diffraction observed in the experimental data. In order to examine the role of nuclear potential to describe {sup 6}He + {sup 197}Au and {sup 6}He + {sup 208}Pb systems, we have used the no-core shell model, few-body and Gaussian-shaped density distributions at various energies. The microscopic real parts of the complex nuclear potential have been obtained by using the double-folding model for each of the density distribution and the phenomenological imaginary potentials have been taken as the standard Woods-Saxon shape. We have observed that fewbody and Gaussian-shaped density distributions have given standard Fresnel-type diffraction results, a classical scattering pattern with Coulomb rainbow peak whereas the nuclear potential obtained by using the no-core shell-model density distribution has provided the reduction at Fresnel peak and has given more consistent results with the experimental data.

  4. Microscopic out-of-equilibrium analysis of the zero-bias conductance peak in a one-dimensional topological superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nayana [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Recently there has been a lot of excitement generated by the possibility of realizing and detecting Majorana fermions within the arena of condensed matter physics and its potential implication for topological quantum computing. In the pursuit of identifying and understanding the signatures of Majorana fermions in realistic systems, we go beyond the low-energy effective-model descriptions of Majorana bound states to derive non-equilibrium transport properties of a topological superconducting wire in the presence of arbitrarily large applied voltages. By virtue of a microscopic calculation we are able to model the tunnel coupling between the superconducting wire and the metallic leads realistically, study the role of high-energy non-topological excitations, predict how the behavior compares for an increasing number of odd versus even number of sites, and study the evolution across the topological quantum phase transition. We consider the Kitaev model as well as its specific realization in terms of a semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures. Our results have concrete implications for the experimental search and study of Majorana fermions. Here I provide a brief selected summary of the talk presented during the fourth conference on Nuclei and Mesoscopic Physics (NMP14) which took place during May 5th-9th, 2014 at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), on the campus of Michigan State University, in East Lansing, Michigan.

  5. Microscopic dynamical description of proton-induced fission with the Constrained Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonta, N; Veselsky, M; Bonasera, A

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic description of nuclear fission still remains a topic of intense basic research. Un- derstanding nuclear fission, apart from a theoretical point of view, is of practical importance for energy production and the transmutation of nuclear waste. In nuclear astrophysics, fission sets the upper limit to the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements via the r-process. In this work we initiated a systematic study of intermediate energy proton-induced fission using the Constrained Molecu- lar Dynamics (CoMD) code. The CoMD code implements an effective interaction with a nuclear matter compressibility of K=200 (soft EOS) with several forms of the density dependence of the nucleon-nucleon symmetry potential. Moreover, a constraint is imposed in the phase-space occu- pation for each nucleon restoring the Pauli principle at each time step of the collision. A proper choice of the surface parameter of the effective interaction has been made to describe fission. In this work, we present results of fission calculation...

  6. Theory and use of modern microscopical methods with applications to studies of wetlands microbial community dynamics. Final performance reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    Funds were granted to the University of Southwestern Louisiana to coordinate and offer a summer enhancement institute for science teachers. Following are highlights from that institute: (1) 20 teachers from Louisiana attended the institute as students; (2) institute faculty included staff members from USL`s Departments of Biology, Mathematics, and Education and 3 principal scientists plus technicians from the Southern Science Center; (3) the institute began June 5, 1995 and ended June 30, 1995, and it featured daily lectures, laboratory exercises, examinations, and field trips--assignments for students included journal keeping, lesson plan development, and presentations, the student`s journal entries proved valuable for evaluating institute activities, students received copies of lesson plans developed at the institute, videos entitled ``Pond Life Diversity`` and ``Chesapeake: The Twilight Estuary,`` a guide to ``Free-lining Freshwater Protozoa,`` a graphing calculator, 2 x 2 slide set of pond life, software or hardware (selected by the teacher to meet specific needs), a field manual for water quality monitoring laboratory exercises (Project Green), and a book on Benchmarks for Science Literacy; (4) follow-up measures included the following--a newsletter disseminated by USL but written with teacher input; making equipment (such as a trinocular compound microscope and video monitor) and materials and supplies available to the teachers and their students in the classroom; and mentoring between USL and SSC staff and the teachers during the school year. Attached to this report are copies of the institute agenda and lesson plans developed in the institute.

  7. Pion-Nucleus Microscopic Optical Potential at Intermediate Energies and In-Medium Effect on the Elementary $?N$ Scattering Amplitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Zemlyanaya; V. K. Lukyanov; K. V. Lukyanov; E. I. Zhabitskaya; M. V. Zhabitsky

    2012-10-03

    Analysis is performed of calculations of the elastic scattering differential cross sections of pions on the $^{28}$Si, $^{40}$Ca, $^{58}$Ni and $^{208}$Pb nuclei at energies from 130 to 290 MeV basing on the microscopic optical potential (OP) constructed as an optical limit of a Glauber theory. Such an OP is defined by the corresponding target nucleus density distribution function and by the elementary $\\pi N$ amplitude of scattering. The three (say, "in-medium") parameters of the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude: total cross section, the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward $\\pi N$ amplitude, and the slope parameter, were obtained by fitting them to the data on the respective pion-nucleus cross sections calculated by means of the corresponding relativistic wave equation with the above OP. A difference is discussed between the best-fit "in-medium" parameters and the "free" parameters of the $\\pi N$ scattering amplitudes known from the experimental data on scattering of pions on free nucleons.

  8. Microscopic description of fission in neutron-rich plutonium isotopes with the Gogny-D1M energy density functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Rodriguez-Guzman; L. M. Robledo

    2014-05-27

    The most recent parametrization D1M of the Gogny energy density functional is used to describe fission in the isotopes $^{232-280}$ Pu. We resort to the methodology introduced in our previous studies [Phys. Rev. C \\textbf{88}, 054325 (2013) and Phys. Rev. C \\textbf {89}, 054310 (2014)] to compute the fission paths, collective masses and zero point quantum corrections within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework. The systematics of the spontaneous fission half-lives t$_{SF}$, masses and charges of the fragments in Plutonium isotopes is analyzed and compared with available experimental data. We also pay attention to isomeric states, the deformation properties of the fragments as well as to the competition between the spontaneous fission and $\\alpha$-decay modes. The impact of pairing correlations on the predicted t$_{SF}$ values is demonstrated with the help of calculations for $^{232-280}$Pu in which the pairing strengths of the Gogny-D1M energy density functional are modified by 5 $\\%$ and 10 $\\%$, respectively. We further validate the use of the D1M parametrization through the discussion of the half-lives in $^{242-262}$Fm. Our calculations corroborate that, though the uncertainties in the absolute values of physical observables are large, the Gogny-D1M Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework still reproduces the trends with mass and/or neutron numbers and therefore represents a reasonable starting point to describe fission in heavy nuclear systems from a microscopic point of view.

  9. Electron microscopic single particle analysis of a tetrameric RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayanagi, Kouta [Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura-cho, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan); Takara-Bio Endowed Division, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); BIRD, JST (Japan)], E-mail: maya@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Yoshie [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Miyata, Tomoko [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Morikawa, Kosuke [The Takara-Bio Endowed Division, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)], E-mail: morikako@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-01-11

    During the late stage of homologous recombination in prokaryotes, RuvA binds to the Holliday junction intermediate and executes branch migration in association with RuvB. The RuvA subunits form two distinct complexes with the Holliday junction: complex I with the single RuvA tetramer on one side of the four way junction DNA, and complex II with two tetramers on both sides. To investigate the functional roles of complexes I and II, we mutated two residues of RuvA (L125D and E126K) to prevent octamer formation. An electron microscopic analysis indicated that the mutant RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex formed the characteristic tripartite structure, with only one RuvA tetramer bound to one side of the Holliday junction, demonstrating the unexpected stability of this complex. The novel bent images of the complex revealed an intriguing morphological similarity to the structure of SV40 large T antigen, which belongs to the same AAA+ family as RuvB.

  10. Check all SCHE Supply Purge Check Valves to Prevent Back Flow from SCHE into Helium Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-10-23

    These valves are 1/2-inch check valves used to prevent SCHe backflow into the Helium System if pressure in the Helium System drops below the pressure of the control valve downstream of the SCHe supply bottles. (14 psig in trains A and B and 2 psig in trains C and D).

  11. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  12. Gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar cloud cores with a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Chang; H. M. Cuppen; E. Herbst

    2007-05-24

    AIM: We have recently developed a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to study surface chemistry on interstellar grains and the morphology of ice mantles. The method is designed to eliminate the problems inherent in the rate-equation formalism to surface chemistry. Here we report the first use of this method in a chemical model of cold interstellar cloud cores that includes both gas-phase and surface chemistry. The surface chemical network consists of a small number of diffusive reactions that can produce molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, methanol and assorted radicals. METHOD: The simulation is started by running a gas-phase model including accretion onto grains but no surface chemistry or evaporation. The starting surface consists of either flat or rough olivine. We introduce the surface chemistry of the three species H, O and CO in an iterative manner using our stochastic technique. Under the conditions of the simulation, only atomic hydrogen can evaporate to a significant extent. Although it has little effect on other gas-phase species, the evaporation of atomic hydrogen changes its gas-phase abundance, which in turn changes the flux of atomic hydrogen onto grains. The effect on the surface chemistry is treated until convergence occurs. We neglect all non-thermal desorptive processes. RESULTS: We determine the mantle abundances of assorted molecules as a function of time through 2x10^5 yr. Our method also allows determination of the abundance of each molecule in specific monolayers. The mantle results can be compared with observations of water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methanol ices in the sources W33A and Elias 16. Other than a slight underproduction of mantle CO, our results are in very good agreement with observations.

  13. Lattice QCD computation of the colour fields for the static hybrid quark-gluon-antiquark system, and microscopic study of the Casimir scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Cardoso; N. Cardoso; P. Bicudo

    2009-12-16

    The chromoelectric and chromomagnetic fields, created by a static gluon-quark-antiquark system, are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, in a $24^3\\times 48$ lattice at $\\beta=6.2$ and $a=0.07261(85) fm$. We compute the hybrid Wilson Loop with two spatial geometries, one with a U shape and another with an L shape. The particular cases of the two gluon glueball and quark-antiquark are also studied, and the Casimir scaling is investigated in a microscopic perspective. This microscopic study of the colour fields is relevant to understand the structure of hadrons, in particular of the hybrid excitation of mesons. This also contributes to understand confinement with flux tubes and to discriminate between the models of fundamental versus adjoint confining strings, analogous to type-II and type-I superconductivity.

  14. Estimation of the breakup cross sections in $^6$He+$^{12}$C reaction within high-energy approximation and microscopic optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Zemlyanaya; V. K. Lukyanov; K. V. Lukyanov

    2010-12-06

    The breakup cross sections in the reaction $^6$He+$^{12}$C are calculated at about 40 MeV/nucleon using the high-energy approximation (HEA) and with the help of microscopic optical potentials (OP) of interaction with the target nucleus $^{12}$C of the projectile nucleus fragments $^4$He and 2n. Considering the di-neutron $h$=2n as a single particle the relative motion $h\\alpha$ wave function is estimated so that to explain both the separation energy of $h$ in $^6$He and the rms radius of the latter. The stripping and absorbtion total cross sections are calculated and their sum is compared with the total reaction cross section obtained within a double-folding microscopic OP for the $^6$He+$^{12}$C scattering. It is concluded that the breakup cross sections contribute in about 50% of the total reaction cross section.

  15. Delineating the biosynthesis of gentamicin X2, the common precursor of the gentamicin C antibiotic complex.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Chuan; Huang, Fanglu; Moison, Eileen; Guo, Junhong; Jian, Xinyun; Duan, Xiaobo; Deng, Zixin; Leadlay, Peter F.; Sun, Yuhui

    2015-01-29

    added at this point. Cells were harvested by centrifu- gation and resuspended in Binding Buffer (0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris-HCl [pH 7.9]). The Binding Buffer for GenD1 resuspension was purged with N2 for at least 30 min before use. The recombinant protein...

  16. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Andrew J. Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris; Jacob, Jan; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  17. Searches for signals from microscopic black holes in processes of proton collisions at {radical} s = 7 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savina, M. V.

    2013-09-15

    If the fundamental scale of multidimensional gravity is about one or several TeV units, microscopic black holes or objects referred to as string balls may be produced at the LHC. The most recent results obtained by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC from searches for such signals at the c.m. protoninteraction energy of 7 TeV and for an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb{sup -1}. Lower limits on the masses of objects of strongly acting gravity were set in the parameter region accessible to tests at the present time. Prospects for further research in this field are discussed.

  18. Manipulation of subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? using a scanning tunneling microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stollenwerk, A. J.; Hurley, N.; Beck, B.; Spurgeon, K.; Kidd, T. E.; Gu, G.

    2015-03-19

    In this study, we present evidence that subsurface carbon nanoparticles in Bi?Sr?CaCu?O8+? can be manipulated with nanometer precision using a scanning tunneling microscope. High resolution images indicate that most of the carbon particles remain subsurface after transport observable as a local increase in height as the particle pushes up on the surface. Tunneling spectra in the vicinity of these protrusions exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a band gap of approximately 1.8 eV, indicating that the incorporation of carbon locally alters the electronic properties near the surface.

  19. Nano-scale luminescence characterization of individual InGaN/GaN quantum wells stacked in a microcavity using scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Gordon Mller, Marcus; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jrgen; Glauser, Marlene; Carlin, Jean-Franois; Cosendey, Gatien; Butt, Raphal; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    Using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope at liquid helium temperatures, the optical and structural properties of a 62 InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well embedded in an AlInN/GaN based microcavity are investigated at the nanometer scale. We are able to spatially resolve a spectral redshift between the individual quantum wells towards the surface. Cathodoluminescence spectral linescans allow directly visualizing the critical layer thickness in the quantum well stack resulting in the onset of plastic relaxation of the strained InGaN/GaN system.

  20. Strength of semiconductors, metals, and ceramics evaluated by a microscopic cleavage model with Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, Peter

    2014-08-07

    An improved microscopic cleavage model, based on a Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction instead of the previously employed half-sine function, is used to determine the maximum cleavage strength for the brittle materials diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, silicon, GaAs, silica, and graphite. The results of both interaction potentials are in much better agreement with the theoretical strength values obtained by ab initio calculations for diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, and silicon than the previous model. Reasonable estimates of the intrinsic strength are presented for GaAs, silica, and graphite, where first principles values are not available.

  1. Materials Data on N2 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Revue Europenne des Migrations Internationales Volume 8 n2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    enfants migrants se traitent d' arabe dans une classe primaire Pierre ACHARD, Gabrielle VARRO, Franois

  3. N=2 Supersymmetric Kinks and real algebraic curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Alonso Izquierdo; M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. Mateos Guilarte

    2000-02-17

    The kinks of the (1+1)-dimensional Wess-Zumino model with polynomic superpotential are investigated and shown to be related to real algebraic curves.

  4. Theory of the n=2 levels in muonic deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian J. Krauth; Marc Diepold; Beatrice Franke; Aldo Antognini; Franz Kottmann; Randolf Pohl

    2015-06-08

    The present knowledge of Lamb shift, fine- and hyperfine structure of the $\\mathrm{2S}$ and $\\mathrm{2P}$ states in muonic deuterium is reviewed in anticipation of the results of a first measurement of several $\\mathrm{2S-2P}$ transition frequencies in muonic deuterium ($\\mu\\mathrm{d}$). A term-by-term comparison of all available sources reveals reliable values and uncertainties of the QED and nuclear structure-dependent contributions to the Lamb shift, which are essential for a determination of the deuteron rms charge radius from $\\mu\\mathrm{d}$. Apparent discrepancies between different sources are resolved, in particular for the difficult two-photon exchange contributions. Problematic single-sourced terms are identified which require independent recalculation.

  5. SSQ V3 N2_Final_13aug13.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    off momentumvelocity transfer. Nonnuclear methods include gravity attractors and solar energy absorption. In Figure 1, scientists are calculating a nuclear explosion on the...

  6. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions. deer12bartova.pdf More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal...

  7. Aspects of Four Dimensional N = 2 Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Dan

    2011-07-11

    hypermulti- plets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 22 Left: (p, q)-web realizing the TN theory, with aligned 7-branes. Right: Quiver diagram of the mirror of TN , with gauge groups U(r). The group at the center... gauge groups are U(r). . . 137 xiii FIGURE Page 25 Top: We take two copies of TN and gauge together two SU(N) Higgs symmetries. Bottom: Its mirror. We gauge together two SU(N) Coulomb symmetries. This ends up eliminating the two T[SU(N)] tails. Here...

  8. Self-Dual Supergravity from N = 2 Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Boer, J.

    2010-01-01

    the difference between the RNS formulation of the (1,2)to the conventional N = 1 RNS string through a non-localto formulate our model in RNS variables. One immediate

  9. Efficient algorithm for online N - 2 power grid contingency selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplunovich, Petr A. (Petr Alexandrovich)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple element outages (N - k contingencies) have caused some of the most massive blackouts and disturbances in the power grid. Such outages affect millions of people and cost the world economy billions of dollars annually. ...

  10. SSQ V1 N2_6june11_FINAL

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en NNSAReference to Mod/%2A19FY

  11. SSQ V3 N2_Final_13aug13.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en NNSAReference to Mod/%2A19FY4 *1

  12. Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture |GEUtilizing sevenNationalNEWSSeeby ZIFs

  13. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henn, T.; Kiessling, T., E-mail: tobias.kiessling@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W. [Physikalisches Institut (EP3), Universitt Wrzburg, 97074 Wrzburg (Germany)] [Physikalisches Institut (EP3), Universitt Wrzburg, 97074 Wrzburg (Germany); Biermann, K.; Santos, P. V. [Paul-Drude-Institut fr Festkrperelektronik, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Paul-Drude-Institut fr Festkrperelektronik, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast white light supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  14. Uncertainty in least-squares fits to the thermal noise spectra of nanomechanical resonators with applications to the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sader, John E.; Yousefi, Morteza; Friend, James R.; Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3800

    2014-02-15

    Thermal noise spectra of nanomechanical resonators are used widely to characterize their physical properties. These spectra typically exhibit a Lorentzian response, with additional white noise due to extraneous processes. Least-squares fits of these measurements enable extraction of key parameters of the resonator, including its resonant frequency, quality factor, and stiffness. Here, we present general formulas for the uncertainties in these fit parameters due to sampling noise inherent in all thermal noise spectra. Good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation of synthetic data and measurements of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilever is demonstrated. These formulas enable robust interpretation of thermal noise spectra measurements commonly performed in the AFM and adaptive control of fitting procedures with specified tolerances.

  15. A 350 mK, 9 T scanning tunneling microscope for the study of superconducting thin films on insulating substrates and single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamlapure, Anand; Saraswat, Garima; Ganguli, Somesh Chandra; Bagwe, Vivas; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Pai, Subash P.

    2013-12-15

    We report the construction and performance of a low temperature, high field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating down to 350 mK and in magnetic fields up to 9 T, with thin film deposition and in situ single crystal cleaving capabilities. The main focus lies on the simple design of STM head and a sample holder design that allows us to get spectroscopic data on superconducting thin films grown in situ on insulating substrates. Other design details on sample transport, sample preparation chamber, and vibration isolation schemes are also described. We demonstrate the capability of our instrument through the atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy on NbSe{sub 2} single crystal and spectroscopic maps obtained on homogeneously disordered NbN thin film.

  16. Clustering Dynamics of the Metal-Benzene Sandwich Complex: The Role of Microscopic Structure of the Solute In the Bis(6-benzene)chromium Arn Clusters (n ) 1-15)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Clustering Dynamics of the Metal-Benzene Sandwich Complex: The Role of Microscopic Structure of the Solute In the Bis(6-benzene)chromium Arn Clusters (n ) 1-15) Kyo-Won Choi, Sunyoung Choi, Doo-Sik AhnVised Manuscript ReceiVed: June 25, 2008 Ar clustering dynamics around the metal-benzene sandwich complex, bis(6

  17. Quantitative in-situ scanning electron microscope pull-out experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotubes embedded in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, S., E-mail: steffen.hartmann@etit.tu-chemnitz.de; Blaudeck, T.; Hermann, S.; Wunderle, B. [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Hlck, O. [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer IZM Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin (Germany); Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T. [Technische Universitt Chemnitz, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer ENAS Chemnitz, Technologie-Campus 3, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    In this paper, we present our results of experimental and numerical pull-out tests on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in palladium. We prepared simple specimens by employing standard silicon wafers, physical vapor deposition of palladium and deposition of CNTs with a simple drop coating technique. An AFM cantilever with known stiffness connected to a nanomanipulation system was utilized inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a force sensor to determine forces acting on a CNT during the pull-out process. SEM-images of the cantilever attached to a CNT have been evaluated for subsequent displacement steps with greyscale correlation to determine the cantilever deflection. We compare the experimentally obtained pull-out forces with values of numerical investigations by means of molecular dynamics and give interpretations for deviations according to material impurities or defects and their influence on the pull-out data. We find a very good agreement of force data from simulation and experiment, which is 17 nN and in the range of 1061 nN, respectively. Our findings contribute to the ongoing research of the mechanical characterization of CNT-metal interfaces. This is of significant interest for the design of future mechanical sensors utilizing the intrinsic piezoresistive effect of CNTs or other future devices incorporating CNT-metal interfaces.

  18. Microscopic study of low-lying spectra of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei based on a beyond-mean-field approach with covariant energy density functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, H; Yao, J M; Motoba, T

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed formalism of the microscopic particle-rotor model for hypernuclear low-lying states based on a covariant density functional theory. In this method, the hypernuclear states are constructed by coupling a hyperon to low-lying states of the core nucleus, which are described by the generator coordinate method (GCM) with the particle number and angular momentum projections. We apply this method to study in detail the low-lying spectrum of $^{13}_{~\\Lambda}$C and $^{21}_{~\\Lambda}$Ne hypernuclei. We also briefly discuss the structure of $^{155}_{~~\\Lambda}$Sm as an example of heavy deformed hypernuclei. It is shown that the low-lying excitation spectrum with positive parity states of the hypernuclei, which are dominated by $\\Lambda$ hyperon in $s$-orbital coupled to the core states, are similar to that for the corresponding core states, while the electric quadrupole transition strength, $B(E2)$, from the 2$^+_1$ state to the ground state is reduced according to the mass number of the hypernucle...

  19. The desorption purge time and thermal stability of 1,3-butadiene in a charcoal sampling tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Jianghua

    1997-01-01

    Thermal desorption is a technique used in the recovery of sampled airborne organic compounds from solid adsorbent trapping media. There are several advantages of this technique over solvent desorption: 1) absence of the ...

  20. Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane]. In the anode channel of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) operating with a Dead-Ended Anode (DEA with coupled PDEs describing liquid and gas transport through the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) of a PEMFC, which

  1. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Haw (Moraga, CA); Cang, Hu (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Cangshan (Berkeley, CA); Wong, Chung M. (San Gabriel, CA)

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  2. Switchable stiffness scanning microscope probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller-Falcke, Clemens T. (Clemens Tobias)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has rapidly gained widespread utilization as an imaging device and micro/nano-manipulator during recent years. This thesis investigates the new concept of a dual stiffness scanning probe with ...

  3. Atomic Force Microscope (Veeco Nanoman)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Place the holder in a docking station of the cantilever installation fixture and secure the probe in the groove with the spring clip Liquid Cell Docking Station In-air Probe Holder Docking Station In-air Probe Holder #12;Loading Probe to AFM Head Fully tighten the dovetail knob (rotate clockwise) Lift the AFM

  4. RESOLUTION REVOLUTION The super microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    Cooper. Proofreading: Pam Dunne. HANK HAeUSleR is fascinated by the power of light to transform buildings fellow 17 Without the faces of men 18 fEaTURES Market leader Chris Styles 7 Resolution revolution 8

  5. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

  6. Nikon PTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNew scholarshipThreeFebruary 2015Nikki Magdaong Nikki

  7. Microscopic study of low-lying spectra of $?$ hypernuclei based on a beyond-mean-field approach with covariant energy density functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Mei; K. Hagino; J. M. Yao; T. Motoba

    2015-04-20

    We present a detailed formalism of the microscopic particle-rotor model for hypernuclear low-lying states based on a covariant density functional theory. In this method, the hypernuclear states are constructed by coupling a hyperon to low-lying states of the core nucleus, which are described by the generator coordinate method (GCM) with the particle number and angular momentum projections. We apply this method to study in detail the low-lying spectrum of $^{13}_{~\\Lambda}$C and $^{21}_{~\\Lambda}$Ne hypernuclei. We also briefly discuss the structure of $^{155}_{~~\\Lambda}$Sm as an example of heavy deformed hypernuclei. It is shown that the low-lying excitation spectrum with positive parity states of the hypernuclei, which are dominated by $\\Lambda$ hyperon in $s$-orbital coupled to the core states, are similar to that for the corresponding core states, while the electric quadrupole transition strength, $B(E2)$, from the 2$^+_1$ state to the ground state is reduced according to the mass number of the hypernuclei. Our study indicates that the energy splitting between the first 1/2$^-$ and 3/2$^-$ hypernuclear states is generally small for all the hypernuclei which we study. However, their configurations depend much on the properties of a core nucleus, in particular on the sign of deformation parameter. That is, the first $1/2^-$ and $3/2^-$ states in $^{13}_{~\\Lambda}$C are dominated by a single configuration with $\\Lambda$ particle in the $p$-wave orbits and thus providing good candidates for a study of the $\\Lambda$ spin-orbit splitting. On the other hand, those states in the other hypernuclei exhibit a large configuration mixing and thus their energy difference cannot be interpreted as the spin-orbit splitting for the $p$-orbits.

  8. Studies of the Excited State Dynamics of N2O2 by Dissociative Photodetachment of N2O2 Runjun Li and Robert E. Continetti*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continetti, Robert E.

    to their potential importance as intermediates in catalytic reduction processes1,2 and as potential energetic materials.3 The weakly bound ground- state dimer of nitric oxide, (NO)2, has been extensively investigated The oxides of nitrogen play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and have received attention owing

  9. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    from tropical forest soils, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 14,2 O source partitioning in soils: recent progress, remaininga temperate grassland soil after fertiliser application,

  10. Can N 2 O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N 2 O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    20632, Caracas 1020?A, Venezuela. S. Park, Department ofTierra Nueva, Gurico State, Venezuela). The statisticallyLaboratory, IVIC, Caracas, Venezuela. Department of Earth

  11. A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle - Deleterious alleles seem to have been purged in a feral strain of inbred cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visscher, P M; Smith, D; Hall, SJG; Williams, JL

    2001-01-18

    Inbreeding, which can lead to the loss of genetic variation or the accumulation of deleterious alleles, has been shown to reduce fitness in wild (1), zoo, laboratory (2) and farmed (3) animals. But it has been ...

  12. Turbine blade platform film cooling with simulated stator-rotor purge flow with varied seal width and upstream wake with vortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, Sarah Anne

    2009-05-15

    The turbine blade platform can be protected from hot mainstream gases by injecting cooler air through the gap between stator and rotor. The effectiveness of this film cooling method depends on the geometry of the slot, the ...

  13. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, D; Lopresti, A; Davis, SJ; Bastianoni, S; Caldeira, K

    2014-01-01

    emissions due to production and consumption for the largestemissions from production and consumption of beef, pork anddisconnect of production and consumption represents a

  14. International Journal of General Systems, Vol. 32 n.2. March 2003 BOOK REVIEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerla, Giangiacomo

    Academic Publishers (Trends in Logic, Studia Logica Library, Vol. 11), Dordrecht, 2001, 288 pages, ISBN 0-7923-6941-6. The present book is another book from the Kluwer's series Trends in Logic which is devoted to fuzzy logic

  15. Multistep N2 Breathing in the Metal-Organic Framework Co(1,4-benzenedipyrazolate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to external stimuli can render them excellent candidates as sensors for the evalu- ation of adsorbent. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements and in situ infrared and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopic

  16. Materials Data on Sr(BeN)2 (SG:140) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Appearance Potentials and Kinetic Energies of Ions from N2, CO, and NO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    A recently developed method has permitted the measurement of excess translational energy of ions formed in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer. The method, in conjunction with the RPD technique for determining appearance ...

  18. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes Define: the process by which molecular nitrogen (N2) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constabel, Peter

    -Rhizobium communication - roots release flavonoid signals (flavone), stimulate Rhizobium nod genes - nod genes are 'common' and 'host-specific' - nodD is the activator - nod factors: lipo-oligosaccharide signals - chitin

  19. N=2 gauge theories on toric singularities, blow-up formulae and W-algebrae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Bonelli; Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Alessandro Tanzini; Futoshi Yagi

    2013-02-05

    We compute the Nekrasov partition function of gauge theories on the (resolved) toric singularities C^2/\\Gamma in terms of blow-up formulae. We discuss the expansion of the partition function in the \\epsilon_1,\\epsilon_2 \\to 0 limit along with its modular properties and how to derive them from the M-theory perspective. On the two-dimensional conformal field theory side, our results can be interpreted in terms of representations of the direct sum of Heisenberg plus W_N-algebrae with suitable central charges, which can be computed from the fan of the resolved toric variety.We provide a check of this correspondence by computing the central charge of the two-dimensional theory from the anomaly polynomial of M5-brane theory. Upon using the AGT correspondence our results provide a candidate for the conformal blocks and three-point functions of a class of the two-dimensional CFTs which includes parafermionic theories.

  20. The bioinorganic chemistry of N2S2 metal complexes: reactivity and ligating ability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Melissa Lynn

    2005-08-29

    determined for Pb2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu+, and Ag+. A quantitative estimate places copper some 15 orders of magnitude above nickel or zinc in binding affinity. Sulfur dioxide uptake by Ni-1?? is characterized by significant color change, improved adduct...